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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

3

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Long-Term Performance Data and Analysis of CIS/CIGS Modules Deployed Outdoors (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long-term performance data of copper indium diselenide (CIS) and gallium-alloyed CIS (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules are investigated to assess the reliability of this technology.

del Cueto, J. A.; Kroposki, B.; Rummel, S.; Anderberg, A.

2008-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

5

Long-Term Performance Data and Analysis of CIS/CIGS Modules Deployed Outdoors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long-term performance data of copper indium diselenide (CIS) and gallium-alloyed CIS (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules are investigated to assess the reliability of this technology.

del Cueto, J.A.; Rummel, S.; Kroposki, B.; Anderberg, A.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

1995-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

7

Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Hasoon, Falah S. (Arvada, CO); Wiesner, Holm (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Golden, CO)

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Process Development for CIGS-Based Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules; Phase I Technical Report, 5 February 1998--4 February 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by Global Solar Energy (GSE) under Phase I of this subcontract. GSE has initiated an extensive and systematic plan to accelerate the commercialization of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). GSE is developing the technology to deposit and monolithically integrate CIGS photovoltaics on a flexible substrate. CIGS-deposited on flexible substrates can be fabricated into either flexible or rigid modules. Low-cost, rigid PV panels for remote power, bulk/utility, telecommunications, and rooftop applications will be produced by affixing the flexible CIGS to an expensive rigid panel by lamination or adhesive. In the GSE approach, long (up to 700 m) continuous rolls of substrate are processed, as opposed to individual small glass plates. In combination with roll-to-roll processing, GSE is developing evaporation deposition operations that enable low-cost and high-efficiency CIGS modules. Efforts are under way to transition the CIGS deposition process into manufacturing at GSE. CIGS process development is focused on synchronizing the operation of the effusion sources, the Se delivery profile, substrate temperature, and a host of other parameters. GSE has selected an interconnect scheme and procured, installed, and tested the equipment necessary to implement the cell interconnection for thin-film CIGS modules on a polyimide substrate.

Britt, J., Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.; Albright, S.

1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

9

Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost and Throughput Improvements for Thin-Film CIGS-Based Modules; Phase II Annual Subcontract Technical Report, July 1999 - August 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film photovoltaics (PV) has expanded dramatically in the last five years, but commercial use remains limited by performance, cost, and reliability. Of all the thin-film systems, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has demonstrated the greatest potential for achieving high performance at a low cost. The highest-quality CIGS has been formed by multi-source co-evaporation, a technique pioneered in this country by researchers at NREL. Multi-source co-evaporation is also potentially the fastest and most cost-effective method of CIGS absorber deposition. Global Solar Energy (GSE) has adapted multi-source co-evaporation of CIGS to large-area, roll-to-roll processing on flexible substrates, enabling several manufacturing and product capability advantages. Roll-to-roll processing enables a low-cost, automated continuous manufacturing process. Flexible substrates enable product application in unique, as well as traditional, areas. The primary objectives of the GSE Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are to reduce cost and expand the production rate of thin-film CIGS-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. Specific goals of the three-year contract are: - Monolithic Integration - Increase integration speed by developing high-speed, all-laser scribing processes that are more than 100% faster than the baseline process and offer clean, selective scribing; increase capacity and substantially reduce module area losses by insulating materials with high accuracy into laser scribes. - Absorber Deposition - Increase absorber-layer deposition rate by 75% in the large-area, continuous GSE process, increasing throughput and reducing labor and capital costs. Integrate a parallel detector spectroscopic ellipsometer (PDSE) with mathematical algorithms for in-situ control of the CIGS absorber, enabling runs of over 300 meters of moving substrate, while ensuring uniform properties; enhance health and safety by reducing selenium waste generation through modifications to the reactor and Se delivery method. - Back Contact Deposition - Reduce back-contact cost and increase operation yield by using improved back-contact materials.

Wendt, T.G.; Wiedeman, S. (Global Solar Energy, L.L.C.)

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

Unlikely Combination of Experiments With a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with their frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspective using peak-power tracking data.

del Cueto, J. A.; Sekulic, B. R.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Solibro AB | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Solibro AB Place Uppsala, Sweden Zip 751 21 Sector Solar Product Develops thin film solar cells using copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). References Solibro...

13

Optical method for automated real time control of elemental composition, distribution, and film thickness in CIGS solar cell production  

The solar industry has shown significant growth over the past decade. From 2002 to 2007 the market for Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) grew at a 60% annual rate and it is estimated that the global CIGS market will grow to $7.6 billion by 2016. ...

14

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper Indium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated chambers for depositing, processing, measuring, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. You can read more on the rationale for developing this cluster tool and its capabilities, and check out the National Solar Technology Roadmap for CIGS Photovoltaics. Contact Miguel Contreras for more details on these capabilities. The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide cluster tool, manufactured by DCA Instruments, will be operational in 2009. Techniques will include evaporation; radiofrequency, direct-current (DC), and pulsed DC sputtering;

15

Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

Olsen, L. C.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nuvosun Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 94303-4601 Product California-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) thin film PV maker. References Nuvosun Inc1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

17

Electrochemical Behavior of CIGS Electrodeposition for the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Electrochemical Behavior of CIGS Electrodeposition for the Application of Photovoltaic Cell. Author(s), Hyunju Lee, Jae-Ho Lee, Yangdo Kim.

18

Prof Educators CIG Newsletter April 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Professional Educators' Common Interest Group April 2011 Newsletter Greetings: Thank you for your continued involvement and support of the new AOCS Professional Educators Common Interest Group (PE-CIG) over the last three o

19

Approaches to Encapsulation of Flexible CIGS Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells based on CIGS are being considered for large scale power plants as well as building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications. Past studies indicate that CIGS cells degrade rapidly when exposed to moisture. As a result, an effective approach to encapsulation is required for CIGS cells to satisfy the international standard IEC 61646. CIGS modules fabricated for use in large power plants can be encapsulated with glass sheets on the top and bottom surfaces and can be effectively sealed around the edges. In the case of BIPV applications, however, it is desirable to utilize CIGS cells grown on flexible substrates, both for purposes of achieving reduced weight and for cases involving non-flat surfaces. For these cases, approaches to encapsulation must be compatible with the flexible substrate requirement. Even in the case of large power plants, the glass-to-glass approach to encapsulation may eventually be considered too costly. We are investigating encapsulation of flexible CIGS cells by lamination. Sheets of PET or PEN coated with multilayer barrier coatings are used to laminate the flexible cells. Results are discussed for laminated cells from two CIGS manufacturers. In both cases, the cell efficiency decreases less than 10% after 1000 hours of exposure to an environment of 85C/85%RH. This paper discusses these two approaches, reviews results achieved with cells and mini-modules fabricated by the former Shell Solar, Industries (SSI) stressed at 60C/90%RH (60/90), and recent studies of encapsulated IEC cells subjected to an environment of 85C/85%RH (85/85).

Olsen, Larry C.; Gross, Mark E.; Graff, Gordon L.; Kundu, Sambhu N.; Chu, Xi; Lin, Steve

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

20

Required Materials Properties for High-Efficiency CIGS Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses material properties required for each CIGS device layer so that large-area CIGS modules can achieve efficiencies of >15%, substantially higher than the current state of the art.

Repins, I.; Glynn, S.; Duenow, J.; Coutts, T. J.; Metzger, W.; Contreras, M. A.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CIGS-Based Solar Cells Prepared from Electrodeposited Precursor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CIGS absorbers using several techniques, including vacuum and non-vacuum technologies. Thin-film solar cell devices based on PVD CIGS have demonstrated an efficiency of 20.1%. 1...

22

Oxidation of gallium arsenide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to gallium arsenide semiconductors and, more particularly, to the oxidation of surface layers of gallium arsenide semiconductors for semiconductor device fabrication.

Hoffbauer, M.A.; Cross, J.B.

1991-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

Stress Induced Degradation Modes in CIGS Mini-Modules: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that the method of encapsulation can affect the long-term stability of CIGS modules, principally through interactions with the ZnO.

Kempe, M. D.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Tarrant, D.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Manufacturing-Friendly Advance Seen in CIGS Solar Cell Processing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells. The standard transparent conducting oxide (TCO) used as the top contact in NREL's record-efficient copper...

25

CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

Ramanathan, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

EE&RE; Session: CIGS (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project supports the Solar America Initiative by carrying out work on target topics identified for Photovoltaic Systems: (1) Improving cell and module efficiency of thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 materials; (2) Implementing the Science and Technology Facility (S&TF) and the Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL) to facilitate laboratory/industry interaction in developing PV manufacturing technologies; (3) Addressing industrial issues in materials and manufacturing processes with the objective to lower the cost of PV power; (4) Providing technology transfer efforts to accelerate transition of thin film PV technology to market and deployment; (5) Assisting R&D efforts to asses and improve reliability and stability of thin film PV products; and (6) Assist the SAI TPPs in technical matters related to CIGS PV technology.

Contreras, M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Ag Nanowire Based Transparent Conductor for CIGS PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coated silver nanowires (AgNW) have been considered as a replacement for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in CIGS based photovoltaic devices. The advantages of AgNW over TCOs are discussed, and optical and electrical characteristics of AgNWs on glass are presented. Similarly fabricated AgNWs with varying sheet resistance on CIGS devices were tested against ITO transparent conductor controls. The CIGS was produced using a roll-to-roll technique on a flexible polymer substrate. Variations in the ZnO layer resistivity that are adjacent to the AgNW layer in the CIGS device were also tested. Device results indicate similar Jsc, but a reduced FF for cells made with the AgNWs, and Voc dependence on the resistivity of the coated AgNW and ZnO window layers. FF and Voc losses associated with the use of AgNWs are discussed.

Woods, L. M.; Wolk, J.; Smith, M.; Davande, H.; Ribelin, R. M.; Perkins, C. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Characterization of 19.9% Efficient CIGS Absorbers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper documents the properties of the world-record-efficiency CIGS solar cell by a variety of characterization techniques, with an emphasis on identifying near-surface properties associated with the modified processing.

Repins, I.; Contreras, M.; Romero, M.; Yan, Y.; Metzger, W.; Li, J.; Johnston, S.; Egass, B.; DeHart, C.; Scharf, J.; McCandless, B. E.; Noufi, R.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

30

When you think of the film industry, what comes to mind? Entertainment. In this issue you will discover how films not only bring us the latest adventures but also are being sculptured at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rooftop market. Solyndra uses a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) absorber layer in its solar cell to create revolutionary optics, semiconductors, medical devices, and solar cells. Spring 2009 In This Issue information, visit: www.jbg3.net Alumni Spotlight Phil Kraus (B.S. '93) is the director of technology at solar

Demirel, Melik C.

31

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2002 Progress Report II.D Electrolytic Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" (in press: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy). 3. "Evaluation of RF-Sputtered Indium-Tin Oxide-Si:Ge), copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), iron oxide (Fe2O3), etc.] that match energy requirements (Primary Contact) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 (303) 275-4270, fax

32

Manufacturing-Friendly Advance Seen in CIGS Solar Cell Processing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Scientists developed a robust, high-performance amorphous InZnO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.

Not Available

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Characterization and Analysis of CIGS and CdTE Solar Cells: December 2004 - July 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work reported here embodies a device-physics approach based on careful measurement and interpretation of data from CIGS and CdTe solar cells.

Sites, J. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Numericl modeling of graded band gap CIGS solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high efficiency reported recently by NREL for CIGS solar cells demonstrates the potential of band gap grading in producing high efficiency thin film solar cells. In order to reap the full benefits of this design strategy, a clear understanding of the fundamental device physics of these structures is needed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role grading of the band gap plays in achieving high conversion efficiencies. To aid in this examination, a detailed numerical device simulation program, ADEPT, is used.

Gray, J.L.; Lee, Youn Jung

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Doping of gallium nitride using disilane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, gallium nitride, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, silicon doping

A. E. Wickenden; L. B. Rowland; K. Doverspike; D. K. Gaskill; J. A. Freitas, Jr.; D. S. Simons; P. H. Chi

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

Ullal, H. S.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Properties of High Efficiency CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present experimental results in three areas. Solar cells with an efficiency of 19% have been fabricated with an absorber bandgap in the range of 1.1-1.2 eV. Properties of solar cells fabricated with and without an undoped ZnO layer were compared. The data show that high efficiency cells can be fabricated without using the high-resistivity or undoped ZnO layer. Properties of CIGS solar cells were fabricated from thin absorbers (1 {micro}m) deposited by the three-stage process and simultaneous co-deposition of all the elements. In both cases, solar cells with efficiencies of 16%-17% are obtained.

Ramanathan, K.; Keane, J.; Noufi, R.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Stability of CIS/CIGS Modules at the Outdoor Test Facility over Two Decades: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses examining the status and question of long-term stability of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic (PV) module performance for numerous modules that are deployed in the array field, or on the roof of, the outdoor test facility (OTF) at NREL, acquired from two manufacturers.

del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S.; Kroposki, B.; Osterwald, C.; Anderberg, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate, Phase II: 26 September 2007 - 25 September 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Global Solar's CIGS manufacturing cost has decreased by increased automation, higher materials utilization, and greater capacity with higher rates in all tools.

Wiedeman, S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Analysis of Alternate Methods to Obtain Stabilized Power Performance of CdTe and CIGS PV Modules (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation outlines an analysis of alternate methods to obtain stabilized power performance of CdTe and CIGS PV modules.

del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted ics. on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of [] Ga ions/[]. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microphone analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluency of [] Ga ions/[]. After implantation of [] Ga ions/[], sub-grain features on the order of 2 gm were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluency implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

West, Michael Keith

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Gallium Nitride nanowires: synthesis, contacts, electron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Gallium Nitride nanowires: synthesis, contacts, electron transport, mechanical resonators, and defects. John E. Fischer University of Pennsylvania. ...

45

Sodium-Doped Molybdenum Targets for Controllable Sodium Incorporation in CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is enhanced when Na is incorporated in the CIGS absorber layer. This work examines Na incorporation in CIGS utilizing Na-doped Mo sputtered from targets made with sodium molybdate-doped (MONA) powder. Mo:Na films with varying thicknesses were sputtered onto Mo-coated borosilicate glass (BSG) or stainless steel substrates for CIGS solar cells. By use of this technique, the Na content of CIGS can be varied from near-zero to higher than that obtained from a soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate. Targets and deposition conditions are described. The doped Mo films are analyzed, and the resulting devices are compared to devices fabricated on Mo-coated SLG as well as Mo-coated BSG with NaF. Completed devices utilizing MONA exceeded 15.7% efficiency without anti-reflective coating, which was consistently higher than devices prepared with the NaF precursor. Strategies for minimizing adhesion difficulties are presented.

Mansfield, L. M.; Repins, I. L.; Glynn, S.; Carducci, M. D.; Honecker, D. M.; Pankow, J.; Young, M.; DeHart, C.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Beall, C. L.; To, B.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Colloidal CIGS and CZTS nanocrystals: A precursor route to printed photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review article summarizes our research focused on Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanocrystals, including their synthesis and implementation as the active light absorbing material in photovoltaic devices (PVs). CIGS PV layers are typically made using a high temperature (>450 Degree-Sign C) process in which Cu, In and Ga are sequentially or co-evaporated and selenized. We have sought to use CIGS nanocrystals synthesized with the desired stoichiometry to deposit PV device layers without high temperature processing. This approach, using spray deposition of the CIGS light absorber layers, without high temperature selenization, has enabled up to 3.1% power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 solar illumination. Although the device efficiency is too low for commercialization, these devices provide a proof-of-concept that solution-deposited CIGS nanocrystal films can function in PV devices, enabling unconventional device architectures and materials combinations, including the use of flexible, inexpensive and light-weight plastic substrates. - Graphical abstract: The semiconductor light-absorbing layers in photovoltaic devices can be deposited under ambient conditions using nanocrystal inks. Devices can be fabricated on glass or on mechanically flexible plastic substrates. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CIGS and CZTS nanocrystals are synthesized and formulated into inks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal films are spray deposited and used as light absorbing layers in photovoltaic devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic devices were constructed from nanowire mats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic device efficiency is limited by electrical transport in the nanocrystal layers.

Akhavan, Vahid A.; Goodfellow, Brian W.; Panthani, Matthew G.; Steinhagen, Chet; Harvey, Taylor B.; Stolle, C. Jackson [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1062 (United States); Korgel, Brian A., E-mail: korgel@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1062 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Unusual Capacitance Emission Transients in CIGS Caused by Large Defect Entropy Changes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Capacitance transient data from bias-pulse experiments on CdS/CIGS solar cells show an unusual behavior at high temperatures. Above 350 K, a minority-carrier trap, with a larger activation energy than a majority-carrier trap, emits faster than the lower activation-energy minority trap. A simple enthalpy model for trap emission cannot explain this counterintuitive behavior; but the more complete Gibbs free-energy model that includes entropy can explain it. We show that entropy plays a major role in carrier emission from traps in CIGS.

Young, D. L.; Ramanathan, K.; Crandall, R. S.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

50

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advanced CIGS Photovoltaic Technology: Final Subcontract Report, 15 November 2001--13 February 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., is to develop the best CIGS large-area module process based on capability of implementation on EPV's large-scale processing equipment. The first requirement was to develop recipes for CIGS, junction formation, and a high-quality ZnO window that together are capable of producing small-area devices with efficiencies in excess of 13%. The second requirement was to significantly improve the uniformity of all layers (Mo, CIGS, CdS, and ZnO) on large-area substrates. Thirdly, patterning procedures needed to be improved to generate an interconnection with the lowest possible contact resistance, to eliminate possible shunting paths, and to reduce the dead area. The processes should have good reproducibility and therefore be easily controllable. Finally, having assembled all of these aspects mentioned above, the goal was to fabricate large-area, monolithic CIGS modules with efficiencies in the range 7%-10%. A study of module reliability and long-term stability would be conducted to establish the foundation and confidence for embarking on future manufacturing.

Delahoy, A. E.; Chen, L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC{sub 50} in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

Steinberger, H. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solid State Technology, Munich (Germany); Thumm, W.; Freitag, R. [GSF-Inst. of Ecological Chemistry, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chapin, R. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal ...  

... and economical bulk gallium nirtide (GaN) substrates needed to meet the performance requirements of high-efficiency LED and high-power transistors.

54

Decreased gallium uptake in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis  

SciTech Connect

Decreased radiopharmaceutical uptake was noted on both bone and gallium scans in the case of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the right ilium (acetabular roof). This combination of findings is probably rare. The mechanism of decreased gallium uptake is unknown, but may be related to decreased blood flow.

Ang, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Characterizing the effects of silver alloying in chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells with junction capacitance methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A variety of junction capacitance-based characterization methods were used to investigate alloys of Ag into Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 photovoltaic solar cells over a broad range of compositions. These alloys show encouraging trends of increasing VOC with increasing Ag content, opening the possibility of wide-gap cells for use in tandem device applications. Drive level capacitance profiling (DLCP) has shown very low free carrier concentrations for all Ag-alloyed devices, in some cases less than 1014 cm-3, which is roughly an order of magnitude lower than that of CIGS devices. Transient photocapacitance spectroscopy has revealed very steep Urbach edges, with energies between 10 meV and 20 meV, in the Ag-alloyed samples. This is in general lower than the Urbach edges measured for standard CIGS samples and suggests a significantly lower degree of structural disorder.

Erslev, Peter T.; Hanket, Gregory M.; Shafarman, William N.; Cohen, J. David

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Developing Market Opportunities for Flexible Rooftop Applications of PV Using Flexible CIGS Technology: Market Considerations  

SciTech Connect

There has been a recent upsurge in developments for building-integrated phototovoltaics (BiPV) roof top materials based on CIGS. Several new companies have increased their presence and are looking to bring products to market for this application in 2011. For roof-top application, there are significant key requirements beyond just having good conversion efficiency. Other attributes include lightweight, as well as moisture-proof, and fully functionally reliable. The companies bringing these new BIPV/BAPV products need to ensure functionality with a rigorous series of tests, and have an extensive set of 'torture' tests to validate the capability. There is a convergence of form, aesthetics, and physics to ensure that the CIGS BiPV deliver on their promises. This article will cover the developments in this segment of the BiPV market and delve into the specific tests and measurements needed to characterize the products. The potential market sizes are evaluated and the technical considerations developed.

Sabnani, L.; Skumanich, A.; Ryabova, E.; Noufi, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: Annual Technical Report, 24 May 2006 - 25 September 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy has enhanced module reliability, reduced cost and improved performance of its CIGS deposition process, and reduced cost of materials and processes for contacts.

Weideman, S.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

ZnMgO by APCVD Enabling High-Performance Mid-bandgap CIGS on Polyimide Modules: October 2009--October 2010  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Pre-Incubator project was designed to increase the 'real world' CIGS based photovoltaic module performance and decrease the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of systems utilizing those modules compared to our traditional CIGS based photovoltaic modules. This was enabled by a) increasing the CIGS bandgap and b) developing better matched device finishing layers to the mid-bandgap CIGS based photovoltaics; including window and buffer layers (and eventually the TCO). Incremental progress in the novel device performance was demonstrated throughout the program, and ultimately achieved performance results that exceeded the milestones ahead of schedule. Metal-oxide buffer layer devices with mid-bandgap CIGS alloys on polyimide substrates were produced with efficiencies of over 12%. Corresponding mid-bandgap devices with CdS buffers produced over 13% efficient devices. Furthermore, no obvious degradation in the device performance has been observed to date, after proper storage ambient of the different types of unencapsulated devices were identified.

Woods, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

High Performance CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Laboratory Perspective  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a summary of our work on the preparation of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) absorbers that has led to fabricating record-efficiency solar cells. The use of the three-stage process in conjunction with composition monitoring facilitates the fabrication of solar cells with efficiencies between 18% and 19.5% for absorber bandgap in the range of 1.1-1.2 eV. We describe our recent results in reducing absorber thickness and low-temperature deposition. Our preliminary results on absorbers grown from low-purity source materials show promise of reducing the cost of fabricating the absorber.

Ramanathan, K.; Bhattacharya, R.; Contreras, M.; Keane, J. C.; To, B.; Dhere, R. G.; Noufi, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. These two thin-film technologies have a common device/module structure: substrate, base electrode, absorber, junction layer, top electrode, patterning steps for monolithic integration, and encapsulation. The monolithic integration of thin-film solar cells can lead to significant manufacturing cost reduction compared to crystalline Si technology. The CdTe and CIGS modules share common structural elements. In principle, this commonality should lead to similar manufacturing cost per unit area, and thus, the module efficiency becomes the discriminating factor that determines the cost per watt. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview, Fiscal Year 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This ''annual report'' details the FY 2000 achievements of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Program in the categories of Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. Highlights include development of a record-breaking concentrator solar cell that is 32.4% efficient; fabrication of a record CIGS (copper indium gallium diselenide) cell at 18.8% efficiency; sharing an R and D 100 award with Siemens Solar Industries and the California Energy Commission for development and deployment of commercial CIS thin-film modules; and support for the efforts of the PV Industry Roadmap Workshop.

Weis-Taylor, P.

2001-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

62

Characterizing organometallic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown indium gallium nitride islands on gallium nitride for light emitting diode applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The indium-gallium-nitride on gallium-nitride (InGaN/GaN) materials system is a promising candidate for providing a high intensity, high efficiency solution to the yet unsolved problem of (more)

Anderson, Kathy Perkins Jenkins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Properties of Encapsulated CIGS Cells in 85 degrees C/85%RH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper concerns studies of encapsulated cells subjected to an environment of 85C and 85%RH (85/85). Cells are encapsulated with PNNL multi-layer coatings (referred to as PML coatings) utilizing alternating layers of Al2O3, and an advanced polymer. The new polymer has been determined to withstand the 85/85 environment. Two types of cells were used for these studies, namely, SSI mini-modules (which are actually CIGSS devices) and CIGS cells provided by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC). Cells were coated and stressed at 85/85 in an environmental chamber. Current-voltage characteristics were acquired before and after coating, and periodically after being subjected to the 85/85 environment. Whereas coated SSI modules were determined to last 1000 hours when stressed at 60C/90%RH without degradation, the efficiency of these modules degrade to a level of 60% of the beginning-of-life value when stressed at 85/85. Encapsulated IEC cells, however, have exhibited extraordinary results. The efficiency of several encapsulated cells did not decrease for 1500 hours in an 85C/85%RH environment. This results establishes a benchmark for stressed, encapsulated CIGS cells.

Olsen, Larry C.; Gross, Mark E.; Kundu, Sambhu N.; Shafaman, William N.

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

64

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

CIGS P1, P2, P3 Scribing Processes using a Pulse Programmable Industrial Fiber Laser: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We describe a novel set of laser processes for the CIGS P1, P2 and P3 scribing steps, the development of which has been enabled by a unique pulse-programmable fiber laser. We find that the unique pulse control properties of this 1064 nm wavelength laser have significant effects on the material removal dynamics of the various film layers in the CIGS material system. In the case of the P2 and P3 processes, the shaped pulses create new laser/material interaction effects that permit the material to be cleanly and precisely removed with zero Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) at the edges of the scribe. The new P2 and P3 processes we describe demonstrate the first use of infrared nanosecond laser pulses that eliminate the HAZ and the consequent localized compositional changes in the CIGS absorber material that result in poor shunt resistance. SEM micrographs and EDX compositional scans are presented. For the P1 scribe, we process the bi-layer molybdenum from the film side as well as through the glass substrate. Microscopic inspection and compositional analysis of the scribe lines are not sufficient to determine electrical and optical performance in working PV modules. Therefore, to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared pulse-programmable laser to all three scribing processes for thin-film CIGS, we fabricate small-size multiple-cell monolithically interconnected mini-modules in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colorado). A total of four mini-modules are produced, two utilizing all laser scribing, and two with the P2 and P3 steps mechanically scribed (by a third party) for reference. Mini-module performance data measured at NREL is presented, and we also discuss the commercialization potential of the new single-laser CIGS scribing process. Finally we present a phenomenological model to describe this physics underlying this novel ablation process.

Rekow, M.; Murison, R.; Panarello, T.; Dunsky, C.; Dinkel, C.; Nikumb, S.; Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

67

CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Conference Paper NREL/CP-520-37020 January 2005 CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments K. Ramanathan, R.N. Bhattacharya, M.A. Contreras, F.S. Hasoon, J. Abushama, and R. Noufi Presented at the 2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting October 25-28, 2004 Denver, Colorado NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US

68

Properties of Cd and Zn Partial Electrolyte Treated CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the influence of Cd partial baths on the photovoltaic properties of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) and CuIn-GaSSe2 (CIGSS) thin film absorbers. We find that efficient solar cells can be fabricated by this treatment, and we compare their properties with those containing CdS window layers grown by chemical bath deposition. The results suggest that Cd plays a dominant role in establishing efficient photovoltaic junctions in CuInSe2 alloys. Micron scale photoluminescence scans show non-uniformity along the length probed. Cd treatment quenches one of the luminescence transitions, which indicates a change in shallow acceptor level density. We present a model that helps to explain the evolution of photovoltaic action.

Ramanathan, K.; Hasoon, F. S.; Smith, S.; Mascarenhas, A.; Al-Thani, H.; Alleman, J.; Ullal, H. S.; Keane, J.; Johnson, P. K.; Sites, J. R.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Uniform, High Efficiency, Hybrid CIGS Process with Application to Novel Device Structures: Annual Technical Report, 15 March 2005 - 14 March 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the main Phase I objectives of this subcontract was for EPV to demonstrate 14%-efficient CIGS devices using a hybrid process. The processing was also required to have good control ability. These goals were successfully accomplished. It will be seen that during Phase I, we successfully developed a new, simplified hybrid process. A highlight of intensive work was the achievement of a 14.0% NREL-verified device at a CIGS thickness of 1.13 ..mu..m. The simplified hybrid process considerably reduces CIGS film formation time and offers the promise of being a truly cost-effective and manufacturable one. It is considered to be one of the more attractive CIGS processes in the industry.

Delahoy, A. E.; Chen, L.; Sang, B.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Gallium-positive Lyme disease myocarditis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the course of a work-up for fever of unknown origin associated with intermittent arrhythmias, a gallium scan was performed which revealed diffuse myocardial uptake. The diagnosis of Lyme disease myocarditis subsequently was confirmed by serologic titers. One month following recovery from the acute illness, the abnormal myocardial uptake completely resolved.

Alpert, L.I.; Welch, P.; Fisher, N.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Investigation of the Effect of I-ZnO Window Layer on the Device Performance of the Cd-Free CIGS Based Solar Cells (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research work focuses on preparing Cd-free CIGS based solar cells with intrinsic high resistivity ZnO (I-ZnO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique at different deposition substrate temperature and I-ZnO film thickness, and the effect of the prior treatment of CIGS films by ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) diluted solution on the device performance.

Hasoon, F. S.; al-Thani, H. A.; Li, X.; Kanevce, A.; Perkins, C.; Asher, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Investigation of the Effect of I-ZnO Window Layer on the Device Performance of the Cd-Free CIGS Based Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper focuses on preparing Cd-free, CIGS-based solar cells with intrinsic high resistivity ZnO (I-ZnO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique at different deposition substrate temperature and I-ZnO film thickness, and the effect of the prior treatment of CIGS films by ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) diluted solution on the device performance.

Hasoon, F. S.; Al-Thani, H. A.; Li, X.; Kanevce, A.; Perkins, C.; Asher, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ? 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ? 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH ? 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tinmaterial systems such as indium oxide, gallium oxide and tinand Characterization A. Indium Oxide Nanowires Indium oxide

Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

Rosi, F.D.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status  

SciTech Connect

A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward...

82

Gallium uptake by transferrin and interaction with receptor 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron acquisition Gallium uptake Temperature-jump kinetics .... Part of this thera- peutic action is ..... are all considered as hard metals [10] and are com-.

83

Cold Atoms Could Replace Hot Gallium in Focused Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The high energies needed to focus gallium for milling tasks end up burying small amounts in the sample, contaminating the material. ...

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

84

Interactions of gallium with zircaloy cladding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mastering system was constructed and installed on the current low energy accelerator of the Ion Beam Laboratory in the Department of Nuclear Engineering. Galium was implanted into heated zircaloy targets at nuances of 3x10?, 1x10? and 1x10? ions/cm. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 260 keV alpha particles was used to determine the initial estimates of gallium concentration. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging was performed to examine concentration and surface morphology, respectively. Zirconium was then implanted to simulate the radiation effects of fission fragments at a fluency of 1.0x10? Zr atoms/cm. RBS results showed enhanced diffusion and indicate saturation of the gallium concentration. Results also showed the possible formation of a Ga-Zr compound.

Mitchell, Lee Josey

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Examination of Na-Doped Mo Sputtering for CIGS Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-375  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work has investigated the use of Na doped Mo (MONA) sputtering targets for use in preparing CIGS devices. The Mo:Na material is doped to about 3% Na by weight, implying that a 40 nm layer on top of the standard Mo contact contains sufficient Na to dope a 2.5 ..mu..m CIGS film. The ability to control Na doping independent of both CIGS processing conditions and adhesion is an important gain for industry and research. Manufacturers gain a route to increased manufacturability and performance, while NREL researchers gain a tightened performance distribution of devices and increased process flexibility. Our immediate partner in this work, the Climax Molybdenum Technology Center, gains validation of their product.

Repins, I.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

88

Interactions of Zircaloy Cladding with Gallium: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fhel, on cladding material performance. Three previous repmts"3 identified several compatibility issues relating to the presence of gallium in MOX fuel and its possible reaction with fiel cladding. Gallium initially present in weapons-grade (WG) plutonium is largely removed during processing to produce MOX fhel. After blending the plutonium with uranium, only 1 to 10 ppm gallium is expected in the sintered MOX fuel. Gallium present as gallium oxide (G~OJ could be evolved as the suboxide (G~O). Migration of the evolved G~O and diffusion of gallium in the MOX matrix along thermal gradients could lead to locally higher concentrations of G~03. Thus, while an extremely low concentration of gallium in MOX fiel almost ensures a lack of significant interaction of gallium whh Zircaloy fhel cladding, there remains a small probability that corrosion effects will not be negligible. General corrosion in the form of surface alloying resulting from formation of intermetallic compounds between Zircaloy and gallium should be ma& limited and, therefore, superficial because of the expected low ratio of gallium to the surface area or volume of the Zircaloy cladding. Although the expected concentration of gallium is low and there is very limited volubility of gallium in zirconium, especially at temperatures below 700 "C,4 grain boundary penetration and liquid metal embrittlement (LME) are forms of localized corrosion that were also considered. One fuel system darnage mechanism, pellet clad interaction, has led to some failure of the Zircaloy cladding in light-water reactors (LWRS). This has been attributed to stresses in the cladding and one or more aggressive fission products. Stress corrosion cracking by iodines' 6 and LME by cadmium7>8 have been reported, and it is known that Zircaloy can be embrittled by some low-melting metals, (e.g., mercury).g LME is a form of environmentally induced embrittlement that can induce cracking or loss of ductility. LME requties wetting and a tensile stress, but it does not require corrosion penetration. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that gallium can cause embrittlement of some alloys (e.g., aluminum) at low temperatures,'"' ] ] but experiments relative to LME of zirconium by gallium have been limited and inconclusive.*2 This report describes a series of tests designed to establish the effects of low levels of residual gallium in WG-MOX fhel on its compatibility with Zircaloy. In addition, to establish damage mechanisms it was important to understand types of cladding interactions and available stiety margins with respect to gallium concentration.

D.F. Wilson; E.T. Manneschmidt; J.F. King; J.P. Strizak; J.R. DiStefano

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Effect of oxidation on the Mechanical Properties of Liquid Gallium and Eutectic Gallium-Indium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid metals exhibit remarkable mechanical properties, in particular large surface tension and low viscosity. However, these properties are greatly affected by oxidation when exposed to air. We measure the viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle of gallium (Ga) and a eutectic gallium-indium alloy (eGaIn) while controlling such oxidation by surrounding the metal with an acid bath of variable concentration. Rheometry measurements reveal a yield stress directly attributable to an oxide skin that obscures the intrinsic behavior of the liquid metals. We demonstrate how the intrinsic viscosity can be obtained with precision through a scaling technique that collapses low- and high-Reynolds number data. Measuring surface tension with a pendant drop method, we show that the oxide skin generates a surface stress that mimics surface tension and develop a simple model to relate this to the yield stress obtained from rheometry. We find that yield stress, surface tension, and contact angle all transition from solid-...

Xu, Qin; Guo, Qiti; Jaeger, Heinrich; Brown, Eric

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ZnO:Al Doping Level and Hydrogen Growth Ambient Effects on CIGS Solar Cell Performance: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) cells require a highly conducting and transparent electrode for optimum device performance. ZnO:Al films grown from targets containing 2.0 wt.% Al2O3 are commonly used for this purpose. Maximum carrier mobilities of these films grown at room temperature are ~20-25 cm2V-1s-1. Therefore, relatively high carrier concentrations are required to achieve the desired conductivity, which leads to free carrier absorption in the near infrared (IR). Lightly doped films (0.05 - 0.2 wt.% Al2O3), which show less IR absorption, reach mobility values greater than 50 cm2V-1s-1 when deposited in H2 partial pressure. We incorporate these lightly doped ZnO:Al layers into CIGS PV cells produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Preliminary results show quantum efficiency values of these cells rival those of a past world-record cell produced at NREL that used 2.0 wt.% Al-doped ZnO films. The highest cell efficiency obtained in this trial was 18.1%.

Duenow, J. N.; Gessert, T. A.; Wood, D. M.; Egaas, B.; Noufi, R.; Coutts,T. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Trajectory-Oriented and Fault-Tolerant-Based Intelligent Process Control for Flexible CIGS PV Module Manufacturing; Final Technical Report, 13 May 2002--30 May 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ITN Energy Systems, Inc., and Global Solar Energy, Inc., assisted by NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D program, have continued to advance CIGS production technology by developing trajectory-oriented predictive/control models, fault-tolerance control, control platform development, in-situ sensors, and process improvements. Modeling activities included developing physics-based and empirical models for CIGS and sputter-deposition processing, implementing model-based control, and applying predictive models to the construction of new evaporation sources and for control. Model-based control is enabled by implementing reduced or empirical models into a control platform. Reliability improvement activities include implementing preventive maintenance schedules; detecting failed sensors/equipment and reconfiguring to tinue processing; and systematic development of fault prevention and reconfiguration strategies for the full range of CIGS PV production deposition processes. In-situ sensor development activities have resulted in improved control and indicated the potential for enhanced process status monitoring and control of the deposition processes. Substantial process improvements have been made, including significant improvement in CIGS uniformity, thickness control, efficiency, yield, and throughput. In large measure, these gains have been driven by process optimization, which in turn have been enabled by control and reliability improvements due to this PV Manufacturing R&D program.

Simpson, L.; Britt, J.; Birkmire, R.; Vincent, T.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Gallium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Previous Element (Zinc) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Germanium) Germanium Isotopes of the Element Gallium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 69 60.108% STABLE 71 39.892% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 56 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 57 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 58 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 59 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 60 70 milliseconds Electron Capture 98.40%

93

Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

Hogan, S.J.

1983-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

Hogan, Stephen J. (Golden, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effect of oxidation on the Mechanical Properties of Liquid Gallium and Eutectic Gallium-Indium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid metals exhibit remarkable mechanical properties, in particular large surface tension and low viscosity. However, these properties are greatly affected by oxidation when exposed to air. We measure the viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle of gallium (Ga) and a eutectic gallium-indium alloy (eGaIn) while controlling such oxidation by surrounding the metal with an acid bath of variable concentration. Rheometry measurements reveal a yield stress directly attributable to an oxide skin that obscures the intrinsic behavior of the liquid metals. We demonstrate how the intrinsic viscosity can be obtained with precision through a scaling technique that collapses low- and high-Reynolds number data. Measuring surface tension with a pendant drop method, we show that the oxide skin generates a surface stress that mimics surface tension and develop a simple model to relate this to the yield stress obtained from rheometry. We find that yield stress, surface tension, and contact angle all transition from solid-like to liquid behavior at the same critical acid concentration, thereby quantitatively confirming that the wettability of these liquid metals is due to the oxide skin.

Qin Xu; Nikolai Qudalov; Qiti Guo; Heinrich Jaeger; Eric Brown

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

97

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

98

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

99

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

100

Method for improving the growth of cadmium telluride on a gallium arsenide substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing a gallium arsenide substrate, prior to growing a layer of cadmium telluride on a support surface thereof. The preparation includes the steps of cleaning the gallium arsenide substrate and thereafter forming prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate. The layer of cadmium telluride then grown on the prepared substrate results in dislocation densities of approximately 1{times}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} or less. The prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate are formed by reactive ion etching an original outer surface of the gallium arsenide substrate and into the body of the gallium arsenide substrate to a depth of at least two microns. The prepatterned shapes have the appearance of cylindrical mesas each having a diameter of at lease twelve microns. After the mesas are formed on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate, the substrate is again cleaned.

Reno, J.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Tolerance of Three-Stage CIGS Deposition to Variations Imposed by Roll-to-Roll Processing: Final Technical Report, May 2003 - September 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three-stage co-evaporation of CIGS imposes stringent limits on the parameter space if high-efficient devices are to result. Substrate temperatures during the 1st stage (as well as during the 2nd and 3rd stage), Se partial pressure, and amount of Na supplied are critical for good nucleation, proper In-Ga-selenide precursor phase, and diffusion of Cu into the precursor, as well as diffusion of Ga through the film. In addition, the degree of Cu-rich excursion impacts maximum performance and process tolerance. Enveloping the above is the basic time-temperature profile inextricably linked to the metals delivery rates. Although high-efficiency, three-stage deposited CIGS devices on the R&D scale are grown at about 20-45 minutes to thicknesses of 2 to 2.5 m, the latter is not a viable approach for an economic manufacturing process. At Global Solar Energy, Inc., CIGS films are typically grown in about 6 minutes to thicknesses of less than 2 m. At the same time, the emissivity and thermal conductivity of stainless steel is vastly different from that of glass, and the reduced growth time poses restrictions on the substrate temperature ramp rates and diffusion of species (reaction kinetics). Material compatibility in the highly corrosive Se environment places limitations on the substrate heaters; i.e., substrate temperatures. Finally, one key advantage of a RTR deposition approach (compact equipment) restricts post CIGS Se exposure and cool-down rates to be vastly different than those practiced in the laboratory.

Beck, M. E.; Britt, J. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Indium-Gallium Segregation in CuIn$_{x}$Ga$_{1-x}$Se$_2$: An ab initio based Monte Carlo Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells with CuIn$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$Se$_2$ (CIGS) absorber are still far below their efficiency limit, although lab cells reach already 19.9%. One important aspect is the homogeneity of the alloy. Large-scale simulations combining Monte Carlo and density functional calculations show that two phases coexist in thermal equilibrium below room temperature. Only at higher temperatures, CIGS becomes more and more a homogeneous alloy. A larger degree of inhomogeneity for Ga-rich CIGS persists over a wide temperature range, which may contribute to the low observed efficiency of Ga-rich CIGS solar cells.

Ludwig, Christian D R; Felser, Claudia; Schilling, Tanja; Windeln, Johannes; Kratzer, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and its alloys. The Module Reliability Team and Environmental Health and Safety Team were crosscutting. The teams comprised researchers from the solar industry, academia, and NREL who focused their efforts on improving materials, devices, and manufacturing processes-all

105

NREL: Awards and Honors - R&D 100 Awards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D 100 Awards R&D 100 Awards Since its inception as the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in 1977, NREL/SERI has won 52 R&D 100 awards. 2013 Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS) Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs) Mono-crystalline Solar Cells 2012 Desiccant-enhanced Evaporative (DEVAP) Air-Conditioning Cycle SJ3 Solar Cells 2011 Innovalight Silicon Ink Process Flash Quantum Efficiency (Flash QE) System for Solar Cells Optical Cavity Furnace 2010 "Black Silicon" Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch Amonix 7700 Solar Power Generator 2009 Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) SkyTrough(tm) Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrating Collector PowerPlane UX Microbattery 2008 Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell Hybrid CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide)

106

Global Solar Energy Inc GSE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GSE GSE Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Solar Energy Inc (GSE) Place Tucson, Arizona Zip 85747 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells with factory in Tucson, Arizona. Coordinates 32.221553°, -110.969754° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.221553,"lon":-110.969754,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

107

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Text Alternative NREL has capabilities and experts in measurements, characterization, reliability, engineering, scientific computing, and theory to support photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) across a range of conversion technologies and scales. Conversion technologies include the primary areas of silicon, polycrystalline thin films (cadmium telluride [CdTe], copper indium gallium diselenide [CIGS]), III-V-based multijunctions, and organic PV. And scales of interest range from materials, to cells, modules, and systems. Measurements and Characterization Photo of a hand holding tweezers pinching a square wafer that is striped gold and black. We provide a huge range of techniques for measuring and characterizing PV

108

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: May 24, 2006 -- July 31, 2010  

SciTech Connect

Global Solar Energy rapidly advances the cost and performance of commercial thin-film CIGS products using roll-to-roll processing on steel foil substrate in compact, low cost deposition equipment, with in-situ sensors for real-time intelligent process control. Substantial increases in power module efficiency, which now exceed 13%, are evident at GSE factories in two countries with a combined capacity greater than 75 MW. During 2009 the average efficiency of cell strings (3780 cm2) was increased from 7% to over 11%, with champion results exceeding 13% Continued testing of module reliability in rigid product has reaffirmed extended life expectancy for standard glass product, and has qualified additional lower-cost methods and materials. Expected lifetime for PV in flexible packages continues to increase as failure mechanisms are elucidated, and resolved by better methods and materials. Cost reduction has been achieved through better materials utilization, enhanced vendor and material qualification and selection. The largest cost gains have come as a result of higher cell conversion efficiency and yields, higher processing rates, greater automation and improved control in all process steps. These improvements are integral to this thin film PV partnership program, and all realized with the 'Gen2' manufacturing plants, processes and equipment.

Wiedeman, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Effects of asymmetry on electron spin dynamics in gallium arsenide quantum wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents optical studies of electron spin dynamics in gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum wells, focusing on the effect of inversion asymmetric confinement potentials on (more)

Eldridge, Peter Stephen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Appraisal of lupus nephritis by renal imaging with gallium-67  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess the activity of lupus nephritis, 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were studied by gallium imaging. Delayed renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive result, was noted in 25 of 48 scans. Active renal disease was defined by the presence of hematuria, pyuria (10 or more red blood cells or white blood cells per high-power field), proteinuria (1 g or more per 24 hours), a rising serum creatinine level, or a recent biopsy specimen showing proliferative and/or necrotizing lesions involving more than 20 percent of glomeruli. Renal disease was active in 18 instances, inactive in 23, and undetermined in seven (a total of 48 scans). Sixteen of the 18 scans (89 percent) in patients with active renal disease showed positive findings, as compared with only four of 23 scans (17 percent) in patients with inactive renal disease (p less than 0.001). Patients with positive scanning results had a higher rate of hypertension (p = 0.02), nephrotic proteinuria (p = 0.01), and progressive renal failure (p = 0.02). Mild mesangial nephritis (World Health Organization classes I and II) was noted only in the patients with negative scanning results (p = 0.02) who, however, showed a higher incidence of severe extrarenal SLE (p = 0.04). It is concluded that gallium imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the activity of lupus nephritis.

Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Characteristics of graphene FET directly transformed from a resist pattern through interfacial graphitization of liquid gallium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We found that an extremely thin resist pattern on silicon dioxide can be directly transformed into a graphene field effect transistor (FET) channel via interfacial graphitization of liquid gallium. These patterned graphene FETs have p-type characteristics ... Keywords: Conductance, FET, Gallium, Graphene, Graphitization, Resist, Solid phase reaction

Jun-ichi Fujita; Ryuichi Ueki; Takuya Nishijima; Yosuke Miyazawa

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption flat gallium arsenide solar cell, we show that it is possible to modify the flow of light and enhance above the solar cell. The incoupling element is lossless and, thus, has the advantage that no energy

Grandidier, Jonathan

115

Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Applied Quantum Technology AQT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AQT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Quantum Technology (AQT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95054 Product California-based manufacturer of CIGS (copper indium gallium...

117

Gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high-temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for goethermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p/sup +/n/sup -/pp/sup +/ structure was fromed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The gallium phosphide BJT is observed to have a common-emitter current gain peaking in the range of 6 to 10 (for temperatures from 20/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C) and a room-temperature, punchthrough-limited, collector-emitter breakdown voltage of approximately -6V. Other parameters of interest include an f/sub/ = 400 KHz (at 20/sup 0/C) and a collector base leakage current = 200 ..mu..A (at 350/sup 0/C).

Zipperian, T.E.; Dawson, L.R.; Caffin, R.J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Microsoft PowerPoint - Gallium Oxide_Ramana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gallium Oxide Nanostructures Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors C.V. Ramana (PI) Evgeny Shafirovich (Co-PI) Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso Students: Ernesto Rubio (PhD); S.K. Samala (MS) A.K. Narayana Swamy (PhD); K. Abhilash (MS) Program Manager: Richard Dunst, NETL, DOE Project: DE-FE0007225 Project Period: 10/01/2011 to 09/31/2014 1 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 2  Introduction  Research Objectives  Experiments ► Synthesis ► Characterization  Results and Discussion ► Pure Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films ► W-doped Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films (Physical Methods)  Summary & Future Work 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 3 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 4 Energy Systems High-T High-T High-P High-P

119

Limits on nu_e and anti-nu_e disappearance from Gallium and reactor experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deficit observed in the Gallium radioactive source experiments is interpreted as a possible indication of the disappearance of electron neutrinos. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain $\\sin^{2}2\\vartheta \\gtrsim 0.03$ and $\\Delta{m}^{2} \\gtrsim 0.1 \\text{eV}^{2}$. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor short-baseline antineutrino disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with $0.02 \\lesssim \\sin^{2}2\\vartheta \\lesssim 0.08$ and $\\Delta{m}^{2} \\approx 1.8 \\text{eV}^{2}$, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analyses of Bugey and Chooz data, of Gallium and Bugey data, and of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

Mario A. Acero; Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

120

Size and shape dependence on melting temperature of gallium nitride nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of variation of the size and shape effect on the melting property of gallium nitride nanoparticles with their spherical and cylindrical geometrical feature is theoretically explored. A numerical thermodynamical model has been devoted for the ...

Paneerselvam Antoniammal; Dakshanamoorthy Arivuoli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

The radiation bio-effects of gallum-72 on leukemic cells via a gallium-transferrin complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved methods for treatment of leukemia would be advantageous for patients and the medical community. This thesis reports results of a study of the cytotoxicity of radiolabeled transferrin in cultured leukemic cells. K-562 cells, from an erythroleukemic cell line, were grown and growth curves were plotted for characterization. K-562 cells grew logarithmically from approximately 250,000 cells mL? to 700,000 cells mL? and display a doubling time of approximately 20-21 hours. K-562 cells were exposed to x rays at an absorbed dose of 0, 1, 2, and 4 gray. Growth curves were plotted to create a dose response curve. Percent-cell survival in this experiment, and all subsequent experiments, was determined based on the extrapolation of the growth curves to time zero, as compared to a control. An absorbed dose of 1, 2, and 4 gray corresponded to a survival of 77([]14)%, 45([]7.4)% and 20([]2.4)%, respectively. This cell line is relatively resistant to radiation. K-562 cells were exposed to a radioactive gallium-72/stable gallium nitrate mixture to determine the effect gallium-72 decay has on cell survival . Simultaneously, K-562 cells were exposed to a concentration of stable gallium nitrate equivalent to the total gallium concentration, radioactive and stable, of the gallium-72/stable gallium mixture. This allowed a comparison of radioactive and chemotoxic effects due to gallium-72 and stable gallium, respectively. Exposures to gallium-72, at an activity of 184.0 kBq mL?, and stable gallium nitrate, at a concentration of 116.7 []M, resulted in a cell survival of 61([]10.5)% and 75([]12. 1)%, respectively. The difference is small when error is taken into consideration. Therefore radioactivity had little effect on cell survival at a specific activity of 6.3 MBq mg?. To properly assess the cytotoxicity of gallium-72 the specific activity must be increased. To determine the effect of ape-transferrin on the cytotoxicity of gallium nitrate, K-562 cells were exposed to stable gallium nitrate and increasing amounts of apo-transferrin. Cells exposed to 115.0 []M gallium nitrate exhibited an 82([]8.8)% cell survival compared to 54([]6.9)% following exposure to 115.0 []M gallium nitrate and 3.75 []M apo-transferrin. Apo-transferrin presumably increases cellular uptake of gallium nitrate thereby increasing its cyctotoxic effects.

Forbes, Christen Douglas

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

High-Temperature Decomposition of Brnsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites  

SciTech Connect

The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Single event upsets in gallium arsenide dynamic logic  

SciTech Connect

The advantages and disadvantages of using gallium arsenide (GaAs) dynamic logic in computers and digital systems are briefly discussed, especially with respect to space applications. A short introduction to the topology and operation of GaAs Two-Phase Dynamic FET Logic (TDFL) circuits is presented. Experiments for testing the SEU sensitivity of GaAs TDFL, using a laser to create charge collection events, are described. Results are used to estimate the heavy-ion, soft error rate for TDFL in a spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, and the dependence of the SEU sensitivity on clock frequency, clock voltage, and clock phase. Analysis of the data includes a comparison between the SEU sensitivities of TDFL and the more common static form of GaAs logic, Directly Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). This is the first reported SEU testing of GaAs dynamic logic.

Fouts, D.J. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). ECE Dept.); Weatherford, T. (SFA Inc., Landover, MD (United States)); McMorrow, C.; Melinger, J.S.; Campbell, A.B. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Coated gallium arsenide neutron detectors : results of characterizationmeasurements.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Effective detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) is essential for reducing the threat associated with stolen or improvised nuclear devices. Passive radiation detection technologies are primarily based on gamma-ray detection and subsequent isotope identification or neutron detection (specific to neutron sources and SNM). One major effort supported by the Department of Homeland Security in the area of advanced passive detection is handheld or portable neutron detectors for search and localization tasks in emergency response and interdiction settings. A successful SNM search detector will not only be able to confirm the presence of fissionable materials but also establish the location of the source in as short of time as possible while trying to minimize false alarms due to varying background or naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). For instruments based on neutron detectors, this translates to detecting neutrons from spontaneous fission or alpha-n reactions and being able to determine the direction of the source (or localizing the source through subsequent measurements). Polyethylene-coated gallium arsenide detectors were studied because the detection scheme is based on measuring the signal in the gallium arsenide wafers from the electrical charge of the recoil protons produced from the scattering of neutrons from the hydrogen nucleus. The inherent reaction has a directional dependence because the neutron and hydrogen nucleus have equivalent masses. The assessment and measurement of polyethylene-coated gallium arsenide detector properties and characteristics was the first phase of a project being performed for the Department of Homeland Security and the results of these tests are reported in this report. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a man-portable neutron detection system that has the ability to determine the direction of the source from the detector. The efficiency of GaAs detectors for different sizes of polyethylene layers and different angles between the detector and the neutron source were determined. Preliminary measurements with a neutron generator based on a deuterium-tritium reaction ({approx}14 MeV neutrons) were performed and the results are discussed. This report presents the results of these measurements in terms of efficiency and angular efficiency and compares them to Monte Carlo calculations to validate the calculation scheme in view of further applications. Based on the results of this study, the polyethylene-coated gallium arsenide detectors provide adequate angular resolution based on proton recoil detection from the neutron scattering reaction from hydrogen. However, the intrinsic efficiency for an individual detector is extremely low. Because of this low efficiency, large surface area detectors ( or a large total surface area from many small detectors) would be required to generate adequate statistics to perform directional detection in near-real time. Large surface areas could be created by stacking the detector wafers with only a negligible attenuation of source neutrons. However, the cost of creating such a large array of GaAs is cost-prohibitive at this time.

Klann, R. T.; Perret, G.; Sanders, J.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

126

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Tolerance of Three-Stage CIGS Deposition to Variations Imposed by Roll-to-Roll Processing: Phase I Annual Report, May 2002--May 2003  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy, Inc. (GSE) and subcontractor ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) are addressing process tolerance issues in this program. The definition and resolution of process tolerance issues satisfy many of the goals of the Thin Film Photovoltaics Partnership Program (TFPPP). First, the investigation is likely to identify acceptable ranges for critical deposition parameters. This will have the benefit of providing upper and lower control limits for in-situ process-monitoring components, thus increasing average efficiency, as well as yield of product. Second, the exploration may uncover insensitivities to some processing procedures, allowing manufacture of modules at increased throughput and decreased cost. The exploration allows a quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs between performance, throughput, and costs. Third, the proposed program also satifies the TFPPP goal of establishing a wider research and development base for higher-efficiency processing. Fourth, the acquisition of data defining sensitivity to processing has important implications for the required accuracy of process sensors and control. Finally, the program helps the photovoltaic community advance toward a better understanding of CIGS growth, which is a longer-term goal of the TFPPP.

Beck, M. E.; Repins, I. L.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Tolerance of Three-Stage CIGS Deposition to Variations Imposed by Roll-to-Roll Processing: Phase II Annual Report, May 2003--May 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy, Inc. (GSE) and lower-tier subcontractor ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) are addressing process tolerance issues in this program. The definition and resolution of process tolerance issues satisfy many of the goals of the Thin Film Photovoltaics Partnerships Program (TFPPP). First, the investigation is likely to identify acceptable ranges for critical deposition parameters. This will have the benefit of providing upper and lower control limits for in-situ process monitoring components, thus increasing average efficiency as well as yield of product. Second, the exploration may uncover insensitivities to some processing procedures, allowing manufacture of modules at increased throughput and decreased cost. The exploration allows a quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs between performance, throughput, and costs. Third, the proposed program also satisfies the TFPPP goal of establishing a wider research and development base for higher-efficiency processing. Four th, the acquisition of data defining sensitivity to processing has important implications for the required accuracy of process sensors and control. Finally, the program helps the photovoltaic community advance toward a better understanding of CIGS growth, a longer-term goal of the TFPPP.

Beck, M. E.; Repins, I. L.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effect of magnetic field on the mechanical properties of magnetostrictive iron-gallium nanowires  

SciTech Connect

This study experimentally investigates the elastic properties of individual iron-gallium nanowires with and without an applied magnetic bias field. The experiments were conducted with a custom manipulator stage designed for use within a scanning electron microscope, where nanowires were mechanically tested both statically and dynamically. Experiments were also performed in the presence of a 20 Oe dc magnetic field in order to identify any variation in wire properties. The results suggest that iron-gallium nanowires possess an elastic modulus very similar to the macroscale value, tensile strengths of more than double the bulk material, and minor magnetic field induced stiffening at low stresses.

Downey, Patrick R.; Flatau, Alison B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, 3181 Martin Hall, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); McGary, Patrick D.; Stadler, Bethanie J. H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 200 Union St., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

DeMuth, S.F.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet  

SciTech Connect

Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

Murphy, R.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Student CIG Newsletter April 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Student Common Interest Group April 2011 Newsletter Dear Students, We are so excited to be meeting with you in Cincinnati for the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo in a few short weeks. Along with the technical progra

136

(Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Gallium arsenide thin films on tungsten/graphite substrates. Phase II. Quarterly project report No. 2, December 1, 1977-February 28, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to investigate thin films of gallium arsenide on tungsten/graphite substrates and to prepare solar cells with an AM1 efficiency of 6% or higher by August 1978. Efforts during this quarter have been directed to: (1) the deposition and characterization of gallium arsenide films on tungsten/graphite substrates by the arsenic and arsine processes, (2) the construction and operation of an apparatus for the deposition of titanium dioxide films, and (3) the fabrication and evaluation of MOS solar cells on tungsten/graphite substrates. Gallium arsenide films have been deposited on tungsten/graphite substrates by the reaction of gallium, hydrogen chloride, and arsenic in a hydrogen flow. The structural and electrical properties of these films are very similar to those obtained by the arsine process. The initial stage of the deposition of gallium arsenide films on tungsten/graphite substrates has been investigated by the scanning electron microscopy.

Chu, S.S.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thin film gallium arsenide solar cell research. Third quarterly project report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980. [Antireflection coating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objective of this contract is to produce gallium arsenide solar cells of 10% conversion efficiency in films of less than 10 micrometers thick which have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition on graphite or tungsten coated graphite substrates. Major efforts during this quarter were directed to: (1) the optimization of the deposition of gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness or less on tungsten/graphic substrates, (2) the investigation of the effectiveness of various grain boundary passivation techniques, (3) the deposition of tantalum pentoxide by ion beam sputtering as an antireflection coating, (4) the deposition of gallium aluminium arsenide by the organometallic process, and (5) the fabrication and characterization of large area Schottky barrier type solar cells from gallium arsenide films of about 10 ..mu..m thickness. Various grain boundary passivation techniques, such as the anodic oxidation, thermal oxidation, and ruthenium treatment, have been investigated. The combination of thermal oxidation and ruthenium treatment has been used to fabricate Schottky barrier type solar cells. Large area MOS solar cells of 9 cm/sup 2/ area with AMl efficiency of 8.5% have been fabricated from ruthenium treated gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness. The construction of the apparatus for the deposition of gallium aluminum arsenide by the organometallic process has been completed. The deposition of good quality tantalum pentoxide film as an antireflection coating has been carried out by the ion beam sputtering technique. The short-circuit current density and AMl efficiency of the solar cells are increased by approximately 60%, with a slight increase in the open-circuit voltage. Details are presented. (WHK)

Chu, S. S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Kinetics for the reaction of hydrogen with a plutonium-1 weight percent gallium alloy powder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetics for the reaction of hydrogen with plutonium-1 w/o gallium were measured using powder prepared ''in situ.'' The rates obeyed a first-order rate law and were independent of temperature from -29/degree/ to 355/degree/C. A pressure dependence proportional to P/sup //one-half/ was observed at pressures less than 1 kPa. From 1 to 70 kPa the pressure dependence rapidly decreased. Total pressure dependence could be accurately described by a Langmuir equation. Results indicate an adsorption-controlled reaction at low pressures and a reaction-controlled process at high pressure. 19 refs.

Stakebake, J.L.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Dynamics of formation of photoresponse in a detector structure made of gallium arsenide  

SciTech Connect

The influence of capture effects on the characteristics of detectors of the ionizing radiation based on semi-insulating gallium arsenide is considered. Generation of nonequilibrium electrons and holes along the entire thickness of the active region was performed under illumination with an infrared light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 0.9 {mu}m. In this case, the situation emerging in the device structure under the effect of X-ray radiation or a high-energy electron beam was simulated. It is shown that the variation in the shape of the output signal with time in this case is caused by variation in the electric field profile due to the capture of holes at deep centers in gallium arsenide. An absolutely different distribution of the electric field emerges in the structure under irradiation of a semitransparent cathode of the structure with a red light-emitting diode, emission of which penetrates into the active region for mere 1 {mu}m. In this case, the transformation of the electric field is caused by the capture of electrons. Under the prolonged effect of such radiation, a space-charge-limited current mode emerges in the device.

Ayzenshtat, G. I., E-mail: ayzen@mail.tomsknet.ru; Lelekov, M. A.; Tolbanov, O. P. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Anionic Gallium-Based Metal;#8722;Organic Framework and Its Sorption and Ion-Exchange Properties  

SciTech Connect

A gallium-based metal-organic framework Ga{sub 6}(C{sub 9}H{sub 3}O{sub 6}){sub 8} {center_dot} (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N){sub 6}(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 26} [1, Ga{sub 6}(1,3,5-BTC){sub 8} {center_dot} 6DMA {center_dot} 3DMF {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O], GaMOF-1; BTC = benzenetricarboxylate/trimesic acid and DMA = dimethylamine, with space group I{bar 4}3d, a = 19.611(1) {angstrom}, and V = 7953.4(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, was synthesized using solvothermal techniques and characterized by synchrotron-based X-ray microcrystal diffraction. Compound 1 contains isolated gallium tetrahedra connected by the organic linker (BTC) forming a 3,4-connected anionic porous network. Disordered positively charged ions and solvent molecules are present in the pore, compensating for the negative charge of the framework. These positively charged molecules could be exchanged with alkali-metal ions, as is evident by an ICP-MS study. The H{sub 2} storage capacity of the parent framework is moderate with a H{sub 2} storage capacity of {approx}0.5 wt % at 77 K and 1 atm.

Banerjee, Debasis; Kim, Sun Jin; Wu, Haohan; Xu, Wenqian; Borkowski, Lauren A.; Li, Jing; Parise, John B. (Kwangju); (Rutgers); (SBU)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Single event upsets in gallium arsenide pseudo-complementary MESFET logic  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to gallium arsenide (GaAs) Pseudo-Complementary MESFET Logic (PCML) circuits is presented. PCML was developed to reduce the sensitivity of high-speed GaAs logic to radiation-induced single event upsets (SEUs). Experiments for testing the single-event upset (SEU) sensitivity of GaAs PCML integrated circuits (ICs) are described. The results of the experiments are analyzed. This new type of high-speed, low-power, GaAs logic provides decreased sensitivity to SEUs compared to more traditional circuit designs such as Directly-Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). PCML is fully compatible with existing GaAs E/D MESFET fabrication processes, such as those commonly used to make DCFL.

Fouts, D.J.; Wolfe, K.; Van Dyk, S.E. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Weatherford, T.R. [SFA Inc., Landover, MD (United States); McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Tran, L.H.; Campbell, A.B. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Electrical effect of titanium diffusion on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, thermal diffusion phenomenon of Ti into amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide ({alpha}-IGZO) was carefully investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy, I-V, and R{sub s} measurement systems and HSC chemistry simulation tool. According to the experimental and simulated results, the diffused Ti atoms were easily oxidized due to its lowest oxidation free energy. Since oxygen atoms were decomposed from the {alpha}-IGZO during the oxidation of Ti, the number of oxygen vacancies working as electron-donating sites in {alpha}-IGZO was dramatically increased, contributing to the decrease of resistivity ({rho}) from 1.96 {Omega} cm (as-deposited {alpha}-IGZO) to 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm (350 Degree-Sign C annealed {alpha}-IGZO).

Choi, Seung-Ha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Development Group of Oxide Semiconductor, Samsung Display, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module  

SciTech Connect

We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Atomistic model of helium bubbles in gallium-stabilized plutonium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The varying thermodynamic stability of gallium- (Ga-) stabilized plutonium (Pu) alloys with temperature affords a unique setting for the development of self-irradiation damage. Here, fundamental characteristics of helium (He) bubbles in these alloys with respect to temperature, gallium concentration, and He-to-vacancy ratio are modeled at the atomistic level with a modified embedded atom potential that takes account of this varying stability. Aside from the bubbles themselves, the surrounding matrix material is single-crystal metal or alloy. As a function of temperature, with a 2:1 He-to-vacancy ratio in a 5-at. % Ga fcc lattice, a 1.25-nm bubble is very stable up to about 1000 K. At 1000 K, the bubble distorts the surrounding lattice and precipitates a liquid zone, as is consistent with the phase diagram for the model material. Between 300 and 500 K, this same bubble relaxes slightly through interstitial emission. At 300 K, with a 2:1 He-to-vacancy ratio in a 2.5-at. % Ga fcc lattice, the Ga stabilization is less effective in the model to the point where the bubble distorts the local lattice and expands significantly. Similarly, at 300 K, if the He-to-vacancy ratio is increased to 3:1, there is significant local lattice distortion, as well as ejection of some He atoms into the lattice. The formation of new bubbles is not observed, because those events take place on a longer time scale than can be simulated with the present approach.

Valone, S. M.; Baskes, M. I. [Materials Science and Technology Division and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Martin, R. L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of gallium in weapons grade plutonium has raised many questions concerning its use in light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods. The biggest concern is that the gallium will migrate down the thermal gradient in the fuel rod and deposit on the inner surface of the clad, which could cause it to fail. In order to study these effects, a fuel rod thermal simulation system (FRTSS) has been developed to recreate the shape and magnitude of the temperature profile in pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods. The system uses electrically heated simulated fuel rods inside of a large, natural convection heat exchanger that uses lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) (45 <% Pb, 55 <% Bi) as the working fluid. The simulated rods consist of small diameter electric heaters, annular pellets of depleted uranium/cerium oxide doped with approximately 10 ppm of gallium, a small helium filled gap, and generic Zircaloy IV cladding. The system is controlled through a computer-based data acquisition system that is used to record temperature data and operate the various pieces of equipment. A simple mathematical model was used to design the heat exchanger and predict the temperature profile within the simulated rods. Results from system tests indicated that the mathematical model was capable of predicting heater surface temperatures within 6.15% +/- 1.82% and clad outer surface temperatures within 1.91% +/- 4.46%. In addition, the tests also revealed that the system could accurately simulate the temperature profiles of operating PWR fuel rods. Consequently, the FRTSS provides a safe and effective means for studying gallium migration in the fuel pellets and its subsequent interactions with Zircaloy IV.

Allison, Christopher Curtis

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 51170 Koeln (Germany); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev ave. 1, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Center of Thermal and Fluid Science, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Induction, helicity, and alpha effect in a toroidal screw flow of liquid gallium  

SciTech Connect

We investigate experimentally induction mechanisms in a screw flow of gallium in a toroidal channel. The flow is nonstationary and operated in a spin-down regime: the channel (and fluid) are initially set into solid body rotation; as the channel is stopped the fluid is set into strong helical motion by diverters located inside the channel. In this study, we put a particular emphasis on the induction generated by these helical motions, which are expected to develop over the entire range of turbulent scales. We apply an external magnetic field either perpendicular to the channel axis parallel to it. At large scales the nonlinear induction mechanisms are associated with the Parker stretch and twist effect and with the expulsion due to overall rotation. Induction mechanisms can also originate in the small scale helicity as in the alpha induction effect of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. Our measurements yield an upper bound for the alpha coefficient, significantly lower than estimates based on dimensional analysis. We discuss the consequences of our observations for the engineering of homogeneous dynamos in the laboratory.

Stepanov, R.; Denisov, S.; Noskov, V. [Institute of Continuous Media MechanicsKorolyov 1, 614061 Perm (Russian Federation); Volk, R.; Frick, P.; Pinton, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique de l'Ecole Normale Superieur de Lyon, CNRS UMR5672, 46 allee d'Italie, 69007 Lyon (France)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Surface Composition, Work Function, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) possesses the electric conductivity, thermal stability, and earth abundance to be a promising transparent conductive oxide replacement for indium tin oxide electrodes in a number of molecular electronic devices, including organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. The surface chemistry of GZO is complex and dominated by the hydrolysis chemistry of ZnO, which influences the work function via charge transfer and band bending caused by adsorbates. A comprehensive characterization of the surface chemical composition and electrochemical properties of GZO electrodes is presented, using both solution and surface adsorbed redox probe molecules. The GZO surface is characterized using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy after the following pretreatments: (i) hydriodic acid etch, (ii) potassium hydroxide etch, (iii) RF oxygen plasma etching, and (iv) high-vacuum argon-ion sputtering. The O 1s spectra for the GZO electrodes have contributions from the stoichiometric oxide lattice, defects within the lattice, hydroxylated species, and carbonaceous impurities, with relative near-surface compositions varying with pretreatment. Solution etching procedures result in an increase of the work function and ionization potential of the GZO electrode, but yield different near surface Zn:Ga atomic ratios, which significantly influence charge transfer rates for a chemisorbed probe molecule. The near surface chemical composition is shown to be the dominant factor in controlling surface work function and significantly influences the rate of electron transfer to both solution and tethered probe molecules.

Ratcliff, E. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Macech, M. R.; Nebesny, K.; Lee, P. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Armstrong, N. R.; Berry, J. J.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point: 201 deg. C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is quite different because of solution effects and is critically dependent upon the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis acid/base character). In this technical note, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis acid and Lewis base salts is contrasted. It is found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and promoted in acidic melts. These results have an important influence on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems.

Williams, David F.; Cul, Guillermo D. del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Toth, Louis M. [Electrochemical Systems (United States); Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Nuclear fuels technologies: Thermally induced gallium removal system (TIGRS), fiscal year 1998 research and development test plan  

SciTech Connect

This document details the research and development (R and D) activities that will be conducted in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) by the Thermally Induced Gallium Removal System (TIGRS) team for the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition. This work is a continuation and extension of experimental activities that have been conducted in support of using weapons-derived plutonium in the fabrication of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel for reactor-based plutonium disposition. The ultimate purpose of this work is to demonstrate adequate Thermally Induced Gallium Removal with a prototypic system. This Test Plan presents more than the FY98 R and D efforts in order to frame the Task in its entirety. To achieve the TIGRS Program objectives, R and D activities during the next two years will be focused on (1) process development leading to a prototypic TIGRS design, and (2) prototypic TIGRS design and testing leading to and including a prototypic demonstration of TIGRS operation. Both the process development and system testing efforts will consist of a series of surrogate-based cold tests and plutonium-based hot tests. Some of this testing has already occurred and will continue into FY99.

Buksa, J.J.; Butt, D.P.; Chidester, K.; DeMuth, S.F.; Havrilla, G.J.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

1997-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Gallium-Nitride Transistors for High-Efficiency Industrial Power Supplies, Phase 1: State of Semiconductor Development and Industrial Power Supply Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This white paper describes recent advancements in the development of Gallium-Nitride (GaN) transistors for power conversion applications. This wide bandgap semiconductor has the potential to reduce losses and improve performance of power converters. The industrial power supply market is described and the application of GaN to power conversion in this segment is introduced for future work.

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials. IX. High temperature heat capacity of plutonium-3. 2 at. % gallium alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat capacity of delta-stabilized plutonium (Pu - 3.2 at. % Ga) has been determined from 330 to 700/sup 0/K by an adiabatic calorimeter. The heat capacity for this alloy may be expressed by: Cp (Pu-3.2 at. % Ga)/(J K/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/) = 39.249 - 0.0264 (T/K) + 3.595 x 10/sup 5/ (T/K)/sup 2/ - 2.506 x 10/sup 5/ (K/T)/sup 2/. It was found that a large contribution to the heat capacity is due to the electronic heat capacity. The thermal functions for this plutonium-gallium alloy are calculated to 700/sup 0/K.

Adams, R.O.; Oetting, F.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect

Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

160

Low energy solar neutrino experiments: The Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). Final report, August 12, 1988--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Two {sup 71}Ga experiments are currently in operation. The first is the 60 ton Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) at Baksan, which has recently reported a signal level of 73+18/{minus}16(stat)+5/{minus}7(syst) SNU; the second is the 30 ton GALLEX experiment at Gran Sasso, which sees 87{+-}14{+-}7 SNU. Both results are consistent, and both suggest a neutrino flux level low compared to the total expected from standard solar model calculations. It is not possible, however, to make a case for flux levels lower than the p-p prediction. Assuming the experiments are correct (Neutrino source calibrations are planned for both SAGE and GALLEX in the near future.), it is not at all clear yet whether the answer lies with the neutrino physics, solar physics, or a combination of both. Nevertheless, though solar model effects cannot be ruled out, if the Homestake and Kamiokande results are taken at face value, then these two experiments alone imply that neutrino oscillations or some similar particle physics result must be present to some degree. This report reviews the SAGE experiment and recent results. Non-radiochemical experiments are also discussed, with an emphasis on the Kamiokande water Cerenkov results.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size  

SciTech Connect

The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, {open_quotes}Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchange{close_quotes}. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate.

DeMuth, S.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawaii produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of traditional photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust three-stage fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel four-terminal devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

Rocheleau, Richard E.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawaii produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of traditional photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust three-stage fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel four-terminal devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

Rocheleau, Richard E.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Highest transmittance and high-mobility amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films on flexible substrate by room-temperature deposition and post-deposition anneals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films of the highest transmittance reported in literature were initially deposited onto flexible polymer substrates at room temperature. The films were annealed in vacuum, air, and oxygen to enhance their electrical and optical performances. Electrical and optical characterizations were done before and after anneals. A partial reversal of the degradation in electrical properties upon annealing in oxygen was achieved by subjecting the films to subsequent vacuum anneals. A model was developed based on film texture and structural defects which showed close agreement between the measured and calculated carrier mobility values at low carrier concentrations (2-6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}).

Gadre, Mandar J. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Three Alkali-Metal-Gold-Gallium Systems. Ternary Tunnel Structures and Some Problems with Poorly Ordered Cations  

SciTech Connect

Six new intermetallic compounds have been characterized in the alkali metal (A = Na, Rb, Cs)goldgallium systems. Three isostructural compounds with the general composition A0.55Au2Ga2, two others of AAu3Ga2 (A = Rb, Cs), and the related Na13Au41.2Ga30.3 were synthesized via typical high-temperature reactions and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis: Na0.56(9)Au2Ga2 (I, I4/mcm, a = 8.718(1) , c = 4.857(1) , Z = 4), Rb0.56(1)Au2Ga2 (II, I4/mcm, a = 8.950(1) , c = 4.829(1) , Z = 4), Cs0.54(2)Au2Ga2 (III, I4/mcm, a = 9.077(1) , c = 4.815(1) , Z = 4), RbAu3Ga2 (IV, Pnma, a = 13.384(3) , b = 5.577(1) , c = 7.017(1) , Z = 4), CsAu3Ga2 (V, Pnma, a = 13.511(3) , b = 5.614(2) , c = 7.146(1) , Z = 4), Na13Au41.2(1)Ga30.3(1) (VI, P6 mmm, a = 19.550(3) , c = 8.990(2) , Z = 2). The first three compounds (IIII) are isostructural with tetragonal K0.55Au2Ga2 and likewise contain planar eight-member Au/Ga rings that stack along c to generate tunnels and that contain varying degrees of disordered NaCs cations. The cation dispositions are much more clearly and reasonably defined by electron density mapping than through least-squares refinements with conventional anisotropic ellipsoids. Orthorhombic AAu3Ga2 (IV, V) are ordered ternary Rb and Cs derivatives of the SrZn5 type structure, demonstrating structural variability within the AAu3Ga2 family. All attempts to prepare an isotypic NaAu3Ga2 were not successful, but yielded only a similar composition Na13Au41.2Ga30.3 (NaAu3.17Ga2.33) (VI) in a very different structure with two types of cation sites. Crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis obtained from tight-binding electronic structure calculations for idealized IIV via linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods emphasized the major contributions of heteroatomic AuGa bonding to the structural stability of these compounds. The relative minima (pseudogaps) in the DOS curves for IV correspond well with the valence electron counts of known representatives of this structure type and, thereby, reveal some magic numbers to guide the search for new isotypic compounds. Theoretical calculation of total energies vs volumes obtained by VASP (Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package) calculations for KAu3Ga2 and RbAu3Ga2 suggest a possible transformation from SrZn5- to BaZn5-types at high pressure.

Smetana, Volodymyr; Miller, Gordon J.; Corbett, John D.

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

NREL: Awards and Honors - Lightweight, Flexible, Thin-Film CIGS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Laboratory; Dr. Jeffrey Britt, Dr. Scott Wiederman, Dr. Markus Beck, and Robert Wendt, Global Solar Energy, Inc.; Dr. Ingrid Repins, ITN Energy Systems, Inc. Portable...

167

In Search of Rapid Processing Routes for CIGS Photovoltaic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of Sensitizer Length on Radiation Crosslinked Shape-Memory ... Microstructural Development during Thermo Mechanical Processing of Pipeline Steel.

168

Microbially mediated formation of CIGS and CIGSu photovoltaic ...  

centuries due to rising oil price and demanding the reduction of green house gases. The global solar electricity

169

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar - AZ Applied Materials - CA Primestar Solar - CO Miasole - CA Power Films - IA AVA Solar - CO Energy PV - NJ Energy PV - NJ Solar Fields - OH Ascent Solar - CO MV Systems -...

170

Multifunctional Molybdenum Back Contacts for CIGS Solar Cells on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and optimized surface morphology while acting as a sodium supply. ... A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by ...

171

Photovoltaic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNLs unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporations Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (ECGM) business unit is currently the worlds largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferros ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Crystal field disorder effects in the optical spectra of Nd{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets laser crystals and ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The optical spectroscopic properties of RE{sup 3+} (Nd, 1 at. % or Yb, 1 to 10 at. %)-doped calcium-lithium-niobium-gallium garnet (CLNGG) single crystals and ceramics in the 10 K-300 K range are analyzed. In these compositionally disordered materials, RE{sup 3+} substitute Ca{sup 2+} in dodecahedral sites and the charge compensation is accomplished by adjusting the proportion of Li{sup +}, Nb{sup 5+}, and Ga{sup 3+} to the doping concentration. The crystals and ceramics show similar optical spectra, with broad and structured (especially at low temperatures) bands whose shape depends on temperature and doping concentration. At 10 K, the Nd{sup 3+4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 3/2,5/2} and Yb{sup 3+2}F{sub 7/2}{yields}{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} absorption bands, which show prospect for diode laser pumping, can be decomposed in several lines that can be attributed to centers with large differences in the crystal field. The positions of these components are the same, but the relative intensity depends on the doping concentration and two main centers dominate the spectra. Non-selective excitation evidences broad emission bands, of prospect for short-pulse laser emission, whereas the selective excitation reveals the particular emission spectra of the various centers. The modeling reveals that the nonequivalent centers correspond to RE{sup 3+} ions with different cationic combinations in the nearest octahedral and tetrahedral coordination spheres, and the most abundant two centers have 4Nb and, respectively, 3Nb1Li in the nearest octahedral sphere. At 300 K, the spectral resolution is lost. It is then inferred that the observed optical bands are envelopes of the spectra of various structural centers, whose resolution is determined by the relative contribution of the temperature-dependent homogeneous broadening and the effects of crystal field disordering (multicenter structure, inhomogeneous broadening). The relevance of spectroscopic properties for selection of pumping conditions and of laser design that would enable utilization of the broad optical bands for efficient laser emission and reduced heat generation is discussed.

Lupei, V.; Lupei, A.; Gheorghe, C.; Gheorghe, L.; Achim, A. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lab. ECS, Bucharest (Romania); Ikesue, A. [World-Lab Co. Ltd., Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe.sub.2) crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing CuInSe.sub.2 crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 along with stoichiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 percent over the stoichiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The crystal is grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B.sub.2 O.sub.3 encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ga-Zr (Gallium - Zirconium)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ga-Zr crystallographic data...Ga 5 Zr 3 44.0 oC 32 Cmcm Ga 3 Zr 2 47 oF 40 Fdd 2 βGaZr 56.7 ? ? αGaZr 56.7 tI 16 I 4 1 / amd Ga 4 Zr 5 62.1 hP 18 P 6 3 / mcm Ga 2 Zr 3 66 tP 10 P 4/ mbm Ga 3 Zr 5 68.6 hP 16 P 6 3 / mcm GaZr 2 72.4 tI 12 I 4/ mcm (βZr) ~94 to 100 cI 2 Im m (αZr) 99.4 to 100 hP 2 P 6 3 / mmc...

177

Ba-Ga (Barium - Gallium)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ba-Ga crystallographic data...Ba-Ga crystallographic data Phase Composition, wt% Ga Pearson symbol Space group (Ba) 0 cI 2 Im m Ba 10 Ga 4.8 cF 176 Fd m Ba 8 Ga 7 30.8 cP 60 P 2 1 3 BaGa 2 50.4 hP 3 P 6/ mmm BaGa 4 67 tI 10 I 4/ mmm (Ga) 100 hP 2 P 6 3 / mmc...

178

Gallium interactions with zircaloy cladding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of Ga from weapons-grade plutonium MOX fuel on zircaloy-IV cladding during power reactor operation have been simulated by implantations of 100 keV Ga-69 ions into a polished zircaloy-IV sample while the sample was maintained at a typical cladding temperature of 375{degrees}C. Analyses were based on scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering of 280 keV He-3 ions, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Subgrains at the zircaloy-IV surface formed at a Ga fluence equivalent to total release of approximately 12 ppm by weight of Ga from the fuel. The subgrains may be an intermetallic compound of Zr{sub 2}Ga. Enhanced diffusion of Ga was observed, but Ga concentrations decreased 3 orders of magnitude over a depth of 3000 {angstrom}.

Hart, R.R.; Rennie, J.; Aucoin, K.; West, M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering at NREL supports commercial and emerging PV technology development. Our support covers the following three areas: Engineering Testing and Evaluation. We provide engineering testing and evaluation of PV products developed by companies during work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). We determine if products meet performance criteria established by DOE for a company's contractual obligations. Standards Development. We support the development of national and international standards. Current work includes investigating methods of preconditioning cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium diselenide PV modules so that when they are tested for reporting conditions, the results are correlated with subsequent field measurements.

180

The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

Surek, T.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

182

Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods  

SciTech Connect

The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} clathrates are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc melting and spark plasma sintering process enables increase of Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We elucidate the Ga composition dependence of thermoelectric properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is improved due to the increased Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation predicts a potential ZT=0.8 at 900 K at optimized carrier concentration.

Anno, Hiroaki, E-mail: anno@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); Shirataki, Ritsuko [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this study are to: (1) parameterize current-voltage (I-V) performance over a wide range of illumination and temperatures: (a) 50-1150 W/m{sup 2} irradiance, 5-65 C; (b) obtain array temperature coefficients; and (c) quantify energy production; (2) investigate high-voltage leakage currents from the CIS modules in a high-voltage array: determine dependence on moisture, temperature, and voltage bias and ascertain corrosion problems if any; and (3) study long-term power and energy production stability.

del Cueto, J. A.; Sekulic, B. R.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Investigation of Electrical Properties of CIGS Thin-films Derived by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell ... Development of Heusler-type Fe2VAl Alloys for Thermoelectric Power Generation ... of High-temperature, High-efficiency Thermoelectric Converters for Space...

185

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be no experimental evidence of a detrimental band offset there. For other TCOs, such as indium tin oxide, EC may have by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. REFERENCES [1] S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices two or more energy levels is not contained in the SRH formalism. We assign the attractive cross

Sites, James R.

186

Degradation of ZnO Window Layer for CIGS by Damp-Heat Exposure: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes our work with more details and an emphasis on the DH-induced degradation of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO alloys. The other two TCOs, ITO and F:SnO2, are not included here.

Pern, F.J.; To, B.; DeHart, C.; Li, X.; Glick, S. H.; Noufi, R.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

CIGS-Based Solar Cells Prepared from Electrodeposited Precursor Films (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Solid State Theory of Photovoltaic Materials: Nanoscale Grain Boundaries and Doping CIGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We use modern first-principles electronic structure theory to investigate (1) why are grain boundaries in chalcopyrites passive; (2) can chalcopyrites be doped by transition metals, and; (3) can hot electrons and carrier multiplication be efficient in quantum-dot solar cells.

Zunger, A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

GALLIUM ARSENIDE SEMICONDUCTOR-BASED NEUTRON DETECTOR  

NEUTRON DETECTOR BENEFITS Portable, ... High Flux Isotope Reactor and Spallation Neutron Source. Several Homeland Security. LINKS TO ONLINE ...

190

References and Notes for Gallium ( Ga )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) 48, 334 (1952). ND82, JHM Neijzen and A. Donszelmann, Physica 114C, 241 (1982). The stated ...

191

Controlling Gallium Nitride Polarity on Native Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion ... Potential Ceramic Dielectrics for Air Force Applications.

192

Electronic properties of gallium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a systematic study of the electrical transport in GaN nanowires. Particularly, the effect of the surrounding dielectric on the conductivity of GaN nanowires is experimentally shown for the first time. ...

Yoon, Joonah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Development of gallium nitride power transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

Stanbery, B.J. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Absorptivity of semiconductors used in the production of solar cell panels  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the absorptivity of semiconductors on the thickness of the absorbing layer is studied for crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS), and copper gallium diselenide (CuGaSe{sub 2}, CGS). The calculations are performed with consideration for the spectral distribution of AM1.5 standard solar radiation and the absorption coefficients of the materials. It is shown that, in the region of wavelengths {lambda} = {lambda}{sub g} = hc/E{sub g}, almost total absorption of the photons in AM1.5 solar radiation is attained in c-Si at the thickness d = 7-8 mm, in a-Si at d = 30-60 {mu}m, in CdTe at d = 20-30 {mu}m, and in CIS and CGS at d = 3-4 {mu}m. The results differ from previously reported data for these materials (especially for c-Si). In previous publications, the thickness needed for the semiconductor to absorb solar radiation completely was identified with the effective light penetration depth at a certain wavelength in the region of fundamental absorption for the semiconductor.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Grushko, E. V.; Mikityuk, T. I. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Definition: Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Semiconductor Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity to a degree between that of a metal (such as copper) and that of an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are the foundation of modern solid state electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. A semiconductor may have a number of unique properties, one of which is the

197

Energize Your Photovoltaics: NREL's Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique collaborative facility where industry and universities can work closely with NREL scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to photovoltaics (PV). The integrated equipment includes deposition, processing, and characterization tools. We work with a wide range of PV materials, from crystalline silicon to thin-films (amorphous, nano- and microcrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium diselenide, cadmium telluride) to organic PV. The PDIL integrates all the data to: Automate control via recipes; Share data easily and securely; and Facilitate analysis. The PDIL integrates all the tools to: Eliminate air exposure between steps; Sequence steps in any order ; and Incorporate combinatorial techniques. The PDIL integrates all the materials to: Provide greater device flexibility; Allow diverse experts to work together; and Better support industry and universities.

Not Available

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help people keep abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous silicon research; polycrystalline thin films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); crystalline materials and advanced concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); and PV manufacturing technology development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Comparative Study of Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers and CIGS Solar Cells Fabricated by CBD, ALD, and Sputtering: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), atomic layer deposition, and sputtering. Composition of the films and band gap were measured and found to follow the trends described in the literature. CBD Zn(O,S) parameters were optimized and resulted in an 18.5% efficiency cell that did not require post annealing, light soaking, or an undoped ZnO layer. Promising results were obtained with sputtering. A 13% efficiency cell was obtained for a Zn(O,S) emitter layer deposited with 0.5%O2. With further optimization of process parameters and an analysis of the loss mechanisms, it should be possible to increase the efficiency.

Ramanathan, K.; Mann, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Pankow, J.; Li, J.; Scharf, J.; Mansfield, L. M.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Towards the formalization of guidelines care actions using patterns and semantic web technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer Interpretable Guidelines (CIG) have largely contributed to the simplification and dissemination of clinical guidelines. However, the formalization of CIG contents, especially care actions, is still an open issue. Actually, this information, ... Keywords: CIG, natural language processing, ontologies, semantic web

Cdric Pruski; Rodrigo Bonacin; Marcos Da Silveira

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

EMICONDUCTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and CIGS, are the fastest-growing segment of the solar industry, with 43 ... Generation (thin films of CdTe, CIGS, and related materials) PV devices are ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

202

HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name HelioVolt Corporation Place Austin, Texas Zip TX 78744 Product Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin, Texas. Website http://www.heliovolt.net/ Coordinates 30.267605°, -97.742984° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.267605,"lon":-97.742984,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

203

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

204

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

205

CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41: Categorical Exclusion Determination 41: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal Deposition CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1 Date: 05/19/2010 Location(s): St. Paul, Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The State of Minnesota plans to provide $800,000 in Recovery Act funds to Veeco Instrument, Inc. at 4900 Constellation Drive, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 for the purchase of equipment and related activities in the manufacturing of thin film solar panels. Veeco Instruments, Inc. is a provider of process and metrology equipment used to manufacture data storage, semiconductor, wireless, lighting and solar equipment. Veeco's St.

206

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. 51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. Download CX-002564: Categorical Exclusion Determination FPE Renewables, LLC CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/26/2010 Location(s): Lynden, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002564-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002399: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project (Fountain Valley, California) CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/25/2010 Location(s): Fountain Valley, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002399-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS)

207

Electrochemical investigation of the gallium nitride-aqueous electrolyte interface  

SciTech Connect

GaN (E{sub g} = {approximately}3.4 eV) was photoelectrochemically characterized and the energetic position of its bandedges determined with respect to SHE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze the interface, determine the space charge layer capacitance, and, subsequently obtain the flatband potential of GaN in different aqueous electrolytes. The flatband potential of GaN varied at an approximately Nernstian rate in aqueous buffer electrolytes of different pHs indicating acid-base equilibria at the interface.

Kocha, S.S.; Peterson, M.W.; Arent, D.J.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Photoconversion Branch; Redwing, J.M.; Tischler, M.A. [Advanced Technology Materials, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

SYNTHESIS OF HIGH-PURITY BULK COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE ...  

A sputtering target formed by the method can have an oxygen content of 10 ppm by weight, ... Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission;

209

Monolithic series-connected gallium arsenide converter development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report the development of monolithic GaAs photovoltaic devices intended to convert light generated by a laser or other bright source to electricity. The converters described here can provide higher operating voltage than is possible using a single-junction converter, owing to use of a monolithic circuit that forms a planar series-connected string of single-junction sub-cells. This planar monolithic circuit is arranged to deliver the desired voltage and current during operation at the maximum power point. The paper describes two-, six-, and twelve-junction converters intended for illumination by a laser diode with a wavelength of 0.8 {mu}m. Design and characterization data are presented for optical power in the range of 100 mW to 1 W. The best conversion efficiency exceeds 50%. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Spitzer, M.B.; McClelland, R.W.; Dingle, B.D.; Dingle, J.E.; Hill, D.S. (Kopin Corp., Taunton, MA (United States)); Rose, B.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a joint experimental and theoretical investigation of superconductivity in Ga-substituted type-I silicon clathrates. We prepared samples of the general formula Ba8Si46-xGax, with different values of x. We show that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a bulk superconductor, with an onset at T-C approximate to 3.3 K. For x=10 and higher, no superconductivity was observed down to T=1.8 K. This represents a strong suppression of superconductivity with increasing Ga content, compared to Ba8Si46 with T-C approximate to 8 K. Suppression of superconductivity can be attributed primarily to a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level, caused by a reduced integrity of the sp(3)-hybridized networks as well as the lowering of carrier concentration. These results are corroborated by first-principles calculations, which show that Ga substitution results in a large decrease of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, which explains the decreased superconducting critical temperature within the BCS framework. To further characterize the superconducting state, we carried out magnetic measurements showing Ba8Si40Ga6 to be a type-II superconductor. The critical magnetic fields were measured to be H-C1 approximate to 35 Oe and H-C2 approximate to 8.5 kOe. We deduce the London penetration depth lambda approximate to 3700 A and the coherence length xi(c)approximate to 200 A. Our estimate of the electron-phonon coupling reveals that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a moderate phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.

Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Formation mechanisms of spatially-directed zincblende gallium nitride nanocrystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the spatially selective formation of GaN nanocrystals embedded in GaAs. Broad-area N{sup +} implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing leads to the formation of nanocrystals at the depth of maximum ion damage. With additional irradiation using a Ga{sup +} focused ion beam, selective lateral positioning of the nanocrystals within the GaAs matrix is observed in isolated regions of increased vacancy concentration. Following rapid thermal annealing, the formation of zincblende GaN is observed in the regions of highest vacancy concentration. The nucleation of zincblende nanocrystals over the wurtzite phase of bulk GaN is consistent with the predictions of a thermodynamic model for the nanoscale size-dependence of GaN nucleation.

Wood, A. W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Collino, R. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Cardozo, B. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Naab, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wang, Y. Q. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nanoscale-Structured Gallium Nitride Pillars for Light-Emitting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... using top-down fabrication scheme, D. Paramanik, A. Motayed, GS Aluri, J.-Y. Ha, S. Krylyuk, AV Davydov, M. King, S. McLaughlin, S. Gupta, and H ...

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a comparison of nanofabrication technologies for the fabrication of 2D photonic crystal structures on GaN/InGaN blue LEDs. Such devices exhibit enhanced brightness and the possibility of controlling the angular emission profile of emitted ... Keywords: GaN dry-etching, Light-emitting diodes, Nanolithography, Photonic crystals

Ali Z. Khokhar; Keith Parsons; Graham Hubbard; Faiz Rahman; Douglas S. Macintyre; Chang Xiong; David Massoubre; Zheng Gong; Nigel P. Johnson; Richard M. De La Rue; Ian M. Watson; Erdan Gu; Martin D. Dawson; Steve J. Abbott; Martin D. B. Charlton; Martin Tillin

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion implantation of Ga ions into 316 stainless steel was performed at fluences ranging from 8x10? to 10? ions/cm. The depth profile of Ga in the steel was analyzed via Rutherford Backscattering and ToFSIMS. The surface effects were characterized with SEM analysis. Results indicate that Ga saturation was reached at fluences between 2-6x10? ions/cm. The maximum Ga concentration occurred near the surface and was between 20 and 25 atomic percent. A constant Ga concentration of 5% was attained at 300 [] and deeper. The possible enhanced diffusion of Ga was observed, but not necessarily through the grain boundaries. Although there was no indication of compound formation, significant pitting was observed at high fluences. Repassivation characteristics of stainless steel may be inhibited at high fluences; therefore future studies are recommended.

Ortensi, Javier

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Supply Chain Dynamics of Tellurium (Te), Indium (In), and Gallium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CdTe Solar Cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90 (2006) 2263-2271. 3 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986. 4 M.A. Green, K....

216

Session B: Gallium Arsenide Processing Room: University Center ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report thin film InP based resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and tunneling hot electron transfer amplifiers (THETA) contact bonded to silicon substates.

217

Phase Stability, Diffusion, Kinetics and their Applications (PSDK-VI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expedited Processing of CIGS Photovoltaic Absorber Materials Experimental Uncertainty Propagation in Depth-Profiling Diffusion Experiments.

218

Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Basso, T.S.; Surek, T.; Thornton, J.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1992--31 July 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1992, through July 31, 1993. This report is published periodically, with the previous one covering the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help keep people abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous Silicon Research; Polycrystalline Thin Films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); PV Manufacturing Technology Development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 15, 1992--April 14, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of the research project is to develop processes for the fabrication of cadmium-telluride, CdTe, and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide, Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}, polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells using techniques that can be scaled-up for economic manufacture on a large scale. The aims are to fabricate CdTe solar cells using Cd and Te layers sputtered from elemental targets; to promote the interdiffusion between Cd/Te layers, CdTe phase formation, and grain growth; to utilize non-toxic selenization so as to avoid the use of extremely toxic H{sub 2}Se in the fabrication of Cu(In{sub l{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells; to optimize selenization parameters; to improve adhesion; to minimize residual stresses; to improve the uniformity, stoichiometry, and morphology of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films, and the efficiency of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} solar cells.

Dhere, N.G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Amorphous Gallium Indium Zinc Oxide NonvolatileAmorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors:Effects in Amorphous GalliumIndium Zinc- xv Oxide Thin Film

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Is decreased bone mineral density associated with development of scoliosis? A bipedal osteopenic rat model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ankara, Turkey. 2 Izmir KentHospital, Cigli, Izmir, Turkey. 3 University of California

Dede, Ozgur; Akel, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Yalcin, Nadir; Marcucio, Ralph; Acaroglu, Emre

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The CENTRE for EDUCATION in MATHEMATICS and COMPUTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Cigli Izmir 12 CHATTERJI NUPUR UWC South East Asia East Campu Singapore 12 COOKE ALEXANDER The South Island School Aberdeen 12 FELEKOGLU BUGRA Ozel Cakabey Anadolu Lisesi Sasali-Cigli Izmir 12 HU ZHONGYI Shanghai Cakabey Anadolu Lisesi Sasali-Cigli Izmir 11 SONG ZHEWEN Henan Experimental High School Zhengzhou

Le Roy, Robert J.

225

Alternative Window Schemes for CuInSe2-Based Solar Cells Final Report: 3 November 1995-December 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work demonstrated high-efficiency CIGS cells based on highly resistive ZnO buffer layers grown by MOCVD. One cell based on NREL CIGS and a ZnO buffer layer exhibited an active-area efficiency of nearly 14%. This result is one of the best efficiencies reported for a ''direct'' ZnO/CIGS cell made with a vacuum process.

Olsen, L.C. (Electronic Materials Laboratory: Washington State University at Tri-Cities)

1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to improve sealing and prevent the ingress of air, as shownimproved sealing and prevented the ingress of air, which

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Application of CIS to high-efficiency PV module fabrication. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors investigated the interactions between the soda-lime glass substrate, the Mo contract film and the CIS absorber layer. Excessive Na diffusion through the Mo layer was found to be the reason for excessive interaction between the substrate and the CIS layers obtained by the H{sub 2}Se selenization technique. This chemical interaction influenced the stoichiometric uniformity of the absorbers. Addition of Ga into the CIS layers by the two-stage selenization technique yielded graded absorber structures with higher Ga content near the Mo/absorber interface. Gallium was later diffused through the absorber film by a high-temperature annealing step, and large bandgap alloys were obtained. Solar cells with active-area efficiencies of close to 12% were fabricated on these CIGS layers. Sulfur addition experiments were also carried out during this period. By controlling the Se and S availability to the precursors during the reaction step of the process, various S profiles were obtained in high-bandgap absorber layers. The highest-efficiency cell made on S-containing absorbers was about 10% efficient. A low-cost, non-vacuum technique was successfully developed for CIS film growth. Layers prepared using this novel approach were used for solar-cell and submodule fabrication. Solar cells with active-area efficiencies around 13% were demonstrated; submodules with efficiencies above 8% were also fabricated. These results represent the best PV devices ever produced on CIS layers obtained by a non-vacuum technique.

Basol, B.; Kapur, V.; Leidholm, C.; Halani, A. [International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

CIBS Solar Cell Development Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to fabricate and study a new photovoltaic material, copper indium boron diselenide (CuInxB1-xSe2 or CIBS), were undertaken. Attempts to prepare CIBS using sputtering deposition techniques resulted in segregation of boron from the rest of elements in the material. CIBS nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of elemental Se with CuCl, InCl3, and boric acid in solution, but the product material quickly decomposed upon heating that was required in attempts to convert the nanocrystals into a thin film. The investigation of the reasons for the lack of CIBS material stability led to new structure-property studies of closely-related photovoltaic systems as well as studies of new solar cell materials and processing methods that could enhance the development of next-generation solar technologies. A detailed compositional study of CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS, a system closely related to CIBS) revealed a non-linear correlation between crystal lattice size and the Al/(In+Al) ratios with dual-phase formation being observed. A new nanocrystal-to-thin-film processing method was developed for the preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films in which colloidal Se particles are sprayed in contact with CuIn1-xGaxS2 nanoparticles and heated in an argon atmosphere with no other Se source in the system. The process is non-vacuum and does not require toxic gases such as Se vapor or H2Se. Expertise gained from these studies was applied to new research in the preparation of thin-film pyrite FeS2, an attractive earth-abundant candidate material for next-generation photovoltaics. Three methods successfully produced pure pyrite FeS2 films: sulfurization of sputtered Fe films, chemical bath deposition, and sulfurization of Fe2O3 sol-gel precursors. The last method produced pinhole-free films that may be viable for device development. Nickel, platinum, and possibly carbon would appear to serve as good ohmic contact materials. While CdS has a reasonable conduction band energy match to serve as an n-type buffer material in a pyrite FeS2-based solar cell, the less toxic SnS2 is being explored for this purpose.

Exstrom, Christopher L.; Soukup, Rodney J.; Ianno, Natale J.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

229

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a journal or proceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint should not be cited or reproduced without permission of the author. This document was prepared as a account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party's use, or the results of such use, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe privately owned rights. The views expressed in this paper are

230

Analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor contact metal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 157-159 (2008). 22 W.L. Bragg, Philosophical Magazine Series 6, 40:236, 169-189 (1920). 23 N.E. Holden, Pure & Appl. Chem. 52, 2349-2384 (1979). 24 J.F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, Materials science and engineering handbook, ed. 3. (CRC...

Kiani, Ahmed; Hasko, David G.; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quantum wells on indium gallium arsenic compositionally graded buffers realized by molecular beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a long time, there has been a desire to extend the emission wavelength of GaAs-based quantum well lasers, with the aim of eventually replacing InP with GaAs as the substrate of choice for communication applications. ...

Choy, Henry Kwong Hin, 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular Dynamics of Gallium Complexes of Schizokinen and the Amphiphilic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The activation parameters found for the two sequential steps of the proton independent pathway were Hq ) 25 ( 3 kcal M-1 , Sq ) 25 ( 7 cal M-1 K-1 and Hq ) 17.1 ( 0.2 kcal M-1 , Sq ) 0.3 ( 2.7 cal M-1 K-1 organic compounds that are produced by microorganisms in response to iron deficiency. These compounds

Groves, John T.

233

Dependence of carrier mobility on an electric field in gallium selenide crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dependence of the mobility of charge carriers on voltage has been studied in undoped GaSe single crystals and crystals doped with gadolinium; the latter crystals have exhibited various values of dark resistivity ({rho}{sub d.r} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 8} {Omega} cm at 77 K) and of the doping level (N = 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2}, and 10{sup -1} at %). It is established that the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on the electric field applied to the sample E {=} 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm) and in lightly doped GaSe crystals (N {<=} 10{sup -2} at %) in the region of T {<=} 150 K. It is found that this dependence is not related to heating of the charge carriers by an electric field; rather, it is caused by elimination of drift barriers as a result of injection.

Abdinov, A. Sh., E-mail: abdinov_axmed@yahoo.com; Babaeva, R. F., E-mail: Babaeva-Rena@yandex.ru; Rzayev, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Selective growth experiments on gallium arsenide (100) surfaces patterned using UV-nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process and subsequent solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) growth of III-V semiconductors on patterned substrates. In particular, growth of GaAs, GaInAs, and GaInP, and effects of growth temperature ... Keywords: Molecular beam epitaxy, Nanoimprint lithography, Patterned substrates, Selective growth

A. Tukiainen; J. Viheril; T. Niemi; T. Rytknen; J. Kontio; M. Pessa

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Structure and electronic properties of saturated and unsaturated gallium nitride nanotubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The atomic and electronic structures of saturated and unsaturated GaN nanotubes along the [001] direction with (100) lateral facets are studied using first-principles calculations. Atomic relaxation of nanotubes shows that appreciable distortion occurs in the unsaturated nanotubes. All the nanotubes considered, including saturated and unsaturated ones, exhibit semiconducting, with a direct band gap. Surface states arisen from the threefold-coordinated N and Ga atoms at the lateral facets exist inside the bulk-like band gap. When the nanotubes saturated with hydrogen, these dangling bond bands are removed from the band gap, but the band gap decreases with increasing the wall thickness of the nanotubes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Shengjie; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

236

ISOTHERMAL (DELTA)/(ALPHA-PRIME) TRANSFORMATION AND TTT DIAGRAM IN A PLUTONIUM GALLIUM ALLOY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used as an alternative approach to determining the tine-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for the martensitic delta to alpha-prime transformation in a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy. Previous work suggests that the TTT diagram for a similar alloy exhibits an unusual double-C curve for isothermal holds of less than 100 minutes. Here, we extend this diagram to 18 hours, and confirm the double-C curve behavior. When the sample is cooled prior to the isothermal holds, the delta to alpha-prime transformation is observed as several overlapping exothermic peaks. These peaks are very reproducible, and they are believed to be the result of different kinds of delta to alpha-prime martensitic transformation. This may be due to the presence of different nucleation sites and/or different morphologies.

Oudot, B P; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synthesis, characterization, and biotemplated assembly of indium nitride and indium gallium nitride nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low-temperature, ambient pressure solution synthesis of colloidal InN nanoparticles is presented. This synthesis utilizes a previously dismissed precursor and results in individual, non-aggregated nanoparticles with ...

Hsieh, Jennifer Chia-Jen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N15H3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.

Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

239

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this contract is the achievement of a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed is metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs and for the two-junction case is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include the following: (1) a 17.6% efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5% efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Interfacial Mechanics of the Thin Oxide Skin on Liquid Gallium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to micromold the metal for these applications is enabled by the ... The oxide skin is elastic and yields under a critical stress, at which point the metal flows. ... Interface Bond Strength of HIP-Clad Depleted Uranium and 6061- Aluminum ... Quantitative NanoSIMS Analysis of Grain Boundary Segregation in Bulk...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Diffusion, Uptake and Release of Hydrogen in p-type Gallium Nitride: Theory and Experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The diffusion, uptake, and release of H in p-type GaN are modeled employing state energies from density-function theory and compared with measurements of deuterium uptake and release using nuclear-reaction analysis. Good semiquantitative agreement is found when account is taken of a surface permeation barrier.

MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

242

The equilibrium state of hydrogen in gallium nitride: Theory and experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Formation energies and vibrational frequencies for H in wurtzite GaN were calculated from density functional theory and used to predict equilibrium state occupancies and solid solubilities for p-type, intrinsic, and n-type material. The solubility of deuterium (D) was measured at 600--800 C as a function of D{sub 2} pressure and doping and compared with theory. Agreement was obtained by reducing the H formation energies 0.2 eV from ab-initio theoretical values. The predicted stretch-mode frequency for H bound to the Mg acceptor lies 5% above an observed infrared absorption attributed to this complex. It is concluded that currently recognized H states and physical processes account for the equilibrium behavior of H examined in this work.

MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

243

Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New York Master of Science, Electrical Engineering (AppliedYork Bachelor of Science, Electrical Engineering RochesterElectronic Thin Film Science: For Electrical Engineers and

Bickford, Justin Robert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Scintigraphic evaluation of Lyme disease: Gallium-67 imaging of Lyme myositis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A patient suffering from Lyme disease had cardiac conduction abnormalities, symptoms of arthritis, and myalgia. A Ga-67 image showed evidence of endomyocarditis, but intense skeletal muscle uptake pointed to Lyme myositis. Reference is made to two other case reports of Lyme myositis.

Kengen, R.A.; v.d. Linde, M.; Sprenger, H.G.; Piers, D.A. (Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Preconceptual Design For Separation Of Plutonium And Gallium By Ion Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................. 5 2.0 BACKGROUND.........................................................................5 3.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION.............................................................6 3.1 Oxidation of Metal...............................................................7 3.2 Dissolution of Oxide............................................................ 8 3.3 Ion Exchange (IX).............................................................. 8 3.4 Plutonium Product Preparation................................................ 10 3.5 Recycle Operations..............................................................10 3.6 Waste Generation................................................................10 4.0 MATERIAL BALANCES...............................................................11 4.1 Dissolution of Oxide............................................................ 11 4.2 IX Feed Pretreatment.............................

Scott Demuth; Scott F. Demuth

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Radiation-Hardened Gallium Nitride Detector and Arrays for Fusion Diagnostics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This poster reports testing to confirm that GaN devices exhibit the extreme radiation hardness needed for use at the NIF, functioning properly after 1x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} proton irradiation in one year.

Sun, K. X., and MacNeil, L.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

Active devices for high temperature microcircuitry. [Silicon and gallium arsenide devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a program to develop high temperature electronics for geothermal well instrumentation, a number of solid state diode and transistor types were characterized from room temperature to 300/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence and aging stability of transport and leakage properties were measured. Included in the study were silicon diodes, bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs and JFETs. In summary the results are: diodes and bipolar transistors became extremely leaky at high temperature and are therefore of limited use; silicon MOSFETs and GaAs devices showed unacceptable aging instabilities at high temperatures; silicon JFETs from certain manufacturers were sufficiently stable and had suitable temperature dependent characteristics so that operational circuits could be made. Comparisons were made of experimental device characteristics and those predicted by theory. The theoretical calculations were done using standard equations revised to include appropriate temperature dependent parameters. Close agreement between theory and experiment was found, indicating that unexpected high temperature effects were insignificant. In order to facilitate the use of devices in high temperature hybrids, it was necessary to develop bonding and prescreening techniques. A large variance of JFET 300/sup 0/C operating parameters was found even within a single production lot. Consequently, high temperature prescreening allowed each circuit to be specifically ''pretuned.'' Standard solder, epoxy, and chip and wire attachment technologies were not functional at 300/sup 0/C. Gold-germanium solder, aluminum wire to DuPont 9910 gold film, and diffusion barrier pads were developed to allow high temperature attachment.

Palmer, D.W.; Draper, B.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; White, K.R.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

SAGE Collaboration

249

Transparent Conducting Contacts Based on Zinc Oxide Substitutionally Doped with Gallium: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a critical element in photovoltaic devices. This paper describes research on Ga:ZnO (a TCO candidate) using a high-throughput combinatorial approach.

Gorrie, C. W.; Reese, M.; Perkins, J. D.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney M. S.; To, B.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Synthesis and optical properties of CsC1-doped gallium-sodium-sulfide glasses  

SciTech Connect

Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S (GNS) glasses doped with CsCl were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass transition temperatures, refractive index dispersions, and band edge energies were measured for four GNS:CsCl glasses, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. The refractive index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs{sup +} and Cl{sup -} radii are 16% larger in GNS:CsCl glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in GNS glass to 3.32 eV in GNS glass doped with 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl{sup -} ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV and the low (450 cm{sup -1}) phonon energy make GNS:20%CsCl an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Darrick J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Commercialization of gallium nitride nanorod arrays on silicon for solid-state lighting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One important component in energy usage is lighting, which is currently dominated by incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, due to potentially higher efficiencies and thus higher energy savings, solid-state lighting ...

Wee, Qixun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and V. I. Tsimbal, Electrical Resistivity of Pd-In Alloys,and V. I. Tsimbal, Electrical Resistivity of Pd-In Alloys,and V. I. Tsimbal, Electrical Resistivity of Pd-In Alloys,

Bickford, Justin Robert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

ScanningTunneling Luminescence of Grain Boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)Se2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the Laboratory, photon emission in semiconductors has been mapped in the nanoscale using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In this Solar Program Review Meeting, we report on the latest results obtained in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films by this adapted STM. Scanning tunneling luminescence (STL) spectroscopy suggests that photons are emitted near the surface of CIGS. STL is excited either by (1) diffusion of tunneling electrons and subsequent recombination with available holes in CIGS or (2) impact ionization by hot electrons. Which process becomes predominant depends on the voltage applied to the STM tip. Photon mapping shows electronically active, extended defects near the surface of CIGS thin films.

Romero, M. J.; Jiang, C.-S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Noufi, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

HelioVolt Business Plan Pitch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Showa Shell and Shell Solar successfully scaled up this process to ... Page 9. 9 Role of Micro and Nanostructuring in CIGS PV Device Operation ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

255

Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid progress is being made by CdTe and CIGS-based thin-film PV technologies in entering commercial markets.

Ullal, H. S.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Device Physics of Nanoscale Interdigitated Solar Cells (Poster)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale interdigitated solar cell device architectures are being investigated for organic and inorganic solar cell devices. Due to the inherent complexity of these device designs quantitative modeling is needed to understand the device physics. Theoretical concepts have been proposed that nanodomains of different phases may form in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells. These theories propose that the nanodomains may form complex 3D intertwined p-n networks that enhance device performance.Recent experimental evidence offers some support for the existence of nanodomains in CIGS thin films. This study utilizes CIGS solar cells to examine general and CIGS-specific concepts in nanoscale interdigitated solar cells.

Metzger, W.; Levi, D.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Solarion AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4288 Sector Solar Product Focuses on the development, production and marketing of CIGS thin-film solar cells on flexible substrate. References Solarion AG1 LinkedIn...

258

Novel Materials Development for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 26 July 2004--15 June 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Focus on player interfacial assessment using Schottky barrier and heterojunction theory, and analysis of p-windows for CIGS and CdTe cells.

Keszler, D. A.; Wager, J. F.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

Ramanathan, Kannan V. (Lakewood, CA); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CA); Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CA); Keane, James (Lakewood, CA); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Single-Crystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Using the genetic algorithm to design gallium indium nitride/gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop and reduced spectral instability with respect to injection current  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today we are witnessing a fast growing trend that is redefining the concept of lighting. Numerous governments from all over the world have passed legislation to phase out incandescent light bulbs, with the objective of encouraging energy-efficient ...

Roya Mirhosseini / Partha S. Dutta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Bismuth in gallium arsenide: Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural and electronic properties of cubic GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys with bismuth concentration 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 are studied using the 'special quasi-random structures' (SQS) approach of Zunger along with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA). The lattice constant, bulk modulus, derivative of bulk modulus and energy gap vary with bismuth concentration nonlinearly. The present calculations show that the band gap decreases substantially with increasing bismuth concentration and that spin-orbit coupling influences the nature of bonding at high Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Bowing effect of spin-orbit split-off band values versus Bi content with and without spin-orbit coupling for GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} (at x=0.25, 0.50 and 0.75). Calculations are done with GGA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present results of lattice constant, energy gap, bulk modulus and derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases substantially with increasing Bi concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations of the density of states and charge densities are also presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed calculations without and with spin-orbit coupling.

Reshak, Ali Hussain, E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [School of Complex Systems, FFWP-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Auluck, S. [National Physical Laboratory Dr. KS Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technological University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED PULSE MODULATED S-BAND POWER AMPLIFIER IN GALLIUM NITRIDE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The design of power amplifiers in any semi-conductor process is not a trivia exercise and it is often encountered that the simulated solution is qualitatively different than the results obtained. Phenomena such as oscillation occurring either in-band or out of band and sometimes at subharmonic intervals, continuous spectrum noticed in some frequency bands, often referred to as chaos, and jumps and hysteresis effects can all be encountered and render a design useless. All of these problems might have been identified through a more rigorous approach to stability analysis. Designing for stability is probably the one area of amplifier design that receives the least amount of attention but incurs the most catastrophic of effects if it is not performed properly. Other parameters such as gain, power output, frequency response and even matching may suitable mitigation paths. But the lack of stability in an amplifier has no mitigating path. In addition to of loss of the design completely there are the increased production cycle costs, costs involved with investigating and resolving the problem and the costs involved with schedule slips or delays resulting from it. The Linville or Rollett stability criteria that many microwave engineers follow and rely exclusively on is not sufficient by itself to ensure a stable and robust design. It will be shown that the universal belief that unconditional stability is obtained through an analysis of the scattering matrix S to determine if 1 and |{Delta}{sub S}| < 1 is only part of the procedure and other tools must be used to validate the criteria. The research shown contributes to the state of the art by developing a more thorough stability design technique for designing amplifiers of any class, whether that be current mode or switch mode, than is currently undertaken with the goal of obtaining first pass design success.

STEVE SEDLOCK

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

264

High temperature step-flow growth of gallium phosphide by molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-growth surface morphologies of high-temperature homoepitaxial GaP films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been studied. Smooth, stepped surface morphologies of MBE-grown layers, measured by atomic force microscopy, were found for a wide range of substrate temperatures and P{sub 2}:Ga flux ratios. A MOCVD-based growth study performed under similar conditions to MBE-grown samples shows a nearly identical smooth, step-flow surface morphology, presenting a convergence of growth conditions for the two different methods. The additional understanding of GaP epitaxy gained from this study will impact its use in applications that include GaP-based device technologies, III-V metamorphic buffers, and III-V materials integration with silicon.

Ratcliff, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Grassman, T. J.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Carlin, J. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

265

Frster Resonance Energy Transfer Mediated White-Light-Emitting Rhodamine Fluorophore Derivatives-Gamma Phase Gallium Oxide Nanostructures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The global lighting source energy consumption accounts for about 22% of the total electricity generated. New high-efficiency solid-state light sources are needed to reduce the (more)

Chiu, Wan Hang Melanie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electron-beam induced electric-hydraulic expansion in a silica-shelled gallium microball-nanotube structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heteroshape-heteroscale structure of silica-shelled Ga microball-nanotube was fabricated. Under in situ electron-beam irradiation, an abnormally large and fast expansion of Ga was observed. Failed by a sole routine heating effect of electron-beam, the expansion was explained by an electric-hydraulic expansion effect taking into account a huge inner pressure induced by the repelling Coulomb force of positively charged Ga ions on the Ga microball surface. The ions were accumulated due to knocking-out of Ga electrons under irradiation and shielding effect of a silica shell which prevents the charge balance restoration. A circuit model is proposed to calculate the accumulation of Ga ions.

Gao, Y. H.; Sun, M.; Su, J. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), School of Physics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), LuoyuRoad 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhi, C. Y.; Golberg, D.; Bando, Y. [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Duan, X. F. [Institute of Physics, Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor with Gallium Promoted ZSM-5 Catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The huge energy demand of our society is causing fossil fuel resources to diminish rapidly. Therefore, it is critical to search for alternative energy resources. (more)

Shi, Jian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Characterization of Damp-Heat Degradation of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cell Components and Devices by (Electrochemical) Impedance Spectroscopy: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work evaluated the capability of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (IS, or ECIS as used here) to monitor damp heat (DH) stability of contact materials, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell components, and devices. Cell characteristics and its variation of the CIGS devices were also examined by the ECIS.

Pern, F. J. J.; Noufi, R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Final Report for Department of Energy/EERE (for public release)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing CIGS solar cells calls for the understanding of materials and processing in order to translate the record small efficiency to module and the strategy to produce thin cells for materials and processing saving. This project has exploited nanostructuring of CIG solar cells, including nanowires and nanotextured substrates. We showed that nanowires function as well-defined CIGS-CdS p-n junction for understanding the chemical fluctuation, defect formation interface and grain boundary behaviors and the effect of ion diffusion, which are important but complicated issues for solar cell fabrication. We have also demonstrated effective nanoscale photon management on nanotextured substrate to provide opportunity for thin CIGS solar cells. We also developed the scalable methods for producing such nanotextured substrates. The research output in this project helps advancing the CIGS solar cells and broadly other solar cell technologies in cost reduction per unit power.

Yi Cui

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

On the Mass Eigenstate Composition of the 8B Neutrinos from the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present data of gallium experiments provide indirectly the only experimental limit on the fraction of $\

A. Kopylov; V. Petukhov

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Concentrator Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: CIGS cells were designed for operation under concentrated sunlight. This is first report of polycrystalline thin-film cell with efficiency>20%.

Ward, J.; Ramanathan, K.; Hasoon, F.; Coutts, T.; Keane, J.; Moriarty, T; Noufi, R.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Miasole Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Miasole Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Miasole Inc Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95051 Sector Solar Product California-based manufacturer of CIGS thin-film solar cells....

275

Variablity among electronic cigarettes in the pressure drop, airflow rate, and aerosol production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OH), (b) Crown Seven Hydro Im- perial with USA blenda brand. Crown Seven Hydro Imperial and Smoking EverywhereStix #2, VapCigs #2, Crown Seven Hydro Imperial, and Smoking

Talbot, Prue

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Tianjin Tai Yang Photo electronic Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Place Tianjin Municipality, China Sector Solar Product China-based CIGS thin-film solar cell maker. References Tianjin Tai Yang Photo-electronic Technology Co., Ltd1 LinkedIn...

277

Innovative Characterization of Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon for Improved Module Performance: 28 April 2005 - 15 September 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report focuses on (1) characterizing nc-Si:H from United Solar; (2) studying Si,Ge:H alloys deposited by HWCVD; and (3) characterizing CIGS films and relating to cell performance parameters.

Cohen, J. D.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

Kurtz, S.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Microsoft Word - Document1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Student CIG Newsletter Annual Meeting Issue March 2009 Dear Students, We have some exciting things planned for the 100th AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo. In addition to the Student Common Interest Group meeting, we are planning ad

280

Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Revised...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the degradation in open-circuit voltage and high dark currents in epitaxial silicon solar cells. The technique is also appli- cable to other PV technologies such as CIGS and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

AxunTek Solar Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AxunTek Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name AxunTek Solar Energy Place Taiwan Sector Solar Product Taiwan-based CIGS thin film solar cell producer. References AxunTek...

282

Nanoscale Measurements of the Surface Photovoltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Cu2ZnSn4, and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Films: The Role of the Surface Electronics on the Efficiency of Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on recent advances in the development of nanoscale measurements of the surface photovoltage (SPV) based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and its application to the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe). One critical aspect of the electronic structure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) that has yet to be determined in their related kesterite compounds is the character of the surface electronics. In CIGS, spontaneous deviations in the stoichiometry of the surface cause a depletion (or even a type inversion) region that reinforces the CIGS homojunction. First-principle calculations predict that this inversion region will be more difficult to form in CZTS. In this contribution, the characteristics of the surface space charge region for both CIGS and CZTS(e) are investigated by STM. The implications of the results of these measurements on the future development of CZTS solar cells will be discussed.

Du, H.; Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Striving for a Standard Protocol for Preconditioning or Stabilization of Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A protocol was devised for preconditioning polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS cell technologies under bias with light exposure or forward-bias currents at elevated temperatures and the results reported.

del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Nanowin Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nanowin Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Nanowin Technology Co Ltd Place Tainan County, Taiwan Zip 741 Sector Solar Product Taiwan-based CIGS solar cell turnkey...

285

The Effect of Pellet Geometry on The Specific Activity of Ni-63.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? 63Ni [Nickel-63] is routinely produced at HFIR with a specific activity of ~15 Ci/g [Curies/gram] by irradiating highly enriched stable 62Ni [Nickel-62] (86.31 %) (more)

Walsh, Spenser Riley

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

NREL: Energy Sciences - Raghu N. Bhattacharya  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovotaics team members, he has fabricated a world-record (18.5%-efficient) thin-film solar cell using a unique ZnS(0,OH)CIGS device structure with a single-layer,...

287

Processing Materials Devices and Diagnostics for Thin Film Photovoltaics: Fundamental and Manufacturability Issues; Final Report, 5 September 2001 - 31 May 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The critical issues addressed in this study on CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si modules will provide the science and engineering basis for developing viable commercial processes and improved module performance.

Birkmire, R. W.; Shafarman, W. N.; Eser, E.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.; Dobson, K. D.; Bowden, S.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Reliability Challenges for Solar Energy (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PV industry can benefit from reliability testing experience of microelectronics industry . Si modules perform well in field; CdTe/CIGS must be sealed to moisture; CPV in product development stage.

Kurtz, S.

2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

289

CSMRI SITE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: HISTORY, INVESTIGATION, AND CLEANUP IMPLEMENTATION REPORT AS OF 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ci/g picoCuries per gram RI/FS Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study RPD relative percent difference TCLP. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results indicate that the affected material

290

CSMRI Creekside Site Report on Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ci/g picoCuries per gram RI/FS Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study RPD relative percent difference TCLP. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results indicate that the affected material

291

Ammothermal Growth of Gan Substrates For Leds: High-Pressure Ammonothermal Process for Bulk Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Commercially Competitive Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The new GaN crystal growth method is adapted from that used to grow quartz crystals, which are very inexpensive and represent the second-largest market for single crystals for electronic applications (after silicon). More extreme conditions are required to grow GaN crystals and therefore a new type of chemical growth chamber was invented that is suitable for large-scale manufacturing. A new process was developed that grows GaN crystals at a rate that is more than double that of current processes. The new technology will enable GaN substrates with best-in-world quality at lowest-in-world prices, which in turn will enable new generations of white LEDs, lasers for full-color displays, and high-performance power electronics.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112_0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nitride grown on (1120) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phasea-plane GaN grown on a 4H-SiC substrate with an AlN buffergrown on (0001) Al 2 O 3 , 6H-SiC or free- standing GaN

Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Wagner, Brian; Reitmeier, Zachary J.; Preble, Edward A.; Davis, Robert F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research. Annual subcontract report, 15 April 1988--14 June 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this contract is the achievement of a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed is metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs and for the two-junction case is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include the following: (1) a 17.6% efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5% efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research. Final subcontract report, 1 April 1988--31 March 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to achieve a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed throughout this work is metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or it may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two-junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs, and for the two-junction case it is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include (1) a 17.6%-efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5%-efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8%-efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7%-efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) the measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Calculation of oxygen diffusion in plutonium oxide films during the high-temperature oxidation of plutonium-1 weight percent gallium in 500 torr of air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen self-diffusion in PuO/sub 1.995/ was calculated from rate constants obtained for the parabolic oxidation of the Pu-1 wt % Ga alloy in 500-torr dry air between 250 and 480/degree/C. The activation energy for oxygen vacancy diffusion in the n-type PuO/sub 2-x/ is 22.6 kcal/mole. Results from this investigation are compared with other reported results, and possible explanation for the difference in results is discussed. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stakebake, J.L.

1988-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

296

Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8 and topical report No. 3, April 2-July 1, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The seventh quarter of work on the contract is summarized. The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique has been applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAlAs on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (primarily glasses and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium (TMG), arsine (AsH/sub 3/), and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperatures of 725 to 750/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. The technical activities during the quarter were concentrated on (1) a continuing evaluation of various graphite materials as possible substrates for MO-CVD growith of the polycrystalline GaAs solar cells; (2) attempts to improve the quality (especially the grain size) of polycrystalline GaAs films on Mo sheet and Mo/glass substrates by using HCl vapor during the MO-CVD growith process; (3) further studies of the transport properties of polycrystalline GaAs films, wth emphasis on n-type films; (4) continuing investigations of the properties of p-n junctions in polycrystalline GaAs, with emphasis on the formation and properties of p/sup +//n/n/sup +/ deposited structures; and (5) assembling apparatus and establishing a suitable technique for producing TiO/sub 2/ layers for use as AR coatings on GaAs cells. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Johnson, R.E.; Manasevit, H.M.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

NREL preprints for the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Topics covered include various aspects of solar cell fabrication and performance. Aluminium-gallium arsenides, cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, and copper-indium-gallium selenides are all characterized in their applicability in solar cells.

Fitzgerald, M. [ed.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Atomic-level cotrol of the thermoelectric properties in polytypoid nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an alloy of indium and gallium oxide. In the IGZO nanowireof 500-900 K for bulk indium zinc oxide (IZO, In 2 O 3 (ZnO)nanowires IZO and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO, In 2-x Ga

C.Andrews, Sean

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

In This Issue:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... each sample showed enrichment to approximately ... variations in commercial high-purity gallium ... Reference Materials: Uranium isotopic standard ref ...

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

300

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Table 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Gafchromic Sensor, Tissue-Equivalent Gas, Methane Based. Gallium Arsenide, Tissue-Equivalent Gas, Propane Based. Glass ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Available Technologies - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

Advanced Materials; Biofuels; ... alternative semiconductor materials to be ... (copper indium gallium selenide) have potential, but their raw material sources are ...

302

LATE NEWS: KK3, Non-Catalytic Synthesis of GaN Nanostructures ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have observed the synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowders on boron ... as 400C. The synthesis process is based on the reaction between gallium atoms from the decomposition of gallium acetylacetonate and ammonia gas molecules. ... the crystal structure and growth mechanism of the grown nanostructures.

303

Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe{sub 2} solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 3 May 1991--2 May 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm{sup 2}-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd{sub 0.82}Zn{sub 0.18}S/CuIn{sub 0.80}Ga{sub 0.20}Se{sub 2} cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V{sub oc} = 0.581 V, J{sub sc} = 34.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm{sup 2}.

Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe[sub 2] solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe[sub 2] (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm[sup 2]-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd[sub 0.82]Zn[sub 0.18]S/CuIn[sub 0.80]Ga[sub 0.20]Se[sub 2] cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V[sub oc] = 0.581 V, J[sub sc] = 34.8 mA/cm[sup 2], FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm[sup 2].

Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. (Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Notice of Availability and Public Hearing: Western Area Power Administration Big Stone II Power Plant and Transmission Project Supplemental Draft EIS (DOE/EIS-0377)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

843 Federal Register 843 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 207 / Friday, October 26, 2007 / Notices conference be held to address the issues raised by Colorado Interstate Gas Company's (CIG) August 31, 2007, tariff filings to revise its fuel tracking mechanism and to update the calculation of its cash-out Index Price and cash-out System Index Price (collectively, cash-out prices). Commission Staff and parties will have the opportunity to discuss all of the issues raised by CIG's proposals to modify its fuel and LUF mechanism and to adjust its cash-out price calculations. Specifically, CIG should be prepared to address all the concerns raised in the protests, and if necessary, to provide additional technical, engineering and operational support for its proposals. Any party proposing alternatives to

306

Effect of Mo Back Contact on Na Out-Diffusion and Device Performance of Mo/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the molybdenum thin films that were deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates using direct-current planar magnetron sputtering, with a sputtering power density of 1.2 W/cm2. The working gas (Ar) pressure was varied from 0.6 to 16 mtorr to induce changes in the Mo films' morphology and microstructure. Thin films of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) were deposited on the Mo-coated glass using the 3-stage co-evaporation process. The morphology of both the Mo-coated SLG and the CIGS thin films grown on it was examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Na was depth profiled in the Mo and CIGS films by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The device performance was evaluated under standard conditions of 1000 W/m2 and 25 C. Optimum device performance is found for an intermediate Mo sputtering pressure.

Al-Thani, H. A.; Hasoon, F. S.; Young, M.; Asher, S.; Alleman, J. L.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Williamson, D. L.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Recent technological advances in thin film solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-efficiency, low-cost thin film solar cells are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. This paper reviews the substantial advances made by several thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline silicon. Recent examples of utility demonstration projects of these emerging materials are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Ullal, H.S.; Zwelbel, K.; Surek, T.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

NCPV preprints for the 2. world conference on photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings contain 26 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Silicon (3 papers); Thin-film PV technologies (11 papers): amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and high efficiency devices; Module and BOS manufacturing (2 papers); Cell, module, and system testing (7 papers); and Market development (3 papers). Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound semiconductor, a mixture of gallium and arsenic. Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. Arsenic is not rare, but it is poisonous. Gallium arsenide has been developed for use in solar cells at about the same time that it has been developed for light-emitting diodes, lasers, and other electronic devices that use light. GaAs solar cells offer several benefits: The GaAs bandgap is 1.43 eV-nearly ideal for single-junction solar

310

Structural tuning of residual conductivity in highly mismatched III-V layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new process to control the electrical conductivity of gallium nitride layers grown on a sapphire substrate has been developed. This process is based on initially coating the sapphire substrate with a thin layer of aluminum nitride, then depositing the gallium nitride thereon. This process allows one to controllably produce gallium nitride layers with resistivity varying over as much as 10 orders of magnitude, without requiring the introduction and activation of suitable dopants.

Han, Jung (Albuquerque, NM); Figiel, Jeffrey J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solar Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal  

From 2002 to 2007 the market for Copper Indium Gallium Selenide ... According to the U.S. Energy Information Administrations 2010 International Energy Outlook, ...

312

About the 12th International Conference on Metal Organic Vapor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... phosphide based materials; Gallium arsenide based materials; High brightness LEDs and solid state lighting; Growth of device structures: LEDs, laser diodes,...

313

THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature anomalous heat capacities,(! ) a maximum in theestimated high-temperature heat capacity of gallium ratherfrom low temperature heat capacity measurements. The

Anderson, T.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The role of screening of the electron-phonon interaction in relaxation of photoexcited electron-hole plasma in semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of screening of the interaction of the electron-hole plasma with optical phonons is analytically evaluated by the example of gallium arsenide.

Kumekov, S. E. [Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

NIST Manuscript Publication Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Abstract: Although the efficiency of the Gallium Nitride (GaN) Light Emitting-Diode (LED) has improved in the past decade, a great opportunity ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Development of a Bulk GaN Growth Technique for Low Defect Density...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enabling Next-Generation Power Electronics: Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) Technique for Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Karen Waldrip Dept. 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D...

317

Optical Tech Div 1999 - Technical Highlights - Figure 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of wavelength are shown for six materials: germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), gallium arside (GaAs), magnesium oxide (MgO), lithium fluoride (LiF), and ...

318

Optical Technology Division 1999 - Technical Highlights ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of wavelength are shown for six materials: germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), gallium arside (GaAs), magnesium oxide (MgO), lithium fluoride (LiF), and ...

319

Index of Semiconductor Process Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen Bromide, HBr. Vinyl Fluoride. C 2 H 3 F. Hydrogen Chloride, HCl. Vinyl Chloride. C 2 H 3 Cl. Hydrogen Fluoride, HF. Trimethyl Gallium. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

NIST: Marie Curie and the NBS Radium Standards ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1908, he received his Doctorate in Physics from Imperial ... of the radioisotope gallium-67 (Physical Review 54 ... which is still in use in nuclear medicine ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nonoxide Fluorescent Nanoparticles - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name ... y of the dopanmatert Gallium Indium ... Bloo Solar; EPOD Solar. AQT; Canrom. New Solar Ventures;

322

at-meeting technical program in .pdf format  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 24, 1998 ... trical Engr., Walter Scott Engr. Center, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 USA; ...... Radiative Efficiency of High Quality Gallium Nitride Thin Films: Peter.

323

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Reactor and Gallium Anomalies with intense (anti)neutrino emitters Thierry Lasserre (CEA) Abstract: Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data can be explained by...

324

NETL: NEPA Categorical Exclusions - January 2010 to March 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EEProject Management Center Y 352010 Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices Applied Materials, Inc. Santa Clara, CA EEBETD Y 352010 Red Birch...

325

Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frank Cerio, Veeco Instruments Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices Vivek Agrawal, Applied Materials Driving Down HB-LED Costs:...

326

Solid-State Lighting Issue 28: Scientific Literature (Mid May...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National University of Kaohsiung (Taiwan): "Wavelength shift of gallium nitride light emitting diode with p-down structure." W.H. Lan, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices,...

327

List of common materials available for ESTAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 20 Calcium 21 Scandium 22 Titanium 23 Vanadium 24 Chromium 25 Manganese 26 Iron 27 Cobalt 28 Nickel 29 Copper 30 Zinc 31 Gallium 32 ...

328

NIST: Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data - Atomic Number  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 20 Calcium 21 Scandium 22 Titanium 23 Vanadium 24 Chromium 25 Manganese 26 Iron 27 Cobalt 28 Nickel 29 Copper 30 Zinc 31 Gallium 32 ...

329

It's Elemental - The Element Germanium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in...

330

Journal of Research Volume 15  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Atomic weight of gallium, p. 409 Lundell, GEF; Hoffman, JI http://dx ... Design and construction of an experimental diffusion battery, p. 441 Proffitt, MJ ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

Visit the National Academies Press online, the authoritative ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the US electricity generation, and oil prices should not ... swings and a poor heating, ventilating, and air ... to gallium nitride growth is home-built, and ...

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: American Recovery and Reinvestme...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Transphorm, Inc. -High Performance Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor Modules for Agile Power Electronics CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date:...

333

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Transphorm, Inc. -High Performance Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor Modules for Agile Power Electronics CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date:...

334

Hole drift mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 S. A. Dinca and E. A. Schiff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Mo/CuIn1-xGaxSe2/CdS/ZnO/indium tin oxide ITO / Ni/Al grid . The CIGS thin films were grown using elemen. Young National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA W. N. Shafarman Institute the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL and from the Institute of Energy Conversion IEC . The hole drift

Schiff, Eric A.

335

Introduction Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a transparent conducting oxide to create a series connection. ITO is indium tin oxide; CIGS is copper indium photovoltaic modules are entering the renewable energy marketplace in in- creasing volume, with more than cells. A number of such buffer layers have been used, the most common of which are undoped tin oxide (Sn

Beach, Joe

336

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and selenium. CIGS was chosen because of its high cell efficiency, high energy yield, and now with Solar Powder Powder plans to manufacture and sell solar photovoltaic panels that have a module energy con- version of the world photovoltaic market. By 2015, the global photovoltaic market is expected to grow to 43

Jawitz, James W.

337

innovati nEncapsulation Advancements Extend Life of Thin-Film PV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition to improved performance and reliability, this PTMO technology could make flexible thin-film technology. In addition to developing the PTMO coating technology, NREL also holds the world record--20%--for science of CIGS technology, NREL helps the PV industry accelerate manufacturing capacity

338

RREECCOORRDD OOFF DDEECCIISSIIOONN FFOORR TTHHEE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The scope of this response action addresses americium-241 (Am- 241), plutonium-239 (Pu-239), plutonium-241Ci/g) a Americium-241 28 Plutonium-239 33 Plutonium-241 890 Radium-228 1.7 Thorium-232 1.4 Uranium-234 96 Uranium Preliminary Remediation Goal Pu-239 plutonium-239 Pu-241 plutonium-241 Ra-228 radium-228 RAGS Risk Assessment

US Army Corps of Engineers

339

Transport, Interfaces, and Modeling in Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 11 February 2002 - 30 September 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results for a-Si characteristics/modeling; photocarrier drift mobilities in a-Si;H, ..mu..c-Si:H, CIGS; hole-conducting polymers as p-layer for a-Si and c-Si; IR spectra of p/i and n/i interfaces in a-Si.

Schiff, E. A.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

TESLA-FEL 2007-03 Application of low cost GaAs LED as neutron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neutrons in unbiased Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) resulted in a reduction Keywords: COTS components, Displacement damage, Electron Linear Accelerator, GaAs Light emitting diode (LED) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diode (LED) for the assessment of integrated neutron fluence

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Non-H{sub 2}Se, ultra-thin CIS devices. Annual subcontract report, 10 March 1992--9 November 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done during Phase I of a 3-phase, cost- shared contract. Objective of the subcontract is to demonstrate 12% total-area efficiency copper indium diselenide (CIS) solar cells and 50-W CIS modules average at least 8 W/ft{sup 2} in the third year. At the end of Phase I, EPV delivered to NREL a 1.1 cm{sup 2} CIS cell with an active area efficiency of 10.5%. the corresponding total-area efficiency is 7.9%.

Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.; Kiss, Z. [Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Non-H[sub 2]Se, ultra-thin CIS devices. [CuInSe[sub 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done during Phase I of a 3-phase, cost- shared contract. Objective of the subcontract is to demonstrate 12% total-area efficiency copper indium diselenide (CIS) solar cells and 50-W CIS modules average at least 8 W/ft[sup 2] in the third year. At the end of Phase I, EPV delivered to NREL a 1.1 cm[sup 2] CIS cell with an active area efficiency of 10.5%. the corresponding total-area efficiency is 7.9%.

Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.; Kiss, Z. (Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Investigations of CuInSe2 Thin Films and Contacts: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 January 1990 - 28 February 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CulnSe2) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CulnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments.

Nicolet, M. A.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method of making V.sub.3 Ga superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for producing a vanadium-gallium superconductor wire having aluminum as a component thereof is disclosed, said wire being encased in a gallium bearing copper sheath. The superconductors disclosed herein may be fabricated under normal atmospheres and room temperatures by forming a tubular shaped billet having a core composed of an alloy of vanadium and aluminum and an outer sheath composed of an alloy of copper, gallium and aluminum. Thereafter the entire billet is swage reduced to form a wire therefrom and heat treated to form a layer of V.sub.3 Ga in the interior of the wire.

Dew-Hughes, David (Bellport, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

15.4% CuIn1-XGaXSe2-Based Photovoltaic Cells from Solution-Based Precursor Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have fabricated 15.4%- and 12.4%-efficient CuIn1-XGaXSe2 (CIGS)-based photovoltaic devices from solution-based electrodeposition (ED) and electroless-deposition (EL) precursors. As-deposited precursors are Cu-rich CIGS. Additional In, Ga, and Se are added to the ED and EL precursor films by physical vapor deposition (PVD) to adjust the final film composition to CuIn1-XGaXSe2. The ED and EL device parameters are compared with those of a recent world record, an 18.8%-efficient PVD device. The tools used for comparison are current voltage, capacitance voltage, and spectral response characteristics.

Bhattacharya, R. N.; Batchelor, W.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R. N. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Hiltner, J. F.; Sites, J. R. (Department of Physics, Colorado State University)

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

347

Telio Solar Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Telio Solar Technologies Inc Telio Solar Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Telio Solar Technologies Inc Place Los Altos Hills, California Zip 94022 Product A CIGS start-up recently completed the construction of pilot line for manufacturing CIGS cell measuring 300 millimeters by 300. References Telio Solar Technologies Inc[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Telio Solar Technologies Inc is a company located in Los Altos Hills, California . References ↑ "Telio Solar Technologies Inc" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Telio_Solar_Technologies_Inc&oldid=352104" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

348

Local Built-in Potential on Grain Boundary of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on a direct measurement of two-dimensional potential distribution on the surface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using a nanoscale electrical characterization of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). The potential measurement reveals a higher surface potential or a smaller work function on grain boundaries (GBs) of the film than on the grain surfaces. This demonstrates the existence of a local built-in potential on GBs and that the GB is positively charged. The role of the built-in potential in device performance was further examined by tuning Ga content or band gap of the film. With increasing Ga content, the GB potential drops sharply in a Ga range of 28%-38%. Comparing the change in the built-in potential to the theoretical and experimental photoconversion efficiencies, we conclude that the potential plays a significant role in the device conversion efficiency of NREL's three-stage CIGS device.

Jiang, C.-S.; Noufi, R.; Ramanathan, K.; AbuShama, J. A.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Advanced Processing of CdTe- and CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Se{sub 2}-Based Solar Cells; Phase I Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main tasks of the cadmium telluride portion of this project include the development of simplified processing for fabricating high-efficiency CdTe solar cells, studies on the long-term stability of CdTe devices, and the development of alternative transparent conducting oxides, window layers, and back contacts. The second portion of this project focused on CIGS solar cells. The main tasks include the development of a manufacturable process for CIGS devices and the development of high-band-gap alloys for use in tandem cell structures. Additional objectives include development of improved junction formation processing and contributing to the overall understanding of these materials and devices. Because the processing is manufacturing-driven, the authors use an all solid-state, simplified two-step process that relaxes the level of deposition control required.

Morel, D.L.; Ferekides, C.S.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

350

Jack was so quick to give credit to others for their work that he would not have wanted this edition of his book to be printed without thanks to his colleagues. Since he died while  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involve the use of natural or depleted uranium. Natural isotopes of uranium are U-238, U-235 and U-234 (see Table 1 for natural abundances). Depleted uranium contains less of the isotopes: U-235 and U-234. The specific activity of depleted uranium (5.0E-7 Ci/g) is less than that of natural uranium (7.1E-7 Ci

Cai, Wei

351

RESERVATION OF RIGHTS A number of governments and agencies participated in the development of this Kootenai Subbasin Plan,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involve the use of natural or depleted uranium. Natural isotopes of uranium are U-238, U-235 and U-234 (see Table 1 for natural abundances). Depleted uranium contains less of the isotopes: U-235 and U-234. The specific activity of depleted uranium (5.0E-7 Ci/g) is less than that of natural uranium (7.1E-7 Ci

352

Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

Bhattacharya, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

CIS photovoltaic technology. Annual technical report, January 12, 1995--January 11, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

EPV`s overall strategy in developing CIGS photovoltaic technology has been to define and construct a flexible set of large area vacuum deposition equipment and to explore CIGS formation recipes that can be implemented on this equipment. This is the inverse of the conventional approach in which manufacturing techniques are sought that can reproduce a high efficiency laboratory scale process over large areas. A feature of this equipment is the use of proprietary linear sources capable of downwards evaporation. Using recipes generated within this program, CIGS cells with efficiencies up to 13.9% were prepared by EPV under a separate CRADA with NREL. Entirely within this program, an aperture area efficiency of 9.6% was achieved for a laminated submodule of area 135.2 cm{sup 2}. Considerable effort has gone into the preparation and characterization of CIGS prepared on substrates measuring 96.5 cm x 44.5 cm, and good compositional uniformity has been achieved along both the short and long directions of the plate. Despite this, the material has not yet achieved the efficiency levels demonstrated in smaller scale equipment, and recipe development is ongoing. As part of a program to eliminate, if possible, the use of CdS, alternative buffer layers such as InSe, In{sub x}S{sub y}, and ZnSe have been explored, and, to gain insight into junction formation, CdSe. Of these compounds, ZnSe has shown the most promise, and further experiments are being conducted to optimize material and device properties.

Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.S.; Gabor, A.M. [Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity > 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity {sigma} >; 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

357

Correlation of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} device efficiency with homojunction depth and interfacial structure: X-ray photoemission and positron annihilation spectroscopic characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Angled-resolved high resolution photoemission measurements on valence band electronic structure and Cu 2p, In 3d, Ga 2p, and Se 3d core lines were used to evaluate surface and near-surface chemistry of CuInSe{sub 2} and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} device grade thin films. XPS compositional depth profiles were also acquired from the near-surface region, and bonding of the Cu, In, Ga, and Se was determined as a function of depth. A Cu-poor region was found, indicating CuIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8} or a CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixture. Correlation between the depth of the Cu-poor region/bulk interface and device efficiency showed that the depth was 115 {angstrom} for a 16.4% CIGS device, 240 {angstrom} for a 15.0% CIGS, and 300 {angstrom} for 14.0% CIGS, with similar trends for CIS films. The surface region is n-type, the bulk is p-type, with a 0.5 eV valence band offset. Depth of homojunction may be the determining factor in device performance. Positron annihilation spectroscopy gave similarly illuminating results.

Nelson, A.J.; Sobol, P.E.; Gabor, A.M.; Contreras, M.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Plasma-Assisted Co-evaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Final Subcontract Report, December 2001 -- April 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species are converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP). This program explored the use of plasma-activated chalcogen sources in CIGS co-evaporation to lower CIGS deposition temperature, increase utilization, increase deposition rate, and improve S:Se stoichiometry control. Plasma activation sources were designed and built, then operated and characterized over a wide range of conditions. Optical emission and mass spectrometry data show that chalcogens are effectively dissociated in the plasma. The enhanced reactivity achieved by the plasma processing was demonstrated by conversion of pre-deposited metal films to respective chalcogen-containing phases at low temperature and low chalcogen flux. The plasma-assisted co-evaporation (PACE) sources were also implemented in CIGS co-evaporation. No benefit from PACE was observed in device results, and frequent deposition failures occurred.

Repins, I.; Wolden, C.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride LED (Light Emitting Diode) Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03052010 Location(s): Santa Clara,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CX-010974: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-010974: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle...

362

Power Electronics Reliability Kick Off Meeting ? Silicon Power...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches. * Seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM)...

363

CX-010973: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-010973: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle...

364

Embedded Atom Method for studying shock processes in materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief overview of a shock-induced phase transition in gallium will be presented showing the discovery of a meta-stable phase prior to shock melting will be...

365

Energy Basics: Single-Crystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

is not rare, but it is poisonous. Gallium arsenide has been developed for use in solar cells at about the same time that it has been developed for light-emitting diodes,...

366

Test vehicle detector characterization system for the Boeing YAL-1 airborne laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The test vehicle detector characterization system provides a convenient and efficient tool for rapidly evaluating the optical sensitivity of the GAP6012, GAP100, GAP300, and GAP1000 indium gallium arsenide detectors used ...

Steininger-Holmes, Jason Thomas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

CX-001137: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride LED (Light Emitting Diode) Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03052010 Location(s): Santa Clara,...

368

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride LED (Light Emitting Diode) Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03052010 Location(s): Santa Clara,...

369

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01042010 - 12312011 Santa Clara, Ca Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices To develop a multi-chamber system such as a two MOCVD chambers, one...

370

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University Ph.D. Thesis by Peter Eschbach, "Investigation of Buffer Layers in Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Solar Cells" (2002) 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 Binding Energy (eV)...

371

Research Highlights | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on structural properties of new materials, brought a sample from the solid solution of indium-gallium-magnesium-oxide (i.e., InGaCu0.60Mg0.40O4) to the workshop. "The...

372

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an alloy of indium and gallium oxide. In the IGZO nanowireprecipitation of indium in zinc oxide. Journal of PhysicsO 3 (ZnO) n ), and indium iron zinc oxide (IFZO, In 2-x Fe x

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid was gallium- or indium- oxide because the EGaIn wasCdS Microarrays on Indium Tin Oxide Substrates Appliedpole figure ITO - indium tin oxide RMS root mean square

Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Wrapping process for fabrication of A-15 superconducting composite wires  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.J.; Luhman, T.S.

1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(LCDs), flat panel displays, optical coatings, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) antistatic coatings, strain gauges, gas sensors. Light-emitting diodes (LED's) Power amplifiers for cell phones Indium Gallium #12

Scott, Christopher

376

JEM Table of Contents: November 1995 - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doping of Gallium Nitride Using Disilane [pp. 1547-1550] A.E. Wickenden, L.B. Rowland, K. Doverspike, D.K. Gaskill, J.A. Freitas, Jr., D.S. Simons, and P.H. Chi.

377

PTIP Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name PTIP Ltd Place South Africa Sector Solar Product Thin-film Copper-indium-gallium-sulphur-selenide solar cell technology spinout from the...

378

MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

-High Performance Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor Modules for Agile Power Electronics CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08052010 Location(s): California Office(s):...

380

CIBS Solar Cell Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on efforts to prepare and characterize the first copper-indium-boron-diselenide (CIBS) photovoltaic materials. Attempts to fabricate CIBS in thin-film form followed a three-step process: 1) RF sputtering of copper, indium, and boron to form a copper-indium-boron (CIB) alloy; 2) ex-situ selenization of CIB via physical vapor deposition; 3) annealing the final product. No CIBS materials were produced with this method due to the formation of an unstable boron diselenide species that formed in step 2. Detailed investigations of the CIB alloy formation revealed that boron does not adequately mix with the copper and indium in step 1. In the last year, a nanoscience-based method has shown greater promise for successful CIBS preparation. In this two-step method, sources of copper, indium, boron, and selenium are combined and heated in a high-boiling amine solvent. The isolated product is then annealed at temperatures between 400-500 deg. C. Currently, purified CIBS has not been isolated and characterized but further study and development of this nanoscience-based method is in progress through the support of two grants from the DOE Office of Energy Renewability and Efficiency and the State of Nebraskas Nebraska Research Initiative program. The research described in this report resulted in four scientific publications and 12 presentations at regional, national and international scientific and engineering conferences.

Exstrom, Christopher L.

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Amorphous silicon/polycrystalline thin film solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved photovoltaic solar cell is described including a p-type amorphous silicon layer, intrinsic amorphous silicon, and an n-type polycrystalline semiconductor such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium zinc sulfide, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide, and gallium nitride. The polycrystalline semiconductor has an energy bandgap greater than that of the amorphous silicon. The solar cell can be provided as a single-junction device or a multijunction device.

Ullal, H.S.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

383

Preliminary materials assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presently, there are two SPS reference design concepts (one using silicon solar cells; the other using gallium arsenide solar cells). A materials assessment of both systems was performed based on the materials lists set forth in the DOE/NASA SPS Reference System Report: Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This listing identified 22 materials (plus miscellaneous and organics) used in the SPS. Tracing the production processes for these 22 materials, a total demand for over 20 different bulk materials (copper, silicon, sulfuric acid, etc.) and nealy 30 raw materials (copper ore, sand, sulfur ore, etc.) was revealed. Assessment of these SPS material requirements produced a number of potential material supply problems. The more serious problems are those associated with the solar cell materials (gallium, gallium arsenide, sapphire, and solar grade silicon), and the graphite fiber required for the satellite structure and space construction facilities. In general, the gallium arsenide SPS option exhibits more serious problems than the silicon option, possibly because gallium arsenide technology is not as well developed as that for silicon. Results are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 3 May 1991--21 May 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe{sub 2}, thin-film solar cells and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. The specific technical milestone for Phase I was to demonstrate an air mass (AM) 1.5 global 13% , 1-cm{sup 2} total-area CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cell. For Phase II, the objective was to demonstrate an AM1.5 global 13.5%, 1-cm{sup 2} total-area efficiency. We focused our activities on three areas. First, we modified the CIGS deposition system to double its substrate capacity. Second, we developed new tooling to enable investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process in which the goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, we upgraded the ZnO sputtering system to improve its reliability and reproducibility. A dual rotatable cathode metallic source was installed, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve ZnO`s properties as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Combining the refined CdZnS process with CIGS from the newly fixtured deposition system enable us to fabricate and deliver a ZnO/Cd{sub 0.08}Zn{sub 0.20}S/CuIn{sub 0.74}Ga{sub 0.26}Se{sub 2} cell on alumina with I-V characteristics, as measured by NREL under standard test conditions, of 13.7% efficiency with V{proportional_to} = 0.5458 V, J{sub sc} = 35.48 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.688, and efficiency = 14.6%.

Chen, W.S.; Stewart, J.M.; Mickelsen, R.A.; Devaney, W.E.; Stanbery, B.J. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Surface Treatment of CuInGaSe2 Thin Films and Its Effect on the Photovoltaic Properties of Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar cells have been fabricated with partial electrolyte treatments of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorbers in lieu of a CdS layer. Treatment of the absorbers in a containing Cd or Zn solution is shown to produce conditions under which efficient solar cells can be fabricated. A similar effect is also observed in CuInGaSSe2 (CIGSS) graded-bandgap absorbers. These observations can be explained by the ability of Cd and Zn to produce n-type doping or inversion in the surface region. We also provide a brief review of similar work done elsewhere and identify directions for future investigations.

Ramanathan, K.; Hasoon, F.S.; Smith, S.; Young, D.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Johnson, P.K.; Pudov, A.O.; Sites, J.R.

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

An Insulating Breakthrough | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed An Insulating Breakthrough JANUARY 8, 2007 Bookmark and Share Tungsten Diselenide A new insulating material with the lowest thermal conductivity ever measured for a fully dense solid has been created at the University of Oregon (UO) and tested at the XOR/UNI 33-BM beamline at the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne. The research was carried out by collaborators from the UO, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Argonne. While far from having immediate application, the principles involved, once understood, could lead to improved insulation for a wide variety of uses,

389

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SIEMENS SOLAR INDUSTRIES FOR AN ADVANCE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL NREL SUBCONTRACT NO. ZAK-8-17619-19 UNDER DOE CONTRACT NO. DE- AC36-83CH10093; W(A)-98-019; CH-0987 The Petitioner, Siemens Solar Industries (hereinafter "SSI"), has requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions arising from its participation under th, above referenced subcontract entitled "Commercialization of CIS-Based Thin-Film PV." The ) Petitioner is a ower. tie subcontractor under the referenced NREL subcontract wi / Res3areh lstituce - (SRI),a- 1 ot-for profit organi7ztion. 4 The contract pertains to the use of alloys of copper indium diselenide (CuInSe 2 , hereinafter "CIS") in photovoltaic cells. CIS-based photovoltaic cells have shown promise in reducing the cost of photovoltaics well below the cost of crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic

390

NREL: Awards and Honors - R&D 100 Award Winners from 1999 through 1982  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL R&D 100 Award Winners from 1999 through 1982 NREL R&D 100 Award Winners from 1999 through 1982 1999 Advanced Direct-Contact Condenser: A new way of condensing steam that enables geothermal electric plants to generate more electricity more cheaply. 1999 Siemens Solar St-Family of Solar (CIS) Modules: The first large-area solar electric modules made from the promising thin-film material of copper indium diselenide. 1998 UNI-SOLAR Triple-Junction Amorphous-Silicon Solar-Electric Modules: Thin, flexible, waterproof roof shingles that efficiently produce electricity from sunlight. 1998 "Vermont" High-Throughput Gasifier: Turns wood chips into a clean gas for use in fuel cells or gas turbines to produce electricity. 1997 "PV Optics" Software Light-Trapping Model for Solar Cells: Software

391

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SIEMENS SOLAR INDUSTRIES FOR AN ADVANCE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FG48-97R8810617; W(A)-97- 034; CH-0937 The Petitioner, Siemens Solar Industries, has requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions arising from its participation under the above referenced cooperative agreement entitled "Commercialization of CIS Thin Film Photovoltaics." This cooperative agreement is to assist the Petitioner in commercializing its proprietary copper indium diselenide (CIS) thin film photovoltaic technology. The thin film technology promises better than average efficiency and lower-cost manufacturing. This is a two year program designed to purchase equipment for pilot production of CIS modules, and for Petitioner to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, process capabilities and cost

392

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

393

Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Comparison of Energy Production and Performance from Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Technologies Deployed at Fixed Tilt: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the performance data for 14 photovoltaic modules deployed at fixed-latitude tilt in the field are presented and compared. Module performance is monitored continuously for optimum power characteristics. Flat-plate module technologies representative of crystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon, and cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide, are scrutinized for energy production, effective efficiency and performance ratio-ratio of effective to reference efficiency. Most performance ratios exhibit seasonal fluctuations largely correlated to air or module temperatures, varying between 80% and 100%. These ratios tend toward larger values during winter and vise versa, except for amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride modules. In a-Si cases, the situation appears reversed: better performance ratios are exhibited during late summer. The effective efficiency and average daily and yearly energy production are analyzed and quantified.

del Cueto, J. A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Polycrystalline thin-film module and system performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Module and System Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems (arrays). These evaluations on module/array performance and stability are conducted at the NREL Photovoltaic Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) in Golden, CO. The modules and arrays are located at 39.7{degree}N latitude, 105.2{degree}W longitude, and at 1,782 meters elevation. Currently, two polycrystalline thin-film technologies are the focus of the research presented here. The module structures are copper indium diselenide (CIS) from Siemens Solar Industries and cadmium telluride (CdTe) from Solar Cells, Inc. The research team is attempting to correlate individual module performance with array performance for these two polycrystalline thin-film technologies. This is done by looking at module and array performance over time. Also, temperature coefficients are determined at both the module and array level. Results are discussed.

Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; Mrig, L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

Erickson, G.F.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

Faraday rotation and sensitivity of (100) bismuth-substituted ferrite garnet films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the Faraday rotation of in-plane magnetized bismuth-substituted ferrite garnet films grown by liquid phase epitaxy on (100) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. The Faraday spectra were measured for photon energies between 1.7- 2.6 eV. To interprete the spectra, we use a model based on two electric dipole transitions, one tetrahedral and one octahedral. Furthermore, the Faraday rotation sensitivity was measured at 2.3 eV, and found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predicitions. In particular, we find that the sensitivity increases linearly with the bismuth content and nonlinearly with the gallium content. 1 I.

L. E. Helseth; A. G. Solovyev; R. W. Hansen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Synthesis and characterization of GaN thin films deposited on different substrates using a low-cost electrochemical deposition technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gallium nitride GaN thin films were deposited on three different substrates; Si (111), Si (100) and ITO coated glass using electrochemical deposition technique at 20 Degree-Sign C. A mixture of gallium nitrate, ammonium nitrate was used as electrolyte. The deposited films were investigated at room temperature by a series of material characterization techniques, namely; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images and EDX results indicated that the growth of GaN films varies according to the substrates. XRD analyses showed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases with the crystallite size around 18-29 nm.

Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Al-Balqa Applied University, Ajloun University College (Jordan); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800-Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Characteristics of Uranium and Its Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Symbol: U Symbol: U Atomic Number: 92 (protons in nucleus) Atomic Weight: 238 (naturally occurring) Radioactive Properties of Key Uranium Isotopes Isotope Half-Life Natural Abundance ( % ) Specific Activity (Ci/g) Decay Energy (MeV) U-234 248,000 yr 0.0055 6.2 × 10 -3 4.8 α U-235 700 million yr 0.72 2.2 × 10 -6 4. 4 α 0.21 γ U-238 4.5 billion yr 99.27 3.3 × 10 -7 4.2 α Specific activity is the activity in curies (Ci) or becquerels (Bq) per gram of material. For reference, 1 Ci is 3.7 × 10 10 disintegrations per second, and the specific activity of radium-226 is about 1 Ci/g. To convert specific activity expressed in curies to standard international units, multiply by 3.7 × 10 10 Bq/Ci. The decay energy represents the average energy associated with the dominant decay modes, which is essentially the kinetic energy of the alpha

403

Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp-Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 {micro}m to a modest 0.50 {micro}m over an underlying 0.10-{micro}m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 {micro}m/3 {micro}m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

CIS photovoltaic technology. Annual technical report, January 12, 1996--January 11, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin film photovoltaic modules based on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} have been shown to possess attributes that should enable them to compete effectively with silicon-based modules, and that should ultimately allow realization of a much lower $/Wp cost figure. These attributes are stability, high efficiency, and low materials cost. Energy Photovoltaics has explored novel CIGS formation recipes that can be implemented on a unique pilot line constructed to coat substrates 4300 cm{sup 2} in area. One particular feature of this line is the use of proprietary linear sources capable of downwards evaporation. After experimentation with several types of recipe, a so-called {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} process was found to simultaneously yield the desired combination of properties, namely good adhesion, device efficiency, uniformity, and reproducibility. The steps involve precursor formation, compound formation, and termination. Diagnostic techniques used to study and improve the CIGS films included spatial mapping of thickness, composition (using Auger analysis), resistance, V{sub oc} and I{sub sc}. The last three items are determined by quick tests designed to provide rapid feedback on plate quality. Problem areas were broken down and isolated through use of techniques involving substitution of different pieces of equipment for certain processing steps. For example, pilot line precursors were selenized in both the pilot line and smaller scale R&D equipment.

Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.S.; Kiss, Z.J. [Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Density Profiles in Sputtered Molybdenum Thin Films and Their Effects on Sodium Diffusion in Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 Photovoltaics: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were sputtered onto soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The main variable in the deposition parameters, the argon (Ar) pressure pAr, was varied in the range of 6 - 20 mTorr. Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was performed to find out that the dielectric functions of the Mo films were strongly dependent on pAr, indicating a consistent and significant decrease in the Mo film density pMo with increasing pAr. This trend was confirmed by high-angle-annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric functions of Mo were then found to be correlated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles of Sodium (Na) in the Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 (CIGS) layer grown on top of Mo/SLG. Therefore, in situ optical diagnostics can be applied for process monitoring and optimization in the deposition of Mo for CIGS solar cells. Such capability is demonstrated with simulated optical transmission and reflectance of variously polarized incident light, using dielectric functions deduced from SE.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Mansfield, L.; Young, M.; Yan, Y.; Contreras, M.; Noufi, R.; Levi, D.; Terry Jr., F. L.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Surfactant-Assisted Growth of CdS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect

A common non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used to modify the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS "buffer" layers on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data demonstrate that films produced with the surfactant have about the same levels of impurities as films grown without it. For thin, ~130 ..ANG.. CdS layers and relative to devices made without the surfactant, average absolute cell efficiencies were increased from 10.5% to 14.8%, or by a relative 41%. Visual inspection of the CdS depositions reveals one possible mechanism of the surfactant's effects: bubbles that form and adhere to the CIGS surface during the CBD reaction are almost completely eliminated with the addition of the TX-100. Thus, pinholes and thin areas in the CdS layers caused by poor wetting of the substrate surface are sharply reduced, leading to large increases in the open circuit voltage in devices produced with the surfactant.

Perkins, C. L.; Hasoon, F. S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Influence of Damp Heat on the Electrical, Optical, and Morphological Properties of Encapsulated CuInGaSe2 Devices: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) devices, encapsulated with different backsheets having different water vapor transmission rates (WVTR), were exposed to damp heat (DH) at 85C and 85% relative humidity (RH) and characterized periodically to understand junction degradation induced by moisture ingress. Performance degradation of the devices was primarily driven by an increase in series resistance within first 50 h of exposure, resulting in a decrease in fill factor and, accompanied loss in carrier concentration and widening of depletion width. Surface analysis of the devices after 700-h DH exposure showed the formation of Zn(OH)2 from hydrolysis of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer by the moisture, which was detrimental to the collection of minority carriers. Minority carrier lifetimes observed for the CIGS devices using time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) remained relatively long after DH exposure. By etching the DH-exposed devices and re-fabricating with new component layers, the performance of reworked devices improved significantly, further indicating that DH-induced degradation of the AZO layer and/or the CdS buffer was the primary performance-degrading factor.

Sundaramoorthy, R.; Pern, F. J.; Teeter, G.; Li, J. V.; Young, M.; Kuciauskas, D.; Call, N.; Yan, F.; To, B.; Johnston, S.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.

Yan, Y.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 ?m to a modest 0.50 ?m over an underlying 0.10-?m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 ?m/3 ?m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Surfactant-Assisted Growth of CdS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A common non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used to modify the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS "buffer" layers on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data demonstrate that films produced with the surfactant have about the same levels of impurities as films grown without it. For thin, ~130 ..ANG.. CdS layers and relative to devices made without the surfactant, average absolute cell efficiencies were increased from 10.5% to 14.8%, or by a relative 41%. Visual inspection of the CdS depositions reveals one possible mechanism of the surfactant's effects: bubbles that form and adhere to the CIGS surface during the CBD reaction are almost completely eliminated with the addition of the TX-100. Thus, pinholes and thin areas in the CdS layers caused by poor wetting of the substrate surface are sharply reduced, leading to large increases in the open circuit voltage in devices produced with the surfactant.

Perkins, C. L.; Hasoon, F. S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Not Your Grandma's Quilt Researchers develop technique to keep cool high-power semiconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices used in wireless applications, traffic lights and electric cars By Sean Nealon On MAY 8, 2012 in everything from traffic lights to electric cars. Gallium Nitride (GaN), a semiconductor material found by the Nano-Device Laboratory research group led byAlexander Balandin, professor of electrical engineering

412

Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.

Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Aluminum battery alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 939435138  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..............................................................................................................9 The Art of the Deal: How Can the Air Force Successfully Execute Renewable Energy Transactions of an Incident High-Energy Electromagnetic Beam ....21 Fusion Centers: Securing America's Homeland from Threats of an Incident High-Energy Electromagnetic Beam ... 23 Near-Field Imaging of Charge Transport in Gallium Nitride

415

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution Aurélien David of photonic crystal PhC -assisted gallium nitride light-emitting diodes LEDs to the existence of unextracted a promising but challenging solution towards efficient solid-state lighting. Conventional GaN-based light-emitting

Recanati, Catherine

416

Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOR GALLIUM NITRIDE LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DEVICES DECEMBER 2012 CEC5002013027 Prepared for: California Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices is the final report for the grant, PIR10055, conducted by Applied the Energy Commission at 9163271551. #12;3 ABSTRACT For light emitting diodes (LEDs) to realiz

417

Aluminum battery alloys  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst, particularly useful in catalytic reforming and for producing highly pure aromatic hydrocarbons, comprising an alumina carrier and containing, expressed in proportion of the weight of the alumina carrier: 005 to 1% of platinum 01 to 4% of gallium, indium or thallium 01 to 2% of tungsten, and 1 to 10% of halogen.

Le P. J.; Malmaison, R.; Marcilly, C.; Martino, G.; Miquel, J.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

419

FF1, n+GaAs Sheet Resistance Saturation and Implications to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These results can be explained via the interaction of three phenomena: a) an ... level, b) the tendency of gallium vacancies to form complexes with silicon donor ... B1, Phonon Engineering through Crystal Chemistry ... CC4, Response of Graphene-Based Field Effect Devices Exposed to Gamma and Neutron Irradiation.

420

An Ultra High Speed Test System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The test-head subsystem presented uses gallium arsenide pin electronics to provide nonrepeating zero data rates up to 1.2 Gb/s. The device under test is connected to laser-scanned optical sensors, and the test system receivers use an electrooptic measurement ...

Francois Henley

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

In Situ Calibration of the SeaBird 9plus CTD Thermometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE 35) deep ocean reference thermometer is used with the SBE 9plus CTD system to calibrate the SBE 3 ocean thermometers of the CTD. The SBE 35 is standardized in water-triple-point and gallium-melting-point cells. The SBE ...

Hiroshi Uchida; Kentaro Ohyama; Satoshi Ozawa; Masao Fukasawa

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

SOLERAS - University Research Project. Progress report No. 3, 1984-85 annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accomplishments of solar energy research projects maintained by nine US universities are summarized. Some research topics covered include: photosynthesis; passive cooling; crystal growth of gallium arsenides; concentrating optics for PV conversion; amorphous silicon alloys; solar insolation; solar ponds; and wind power. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

SOLERAS - University Research Project. Progress report 1, December 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress to date on each of the research efforts in direct solar energy applications at public and private institutions of higher education and research in the United States is addressed. Some research topics covered include: concentrating optics for PV conversion; wind power; solar ponds; photosynthesis; amorphous silicon alloys; passive cooling; crystal growth of gallium arsenides; and solar insolation.

Not Available

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Quantum Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy LLC Energy LLC Place Niwot, Colorado Zip 80503 Product Colorado-based company that is allegedly manufacturing CIGS modules and CPV system through a Taiwanese JV in order to use it in their project development. Coordinates 40.103955°, -105.172429° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.103955,"lon":-105.172429,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

425

Honda Soltec Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soltec Co Ltd Soltec Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Honda Soltec Co Ltd Place Kikuchi-gun, Kumamoto, Japan Sector Solar Product Japanese distributor of Honda Engineering's CIGS thin-film solar cells and modules. Coordinates 32.887852°, 130.86853° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.887852,"lon":130.86853,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

426

Daiyang Metal Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Daiyang Metal Co Ltd Daiyang Metal Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Daiyang Metal Co Ltd Place Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Zip 137-040 Sector Solar Product Stainless steel manufacturing and CIGS solar cell maker. Coordinates 37.557121°, 126.977379° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.557121,"lon":126.977379,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

427

Exploring High-Dimensional Data Space: Identifying Optimal Process Conditions in Photovoltaics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate how advanced exploratory data analysis coupled to data-mining techniques can be used to scrutinize the high-dimensional data space of photovoltaics in the context of thin films of Al-doped ZnO (AZO), which are essential materials as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. AZO data space, wherein each sample is synthesized from a different process history and assessed with various characterizations, is transformed, reorganized, and visualized in order to extract optimal process conditions. The data-analysis methods used include parallel coordinates, diffusion maps, and hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms combined with diffusion map embedding.

Suh, C.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.; Jones, W. B.; Biagioni, D.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (R{sub d}) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2 {+-} 0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2013 | Release Date: October 3, 2, 2013 | Release Date: October 3, 2013 | Next Release: October 10, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 12/29/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: New lateral increases customer access to Denver-Julesburg gas production Full service is expected to begin by November on the High Plains pipeline's newly built Lancaster Lateral in northern Colorado. Once this occurs, High Plains, which is part of Kinder Morgan subsidiary El Paso Pipeline Partners' Colorado Interstate Gas (CIG) pipeline system, would have firm contract agreements to carry 0.22 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) and could eventually carry 0.59 Bcf/d of additional natural gas from the Denver-Julesburg production basin 7.5 miles north to the Cheyenne

430

Royalstar Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Royalstar Group Royalstar Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Royalstar Group Place Hefei, Anhui Province, China Sector Solar Product Chinese manufacturer of washing machines, solar water heaters, and as of June 2006, announced to enter the thin-film (CIGS) cell market. Coordinates 31.86141°, 117.27562° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.86141,"lon":117.27562,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

431

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

For photovoltaics (PV) to reach terawatt scale and meet ARPA-E targets for energy generation, emissions reductions, and US jobs, three criteria For photovoltaics (PV) to reach terawatt scale and meet ARPA-E targets for energy generation, emissions reductions, and US jobs, three criteria must be met. PV devices must be: (1) low-cost (20%)-in order to reduce balance-of-system costs. Crystalline silicon is the only technology capable of meeting all three criteria. (CdTe and CIGS can only support tens of GW/yr, based on feedstock availability.) The single barrier still limiting silicon's market penetration is the 35-year-old grand challenge of making monocrystalline-equivalent wafers without the cost and waste of sawing. 1366 Technologies has developed a kerfless wafering process called Direct Wafer, which will deliver high-performance wafers at a fraction of the current cost. Our breakthrough is a method for attaching molten silicon

432

Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer`s diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

435

Junction Formation in CuInSe{sub 2} Based Thin Film Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nature of the interface between CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and the chemical bath deposited CdS layer has been investigated. We show that heat-treating the absorbers in Cd- or Zn-containing solutions in the presence of ammonium hydroxide sets up a chemical reaction which facilitates an extraction of Cu from the lattice and an in-diffusion of Cd. The characteristics of devices made in this manner suggest that the reaction generates a thin, n-doped region in the absorber. It is quite possible that the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} device is a buried, shallow junction with a CdS window layer, rather than a heterojunction. We have used these ideas to develop methods for fabricating devices without CdS or Cd. A 14.2% efficiency ZnO/CIGS device was obtained through aqueous treatment in Zn solutions.

Ramanathan, K.; Wiesner, H.; Asher, S.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Keane, J.; Contreras, M.; Noufi, R.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

436

Veeco Instruments Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Veeco Instruments Inc Veeco Instruments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Veeco Instruments Inc Place Woodbury, New York Zip 11797 Sector Solar Product US manufacturer of production equipment mostly for data storage but also for CIGS thin-film solar and LED MOCVD manufacturing equipment. Coordinates 44.440496°, -72.414991° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.440496,"lon":-72.414991,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

437

The Buddhist princess and the woolly turban: non-Buddhist others in a 15th century biography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rnams la di ni bdag gis kun tu mi bzod kyis/ rdo ba dang phongs la rab tu bskrod cig ces bsgoo/khor rnams kyis kyang le lo ma yin par de bzhin du bgyis pa las/ bya gag gi phreng pa zhig pa bzhin du gyur nas rnga dang bshang la sogs pa rnams ni gzhi... dbus su ci nang bgyid par zhus nas/ de dang dei las la jug pa na rgyal bai dbang mos rang gi lhai de nyid dran par byes te blta stangs kyi gzir bas gshen rabs kyi rgyal mtshan chang ba yon mchod khor dang bcas pa thams cad la shing tu mi zad pa...

Diemberger, Hildegard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Device physics of thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules: Phase 1 annual report: February 1998--January 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done by Colorado State University (CSU) during Phase 1 of this subcontract. CSU researchers continued to make basic measurements on CI(G)S and CdTe solar cells fabricated at different labs, to quantitatively deduce the loss mechanisms in these cells, and to make appropriate comparisons that illuminate where progress is being made. Cells evaluated included the new record CIGS cell, CIS cells made with and without CdS, and those made by electrodeposition and electroless growth from solution. Work on the role of impurities focused on sodium in CIS. Cells with varying amounts of sodium added during CIS deposition were fabricated at NREL using four types of substrates. The best performance was achieved with 10{sup {minus}2}--10{sup {minus}1} at% sodium, and the relative merits of proposed mechanisms for the sodium effect were compared. Researchers also worked on the construction and testing of a fine-focused laser-beam apparatus to measure local variations in polycrystalline cell performance. A 1{micro}m spot was achieved, spatial reproducibility in one and two dimensions is less than 1 {micro}m, and photocurrent is reliably measured when the 1{micro}m spot is reduced as low as 1-sun in intensity. In elevated-temperature stress tests, typical CdTe cells held at 100 C under illumination and normal resistive loads for extended periods of time were generally very stable; but those held under reverse or large forward bias and those contacted using larger amounts of copper were somewhat less stable. CdTe cell modeling produced reasonable fits to experimental data, including variations in back-contact barriers. A major challenge being addressed is the photovoltaic response of a single simple-geometry crystallite with realistic grain boundaries.

Sites, J. R.

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

439

CX-000845: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0845: Categorical Exclusion Determination 0845: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000845: Categorical Exclusion Determination 25A2445 - Ammonothermal Bulk Gallium Nitride (GaN) Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Lighting CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/15/2010 Location(s): New York Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy This project plans to address the vast energy loss and consumption associated with conventional lighting by developing a new route to large, high-quality, single crystals of gallium nitride. These crystals will serve as substrates for light emitting diodes offering high-efficiency lighting. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000845.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009889: Categorical Exclusion Determination Power Electronics Research and Development Program Plan

440

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. 31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. Download CX-010893: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modification to Demolish Building 900A and Reconstruct Building 900 Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.15 Date: 06/28/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010893-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

442

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. 71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010896: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative (SUMMARY Categorical Exclusion) CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010896-categorical-exclusion-determination

443

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas July 3, 2013 - 2:04pm Addthis Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux

444

Concerning the energy levels of silver in Ge-Si alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emission from impurity states of silver (an element of the IB subgroup) in a Ge-Si alloy, containing 18 at % Si, has been studied. The donor level of silver has been found in crystals doubly doped with gallium and silver, while its first acceptor level has been revealed in crystals doped with only silver. Single crystals were grown by pulling from a melt using a feeding rod. Doping with gallium was performed by introducing this element into the feeding rod, and silver was introduced into the crystals via diffusion. The positions of the donor and first acceptor Ag levels with respect to the top of the valence band were found by analyzing the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient and the electroneutrality equation for the crystal: 0.06 and 0.29 eV, respectively.

Tahirov, V. I. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Agamaliev, Z. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Sadixova, S. R.; Guliev, A. F.; Gahramanov, N. F., E-mail: n_gakhramanov@mail.ru [Sumgait State University (Azerbaijan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Profile NeutronDetector 9-16-04..pmd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GALLIUM ARSENIDE SEMICONDUCTOR-BASED GALLIUM ARSENIDE SEMICONDUCTOR-BASED NEUTRON DETECTOR B E N E F I T S Portable, Accurate Device Detects and Monitors Neutrons and Nuclear Materials * More accurate and sensitive than other technologies * Performance won't degrade over time * Easy implementation and deployment * Rugged, lightweight, and portable for field use * Reduces false readings * Requires less power * Low mass-production cost (about $1 per chip) * Neutron detection * Detecting and monitoring nuclear materials and weapons * Permanent installations and portable field operation * High-vacuum environments (e.g., physics labs and space platforms) An advanced neutron detector developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Kansas State University accurately detects neutrons and finds concealed nuclear weapons and materials, even in harsh or challenging environments. The key

446

eCopy, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

he submitted manuscript has been authored he submitted manuscript has been authored ria contractor of the U. S. Government under contract No. W·31·10S-ENG·38. Accordingly. the U. S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty·free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so~ for U. S. Government purposes. IDENTIFICATION OF ROOT CAUSE OF VIBRATION OF A LIQUID .. GALLIUM .. COOLED SILICON MONOCHROMATOR AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ABATEMENT by S. S. Chen, S. Zhu, M. W. Wambsganss, and J. A. J endrzejczyk Energy Technology Division W.K.Lee Experimental Facilities Division August 1994 Work supported by U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Basic Energy Sciences LS-240 IDENTIFICATION OF ROOT CAUSE OF VIBRATION OF A LIQUID .. GALlIUM .. COOLED SILICON MONOCHROMATOR AND

447

CX-009000: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination 0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009000: Categorical Exclusion Determination "High Quality, Low Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride (GaN) Substrates Grown by the Electrochemical Solution Growth Method CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/20/2012 Location(s): Missouri Offices(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide federal funding to MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. MEMC would conduct research and development activities for a two phase project to develop a new process method for growing large bulk gallium nitrate (GaN) crystals at low cost with improved functional properties." CX-009000.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-000845: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations - Day 3,

448

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Massachusetts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 CX-006559: Categorical Exclusion Determination Dedham Municipal Solar Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 08/22/2011 Location(s): Dedham, Massachusetts Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office August 17, 2011 CX-006556: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gallium Nitride Electronics for Grid Applications CX(s) Applied: A1, A2, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 08/17/2011 Location(s): Cambridge, Massachusetts Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 17, 2011 CX-006555: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gallium Nitride Electronics for Grid Applications CX(s) Applied: A1, A2, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 08/17/2011 Location(s): Lexington, Massachusetts Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy

449

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Arkansas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arkansas Arkansas Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Arkansas Location Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued for actions in Arkansas. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 16, 2013 CX-010974: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction... CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Arkansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 16, 2013 CX-010973: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction... CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Arkansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

450

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

451

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A9 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 17, 2011 August 17, 2011 CX-006556: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gallium Nitride Electronics for Grid Applications CX(s) Applied: A1, A2, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 08/17/2011 Location(s): Cambridge, Massachusetts Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 17, 2011 CX-006555: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gallium Nitride Electronics for Grid Applications CX(s) Applied: A1, A2, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 08/17/2011 Location(s): Lexington, Massachusetts Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 16, 2011 CX-006538: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bringing Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems into Green Communities - University Retirement Center at Davis Green Energy Community

452

CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

86: Categorical Exclusion Determination 86: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Stion Corporation to retrofit Stion's solar panel manufacturing plant at 6321 San Ignacio Avenue in San Jose, California and expand into an adjacent building at 6331 San Ignacio Avenue in order to establish a 135 megawatt nameplate capacity manufacturing plant. Stion produces monolithically integrated thin film photovoltaic modules using single-junction Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) absorbers. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

453

Peering into a Quantum Well | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Peering into a Quantum Well Peering into a Quantum Well Discovery & Innovation Stories of Discovery & Innovation Brief Science Highlights SBIR/STTR Highlights Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 09.01.11 Peering into a Quantum Well Supercomputer simulation illuminates mysterious "droop" in solid-state lighting. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Gallium nitride light-emitting diode. Image courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Gallium nitride light-emitting diode. Despite being cool, ultra-efficient, and long-lasting, solid-state lighting has yet to conquer the general lighting market partly due to a problem called "efficiency droop." New findings from simulations carried out at

454

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. 71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination

455

NREL: News - NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

913 913 NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell Conversion-efficiency mark is a world record for a two-junction solar cell measured under one-sun illumination June 24, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Lab has announced a world record of 31.1% conversion efficiency for a two-junction solar cell under one sun of illumination. NREL Scientist Myles Steiner announced the new record June 19 at the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference in Tampa, Fla. The previous record of 30.8% efficiency was held by Alta Devices. The tandem cell was made of a gallium indium phosphide cell atop a gallium arsenide cell, has an area of about 0.25 square centimeters and was measured under the AM1.5 global spectrum at 1,000 W/m2. It was grown inverted, similar to the NREL-developed inverted metamorphic multi-junction

456

Lyme carditis. Electrophysiologic and histopathologic study  

SciTech Connect

To further define the nature of Lyme carditis, electrophysiologic study and endomyocardial biopsy were performed in a patient with Lyme disease, whose principal cardiac manifestation was high-degree atrioventricular block. Intracardiac recording demonstrated supra-Hisian block and complete absence of an escape mechanism. Gallium 67 scanning demonstrated myocardial uptake, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed active lymphocytic myocarditis. A structure compatible with a spirochetal organism was demonstrated in one biopsy specimen. It is concluded that Lyme disease can produce active myocarditis, as suggested by gallium 67 imaging and confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Furthermore, the presence of high-grade atrioventricular block in this disease requires aggressive management with temporary pacemaker and corticosteroid therapy.

Reznick, J.W.; Braunstein, D.B.; Walsh, R.L.; Smith, C.R.; Wolfson, P.M.; Gierke, L.W.; Gorelkin, L.; Chandler, F.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low Energy Solar Neutrinos and Spin Flavour Precession  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility that the Gallium data effectively indicates a time modulation of the solar active neutrino flux in possible connection to solar activity is examined on the light of spin flavour precession to sterile neutrinos as a subdominant process in addition to oscillations. We distinguish two sets of Gallium data, relating them to high and low solar activity. Such modulation affects principally the low energy neutrinos ($pp$ and $^7 Be$) so that the effect, if it exists, will become most clear in the forthcoming Borexino and LENS experiments and will provide evidence for a neutrino magnetic moment. Using a model previously developed, we perform two separate fits in relation to low and high activity periods to all solar neutrino data. These fits include the very recent charged current spectrum from the SNO experiment. We also derive the model predictions for Borexino and LENS experiments.

Bhag C. Chauhan; Joao Pulido; R. S. Raghavan

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

458

Development of electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Third technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of stable, efficient, electrochemical photovoltaic cells based on silicon and gallium arsenide in non-aqueous electrolyte systems is being investigated. The effect of surface condition of silicon electrodes on electrochemical and physical characteristics has been studied. An electrode-supporting electrolyte interaction in acetonitrile has been identified which leads to etching of the surface. Improved performance can result, which has practical significance. Gallium arsenide electrodes have been electrochemically characterized in cells containing propylene carbonate with a ferrocene/ferricenium redox additive. Degradation of the ferricenium salt under illumination has been investigated. Other redox couples studied to date have not given promising results. Long-term stability experiments have been deferred while a better understanding of electrode behavior is being obtained.

Byker, H.J.; Schwerzel, R.E.; Wood, V.E.; Austin, A.E.; Brooman, E.W.

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

Solar photovoltaic technology: The thin film option  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaics (PV) the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity was first discovered by scientists at the Bell Labs in 1954. In the late 1960's and 1970's most of the solar cell technology has been used for space applications to power satellites. The main work horse for the PV technology has been crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. Over the past 15 years this has led to cost reduction from $35/kWh to about $0.30/kWh at the present time. Demonstrated reliability of 20 years or more has resulted in acceptance by several utilities. However, cost reductions in crystalline Si solar cells have been limited by the cost of wafering of ingots and the attendant loss of material. A number of Si sheet solar cells are also being investigated. In the past decade the emphasis of the research and development effort has been focused on thin film solar cells, which have the potential for generating power at much lower cost of $1-2/Wp. Thin film solar cells that are presently being investigated and are generating global attention are: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe/sub 2,/ or CIS). In the past few years, considerable progress has been; made by all three of these thin film solar cells. This paper reviews the current status and future potential of these exiting thin film solar cell technologies.

Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Sabisky, E.S.; Surek, T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area amorphous silicon based modules -- Task B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents progress in developing a stable, high- efficiency, four-terminal hybrid tandem module. The module consists of a semi-transparent, thin-film silicon:hydrogen alloy (TFS) top circuit and a copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) bottom circuit. Film deposition and patterning processes were successfully extended to 0.4-m{sup 2} substrates. A 33.2-W (8.4% efficient) module with a 3970-cm{sup 2} aperture area and a white back reflector was demonstrated; without the back reflector, the module produced 30.2 W (7.6% efficient). Placing a laminated, 31.6-W, 8.1%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} module underneath this TFS module, with an air gap between the two, produces 11.2 W (2.9% efficient) over a 3883-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Therefore, the four-terminal tandem power output is 41.4 W, translating to a 10.5% aperture-area efficiency. Subsequently, a 37.8-W (9.7% aperture-area efficiency) CuInSe{sub 2} module was demonstrated with a 3905-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Future performances of single-junction and tandem modules of this size were modeled, and predicted power outputs exceed 50 W (13% efficient) for CuInSe{sub 2} and 65 W (17% efficient) for TFS/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem modules.

Mitchell, K.W.; Willet, D.R. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium diselenide cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Research on polycrystalline thin-film materials, cells, and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports research activities in polycrystalline thin films through the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). This program includes research and development (R D) in both copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this program is to support R D of photovoltaic cells and modules that meet the DOE long-term goals of high efficiency (15%--20%), low cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and reliability (30-year life time). Research carried out in this area is receiving increased recognition due to important advances in polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules. These have become the leading thin-film materials for photovoltaics in terms of efficiency and stability. DOE has recognized this potential through a competitive initiative for the development of CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe modules. This paper focuses on the recent progress and future directions of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program and the status of the subcontracted research on these promising photovoltaic materials. 26 refs., 12 figs, 1 tab.

Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Research on amorphous-silicon-based thin-film photovoltaic devices: Semiannual subcontract report, 1 July 1987--31 December 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop 13% (aperture area) efficient, 850-cm/sup 2/ four-terminal hybrid tandem submodules. The module design consists of a copper-indium-diselenide (CIS)-based bottom circuit and a semitransparent, thin-film silicon-hydrogen (TFS)-based top circuit. High-performance, semitransparent TFS devices and submodules were fabricated in which ZnO was used in the front and rear transparent conductors. High-performance CIS devices and submodules were also fabricated; however, the location and nature of the junction are not yet understood. Representative four-terminal hybrid tandem devices and submodules were fabricated from TFS and CIS component circuits. Optical coupling between the circuits was lower than expected, because of reflection losses at key interfaces. Efficiencies obtained for these devices and modules include 14.17% for a four-terminal, 4-cm/sup 2/ tandem cell and 12.3% for a four-terminal, tandem module. 7 refs., 90 figs.

Bottenberg, W.; Mitchell, K.; Wieting, R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Innovative sputtering techniques for CIS and CdTe submodule fabrication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done during Phase 1 of the subject subcontract. The subcontract was designed to study innovative deposition techniques, such as the rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering system and electrodeposition for large-area, low-cost copper indium diselenide (CIS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) devices. A key issue for photovoltaics (PV) in terrestrial and future space applications is producibility, particularly for applications using a large quantity of PV. Among the concerns for fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV, such as CIS and CdTe, are production volume, cost, and minimization of waste. Both rotating cylindrical magnetron (C-Mag[trademark]) sputtering and electrodeposition have tremendous potential for the fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV due to scaleability, efficient utilization of source materials, and inherently higher deposition rates. In the case of sputtering, the unique geometry of the C-Mae facilitates innovative cosputtering and reactive sputtering that could lead to greater throughput reduced health and safety risks, and, ultimately, lower fabrication cost. Electrodeposited films appear to be adherent and comparable with low-cost fabrication techniques. Phase I involved the initial film and device fabrication using the two techniques mentioned herein. Devices were tested by both internal facilities, as well as NREL and ISET.

Armstrong, J.M.; Misra, M.S.; Lanning, B. (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States). Astronautics Group)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Innovative sputtering techniques for CIS and CdTe submodule fabrication. Annual subcontract report, 1 September 1991--31 August 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done during Phase 1 of the subject subcontract. The subcontract was designed to study innovative deposition techniques, such as the rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering system and electrodeposition for large-area, low-cost copper indium diselenide (CIS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) devices. A key issue for photovoltaics (PV) in terrestrial and future space applications is producibility, particularly for applications using a large quantity of PV. Among the concerns for fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV, such as CIS and CdTe, are production volume, cost, and minimization of waste. Both rotating cylindrical magnetron (C-Mag{trademark}) sputtering and electrodeposition have tremendous potential for the fabrication of polycrystalline thin-film PV due to scaleability, efficient utilization of source materials, and inherently higher deposition rates. In the case of sputtering, the unique geometry of the C-Mae facilitates innovative cosputtering and reactive sputtering that could lead to greater throughput reduced health and safety risks, and, ultimately, lower fabrication cost. Electrodeposited films appear to be adherent and comparable with low-cost fabrication techniques. Phase I involved the initial film and device fabrication using the two techniques mentioned herein. Devices were tested by both internal facilities, as well as NREL and ISET.

Armstrong, J.M.; Misra, M.S.; Lanning, B. [Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States). Astronautics Group

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Zweibel, K. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography.

Green, Mark A. (West Lafayette, IN); Tsang, Brenda W. (Lafayette, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography. 6 figures.

Green, M.A.; Tsang, B.W.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

470

World Supply and Demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Gallium arsenide ingot, wafer, and device manufacturers...X Sweden Semitronics AB X United Kingdom General Electricity Company (U.K.) X X X X X MCP Electronic Materials Ltd. X United States Airtron Division of Litton Industries X Anadigics Inc. X X X Applied Solar Energy Corporation X X AT & T Bell Laboratories X X X X Bertram Laboratories X Crystal Specialties,...

471

NREL Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many scientists once believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) thought differently, and they employed GaInP in a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. The multijunction cell is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic products.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Nuclear fuels technologies fiscal year 1998 research and development test plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of research and development (R and D) activities are planned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in FY98 in support of the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). During the past few years, the ability to fabricate mixed oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel using surplus-weapons plutonium has been researched, and various experiments have been performed. This research effort will be continued in FY98 to support further development of the technology required for MOX fuel fabrication for reactor-based plutonium disposition. R and D activities for FY98 have been divided into four major areas: (1) feed qualification/supply, (2) fuel fabrication development, (3) analytical methods development, and (4) gallium removal. Feed qualification and supply activities encompass those associated with the production of both PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} feed materials. Fuel fabrication development efforts include studies with a new UO{sub 2} feed material, alternate sources of PuO{sub 2}, and determining the effects of gallium on the sintering process. The intent of analytical methods development is to upgrade and improve several analytical measurement techniques in support of other R and D and test fuel fabrication tasks. Finally, the purpose of the gallium removal system activity is to develop and integrate a gallium removal system into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) design and the Phase 2 Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) demonstration line. These four activities will be coordinated and integrated appropriately so that they benefit the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. This plan describes the activities that will occur in FY98 and presents the schedule and milestones for these activities.

Alberstein, D.; Blair, H.T.; Buksa, J.J. [and others

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

SOLERAS - University Research Project. Progress report 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress to date on each of the research efforts in direct solar energy applications at public and private institutions of higher education and research in the United States is addressed. Some research topics covered include: concentrating optics for PV conversion; wind power; solar ponds; photosynthesis; amorphous silicon alloys; passive cooling; crystal growth of gallium arsenides; and solar insolation. The period of work covered by these reports is June 1984 through February 1985.

Not Available

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to ha