National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gain coefficient shgc

  1. Determining window solar heat gain coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van . Solar Calorimetry Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The solar heat gain characteristics of fenestration systems impact daytime building energy performance, occupant comfort and utility load demands. A measure of the fraction of available solar energy entering a building interior per unit window area is defined as the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). Together with a window's thermal transmittance (U-value), the SHGC is used to compare fenestration products, and it allows for the calculation of energy rating number and annual energy performance. The need to measure and compared advances in window technology has led to the development of experimental and analytical methods for the determination of SHGC performance. Several test facilities currently or previously capable of performing SHGC measurements exist worldwide. Results experimentally determined using these facilities have provided design data for handbook tables, and have been instrumental in the development and validation of predictive analytical methods and computer simulation tools. However, these facilities have operated without a standard test procedure for SHGC performance. Consequently, recent efforts have been focused on developing consensus test procedures for the evaluation of window energy performance.

  2. A comparison between calculated and measured SHGC for complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.; Kelley, G.O.

    1995-09-01

    Calorimetric measurements of dynamic net heat flow through a complex fenestration system consisting of a buff venetian blind inside clear double glazing are used to derive the direction-dependent beam SHGC (solar heat gain coefficient) of the fenestration. The data are compared with calculations according to a proposed general method for deriving complex fenestration system SHGC`s from bidirectional layer optical properties and generic calorimetric properties. Previously published optical data for the same venetian blind and generic inward-flowing fraction measurements are used in the calculation. Satisfactory agreement is found between SHGC measurements and calculation. Significant dependence on incident angle was found in the measured SHGC`s. Profile angle was not found to be a useful variable in characterizing the system performance. Predicted SHGC was found to be inherently dependent on two angles, although only the incident angle variations were observable under test conditions.

  3. Evaluation of solar heat gain coefficient for solar-control glazings and shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van

    1998-10-01

    The determination of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) values for complex fenestration systems is required to evaluate building energy performance, to estimate peak electrical loads, and to ensure occupant comfort. In the past, simplified techniques have been used to calculate the values of SHGC for fenestration systems. As glazing systems that incorporate complex geometries become more common, test methods are required to evaluate these products and to aid in the development of new computational tools. Recently, a unique facility and test method for the experimental determination of SHGC values were developed and demonstrated for simple fenestration systems. The study described in this paper further applies this method to a variety of commercially available glazing and shading systems (e.g., heat-absorbing insulated glazing units (IGUs), reflective film and suspended film IGUs), and shading devices (i.e., slat blinds and shades). Testing was conducted in a solar simulator facility using a specially designed window calorimeter. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the solar simulator-based test method for the evaluation of SHGC values for solar-control glazings and shading devices.

  4. Sensitivity of fenestration solar gain to source spectrum and angle of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluney, W.R.

    1996-12-31

    The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is the fraction of solar radiant flux incident on a fenestration system entering a building as heat gain. In general it depends on both the angle of incidence and the spectral distribution of the incident solar radiation. In attempts to improve energy performance and user acceptance of high-performance glazing systems, manufacturers are producing glazing systems with increasing spectral selectivity. This poses potential difficulties for calculations of solar heat gain through windows based upon the use of a single solar spectral weighting function. The sensitivity of modern high-performance glazing systems to both the angle of incidence and the shape of the incident solar spectrum is examined using a glazing performance simulation program. It is found that as the spectral selectivity of the glazing system increases, the SHGC can vary as the incident spectral distribution varies. The variations can be as great as 50% when using several different representative direct-beam spectra. These include spectra having low and high air masses and a standard spectrum having an air mass of 1.5. The variations can be even greater if clear blue diffuse skylight is considered. It is recommended that the current broad-band shading coefficient method of calculating solar gain be replaced by one that is spectral based.

  5. Method for passively compensating for temperature coefficient of gain in silicon photomultipliers and similar devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKisson, John E.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    A method for designing a completely passive bias compensation circuit to stabilize the gain of multiple pixel avalanche photo detector devices. The method includes determining circuitry design and component values to achieve a desired precision of gain stability. The method can be used with any temperature sensitive device with a nominally linear coefficient of voltage dependent parameter that must be stabilized. The circuitry design includes a negative temperature coefficient resistor in thermal contact with the photomultiplier device to provide a varying resistance and a second fixed resistor to form a voltage divider that can be chosen to set the desired slope and intercept for the characteristic with a specific voltage source value. The addition of a third resistor to the divider network provides a solution set for a set of SiPM devices that requires only a single stabilized voltage source value.

  6. Harold Gaines | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As far back as he can remember, Harold Gaines has had an interest in electronics. "I'm not exactly sure what really triggered that interest in electronics, but it was there," he said. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. As far back as he can remember, Harold Gaines has had an interest in electronics. "I'm not exactly sure what really triggered that interest in electronics, but it was there," he said. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Harold

  7. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  8. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  9. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  10. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  11. Students gain work experience at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Students Gain Work Experience at WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., January 10, 2000 -- Students from two Eddy County high schools are gaining valuable experience by spending time with employees...

  12. Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

  13. SCALE Continuous-Energy Eigenvalue Sensitivity Coefficient Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perfetti, Christopher M.; Rearden, Bradley T.; Martin, William R.

    2016-02-25

    Sensitivity coefficients describe the fractional change in a system response that is induced by changes to system parameters and nuclear data. The Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) code within the SCALE code system makes use of eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients for an extensive number of criticality safety applications, including quantifying the data-induced uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, assessing the neutronic similarity between different critical systems, and guiding nuclear data adjustment studies. The need to model geometrically complex systems with improved fidelity and the desire to extend TSUNAMI analysis to advanced applications has motivated the developmentmore » of a methodology for calculating sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy (CE) Monte Carlo applications. The Contributon-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Tracklength importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) and Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) eigenvalue sensitivity methods were recently implemented in the CE-KENO framework of the SCALE code system to enable TSUNAMI-3D to perform eigenvalue sensitivity calculations using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. This work provides a detailed description of the theory behind the CLUTCH method and describes in detail its implementation. This work explores the improvements in eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient accuracy that can be gained through the use of continuous-energy sensitivity methods and also compares several sensitivity methods in terms of computational efficiency and memory requirements.« less

  14. Gaines Cavern Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ess":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" References "AWEA-US-Wind-Industry-Market-Reports" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGaine...

  15. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  16. LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain PDF icon LED Efficacy-What America Stands to Gain November 2015.pdf

  17. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping The most conspicuous feature of boron carbides' electronic transport properties is their having both high carrier densities and large Seebeck coefficients. The magnitudes and temperature dependencies of

  18. Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formula Coefficients Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients The coefficients in the Storage Resource Unit (SRU) formula were arrived at from the following considerations: - The formula should help influence user behavior towards efficient use of the storage resource. - The formula should reflect the relative costs of "doing business". From these considerations we adopted file counts, bytes stored and I/O transfers as the 3 minimum factors that needed to be included in the

  19. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This method has been used to determine the solar heat gain coefficient of a double-glazed window with an interior white shade. The resulting solar heat gain coefficient was compared to a direct measurement of the same system using the Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility for measuring window energy performance, and the two results agreed. This represents the first in a series of planned validations and applications of the new method.

  20. Unique LANL pathogen detector gains corporate partner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pathogen detector gains corporate partner Unique LANL pathogen detector gains corporate partner LANL has executed an agreement with Biomagnetics Diagnostics Corporation (BMGP) for the further development of a diagnostic tool known as an optical biosensor. December 14, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources,

  1. Gaining Energy Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaining Energy Perspective Gaining Energy Perspective Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8 Subject Energy Choices and Society Summary Students will play an energy game and take an optional field trip to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of energy sources. Curriculum Language Arts, Marketing, Science Plan Time 90 minutes, plus time for optional field trip Materials Handouts and other materials needed detailed within curriculum guide.

  2. Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork Together, Cummins and LANL have reduced costs and increased efficiency in diesel engines. April 3, 2012 Engine for R&D Research and development (R&D) efforts focus on improving engine efficiency while meeting future federal and state emissions regulations through a combination of: combustion technologies that minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions ...the company realized a more

  3. Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS process into a flow-based technique. September 26, 2013 Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent The new "flow" solution-liquid-solid method allows scientists to slow down growth and thereby capture mechanistic details as the

  4. Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS process into a flow-based technique. September 26, 2013 Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent Growth of nanowire precursors in a flowing carrier solvent The new "flow" solution-liquid-solid method allows scientists to slow down growth and thereby capture mechanistic details as the

  5. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  6. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  7. Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3 Wcmsup 2 pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after ...

  8. Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins Collaboration Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins ...

  9. Loss/gain on ignition test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1996-01-10

    Document provides the results of tests done on Product Cans from the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. Tests included running a simulated Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA, on the processed material that have received Loss On Ignition (LOI) sample results that show a gain on ignition or a high LOI and reprocessing product cans with high LOIs. Also, boat material temperatures in the furnace were tracked during the testing.

  10. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  12. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

  13. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  14. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  15. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  16. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  17. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software tool will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance

  18. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software toolmore » will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance« less

  19. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  20. Coefficients of thermal expansiion of common encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolf, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of common electronic encapsulating polymers were measured over the temperature range of /minus/ 50/degree/C to approximately 120/degree/C. CTE's are presented for these systems as continuous functions of temperature in contrast to previous measurements. Comparison between the historical '' property chart'' CTE's and those obtained in this study are made when possible. The procedures used in this study are presented in detail so that, unlike the property chart, users will fully understand the accuracy and limitations of these values. 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Solar Heat Gain Through Fenestration Systems Containing Shading: Procedures for Estimating Performance from Minimal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    2000-08-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  2. Caterpillar and Cummins Gain Edge Through Argonnne's Rare Computer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Caterpillar and Cummins Gain Edge Through Argonnne's Rare Computer Modeling and Analysis Resources PDF icon catcumminscomputingsuccessstorydec2015...

  3. Stirling cycle simulation without differential coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Organ, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    With a simple transformation, the gas processes in the Stirling machine are described for all time and location in an algebraic equation free of differential coefficients of the unknowns. Local instantaneous heat transfer and friction are represented in function of local instantaneous Reynolds number, N{sub re}. The method avoids problems of numerical discretization, stability, convergence, artificial dispersion and diffusion. The paper presents the algebra of the transformation. Specimen solutions cover the temperature field of the gas circuit (exchangers and regenerator) over a representative cycle. When programmed for workstation the core code occupies some 2 dozen lines, and processing calls for seconds of CPU time. Availability of the solution means that intimate details of the gas processes are susceptible to examination using the most basic of computing facilities.

  4. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (splitring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.

  5. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (splitring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gapmoreand gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.less

  6. Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates April 12, 2016 - 10:32am Addthis News release from the Ames Laboratory, April 11, 2016. The Critical Materials Institute, a U.S. Department of Energy Innovation Hub led by the Ames Laboratory, has gained ten new affiliates to its research program, seeking ways to eliminate and reduce reliance on rare-earth metals and other

  7. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  8. Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates April 12, 2016 ... The Critical Materials Institute, a U.S. Department of Energy Innovation Hub led by the ...

  9. Ames Laboratory-developed titanium powder processing gains internation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processing gains international customer base Contacts: For release: Dec. 7, 2015 Iver Anderson, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, 515-294-9791 Steve Karsjen, Public...

  10. USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an...

  11. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment (May 2008) More Documents & Publications Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: ...

  12. Efficient surface plasmon amplification in gain-assisted silver nanotubes and associated dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, HaiQun; Jiang, ShuMin; Wu, DaJian

    2015-04-21

    SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) properties in active SiO{sub 2}Ag nanotubes and associated dimers have been investigated by using the scattering theory and the finite element method. In the active Ag nanotube, as the gain coefficient of the core increases to a critical value, a super-resonance occurs. The SPASER phenomenon also can be found in the active Ag nanotube dimer. The strong couplings between two nanotubes lead to larger gain threshold for the active Ag nanotube dimer compared with the active Ag nanotube. At the super-resonance, the maximal surface enhanced Raman scattering factor at the hot spot in the active Ag nanotube dimer can achieve about 8??10{sup 18}, which is large enough for single molecule detection. Furthermore, with increasing the separation between two Ag nanotubes, the gain threshold value for the super-resonance of the active Ag nanotube dimer decreases, while the corresponding super-resonance wavelength increases first and then decreases.

  13. Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport in saturated fractured rock You are ...

  14. Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport in saturated fractured rock No abstract prepared. ...

  15. THE EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY IN MODELING COEFFICIENTS USED TO PREDICT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNCERTAINTY IN MODELING COEFFICIENTS USED TO PREDICT ENERGY PRODUCTION USING THE SANDIA ARRAY ... relating voltage and current to solar irradiance, for crystalline silicon modules. ...

  16. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The GreenKubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  17. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ASTM standard methods for performance testing of cells and modules address only two ... ASTM also specifies that temperature coefficients are determined using a standard solar ...

  18. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and arrays; identifies sources of systematic errors in measurements; gives typical ... INTRODUCTION Temperature coefficients provide the rate of change (derivative) with respect ...

  19. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  20. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-12-15

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.

  1. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  2. Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience August 23, 2013 - 10:19am Addthis EM Office of External Affairs Acting Communications Director Dave Borak talks with EM intern Valerie Edwards. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. EM Office of External Affairs Acting Communications Director Dave Borak talks with EM intern Valerie Edwards. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Rebecca

  3. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  4. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.; Kelley, G.O.

    1995-03-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorbances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. The method has been applied to one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind in combination with multiple glazings. A comparison between the scanner-based calculation method and direct system calorimetric measurements made on the LBL MoWiTT facility showed good agreement, and is a significant validation of the method accuracy and feasibility.

  5. Solar heat gain through fenestration systems containing shading: Summary of procedures for estimating performance from minimal data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2001-03-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  6. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minford, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  7. ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their

  8. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  9. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  10. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  11. Coupling coefficients for tensor product representations of quantum SU(2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groenevelt, Wolter

    2014-10-15

    We study tensor products of infinite dimensional irreducible {sup *}-representations (not corepresentations) of the SU(2) quantum group. We obtain (generalized) eigenvectors of certain self-adjoint elements using spectral analysis of Jacobi operators associated to well-known q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. We also compute coupling coefficients between different eigenvectors corresponding to the same eigenvalue. Since the continuous spectrum has multiplicity two, the corresponding coupling coefficients can be considered as 2 2-matrix-valued orthogonal functions. We compute explicitly the matrix elements of these functions. The coupling coefficients can be considered as q-analogs of Bessel functions. As a results we obtain several q-integral identities involving q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and q-Bessel-type functions.

  12. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li2SO4(aq) at T = 298.15 and 323.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-interaction (Pitzer) model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of Li2SO4(aq) at T = 298.15 and 323.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-interaction (Pitzer) model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of Li2SO4(aq) at T = 298.15 and 323.15 K, and

  13. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  14. U-142: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain Access...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain Access, Obtain Information, and Conduct URL Redirection Attacks U-142: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain...

  15. Winning the Future: Tonto Apache Tribe Uses DOE Funding to Gain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tonto Apache Tribe Uses DOE Funding to Gain Momentum on Solar Energy Development Winning the Future: Tonto Apache Tribe Uses DOE Funding to Gain Momentum on Solar Energy ...

  16. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research. Hewlett Packard Labs researchers, including Suhas Kumar, Catherine Graves, and John Paul Strachan, recently made the cover of Applied Physics Letters with an ALS-based project that revealed key

  17. Wind Gains ground, hitting 33 GW of installed capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-15

    The U.S. currently has 33 GW of installed wind capacity. Wind continues to gain ground, accounting for 42 percent of new capacity additions in the US in 2008.Globally, there are now 146 GW of wind capacity with an impressive and sustained growth trajectory that promises to dominate new generation capacities in many developing countries. The U.S., however, lags many European countries, with wind providing roughly 2 percent of electricity generation.

  18. Students gain valuable supercomputing skills while getting paid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer summer institute Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Students gain valuable supercomputing skills while getting paid Laboratory summer institute provides unique internship experience September 1, 2015 Laboratory intern Destiny Velasquez. Laboratory intern Destiny Velasquez. Contact Community Programs Director Kathy Keith Email Editor Ute Haker Email Over the past nine years

  19. High gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Bonner, Randal A.

    2004-08-10

    A high-gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification. A first nonlinear crystal is operatively connected to a second nonlinear crystal. A first beam relay telescope is operatively connected to a second beam relay telescope, to the first nonlinear crystal, and to the second nonlinear crystal. A first harmonic beamsplitter is operatively connected to a second harmonic beamsplitter, to the first nonlinear crystal, to the second nonlinear crystal, to the first beam relay telescope, and to the second beam relay telescope.

  20. Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular...

  1. U-233: Oracle Database INDEXTYPE CTXSYS.CONTEXT Bug Lets Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote authenticated user with 'Create Table' privileges can gain 'SYS' privileges on the target system.

  2. Big performance gains at NERSC hack-a-thon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization hack-a-thon Big performance gains at NERSC hack-a-thon February 27, 2015 by Jack Deslippe & Richard Gerber At this year's NERSC user group meeting we tried something new: a code optimization "hack-a-thon." Thanks to HPC experts from NERSC and Intel and about 20 enthusiastic code developers, it was a great success! Everyone who showed up at NERSC's Oakland Scientific Facility, had fun, learned some new things, and got some big performance improvements in their code.

  3. Material gain: Research a step toward more efficient solar panels |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Dunn, Jennifer B. ; James, Christine ; Gaines, L G ; Gallagher, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 1172039 Report Number(s): ANL/ESD-14/10 108520 DOE Contract

  4. Predicting Local Transport Coefficients at Solid-Gas Interfaces | Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Local Transport Coefficients at Solid-Gas Interfaces Previous Next List Nils E. R. Zimmermann, Berend Smit, and Frerich J. Keil, J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18878-18883 DOI: 10.1021/jp3059855 Abstract Image Abstract: The regular nanoporous structure make zeolite membranes attractive candidates for separating molecules on the basis of differences in transport rates (diffusion). Since improvements in synthesis have led

  5. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LA-14003 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Elusive Coefficients of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502 Editing by Belinda K. Haag, IM-1 Illustrations by J. Phil Putnam, IM-1 Cover Photo: Stacked sheets of TATB exposed by fracture in a consolidated PBX 9502 component. Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/ equal opportunity employer, is operated by the University of California for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the US Department of Energy under

  6. Scale dependency of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Zhang, G.

    2003-05-30

    It has been recognized that matrix diffusion is an important process for retarding solute transport in fractured rock. Based on analyses of tracer transport data from a number of field tests, we demonstrate for the first time that the effective matrix-diffusion coefficient may be scale dependent and generally increases with test scale. A preliminary theoretical explanation of this scale dependency is also presented, based on the hypothesis that solute travel paths within a fracture network are fractals.

  7. Theoretical rate coefficients for allyl + HO2 and allyloxy decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Green, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics of the allyl + HO{sub 2} bimolecular reaction, the thermal decomposition of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH, and the unimolecular reactions of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O are studied theoretically. High-level ab initio calculations of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH and C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O potential energy surfaces are coupled with RRKM master equation methods to compute the temperature- and pressure-dependence of the rate coefficients. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory is used to characterize the barrierless transition states for the allyl + HO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O + OH reactions. The predicted rate coefficients for allyl + HO{sub 2} ? C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH ? products are in good agreement with experimental values. The calculations for allyl + HO{sub 2} ? C{sub 3}H{sub 6} + O{sub 2} underpredict the observed rate. The new rate coefficients suggest that the reaction of allyl + HO{sub 2} will promote chain-branching significantly more than previous models suggest.

  8. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  9. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  15. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  16. Relative Gain Monitoring of the GlueX Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anassontzis, Efstratios G.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voulgaris, G.; Kappos, E.; Beattie, T.; Krueger, S.; Lolos, G. J.; Papandreou, Z.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Frye, John M.; Leckey, John P.; Shepherd, Matt; Bogart, T.; Smith, Elton S.

    2014-02-01

    The relative gain of the photodetectors for the GlueX Barrel and Forward calorimeters will be monitored using modular LED driver systems. The BCAL system consists of a global controller that feeds power, bias voltage and trigger signals to 96 local controllers situated at the ends of the 48 BCAL modules, which drive 40 LEDs associated with the 40 light guides at the end of each module. The FCAL system consists also of a global controller, a local controller for each acrylic quadrant covering the face of the FCAL, and ten 4-LED pulser boards per local controller connected in a star configuration along the edges of the acrylic panes. The respective systems are currently being installed on the detectors and their tested performance is presented herein.

  17. Trigonometric Pade approximants for functions with regularly decreasing Fourier coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labych, Yuliya A; Starovoitov, Alexander P [Gomel State University, Gomel (Belarus)

    2009-08-31

    Sufficient conditions describing the regular decrease of the coefficients of a Fourier series f(x)=a{sub 0}/2 + {sigma} a{sub n} cos kx are found which ensure that the trigonometric Pade approximants {pi}{sup t}{sub n,m}(x;f) converge to the function f in the uniform norm at a rate which coincides asymptotically with the highest possible one. The results obtained are applied to problems dealing with finding sharp constants for rational approximations. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  18. ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dose CoeffiCients for intakes of raDionuCliDes via ContaminateD WounDs R. E. Toohey*, L. Bertelli + , S. L. Sugarman*, A. L. Wiley* and D. M. Christensen* *Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37031-0117; + Radiation Protection Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545. Ver. 2, Aug 2014 The NCRP Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated

  19. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  20. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems: II, Detailed description of the matrix layer calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    1993-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. A preceding paper outlined the method and provided the physical derivation of the calculation. In this second of a series of related papers the detailed development of the matrix layer calculation is presented.

  1. Mixing coefficients for subchannel analyses with supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, Bastian; Laurien, Eckart; Class, Andreas G.; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    This paper is related to pressure drop and mixing correlations which are used in subchannel codes. The commercial CFD code STAR-CD has been applied for central subchannels of a supercritical water reactor fuel assembly design. First, pressure drop coefficients for cross flow have been evaluated for this geometry using steady state calculations. Different from established correlations for cross flow in rod bundles, the effects of strong axial flow in the bundle have been taken into account for the presented geometry, flow conditions and fluid properties. In the second part of the paper the unsteady RANS CFD-method is applied and assessed with respect to the prediction of flow pulsation phenomena and turbulent mixing. The results are compared with experimental correlations for the turbulent mixing coefficient and the flow pulsation frequency. It is found that the applied unsteady RANS method is able to predict the flow pulsation frequency but over-predicts the turbulent mixing by a factor of around 3.5. (authors)

  2. Applications of the second virial coefficient: protein crystallization and solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, William W.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    2014-04-30

    This article highlights some of the ground-based studies emanating from NASAs Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) program, and includes a more detailed discussion of the history and the progress made in one of the NASA-funded PCG investigations involving the use of measured second virial coefficients (B values) as a diagnostic indicator of solution conditions conducive to protein crystallization. This article begins by highlighting some of the ground-based studies emanating from NASAs Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) program. This is followed by a more detailed discussion of the history of and the progress made in one of the NASA-funded PCG investigations involving the use of measured second virial coefficients (B values) as a diagnostic indicator of solution conditions conducive to protein crystallization. A second application of measured B values involves the determination of solution conditions that improve or maximize the solubility of aqueous and membrane proteins. These two important applications have led to several technological improvements that simplify the experimental expertise required, enable the measurement of membrane proteins and improve the diagnostic capability and measurement throughput.

  3. V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 20, 2013 - 12:08am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple iOS Bugs...

  4. RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington The logo for RePower Kitsap. REALTORS in western ...

  5. U-056: Linux Kernel HFS Buffer Overflow Lets Local Users Gain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: Linux Kernel HFS Buffer Overflow Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges U-056: Linux Kernel HFS Buffer Overflow Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges December 9, 2011 - 8:00am...

  6. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  7. GAiN: Distributed Array Computation with Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2009-04-24

    Scientific computing makes use of very large, multidimensional numerical arrays - typically, gigabytes to terabytes in size - much larger than can fit on even the largest single compute node. Such arrays must be distributed across a "cluster" of nodes. Global Arrays is a cluster-based software system from Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that enables an efficient, portable, and parallel shared-memory programming interface to manipulate these arrays. Written in and for the C and FORTRAN programming languages, it takes advantage of high-performance cluster interconnections to allow any node in the cluster to access data on any other node very rapidly. The "numpy" module is the de facto standard for numerical calculation in the Python programming language, a language whose use is growing rapidly in the scientific and engineering communities. numpy provides a powerful N-dimensional array class as well as other scientific computing capabilities. However, like the majority of the core Python modules, numpy is inherently serial. Our system, GAiN (Global Arrays in NumPy), is a parallel extension to Python that accesses Global Arrays through numpy. This allows parallel processing and/or larger problem sizes to be harnessed almost transparently within new or existing numpy programs.

  8. Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua Rong, Mingzhe Wu, Yi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-10-15

    Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30?000?K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.

  9. DOE Responses to DOE Challenge Home (formerly Builders Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ......... 8 Sampling ......16 Ventilation - Field Air Flow Testing ... 30 Target Home SHGC - Passive Solar Flexibility ...

  10. Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation and cerium ion doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong-Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Song, Sheng-Chi; Guo, Wen-Ping; Lu, Ming; Chen, Jia-Rong

    2014-07-28

    We report optical gain enhancements in Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) via hydrogenation and Ce{sup 3+} ion doping. Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3 W/cm{sup 2} pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after hydrogenation and/or Ce{sup 3+} ion doping; gains after loss corrections were between 89.52 and 341.95 cm{sup −1}; and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime was found to decrease with the increasing gain enhancement. At 0.04 W/cm{sup 2} power density, however, no net gain was found and the PL lifetime increased with the increasing PL enhancement. The results were discussed according to stimulated and spontaneous excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of Si-NCs.

  11. Determination of the Evaporation Coefficient of D2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2008-03-26

    The evaporation rate of D{sub 2}O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12-15 {micro}m diameter) injected into vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient ({gamma}{sub e}) of 0.57 {+-} 0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H{sub 2}O (0.62 {+-} 0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  12. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  13. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  14. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  15. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Now Assessment | Department of Energy Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment This case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saved approximately 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in their Union City, Tennessee, plant. PDF icon Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings

  16. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel-to-moderator ratio). We also learned how to perform design optimization calculations by using a genetic algorithm that automatically selects a sequence of design parameter sets to meet specified fitness criteria increasingly well. In the pebble-bed NGNP design work, we use the genetic algorithm to direct the INEELs PEBBED code to perform hundreds of code runs in less than a day to find optimized design configurations. And finally, we learned how to calculate cross sections more accurately for pebble bed reactors, and we identified research needs for the further refinement of the cross section calculations.

  17. Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Achieving aggressive energy efficiency targets requires tight coordination and clear communication among owners, designers, builders, and subcontractors. For this townhome project, MassDevelopment, the quasi-governmental agency owner, selected Metric Development of Boston, teaming with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) and Cambridge Seven Architects, to build very high performing market-rate homes. Fort Devens is part of a decommissioned army base in working-class Harvard, Massachusetts, approximately one hour northwest of Boston. The team proposed 12 net zero energy-ready townhomes, meaning that the application of renewable energy systems would result in annual net zero energy use in the homes. The homes were also designed to achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 41 before adding renewables. For this project, CARB drew on its experience working with Rural Development Inc. on a series of affordable townhomes in northern Massachusetts. The team carefully planned the site to maximize solar access, daylighting, and efficient building forms. The basic strategy was to design a very efficient thermal enclosure while minimizing incremental cost increases compared with standard construction. Using BEopt modeling software, the team established the requirements of the enclosure and investigated multiple assembly options. They settled on double-wall construction with dense-pack cellulose fill. High performance vinyl windows (U-0.24, solar heat gain coefficient [SHGC]-0.22), a vented R-59 attic, and exceptional air sealing completed the package.

  18. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per

  19. Major Gains in Ion Production for Radioactive Beams | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Major Gains in Ion Production for Radioactive Beams Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science ...

  20. Development of an improved MATLAB GUI for the prediction of coefficients of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    restitution, and integration into LMS. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development of an improved MATLAB GUI for the prediction of coefficients of restitution, and integration into LMS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an improved MATLAB GUI for the prediction of coefficients of restitution, and integration into LMS. In 2012, a Matlab GUI for the prediction of the coefficient of restitution was developed in order to enable the formulation of

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion coefficients and structural properties of some alkylbenzenes in supercritical carbon dioxide at infinite dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping; Feng, Huajie

    2014-03-14

    The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ?}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (?{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ? 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ? 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.

  2. DOE Challenge Home Gaining Recognition as a Leader Webinar (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE Challenge Home Gaining Recognition as a Leader Webinar (Text Version) DOE Challenge Home Gaining Recognition as a Leader Webinar (Text Version) Below is a text version of the webinar titled "Gaining Recognition as a Leader," originally presented in May 2013. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access a recording of the webinar. Sam Rashkin: Slide 1: This is about the DOE Challenge Home as a way for builders to be recognized a leader.

  3. On the Stochastic Maximum Principle in Optimal Control of Degenerate Diffusions with Lipschitz Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahlali, Khaled Djehiche, Boualem Mezerdi, Brahim

    2007-12-15

    We establish a stochastic maximum principle in optimal control of a general class of degenerate diffusion processes with global Lipschitz coefficients, generalizing the existing results on stochastic control of diffusion processes. We use distributional derivatives of the coefficients and the Bouleau Hirsh flow property, in order to define the adjoint process on an extension of the initial probability space.

  4. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture and Storage Knowledge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Future leaders and innovators in the area of carbon capture and storage can gain a unique and intensive tutorial on the subject by participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration program.

  7. U-068:Linux Kernel SG_IO ioctl Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Linux Kernel SGIO ioctl Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges PLATFORM: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop (v. 6) Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node (v. 6) Red Hat...

  8. T-563: Red Hat Directory Server Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    server and command line utilities for server administration. Addthis Related Articles T-671: Red Hat system-config-firewall Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges V-041: Red Hat...

  9. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipton, Robert Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-10-14

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  10. New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasification Facilities | Department of Energy Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities July 27, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Four projects that will demonstrate an innovative technology that could eventually enhance hydrogen fuel production, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve efficiencies and lower consumer

  11. Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins Collaboration | Department of Energy Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins Collaboration Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins Collaboration August 28, 2014 - 9:51am Addthis Pictured here is a clean diesel engine for light trucks that was part of Cummins research and development effort from 1997-2004. Supported with funding by the Energy Department, this engine is as clean and quiet as a gasoline

  12. High-gain direct-drive target design for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodner, S. E.; Colombant, D. G.; Schmitt, A. J.; Klapisch, M.

    2000-06-01

    A new laser fusion target concept is presented with a predicted energy gain of 127 using a 1.3 MJ KrF laser. This energy gain is sufficiently high for an economically attractive fusion reactor. X rays from high- and low-Z materials are used in combination with a low-opacity ablator to spatially tune the isentrope, thereby providing both high fuel compression and a reduction of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Soules, Thomas F.; Fochs, Scott N.; Rotter, Mark D.; Letts, Stephan A.

    2008-12-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  14. Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Soules, Thomas F.; Fochs, Scott N.; Rotter, Mark D.; Letts, Stephan A.

    2011-02-22

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and/or parasitic oscillation modes in a laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing material arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE, parasitic oscillation modes and/or residual pump energy can be effectively suppressed.

  15. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems: 1, Overview and derivation of the matrix Layer calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    1993-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. In this first in a series of related papers describing the project, the assumptions and limitations of the calculation method are described and the derivation of the matrix calculation technique from the initial integral equations is presented.

  16. Hardy-Littlewood theorem for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyachenko, Mikhail I; Nursultanov, Erlan D

    2009-12-31

    The Hardy-Littlewood theorem is established for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients. Inequalities of Hardy-Littlewood kind are proved. Examples of series demonstrating that the results obtained are sharp are constructed. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  17. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  18. Coefficient indicates if rod pump can unload water from gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Yongquan; Wu Zhijun

    1995-09-11

    A sucker rod pump can efficiently dewater gas wells if the separation coefficient is sufficiently high. To determine this separation coefficient, it is not sufficient to only know if the system meets the criteria of rod string stress, horsehead load, and crankshaft torque. This paper reviews water production and gas locking problems at the Sichuan gas field and identifies the methodologies used to optimize the pumping efficiency of the area wells.

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - User Experience with Module Performance Coefficients.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    borregosolar.com © Borrego Solar Systems, Inc. Private & Confidential Generating Change Since 1980 User Experience with Module Performance Coefficients Bradley Hibberd 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA May 1-2 2013 Published by Sandia National Laboratories with the Permission of the Author www.borregosolar.com © Borrego Solar Systems, Inc. Private & Confidential User Experience with Module Performance Coefficients ‣ Performance Modeling for Projects * For

  20. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects on isentropic coefficient in argon and helium thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip

    2014-03-15

    In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Z?, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter ?(= T{sub e}/T{sub h}) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1?atm, 10?atm, and 100?atm in the temperature range from 6000?K to 60?000?K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Z? with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter.

  1. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng Wah; Schneider, Han Christian

    2014-10-03

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-infrared range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasi-equilibrium conditions and current injection. We find, comparing different structures, that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, that make the available scattering pathways through the quantum-dot active region too fast to sustain inversion.

  2. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng Wah; Schneider, Han Christian

    2014-10-03

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-infrared range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasi-equilibrium conditions and current injection. We find, comparing different structures, that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, thatmore » make the available scattering pathways through the quantum-dot active region too fast to sustain inversion.« less

  3. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  4. Flow Coefficient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    this type of flow in porous and fractured rocks, including flow in geothermal reservoirs. ... and Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies of the U.S. ...

  5. Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gradient undulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Authors: Baxevanis, Panagiotis ; Huang, Zhirong ; Ruth, Ronald ; Schroeder, Carl B. Publication Date: 2015-01-27 OSTI Identifier: 1181185 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231; AC02-76SF00515

  6. High energy gain in three-dimensional simulations of light sail acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sgattoni, A.; Sinigardi, S.; Macchi, A.

    2014-08-25

    The dynamics of radiation pressure acceleration in the relativistic light sail regime are analysed by means of large scale, three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Differently to other mechanisms, the 3D dynamics leads to faster and higher energy gain than in 1D or 2D geometry. This effect is caused by the local decrease of the target density due to transverse expansion leading to a “lighter sail.” However, the rarefaction of the target leads to an earlier transition to transparency limiting the energy gain. A transverse instability leads to a structured and inhomogeneous ion distribution.

  7. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  8. Long wavelength, high gain InAsSb strained-layer superlattice photoconductive detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Dawson, L. Ralph; Fritz, Ian J.; Kurtz, Steven R.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A high gain photoconductive device for 8 to 12 .mu.m wavelength radiation including an active semiconductor region extending from a substrate to an exposed face, the region comprising a strained-layer superlattice of alternating layers of two different InAs.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x compounds having x>0.75. A pair of spaced electrodes are provided on the exposed face, and changes in 8 to 12 .mu.m radiation on the exposed face cause a large photoconductive gain between the spaced electrodes.

  9. Behavior of the particle transport coefficients near the density limit in MTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinak, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    The perturbed particle transport coefficients were determined for a range of plasma conditions in the Alcator C tokamak, a component of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), from analysis of density perturbations created in gas modulation experiments. Density measurements from a 15 chord far-infrared interferometer were sufficiently detailed to allow radial profiles of the transport coefficients to be resolved. Gas modulation experiments were carried out on plasmas over a range of relatively low currents and a wide variety of line-averaged densities, including values near the Greenwald density limit. With this technique the perturbed diffusion coefficient D and the perturbed convection velocity V can be determined simultaneously. Measured profiles of D rise toward the outside of the plasma column in a manner generally similar to those determined previously for {chi}{sub e,HP} from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Values of D are typically smaller than those of {chi}{sub e,HP} given for the same line-averaged densities by a factor of 2-5. Diffusion coefficients from a series of discharges at constant current showed little variation with density through most of the saturated ohmic confinement regime. At the Greenwald density limit threshold a dramatic increase occurred in both the perturbed convective and diffusive transport coefficients in the outer region of the plasma. The increases were most pronounced at the outermost range of the radii where coefficients were determined (r/a = 0.8), but were apparent over a region which extended well into the plasma interior. Density profiles maintained a similar shape near the density limit, congruous with the similar behavior of the transport coefficients. No dramatic deterioration was evident in the global energy confinement.

  10. Delivering pump light to a laser gain element while maintaining access to the laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    A lens duct is used for pump delivery and the laser beam is accessed through an additional component called the intermediate beam extractor which can be implemented as part of the gain element, part of the lens duct or a separate component entirely.

  11. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  12. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  13. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft 1ft prototype panels for the worlds first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicrons patented e-Tint technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMIs roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  14. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a height of 10 m is about 32 m s⁻¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s⁻¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s⁻¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s⁻¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s⁻¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.

  15. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF EINSTEIN A-COEFFICIENT RATIOS OF BRIGHT [Fe II] LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcal, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe{sup +} lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 and 24700 , we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios ?100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I recombination lines and H{sub 2} ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (?12570/?16440 and ?13209/?16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

  16. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a heightmore » of 10 m is about 32 m s⁻¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s⁻¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s⁻¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s⁻¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s⁻¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.« less

  17. Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributions Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-01-29 OSTI Identifier: 1169139 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-20565 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos

  18. Evaluation of Pseudo-Static Coefficients According to Performance-Based Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondi, Giovanni; Maugeri, Michele; Cascone, Ernesto

    2008-07-08

    A rational procedure is presented for the selection of the equivalent seismic coefficient to be introduced in the pseudo-static analysis of geotechnical systems which, at failure, behave as a 1-degree of freedom system. It is shown that although pseudo-static and displacement analyses may be regarded as alternative methods of analysis, the seismic coefficient may be related to earthquake-induced permanent displacements and, then, to the expected level of damage. Following the proposed procedure a pseudo-static analysis in accordance with performance based design can be carried out.

  19. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  20. Estimation of instantaneous heat transfer coefficients for a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.M.; Addy, H.E.; Bond, T.H.; Chun, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this report was to derive equations to estimate neat transfer coefficients in both the combustion chamber and coolant passage of a rotary engine. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local physical properties of the fluids were calculated. Then an empirical correlation of the coefficients was derived by using a multiple regression program. This correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number and Reynolds number.

  1. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, LaTosha M.; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V.; Shadle, Lawrence J.

    2013-10-01

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particlesurface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young's modulus should be considered in applications such as gasification and other cases involving the impact of non-spherical particles and complex surfaces. Sliding was observed when particles impacted on oblique surfaces; however, the resulting effects were within the range of measurement uncertainties.

  2. Role of self-trapped holes in the photoconductive gain of β-gallium oxide Schottky diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Crawford, Mary H.; Jayawardena, Asanka; Ahyi, Ayayi; Dhar, Sarit

    2016-03-10

    Solar-blind photodetection and photoconductive gain > 50 corresponding to a responsivity > 8 A/W was observed for β-Ga2O3 Schottky photodiodes. We investigated the origin of photoconductive gain. Current-voltage characteristics of the diodes did not indicate avalanche breakdown, which excludes carrier multiplication by impact ionization as the source for gain. However, photocapacitance measurements indicated a mechanism for hole localization for above-band gap illumination, suggesting self-trapped hole formation. Comparison of photoconductivity and photocapacitance spectra indicated that self-trapped hole formation coincides with the strong photoconductive gain. We conclude that self-trapped hole formation near the Schottky diode lowers the effective Schottky barrier in reversemore » bias, producing photoconductive gain. Ascribing photoconductive gain to an inherent property like self-trapping of holes can explain the operation of a variety of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors.« less

  3. A bootstrapped, low-noise, and high-gain photodetector for shot noise measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Haijun; Yang, Wenhai; Li, Zhixiu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Yaohui

    2014-01-15

    We presented a low-noise, high-gain photodetector based on the bootstrap structure and the L-C (inductance and capacitance) combination. Electronic characteristics of the photodetector, including electronic noise, gain and frequency response, and dynamic range, were verified through a single-frequency Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser at 1064 nm with coherent output. The measured shot noise of 50 ?W laser was 13 dB above the electronic noise at the analysis frequency of 2 MHz, and 10 dB at 3 MHz. And a maximum clearance of 28 dB at 2 MHz was achieved when 1.52 mW laser was illuminated. In addition, the photodetector showed excellent linearities for both DC and AC amplifications in the laser power range between 12.5 ?W and 1.52 mW.

  4. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  5. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Frhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a 20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  6. U-112: PostgreSQL Bugs Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges, Inject SQL Commands, and Spoof Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote authenticated user can gain elevated privileges. A remote authenticated user can inject SQL commands. A remote user can spoof connections in certain cases.

  7. Prediction of internal temperature swings in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The diurnal heat capacity method is presented for estimating inside-temperature swings attributable to direct winter solar gain. The procedures are simplified to be suitable for hand analysis, aided by tables of diurnal heat capacity for various materials. The method has been spot checked against computer simulation and has been used successfully by a group of 20 builders in New Mexico to analyze whether temperature swings would be excessive in their designs.

  8. ORISE: CDC Travelers' Health Mobile App, Designed by ORISE, Gains Attention

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Multiple Websites Can I Eat This? Mobile App Helps International Travelers Make Safe Dining Choices CDC Travelers' Health app, designed by ORISE, gains attention on multiple websites How ORISE is Making a Difference The Can I Eat This? mobile app, which ORISE staff helped develop for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has been receiving positive feedback from food and travel experts. The app, recently released by the CDC's Travelers' Health Branch, earned a positive

  9. Are there Gains from Pooling Real-Time Oil Price Forecasts?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Are there Gains from Pooling Real- Time Oil Price Forecasts? Christiane Baumeister, Bank of Canada Lutz Kilian, University of Michigan Thomas K. Lee, U.S. Energy Information Administration February 12, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy

  10. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS AND RADIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRIGSBY KM

    2011-04-07

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farms safety analysis. The basis equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included. In this revision, the time averaging for toxicological consequence evaluations is clarified based on a review of DOE complex guidance and a review of tank farm chemicals.

  11. Gas Chromatography Data Classification Based on Complex Coefficients of an Autoregressive Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Weixiang; Morgan, Joshua T.; Davis, Cristina E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces autoregressive (AR) modeling as a novel method to classify outputs from gas chromatography (GC). The inverse Fourier transformation was applied to the original sensor data, and then an AR model was applied to transform data to generate AR model complex coefficients. This series of coefficients effectively contains a compressed version of all of the information in the original GC signal output. We applied this method to chromatograms resulting from proliferating bacteria species grown in culture. Three types of neural networks were used to classify the AR coefficients: backward propagating neural network (BPNN), radial basis function-principal component analysismore » (RBF-PCA) approach, and radial basis function-partial least squares regression (RBF-PLSR) approach. This exploratory study demonstrates the feasibility of using complex root coefficient patterns to distinguish various classes of experimental data, such as those from the different bacteria species. This cognition approach also proved to be robust and potentially useful for freeing us from time alignment of GC signals.« less

  12. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.

  13. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  14. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Hsieh, AG; Croft, M; Gallaway, JW; Van Tassell, BJ; Chamoun, M; Erdonmez, C; Zhong, Z; Sholklapper, T; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries has been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and the coefficient of restitution levels off at a value of 0.66 +/- 0.02 at 50% state of charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity of in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction.

  15. Three-body interactions in complex fluids: Virial coefficients from simulation finite-size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, Douglas J.; Wilding, Nigel B.

    2014-06-28

    A simulation technique is described for quantifying the contribution of three-body interactions to the thermodynamical properties of coarse-grained representations of complex fluids. The method is based on a new approach for determining virial coefficients from the measured volume-dependent asymptote of a certain structural function. By comparing the third virial coefficient B{sub 3} for a complex fluid with that of an approximate coarse-grained model described by a pair potential, three body effects can be quantified. The strategy is applicable to both Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation. Its utility is illustrated via measurements of three-body effects in models of star polymers and in highly size-asymmetrical colloid-polymer mixtures.

  16. On a regularization of a scalar conservation law with discontinuous coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chun

    2014-03-15

    This paper is devoted to a scalar conservation law with a linear flux function involving discontinuous coefficients. It is clear that the delta standing wave should be introduced into the Riemann solution in some nonclassical situation. In order to study the formation of delta standing wave, we consider a regularization of the discontinuous coefficient with the Helmholtz mollifier and then obtain a regularized system which depends on a regularization parameter ? > 0. The regularization mechanism is a nonlinear bending of characteristic curves that prevents their finite-time intersection. It is proved rigorously that the solutions of regularized system converge to the delta standing wave solution in the ? ? 0 limit. Compared with the classical method of vanishing viscosity, here it is clear to see how the delta standing wave forms naturally along the characteristics.

  17. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  18. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  19. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Download details: IP Address: 192.107.175.1 This content was downloaded on 27/04/2016 at 15:27 iopscience.iop.org Please note that terms and conditions apply. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion OPEN ACCESS IOP Publishing Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 (2016)

  20. NREL Solar Research Gains Two R&D 100 Awards - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Research Gains Two R&D 100 Awards July 17, 2008 An ultra-light, highly efficient solar cell and use of ink-jet printing to manufacture thin-film photovoltaics-both developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory-have been named among this year's most significant innovations by Research & Development (R&D) Magazine. Known as "the Oscars of Invention," the R&D 100 Award showcases the most significant new technologies

  1. Frequency dependence of mass flow gain factor and cavitation compliance of cavitating inducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, S.; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Kamijo, Kenjiro [National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda, Miyagi (Japan). Kakuda Research Center; Furuya, O. [AMP Technologies, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Unsteady cavitation characteristics are analyzed based on a closed cavity model in which the length of the cavity is allowed to oscillate. It is shown that the present model blends smoothly into quasisteady calculations in the low frequency limit, unlike fixed cavity length models. Effects of incidence angle and cavitation number on cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor are shown as functions of reduce frequency. The cavity volume is evaluated by three methods and the results were used to confirm the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical calculation. By comparison with experimental data on inducers, it was shown that the present model can simulate the characteristics of unsteady cavitation qualitatively.

  2. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2014-07-15

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  3. Analysis of FEL-based CeC amplification at high gain limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.

    2015-05-03

    An analysis of Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) amplifier based on 1D Free Electron Laser (FEL) theory was previously performed with exact solution of the dispersion relation, assuming electrons having Lorentzian energy distribution. At high gain limit, the asymptotic behavior of the FEL amplifier can be better understood by Taylor expanding the exact solution of the dispersion relation with respect to the detuning parameter. In this work, we make quadratic expansion of the dispersion relation for Lorentzian energy distribution and investigate how longitudinal space charge and electrons’ energy spread affect the FEL amplification process.

  4. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-30

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  5. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, Thomas R.; Falco, Charles M.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    1984-01-01

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  6. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Litos, M.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Clayton, C. E.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Green, S. Z.; et al

    2016-02-15

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV m-1 at the spectral peak. Moreover, the mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. Our results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gainmore » results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.« less

  7. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J. A. Archuleta, T. N.

    2014-11-15

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 μm while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (∼6 μm) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  8. Patterns and Implications of Gene Gain and Loss in the Evolution of Prochlorococcus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapidus, Alla; Kettler, Gregory C.; Martiny, Adam C.; Huang, Katherine; Zucker, Jeremy; Coleman, Maureen L.; Rodrigue, Sebastien; Chen, Feng; Lapidus, Alla; Ferriera, Steven; Johnson, Justin; Steglich, Claudia; Church, George M.; Richardson, Paul; Chisholm, Sallie W.

    2007-07-30

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. Numerous isolatesfrom diverse areas of the world's oceans have been studied and shown to be physiologically and genetically distinct. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL)-adapted group. The 16S rRNA sequences of the entire Prochlorococcus group differ by at most 3percent, and the four initially published genomes revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that help explain physiological differences among the isolates. Here we describe the genomes of eight newly sequenced isolates and combine them with the first four genomes for a comprehensive analysis of the core (shared by all isolates) and flexible genes of the Prochlorococcus group, and the patterns of loss and gain of the flexible genes over the course of evolution. There are 1,273 genes that represent the core shared by all 12 genomes. They are apparently sufficient, according to metabolic reconstruction, to encode a functional cell. We describe a phylogeny for all 12 isolates by subjecting their complete proteomes to three different phylogenetic analyses. For each non-core gene, we used a maximum parsimony method to estimate which ancestor likely first acquired or lost each gene. Many of the genetic differences among isolates, especially for genes involved in outer membrane synthesis and nutrient transport, are found within the same clade. Nevertheless, we identified some genes defining HL and LL ecotypes, and clades within these broad ecotypes, helping to demonstrate the basis of HL and LL adaptations in Prochlorococcus. Furthermore, our estimates of gene gain events allow us to identify highly variable genomic islands that are not apparent through simple pairwise comparisons. These results emphasize the functional roles, especially those connected to outer membrane synthesis and transport that dominate the flexible genome and set it apart from the core. Besides identifying islands and demonstrating their role throughout the history of Prochlorococcus, reconstruction of past gene gains and losses shows that much of the variability exists at the"leaves of the tree," between the most closely related strains. Finally, the identification of core and flexible genes from this 12-genome comparison is largely consistent with the relative frequency of Prochlorococcus genes found in global ocean metagenomic databases, further closing the gap between our understanding of these organisms in the lab and the wild.

  9. The Other Helium Shortage Smart Telescopes Go Stargazing No-bang, Big-gain Tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Helium Shortage Smart Telescopes Go Stargazing No-bang, Big-gain Tests The Secret Life of Endothelial Cells L o s A l a m o s S c i e n c e a n d Te c h n o l o g y M a g a z i n e | Au g u s t 2 0 1 4 1663 August 2014 More than a hundred independent laser beams fan out in a hemispherical pattern as a result of passing through the fish-eye lens of a small probe. Together, the probe and lasers form the front end of a powerful new diagnostic demonstrated during the most recent subcritical

  10. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  11. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBtu) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBtu) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 Btu/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollowcore floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  12. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  13. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (?BI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  14. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  15. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  16. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  17. A time-domain estimation of wall conduction transfer function coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1996-11-01

    The wall and roof transfer function coefficients, b{sub n} and d{sub n}, listed in the 1993 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, have up to now been derived using laplace and Z-transform methods. This paper shows that they can be readily evaluated using straightforward time-domain solutions of the Fourier continuity equation. These include the response of a wall to a ramp increase in temperature and its transient response. The values of d{sub n} can be found from the first few terms in the series of wall decay times in the transient solution. The solutions are combined using a form of Fourier analysis. Appropriate layer transmission matrices enable one to find the wall`s overall characteristics readily. The wall response factors {phi}{sub j} can thus be found. The b{sub n} transfer coefficients are related to the {phi}{sub j} and d{sub n} values. The approach is illustrated using the data for wall group 6. Allowing for conversion from I-P to SI units, the present approach gives results that are almost identical to those listed. It shows, however, that the performance of the coefficients is very specific to the wall from which they were derived. The b{sub n} and d{sub n} values listed in the Handbook permit an estimate to be made of the wall response factors, including the time of peak flow and the first decay time. For heavy walls, however, values beyond d{sub 6} may be needed.

  18. When and how does a prominence-like jet gain kinetic energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, S.; Wang, Yuming

    2014-02-20

    A jet is a considerable amount of plasma being ejected from the chromosphere or lower corona into the higher corona and is a common phenomenon. Usually, a jet is triggered by a brightening or a flare, which provides the first driving force to push plasma upward. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into thermal, nonthermal, and kinetic energies. However, most jets could reach an unusual high altitude and end much later than the end of its associated flare. This fact implies that there is another way to continuously transfer magnetic energy into kinetic energy even after the reconnection. The picture described above is well known in the community, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through a way other than reconnection is still unclear. By studying a prominence-like jet observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO-A/EUVI, we find that the continuous relaxation of the post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process for a jet to climb up higher than it could through only reconnection. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through the relaxation is 1.6 times that gained from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of times larger than the flux required for the local coronal heating, suggesting that such jets are a possible source to keep the corona hot. Furthermore, rotational motions appear all the time during the jet. Our analysis suggests that torsional Alfvn waves induced during reconnection could not be the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets.

  19. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, M.; Lepadatu, S.; McCartney, L. N.; Cain, M. G.; Wright, L.; Crain, J.; Newns, D. M.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-02-01

    The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA) simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  20. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lankford, Jr., James

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  1. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  2. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, Vanston R.; Miller, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.

  3. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  4. Distribution coefficient values describing iodine, neptunium, selenium, technetium, and uranium sorption to Hanford sediments. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U, were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.

  5. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  6. Electron distribution function and recombination coefficient in ultracold plasma in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Bronin, S. Ya.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.; Manykin, E. A.; Khikhlukha, D. R.

    2013-07-15

    The electron distribution function and diffusion coefficient in energy space have been calculated for the first time for a weakly coupled ultracold plasma in a magnetic field in the range of magnetic fields B = 100-50000 G for various temperatures. The dependence of these characteristics on the magnetic field is analyzed and the distribution function is shown to depend on the electron energy shift in a magnetic field. The position of the 'bottleneck' of the distribution function has been found to be shifted toward negative energies with increasing magnetic field. The electron velocity autocorrelators as a function of the magnetic field have been calculated; their behavior suggests that the frequency of collisions between charged particles decreases significantly with increasing magnetic field. The collisional recombination coefficient {alpha}{sub B} has been calculated in the diffusion approximation for a weakly coupled ultracold plasma in a magnetic field. An increase in magnetic field is shown to lead to a decrease in {alpha}{sub B} and this decrease can be several orders of magnitude.

  7. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  8. Reconstruction of time-dependent coefficients: A check of approximation schemes for non-Markovian convolutionless dissipative generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomo, Bruno; De Pasquale, Antonella; Gualdi, Giulia; Marzolino, Ugo

    2010-12-15

    We propose a procedure to fully reconstruct the time-dependent coefficients of convolutionless non-Markovian dissipative generators via a finite number of experimental measurements. By combining a tomography-based approach with a proper data sampling, our proposal allows to relate the time-dependent coefficients governing the dissipative evolution of a quantum system to experimentally accessible quantities. The proposed scheme not only provides a way to retrieve the full information about potentially unknown dissipative coefficients, but also, most valuably, can be employed as a reliable consistency test for the approximations involved in the theoretical derivation of a given non-Markovian convolutionless master equation.

  9. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  10. Methods And System Suppressing Clutter In A Gain-Block, Radar-Responsive Tag System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2006-04-18

    Methods and systems reduce clutter interference in a radar-responsive tag system. A radar transmits a series of linear-frequency-modulated pulses and receives echo pulses from nearby terrain and from radar-responsive tags that may be in the imaged scene. Tags in the vicinity of the radar are activated by the radar's pulses. The tags receive and remodulate the radar pulses. Tag processing reverses the direction, in time, of the received waveform's linear frequency modulation. The tag retransmits the remodulated pulses. The radar uses a reversed-chirp de-ramp pulse to process the tag's echo. The invention applies to radar systems compatible with coherent gain-block tags. The invention provides a marked reduction in the strength of residual clutter echoes on each and every echo pulse received by the radar. SAR receiver processing effectively whitens passive-clutter signatures across the range dimension. Clutter suppression of approximately 14 dB is achievable for a typical radar system.

  11. Gain and tuning characteristics of mid-infrared InSb quantum dot diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Hayton, J.; Yin, M.; Krier, A.

    2014-07-21

    There have been relatively few reports of lasing from InSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, type II InSb/InAs QD laser diodes emitting in the mid-infrared at 3.1??m have been demonstrated and characterized. The gain was determined to be 2.9?cm{sup ?1} per QD layer, and the waveguide loss was ?15?cm{sup ?1} at 4?K. Spontaneous emission measurements below threshold revealed a blue shift of the peak wavelength with increasing current, indicating filling of ground state heavy hole levels in the QDs. The characteristic temperature, T{sub 0}?=?101?K below 50?K, but decreased to 48?K at higher temperatures. The emission wavelength of these lasers showed first a blue shift followed by a red shift with increasing temperature. A hybrid structure was used to fabricate the laser by combining a liquid phase epitaxy grown p-InAs{sub 0.61}Sb{sub 0.13}P{sub 0.26} lower cladding layer and an upper n{sup +} InAs plasmon cladding layer which resulted in a maximum operating temperature (T{sub max}) of 120?K in pulsed mode, which is the highest reported to date.

  12. Utilization of sensitivity coefficients to guide the design of a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, B.F.; Dowding, K.J.; Cochran, R.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1998-08-01

    Equations are presented to describe the sensitivity of the temperature field in a heat-conducting body to changes in the volumetric heat source and volumetric heat capacity. These sensitivity equations, along with others not presented, are applied to a thermal battery problem to compute the sensitivity of the temperature field to 19 model input parameters. Sensitivity coefficients, along with assumed standard deviation in these parameters, are used to estimate the uncertainty in the temperature prediction. From the 19 parameters investigated, the battery cell heat source and volumetric heat capacity were clearly identified as being the major contributors to the overall uncertainty in the temperature predictions. The operational life of the thermal battery was shown to be very sensitive to uncertainty in these parameters.

  13. Improved Coefficient Calculator for the California Energy Commission 6 Parameter Photovoltaic Module Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes an improved algorithm for calculating the six parameters required by the California Energy Commission (CEC) photovoltaic (PV) Calculator module model. Rebate applications in California require results from the CEC PV model, and thus depend on an up-to-date database of module characteristics. Currently, adding new modules to the database requires calculating operational coefficients using a general purpose equation solver - a cumbersome process for the 300+ modules added on average every month. The combination of empirical regressions and heuristic methods presented herein achieve automated convergence for 99.87% of the 5487 modules in the CEC database and greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency by which new modules can be characterized and approved for use. The added robustness also permits general purpose use of the CEC/6 parameter module model by modelers and system analysts when standard module specifications are known, even if the module does not exist in a preprocessed database.

  14. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  15. On-Line Measurement of Lubricant Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Reflection Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Harper, P.

    2004-02-26

    The ultrasonic reflectivity of a lubricant layer between two solid bodies depends on the ultrasonic frequency, the acoustic properties of the liquid and solid, and the layer thickness. In this paper, ultrasonic reflectivity measurements are used as a method for determining the thickness of lubricating films in bearing systems. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the outside of a bearing shell such that the wave is focused on the lubricant film layer. For a particular lubricant film the reflected pulse is processed to give a reflection coefficient spectrum. The lubricant film thickness is then obtained from either the layer stiffness or the resonant frequency. The method has been validated using static fluid wedges and the elastohydrodynamic film formed between a ball sliding on a flat. Film thickness values in the range 50-500 nm were recorded which agreed well with theoretical film formation predictions.

  16. Wedge sampling for computing clustering coefficients and triangle counts on large graphs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seshadhri, C.; Pinar, Ali; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2014-05-08

    Graphs are used to model interactions in a variety of contexts, and there is a growing need to quickly assess the structure of such graphs. Some of the most useful graph metrics are based on triangles, such as those measuring social cohesion. Despite the importance of these triadic measures, algorithms to compute them can be extremely expensive. We discuss the method of wedge sampling. This versatile technique allows for the fast and accurate approximation of various types of clustering coefficients and triangle counts. Furthermore, these techniques are extensible to counting directed triangles in digraphs. Our methods come with provable andmore » practical time-approximation tradeoffs for all computations. We provide extensive results that show our methods are orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while providing nearly the accuracy of full enumeration.« less

  17. Laser Gain and Threshold Properties in Compressive-Strained and Lattice-Matched GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, W.W.; Jones, E.D.; Modine, N.A.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1999-08-04

    The optical gain spectra for compressive-strained and lattice-matched GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of lasing threshold current density for different GAInNAs/GaAs laser structures.

  18. Ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, J.; Hirschfeld, D.; Liu, D.M.; Yang, Y.; Li, T.; Swanson, R.E.; Van Aken, S.; Kim, J.M.

    1992-04-07

    Compositions, having the general formula (Ca[sub x]Mg[sub 1[minus]x])Zr[sub 4](PO[sub 4])[sub 6] where x is between 0.5 and 0.99, are produced by solid state and sol-gel processes. In a preferred embodiment, when x is between 0.5 and 0.8, the MgCZP materials have near-zero coefficients of thermal expansion. The MgCZPs of the present invention also show unusually low thermal conductivities, and are stable at high temperatures. Macrostructures formed from MgCZP are useful in a wide variety of high-temperature applications. In a preferred process, calcium, magnesium, and zirconium nitrate solutions have their pH adjusted to between 7 and 9 either before or after the addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. After dehydration to a gel, and calcination at temperatures in excess of 850 C for approximately 16 hours, single phase crystalline MgCZP powders with particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 nm to 50 nm result. The MgCZP powders are then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200 C to 1350 C to form solid macrostructures with near-zero bulk coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivities. Porous macrostructures of the MgCZP powders of the present invention are also formed by combination with a polymeric powder and a binding agent, and sintering at high temperatures. The porosity of the resulting macrostructures can be adjusted by varying the particle size of the polymeric powder used. 7 figs.

  19. Ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Jesse; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Liu, Dean-Mo; Yang, Yaping; Li, Tingkai; Swanson, Robert E.; Van Aken, Steven; Kim, Jin-Min

    1992-01-01

    Compositions having the general formula (Ca.sub.x Mg.sub.1-x)Zr.sub.4 (PO.sub.4).sub.6 where x is between 0.5 and 0.99 are produced by solid state and sol-gel processes. In a preferred embodiment, when x is between 0.5 and 0.8, the MgCZP materials have near-zero coefficients of thermal expansion. The MgCZPs of the present invention also show unusually low thermal conductivities, and are stable at high temperatures. Macrostructures formed from MgCZP are useful in a wide variety of high-temperature applications. In a preferred process, calcium, magnesium, and zirconium nitrate solutions have their pH adjusted to between 7 and 9 either before or after the addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. After dehydration to a gel, and calcination at temperatures in excess of 850.degree. C. for approximately 16 hours, single phase crystalline MgCZP powders with particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 nm to 50 nm result. The MgCZP powders are then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200.degree. C. to 1350.degree. C. to form solid macrostructures with near-zero bulk coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivities. Porous macrostructures of the MgCZP powders of the present invention are also formed by combination with a polymeric powder and a binding agent, and sintering at high temperatures. The porosity of the resulting macrostructures can be adjusted by varying the particle size of the polymeric powder used.

  20. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  1. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  2. Comparison of experimental and theoretical gain-current relations in GaInP quantum well lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smowton, P.M.; Chow, W.W.; Blood, P.

    2000-01-10

    The authors compare the results of a microscopic laser theory with gain and recombination currents obtained from experimental spontaneous emission spectra. The calculated absorption spectrum is first matched to that measured on a laser, ensuring that the quasi-Fermi levels for the calculation and the experiment (spontaneous emission and gain) are directly related. This allows one to determine the inhomogeneous broadening in their experimental samples. The only other inputs to the theory are literature values of the bulk material parameter. The authors then estimate the non-radiative recombination current associated with the well and wave-guide core from a comparison of measured and calculated recombination currents.

  3. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2 and four normal alkanes + N2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-30

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for C n H2n+2 + N2, n = 2–4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structuremore » of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R–12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R–12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard–Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above –700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard–Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. Moreover, a straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.« less

  4. Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

    2012-03-06

    This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction coefficient, yet it is rarely measured directly, and therefore verification of parametrizations is difficult. The obvious solution is to be able to measure microphysical properties and extinction at the same time and for the same volume. This is best done by in situ sampling by instruments mounted on either balloon or aircraft. The latter is the usual route and the one employed here. Yet the problem of actually measuring extinction coefficient directly for arbitrarily complicated particles still remains unsolved.

  5. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-05-21

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types of approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of Mg{sub 2}Si semiconducting layers with high absorption coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Takashi; Sago, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-15

    In an attempt to develop a low-cost material for solar cell devices, polycrystalline magnesium silicide (poly-Mg{sub 2}Si) semiconducting layers have been prepared by applying rf magnetron sputtering using a Mg{sub 2}Si target. The optimum substrate temperature for the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si growth was found to be T{sub s} = 200 deg. C; the film deposition at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Mg atoms from the growing surface, while the amorphous phase formation occurs at room temperature. The poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer deposited at T{sub s} = 200 deg. C shows the (111) preferential orientation with a uniform grain size of {approx}50 nm. The dielectric function of the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer has been determined accurately by spectroscopic ellipsometry. From the analysis, quite high absorption coefficients and an indirect gap of 0.77 eV in the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer have been confirmed. The above poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer shows clear photoconductivity and can be applied as a narrow-gap bottom layer in multi-junction solar cell devices.

  7. Empirical correlations between the arrhenius' parameters of impurities' diffusion coefficients in CdTe crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shcherbak, L.; Kopach, O.; Fochuk, P.; James, R. B.; Bolotnikov, A. E.

    2015-01-21

    Understanding of self- and dopant-diffusion in semiconductor devices is essential to our being able to assure the formation of well-defined doped regions. In this paper, we compare obtained in the literature up to date the Arrhenius’ parameters (D=D0exp(–ΔEa/kT)) of point-defect diffusion coefficients and the I-VII groups impurities in CdTe crystals and films. We found that in the diffusion process there was a linear dependence between the pre-exponential factor, D0, and the activation energy, ΔEa, of different species: This was evident in the self-diffusivity and isovalent impurity Hg diffusivity as well as for the dominant IIIA and IVA groups impurities andmore » Chlorine, except for the fast diffusing elements (e.g., Cu and Ag), chalcogens O, S, and Se, halogens I and Br as well as the transit impurities Mn, Co, Fe. As a result, reasons of the lack of correspondence of the data to compensative dependence are discussed.« less

  8. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?810{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  9. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  10. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  11. Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr.; Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S.; Schepler, K. L.

    2010-10-15

    Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

  12. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  13. Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobtorweihen, S. Ingram, T.; Gerlach, T.; Smirnova, I.; Zuniga, A. Chaides; Keil, F. J.

    2014-07-28

    Quantitative predictions of biomembrane/water partition coefficients are important, as they are a key property in pharmaceutical applications and toxicological studies. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes. The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Additionally, solute orientations calculated with MD and COSMOmic are compared and again a good agreement is found. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations. For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations.

  14. Discrimination Analysis of Earthquakes and Man-Made Events Using ARMA Coefficients Determination by Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AllamehZadeh, Mostafa

    2011-12-15

    A Quadratic Neural Networks (QNNs) model has been developed for identifying seismic source classification problem at regional distances using ARMA coefficients determination by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). We have devised a supervised neural system to discriminate between earthquakes and chemical explosions with filter coefficients obtained by windowed P-wave phase spectra (15 s). First, we preprocess the recording's signals to cancel out instrumental and attenuation site effects and obtain a compact representation of seismic records. Second, we use a QNNs system to obtain ARMA coefficients for feature extraction in the discrimination problem. The derived coefficients are then applied to the neural system to train and classification. In this study, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori-known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. The results have shown that this feature extraction gives the best classifier for seismic signals and performs significantly better than other classification methods. The events have been tested, which include 36 chemical explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan and 61 earthquakes (mb = 5.0-6.5) recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN). The 100% correct decisions were obtained between site explosions and some of non-site events. The above approach to event discrimination is very flexible as we can combine several 3C stations.

  15. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  16. Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Wei Bryan, Zachary; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Hussey, Lindsay; Bobea, Milena; Haidet, Brian; Collazo, Ramn; Sitar, Zlatko; Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Optical gain spectra for ?250?nm stimulated emission were compared in three different AlGaN-based structures grown on single crystalline AlN substrates: a single AlGaN film, a double heterostructure (DH), and a Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) structure; respective threshold pumping power densities of 700, 250, and 150?kW/cm{sup 2} were observed. Above threshold, the emission was transverse-electric polarized and as narrow as 1.8?nm without a cavity. The DH and MQW structures showed gain values of 5060?cm{sup ?1} when pumped at 1?MW/cm{sup 2}. The results demonstrated the excellent optical quality of the AlGaN-based heterostructures grown on AlN substrates and their potential for realizing electrically pumped sub-280?nm laser diodes.

  17. The oxidation of a gasoline surrogate in the negative temperature coefficient region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhert, David B.; Miller, David L.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Owens, Kevin G.

    2009-03-15

    This experimental study investigated the preignition reactivity behavior of a gasoline surrogate in a pressurized flow reactor over the low and intermediate temperature regime (600-800 K) at elevated pressure (8 atm). The surrogate mixture, a volumetric blend of 4.6% 1-pentene, 31.8% toluene, 14.0% n-heptane, and 49.6% 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), was shown to reproduce the low and intermediate temperature reactivity of full boiling range fuels in a previous study. Each of the surrogate components were examined individually to identify the major intermediate species in order to improve existing kinetic models, where appropriate, and to provide a basis for examining constituent interactions in the surrogate mixture. n-Heptane and 1-pentene started reacting at 630 K and 640 K, respectively, and both fuels exhibited a strong negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior starting at 700 and 710 K, respectively. Iso-octane showed a small level of reactivity at 630 K and a weak NTC behavior starting at 665 K. Neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures. The surrogate started reacting at 630 K and exhibited a strong NTC behavior starting at 693 K. The extent of fuel consumption varied for each of the surrogate constituents and was related to their general autoignition behavior. Most of the intermediates identified during the surrogate oxidation were species observed during the oxidation of the neat constituents; however, the surrogate mixture did exhibit a significant increase in intermediates associated with iso-octane oxidation, but not from n-heptane. While neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures, in the mixture it reacted with the radical pool generated by the other surrogate components, forming benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and ethyl-benzene. The observed n-heptane, iso-octane, and surrogate oxidation behavior was compared to predictions using existing kinetic models. The n-heptane model reasonably predicted the disappearance of the fuel, but overpredicted the formation of several of the smaller intermediates. The iso-octane model significantly overpredicted the reaction of the fuel and formation of the intermediates. The 1-pentene model reasonably predicted the fuel consumption, but underestimated the importance of radical addition to the double bond. The results of this study provide a critical experimental foundation for the investigation of surrogate mixtures and for validation of kinetic models. (author)

  18. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified intomore » porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.« less

  19. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low-temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, T.R.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

    1982-08-31

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  20. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated ? particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ? over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ? 8 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e} ? 8 10{sup 19} m{sup ?1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of ?{sub ?} with n{sub ?} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ?} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  1. Efficiency and accuracy of the perturbation response coefficient generation method for whole core comet calculations in BWR and CANDU configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2013-07-01

    The coarse mesh transport method (COMET) is a highly accurate and efficient computational tool which predicts whole-core neutronics behaviors for heterogeneous reactor cores via a pre-computed eigenvalue-dependent response coefficient (function) library. Recently, a high order perturbation method was developed to significantly improve the efficiency of the library generation method. In that work, the method's accuracy and efficiency was tested in a small PWR benchmark problem. This paper extends the application of the perturbation method to include problems typical of the other water reactor cores such as BWR and CANDU bundles. It is found that the response coefficients predicted by the perturbation method for typical BWR bundles agree very well with those directly computed by the Monte Carlo method. The average and maximum relative errors in the surface-to-surface response coefficients are 0.02%-0.05% and 0.06%-0.25%, respectively. For CANDU bundles, the corresponding quantities are 0.01%-0.05% and 0.04% -0.15%. It is concluded that the perturbation method is highly accurate and efficient with a wide range of applicability. (authors)

  2. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  3. Improving proliferation resistance of high breeding gain generation 4 reactors using blankets composed of light water reactor waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Grape, S.; Haakanson, A.; Jacobson Svaerd, S.; Jansson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Fertile blankets can be used in fast reactors to enhance the breeding gain as well as the passive safety characteristics. However, such blankets typically result in the production of weapons grade plutonium. For this reason they are often excluded from Generation IV reactor designs. In this paper we demonstrate that using blankets manufactured directly from spent light water (LWR) reactor fuel it is possible to produce a plutonium product with non-proliferation characteristics on a par with spent LWR fuel of 30-50 MWd/kg burnup. The beneficial breeding and safety characteristics are retained. (authors)

  4. High gain, low noise, fully complementary logic inverter based on bi-layer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Saptarshi; Roelofs, Andreas; Dubey, Madan

    2014-08-25

    In this article, first, we show that by contact work function engineering, electrostatic doping and proper scaling of both the oxide thickness and the flake thickness, high performance p- and n-type WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized. We report record high drive current of 98??A/?m for the electron conduction and 110 ?A/?m for the hole conduction in Schottky barrier WSe{sub 2} FETs. Then, we combine high performance WSe{sub 2} PFET with WSe{sub 2} NFET in double gated transistor geometry to demonstrate a fully complementary logic inverter. We also show that by adjusting the threshold voltages for the NFET and the PFET, the gain and the noise margin of the inverter can be significantly enhanced. The maximum gain of our chemical doping free WSe{sub 2} inverter was found to be ?25 and the noise margin was close to its ideal value of ?2.5?V for a supply voltage of V{sub DD}?=?5.0?V.

  5. Optical amplifier exhibiting net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feve, Jean-Philippe; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Farrow; Roger L.

    2011-02-01

    An optical amplifier, such as an optical waveguide amplifier (e.g., an optical fiber amplifier or a planar waveguide) or a non-guiding optical amplifier, that exhibits a net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof is disclosed. In one aspect of the invention, an optical amplifier structure includes at least one optical amplifier having a length and a gain region. The at least one optical amplifier exhibits a net phase-mismatch that varies along at least part of the length thereof selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof.

  6. Revisiting Maxwell’s accommodation coefficient: A study of nitrogen flow in a silica microtube across all flow regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Wenwen McKenzie, David R.

    2014-12-15

    Gas flows have been studied quantitatively for more than a hundred years and have relevance in modern fields such as the control of gas inputs to processes, the measurement of leak rates and the separation of gaseous species. Cha and McCoy have derived a convenient formula for the flow of an ideal gas applicable across a wide range of Knudsen numbers (Kn) that approaches the Navier–Stokes equations at small Kn and the Smoluchowski extension of the Knudsen flow equation at large Kn. Smoluchowski’s result relies on the Maxwell definition of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient α, recently challenged by Arya et al. We measure the flow rate of nitrogen gas in a smooth walled silica tube across a wide range of Knudsen numbers from 0.0048 to 12.4583. We find that the nitrogen flow obeys the Cha and McCoy equation with a large value of α, unlike carbon nanotubes which show flows consistent with a small value of α. Silica capillaries are therefore not atomically smooth. The flow at small Kn has α=0.91 and at large Kn has α close to one, consistent with the redefinition of accommodation coefficient by Arya et al., which also resolves a problem in the literature where there are many observations of α of less than one at small Kn and many equal to one at large Kn. Silica capillaries are an excellent choice for an accurate flow control system. - Highlights: • First experimental study on flow rate across all flow regimes in a well-defined microtube. • Extend Cha and McCoy theory for molecular flow regime. • Demonstrate the Maxwell accommodation coefficient is different in the slip and molecular flow regimes.

  7. Prospects for high-gain, high yield National Ignition Facility targets driven by 2(omega) (green) light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, L J; Glenzer, S; Haan, S; Hammel, B; Manes, K; Meezan, N; Moody, J; Spaeth, M; Divol, L; Oades, K; Stevenson, M

    2003-12-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), operating at green (2{omega}) light, has the potential to drive ignition targets with significantly more energy than the 1.8 MJ it will produce with its baseline, blue (3{omega}) operations. This results in a greatly increased 'target design space', providing a number of exciting opportunities for fusion research. These include the prospect of ignition experiments with capsules absorbing energies in the vicinity of 1 MJ. This significant increase in capsule absorbed energy over the original designs at {approx}150 kJ could allow high-gain, high yield experiments on NIF. This paper reports the progress made exploring 2{omega} for NIF ignition, including potential 2{omega} laser performance, 2{omega} ignition target designs and 2{omega} Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) studies.

  8. Gain Sharing.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... flyer accounts, track business versus personal miles, and plan and secure the frequent ... issued Department-wide guidance to DOE Finance Directors, that several DOE sites were ...

  9. Women @ Energy: Linda Gaines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Don’t succumb to Superwoman syndrome: You can’t do everything perfectly! There are only 24 hours in a day; don’t buy into the macho work week. Identify tasks that you can ignore, skimp on, really want to do right, delegate — then DO IT!"

  10. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  11. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  13. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less

  14. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Electron attachment and ionization coefficients and electron drift velocities in BF/sub 3/ and SiF/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, S.R.; Carter, J.G.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-03-01

    The drift velocity of electrons (w) in SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ has been measured over the density-reduced electric field (E/N) range 0.5 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ less than or equal toE/Nless than or equal to300 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ using a pulsed Townsend experimental technique. The electron attachment (eta/N) and ionization (..cap alpha../N) coefficients have also been measured in SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ over the E/N range 30 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ less than or equal toE/Nless than or equal to300 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ in the same experiment. The electron drift velocities in these two gases exhibit regions of negative differential conductivity (NDC) similar to but smaller in magnitude than those in CH/sub 4/ and CF/sub 4/ . The effective ionization coefficient (alpha-bar/N) has been obtained from the eta/N and ..cap alpha../N measurements in both gases, from which the high-voltage limiting electric field strengths (E/N)/sub lim/ have been found to be 123 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ for BF/sub 3/ and 121 x 10/sup -17/ V cm/sup 2/ for SiF/sub 4/. The significance of these results in modeling gas discharges for a number of technological applications is indicated.

  16. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  17. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction ofmore » a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.« less

  18. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.

  19. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their implications for the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-10-01

    A substantial portion of the US population suffers frequently from communicable respiratory illnesses, allergy and asthma symptoms, and sick building syndrome symptoms. We now have increasingly strong evidence that changes in building design, operation, and maintenance can significantly reduce these illnesses. Decreasing the prevalence or severity of these health effects would lead to lower health care costs, reduced sick leave, and shorter periods of illness-impaired work performance, resulting in annual economic benefits for the US in the tens of billions of dollars. Increasing the awareness of these potential health and economic gains, combined with other factors, could help bring about a shift in the way we design, construct, operate, and occupy buildings. The current goal of providing marginally adequate indoor environments could be replaced by the goal of providing indoor environments that maximize the health, satisfaction, and performance of building occupants. Through research and technology transfer, DOE and its contractors are well positioned to help stimulate this shift in practice and, consequently, improve the health and economic well-being of the US population. Additionally, DOE's energy-efficiency interests would be best served by a program that prepares for the potential shift, specifically by identifying and promoting the most energy-efficient methods of improving the indoor environment. The associated research and technology transfer topics of particular relevance to DOE are identified and discussed.

  20. Variations of operations and noise of semiconductor lasers subject to optical feedback with nonlinear gain and nonradiative recombination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulrhmann, S.; Al-Hossain, A.

    2015-03-30

    Influence of the nonlinear gain (NLG) and nonradiative recombination life time ratio (NRRLTR) on the rout to chaos and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers (SLs) subject to optical feedback (OFB) are investigated. The analyses are performed in terms of the temporal trajectory of the photon numbers, bifurcation diagrams and relative intensity noise (RIN). Variations of the fluctuations of the photon number are statistically analyzed. The corresponding frequency dependence of RIN is characterized. The simulation results show that, NLG and NRRLTR can cause significant changes in the rout to chaos of the SLs and probability distribution of the photon numbers. We found that the value of the OFB rate at which the transition from CW to periodic oscillation (PO) or chaos state occur increases, as the value of the NLG/ NRRLTR is increased/decreased. The RIN is found to be suppressed when the laser is operated in CW or PO region and at relatively higher/lower values of the NLG/NRRLTR. We believe that, the instability of the SLs can be reduced by operating it under OFB and by increasing/decreasing the values of the NLG/NRRLTR parameter.

  1. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H{sub 2}, and four normal alkanes + N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasper, Ahren W. Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-28

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N{sub 2}. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} and with recent experimental results for C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2} + N{sub 2}, n = 24. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R{sup ?12} repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N{sub 2} by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R{sup ?12} interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2}, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N{sub 2}, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 LennardJones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ?700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 LennardJones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N{sub 2}. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N{sub 2} is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.

  2. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore »swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  3. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  4. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  5. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  6. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle; Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett; Fay, Michael; Martin, Jennifer; Jeffree, Rosalind L; Thomas, Paul; Bell, Christopher; Salvado, Olivier; Gal, Yaniv; Coulthard, Alan; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2015-06-15

    Accurate knowledge of O{sup 6}-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling.

  7. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  8. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  9. Multispectrum analysis of the v9 band of 12C2H6: Positions, intensities, self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Benner, D. C.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Line positions, intensities, Lorentz self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients have been measured for PQ3, PQ2, PQ1, RQ0,RQ1, RQ2, and RQ3 sub-band transitions in the 9 fundamental band of 12C2H6. A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique was used to fit up to 17 high-resolution (~0.00156 cm-1), room temperature absorption spectra of pure (99.99% chemical purity) natural sample of ethane and lean mixtures of the high-purity ethane diluted with N2. A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in Richland, Washington was used to record the data. A standard Voigt line shape was assumed to fit all the data since no line mixing or other non Voigt line shapes were required to fit any of the spectra used in the analysis. Short spectral intervals (~2 to 2.5 cm-1) of all 17 spectra covering a specific PQ or RQ sub band were fit simultaneously. For the first time in an ethane band, pressure-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for each of the torsional-split components. Constraints were used such that the half-width coefficients of both torsional-split components were identical for a specific broadening gas. No pressure-induced shift coefficients were necessary to fit the spectra to their noise level. The present study revealed for the first time the dependence of self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients upon the J, K quantum numbers of the transitions in ethane. A number of transitions belonging to the 9+ 4- 4 and the 9+2 4-2 4 hot bands were also observed in the fitted regions and measurements were made when possible.

  10. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients ?{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the ? = 6 scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of ?{sub s}[x(E, ?)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of ?{sup }{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}(x)=?{sub 1}?{sub s1}(x)+?{sub 2}?{sub s2}(x)+?{sub 3}?{sub s3}(x), where ?{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the ?{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known ?{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup ?1}. The ?{sup }{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to measure ?{sub s} of homogeneous samples was quantitatively accurate. Simple WAXS models predicted the probabilities for specific x-ray scattering to occur from heterogeneous biopsies. The fat subtraction model can allow ?{sub s} signals of breast cancer and fibroglandular tissue to be compared without the effects of fat provided there is an independent measurement of the fat volume fraction ?{sub f}. Future work will consist of devising a quantitative x-ray digital imaging method to estimate ?{sub f} in ex vivo breast samples.

  11. V-183: Cisco TelePresence TC and TE Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service and Remote Adjacent Authenticated Users Gain Root Shell Access

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cisco TelePresence TC and TE Software contain two vulnerabilities in the implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) that could allow an unauthenticated remote attacker to cause a denial of service (DoS) condition. Additionally, Cisco TelePresence TC Software contain an adjacent root access vulnerability that could allow an attacker on the same physical or logical Layer-2 network as the affected system to gain an unauthenticated root shell.

  12. Channel-capacity gain in entanglement-assisted communication protocols based exclusively on linear optics, single-photon inputs, and coincidence photon counting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lougovski, P.; Uskov, D. B.

    2015-08-04

    Entanglement can effectively increase communication channel capacity as evidenced by dense coding that predicts a capacity gain of 1 bit when compared to entanglement-free protocols. However, dense coding relies on Bell states and when implemented using photons the capacity gain is bounded by 0.585 bits due to one's inability to discriminate between the four optically encoded Bell states. In this research we study the following question: Are there alternative entanglement-assisted protocols that rely only on linear optics, coincidence photon counting, and separable single-photon input states and at the same time provide a greater capacity gain than 0.585 bits? In thismore » study, we show that besides the Bell states there is a class of bipartite four-mode two-photon entangled states that facilitate an increase in channel capacity. We also discuss how the proposed scheme can be generalized to the case of two-photon N-mode entangled states for N=6,8.« less

  13. Channel-capacity gain in entanglement-assisted communication protocols based exclusively on linear optics, single-photon inputs, and coincidence photon counting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lougovski, P.; Uskov, D. B.

    2015-08-04

    Entanglement can effectively increase communication channel capacity as evidenced by dense coding that predicts a capacity gain of 1 bit when compared to entanglement-free protocols. However, dense coding relies on Bell states and when implemented using photons the capacity gain is bounded by 0.585 bits due to one's inability to discriminate between the four optically encoded Bell states. In this research we study the following question: Are there alternative entanglement-assisted protocols that rely only on linear optics, coincidence photon counting, and separable single-photon input states and at the same time provide a greater capacity gain than 0.585 bits? In this study, we show that besides the Bell states there is a class of bipartite four-mode two-photon entangled states that facilitate an increase in channel capacity. We also discuss how the proposed scheme can be generalized to the case of two-photon N-mode entangled states for N=6,8.

  14. Longitudinal dispersion coefficient depending on superficial velocity of hydrogen isotopes flowing in column packed with zeolite pellets at 77.4 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotoh, K.; Kubo, K.; Takashima, S.; Moriyama, S.T.; Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    Authors have been developing a cryogenic pressure swing adsorption system for hydrogen isotope separation. In the problem of its design and operation, it is necessary to predict the concentration profiles developing in packed beds of adsorbent pellets. The profiling is affected by the longitudinal dispersion of gas flowing in packed beds, in addition to the mass transfer resistance in porous media of adsorbent pellets. In this work, an equation is derived for estimating the packed-bed dispersion coefficient of hydrogen isotopes, by analyzing the breakthrough curves of trace D{sub 2} or HD replacing H{sub 2} adsorbed in synthetic zeolite particles packed columns at the liquefied nitrogen temperature 77.4 K. Since specialized for hydrogen isotopes, this equation can be considered to estimate the dispersion coefficients more reliable for the cryogenic hydrogen isotope adsorption process, than the existing equations. (authors)

  15. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  16. Effects of the radial dependence of the fast electron diffusion coefficient on the current driven by lower-hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xianmei; Wang Yanhui; Yu Limin; Shen Xin; Wang Jianbin

    2012-07-15

    The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the promising methods not only for driving the non-inductive current required for steady-state tokamak operation, but also for controlling the plasma current profile to improve confinement in tokamak experiments. A direct consequence of experimental imperfection is difficult to obtain reliable estimate of the radial diffusion coefficient (D{sub st}) of the lower hybrid driven current. In this paper, the radial profile of D{sub st} is estimated to investigate its effect on the current driven by lower hybrid wave (LHW) in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Compared with the case of the constant radial diffusion coefficient, the efficiency of LHW driven current with the radial dependent diffusion coefficient D{sub st} ({rho}) becomes either higher or lower with respect to the plasma parameters, such as the density and the magnetic fluctuation. It is also found that the profiles of the LHW driven current are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the radial dependence of D{sub st} in order to get an accurate and reliable result in the numerical simulation of LHCD.

  17. On the study of threshold intensity dependence on the gain and loss processes in laser induced spark ignition of molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M. M. Aboulfotouh, A. M.; Gamal, Y. E. E.

    2015-03-30

    In the present work, a numerical analysis is performed to investigate the comparative contribution of the mechanisms responsible for electron gain and losses in laser spark ignition and plasma formation of H{sub 2}. The analysis considered H{sub 2} over pressure range 150 -3000 torr irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser radiation at wavelengths 1064 and 532?nm with pulse length 5.5?ns. The study based on a modified electron cascade model by one of the authors which solves numerically the time dependent Boltzmann equation as well as a set of rate equations that describe the rate of change of the excited states population. The model includes most of the physical processes that might take place during the interaction. Computations of The threshold intensity are performed for the combined and separate contribution of each of the gain and loss processes. Reasonable agreement with the measured values over the tested pressure range is obtained only for the case of the combined contribution. Basing on the calculation of the electron energy distribution function, the determined relations of the time evolution of the electrons density for selected values of the tested gas pressure region revealed that photo-ionization of the excited states could determine the time of electron generation and hence spark ignition. Collisional ionization contributes to this phenomenon only at the high pressure regime. Loss processes due to electron diffusion, vibrational excitation are found to have significant effect over examined pressure values for the two applied laser wavelengths.

  18. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  19. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  20. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  1. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming LI

    2007-12-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  2. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  3. Managers spur productivity gains. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brezovec, D.

    1981-12-01

    Output per worker hour grows at U.S. coal mines as management gears training programs and operating practices to fight falling productivity.

  4. Insights gained from aging research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Casada, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, D.L.; Gunther, W.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Jacobus, M.J.; Jarrell, D.B.; Kryter, R.C.; Magelby, H.L.; Murphy, G.A.; Subudhi, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has implemented hardware-oriented engineering research programs to identify and resolve technical issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) in operating nuclear power plants. This report provides a summary of those research results which have been compiled and published in NUREGS and related technical reports. The systems, components and structures that have been studied are organized by alphabetical order. The research results summary on the SSCs is followed by an assessment guide to emphasize inspection techniques which may be useful for detecting aging degradation in nuclear power plants. This report will be updated periodically to reflect new research results on these or other SSCs.

  5. Linda Gaines | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Idle Reduction Tools and Outreach Materials Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis Reducing Vehicle Idling...

  6. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1982-07-21

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  7. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1984-01-01

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  8. Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelikov, Yu. S.; Bochkareva, N. I.; Gorbunov, R. I.; Martynov, I. A.; Rebane, Yu. T.; Tarkin, D. V.; Shreter, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)], E-mail: YShreter@mail.ioffe.ru

    2008-11-15

    A procedure for measuring the absorption coefficient for light propagating parallel to the surface of a GaN-based light emitting diode chip on a sapphire substrate is suggested. The procedure implies the study of emission from one end face of the chip as the opposite end face is illuminated with a light emitting diode. The absorption coefficient is calculated from the ratio between the intensities of emission emerging from the end faces of the sapphire substrate and the epitaxial layer. From the measurements for chips based on p-GaN/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/n-GaN structures, the lateral absorption coefficient is determined at a level of (23 {+-} 3)cm{sup -1} at a wavelength of 465 nm. Possible causes for the discrepancy between the absorption coefficients determined in the study and those reported previously are analyzed.

  9. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses high kVp.

  10. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  11. Coefficient of the Extraction of the Target Isotope and Optimum Parameters of a Collector of Heated Ions in the Context of the ICR Method of Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karchevskii, A. I.; Potanin, E. P.

    2002-07-15

    The separation parameters of a collector of heated ions are estimated in the context of the ion cyclotron resonance method of isotope separation. The separation power dU, the coefficient {Gamma}{sub C} of the extraction of the target isotope, and the collector efficiency {eta} are calculated. These parameters are investigated as functions of the repulsive potential U of the collector plates, the half-height a of the front screen, and the distance b between the plates. It is shown that the dependence of the collector efficiency {eta} on the distance b between the plates has a pronounced maximum at b Almost-Equal-To 2r{sub L}{sup *}, where r{sub L}{sup *} is the mean ion gyroradius.

  12. Dose Coefficients | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy April 16, 2010 - 11:07am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? Princeton Power Systems is currently installing a 200-kW solar array and advanced battery system on company grounds to provide clean power to its building and to showcase advancements in renewable energy technology to businesses, municipalities and utilities that may be curious about renewable energy projects. While many college students

  13. Spatially Resolved Seebeck Coefficient Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spark Spread Figure 1 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on SNL Energy. The spark spread is a common metric for estimating the profitability of natural gas-fired electric generators. The spark spread is the difference between the price received by a generator for electricity produced and the cost of the natural gas needed to produce that electricity. It is typically calculated using daily spot prices for natural gas and power at various regional trading points. The chart above

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Imery Group, Proud Green...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Imery stated that these performance criteria ... Quality Management Guidelines EarthCraft House Platinum Level Every DOE Zero ... clad, dual- pane, low-e, U0.29, SHGC0.20 * ...

  15. DOE Zero Ready Home Case Study: The Imery Group, Proud Green...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Imery stated that these performance criteria ... Quality Management Guidelines EarthCraft House, platinum level Every DOE ... clad, dual- pane, low-e, U0.29, SHGC0.20 * ...

  16. Convergence of Distributed Optimal Controls on the Internal Energy in Mixed Elliptic Problems when the Heat Transfer Coefficient Goes to Infinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gariboldi, C.; E-mail: cgariboldi@exa.unrc.edu.ar; Tarzia, D.

    2003-05-21

    We consider a steady-state heat conduction problem P{sub {alpha}} with mixed boundary conditions for the Poisson equation depending on a positive parameter {alpha} , which represents the heat transfer coefficient on a portion {gamma} {sub 1} of the boundary of a given bounded domain in R{sup n} . We formulate distributed optimal control problems over the internal energy g for each {alpha}. We prove that the optimal control g{sub o}p{sub {alpha}} and its corresponding system u{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} and adjoint p{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} states for each {alpha} are strongly convergent to g{sub op},u{sub gop} and p{sub gop} , respectively, in adequate functional spaces. We also prove that these limit functions are respectively the optimal control, and the system and adjoint states corresponding to another distributed optimal control problem for the same Poisson equation with a different boundary condition on the portion {gamma}{sub 1} . We use the fixed point and elliptic variational inequality theories.

  17. Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu

    2014-03-10

    Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO{sub 3} are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn{sup 4+} ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2???x???0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions concentration as Mn content changes.

  18. Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Hashemi, Bijan; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 4 to 25 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.56 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.76.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.56 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 25 cm{sup 2}.

  19. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myint, P. C.; Hao, Y.; Firoozabadi, A.

    2015-03-27

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data [1]. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi [2], and the CO2 activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun [3]. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO2, pure water, and both CO2-rich and aqueous (H2O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Suns model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO2. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H2O-CO2-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.

  20. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoessel, Chris

    2013-11-13

    This project developed a new high-performance R-10/high SHGC window design, reviewed market positioning and evaluated manufacturing solutions required for broad market adoption. The project objectives were accomplished by: identifying viable technical solutions based on modeling of modern and potential coating stacks and IGU designs; development of new coating material sets for HM thin film stacks, as well as improved HM IGU designs to accept multiple layers of HM films; matching promising new coating designs with new HM IGU designs to demonstrate performance gains; and, in cooperation with a window manufacturer, assess the potential for high-volume manufacturing and cost efficiency of a HM-based R-10 window with improved solar heat gain characteristics. A broad view of available materials and design options was applied to achieve the desired improvements. Gated engineering methodologies were employed to guide the development process from concept generation to a window demonstration. The project determined that a slightly de-rated window performance allows formulation of a path to achieve the desired cost reductions to support end consumer adoption.

  1. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12?m. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than 0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to determine these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were also found to follow distinctively different patterns. The variations of the observed half-width coefficients and their temperature dependences with respect to J, K quantum numbers are discussed. Because of the high density of torsionally split spectral lines, hot-band ransitions as well as blends, it was not possible to retrieve any information on the small pressure-induced shift coefficients. Present results are compared to other available measurements.

  2. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.

  3. Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers containing low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13) be considered for air-kerma calibrations for reference dosimetry in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams.

  4. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 2: Determination of Cesium Exchange Capacity and Effective Mass Transfer Coefficient from a 500-cm3 Column Experiement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    A semi-scale column test was performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution, which represents liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtmIE-911 (UOP, Mt. Laurel,NJ, USA), was tested in a 500-cm3 column to obtain a cesium breakthrough curve. The cesium exchange capacity of this column matched that obtained from previous testing with a 15-mc3 column. A numerical algorithm using implicit finite difference approximations was developed to solve the governing mass transport equations for the CST columns. An effective mass transfer coefficient was derived from solving these equations for previously reported 15 cm3 tests. The effective mass transfer coefficient was then used to predict the cesium breakthrough curve for the 500-cm3 column and compared to the experimental data reported in this paper. The calculated breakthrough curve showed excellent agreement with the data from the 500-cm3 column even though the interstitial velocity was a factor of two greater. Thus, this approach should provide a reasonable method for scale up to larger columns for treating actual tank waste.

  5. Determination of the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient from temperature dependences of the dielectric permittivity for multiferroic ceramics Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkowska, J. A. Dercz, J.

    2013-11-15

    In the multiferroic materials, the dielectric and magnetic properties are closely correlated through the coupling interaction between the ferroelectric and magnetic order. We attempted to determine the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient from the temperature dependences of the dielectric permittivity for multiferroic Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15}. Multiferroic ceramics Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} belong to materials of the Aurivillius-type structure. Multiferroic ceramics Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} was synthesized via sintering the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture and TiO{sub 2} oxides. The precursor material was ground in a high-energy attritorial mill for 5 hours. This material was obtained by a solid-state reaction process at T = 1313 K. We investigated the temperature dependences of the dielectric permittivity for the different frequencies. From the dielectric measurements, we determined the temperature of phase transition of the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric type at about 1013 K. Based on dielectric measurements and theoretical considerations, the values of the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient were specified.

  6. Geotech Smart24 data acquisition system input terminated noise seismic response adjusted test : StreckeisenSTS2-low and high gain, Guralp CMG3T and Geotech GS13 seismometers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rembold, Randy Kai; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2008-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested, evaluated and reported on the Geotech Smart24 data acquisition system with active Fortezza crypto card data signing and authentication in SAND2008-. One test, Input Terminated Noise, allows us to characterize the self-noise of the Smart24 system. By computing the power spectral density (PSD) of the input terminated noise time series data set and correcting for the instrument response of different seismometers, the resulting spectrum can be compared to the USGS new low noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1996), and determine the ability of the matched system of seismometer and Smart24 to be quiet enough for any general deployment location. Four seismometer models were evaluated: the Streckeisen STS2-Low and High Gain, Guralp CMG3T and Geotech GS13 models. Each has a unique pass-band as defined by the frequency band of the instrument corrected noise spectrum that falls below the new low-noise model.

  7. Financing Renewable Energy- No Pain, No Gain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar series presentation by Rob Holden, New Resource Bank, on financing renewable energy systems from a banker’s perspective.

  8. Army Veteran Gains Experience at EM Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Army Capt. Mark Spurlock supports the EM program at the Savannah River Site as part of Operation Warfighter, an internship program for returning warfighters.

  9. Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua Cogliati

    2010-12-01

    James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

  10. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  11. GainSpan Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Zip: 95032 Region: Bay Area Sector: Efficiency Product: Designs wireless sensor networks for a variety of applications including smart grid Website: www.gainspan.com...

  12. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Qingyong Chen, Jun Zhang, Dong H.

    2015-09-14

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  13. Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... or "two-region" model (Coats and Smith, 1964; Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; van ... of soil systems e.g., Smith and Jenne (1991) as summarized by Tompson et al. (1996). ...

  14. Longitudinal dispersion coefficient depending on superficial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Kotoh, K. 1 ; Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 2 ; Kubo, K. ; Takashima, S. ; Moriyama, S.T. 3 ; Tanaka, M. 4 ; Sugiyama, T. ...

  15. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:'...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BORON CARBIDES; STABILIZATION; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; SEEBECK EFFECT Word Cloud More Like This ...

  16. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D; Wiehagen, Joseph; Drumheller, S Craig; Siegel, John; Stratmoen, Todd

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed better than the other. COMMERCIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A 12-story office building in Philadelphia was retrofitted by adding a double-pane low-E insulating glass unit to the existing single pane windows, to create a triple glazed low-E system. A detailed side-by-side comparison in two pairs of perimeter offices facing north and east showed a 39-60% reduction in heating energy use, a 9-36% reduction in cooling energy use, and a 10% reduction in peak electrical cooling demand. An analysis of utility bills estimated the whole building heating and cooling energy use was reduced by over 25%. Additionally, the retrofit window temperatures were commonly 20 degrees warmer on winter days, and 10-20 degrees cooler on summer days, leading to increased occupant comfort. (b) Two large 4-story office buildings in New Jersey were retrofitted with a similar system, but using two low-E coatings in the retrofit system. The energy savings are being monitored by a separate GPIC project; this work quantified the changes in glass surface temperatures, thermal comfort, and potential glass thermal stress. The low-E retrofit panels greatly reduced daily variations in the interior window surface temperatures, lowering the maximum temperature and raising the minimum temperature by over 20F compared to the original single pane windows with window film. The number of hours of potential thermal discomfort, as measured by deviation between mean radiant temperature and ambient air temperature by more than 3F, were reduced by 93 percent on the south orientation and over two-thirds on the west orientation. Overall, the low-E retrofit led to substantially improved occupant comfort with less periods of both overheating and feeling cold. (c) No significant thermal stress was observed in the New Jersey office building test window when using the low-E retrofit system over a variety of weather conditions. The surface temperature difference only exceeded 10F (500 psi thermal stress) for less than 1.5% of the monitored time, and in all cases, the maximum surface temperature difference never exceeded 35F (1,750 psi thermal stress). LOW-E STORM WINDOW OUTREACH AND EDUCATION PROGRAM: (a) The project team assisted the State of Pennsylvania in adding low-E storm windows as a cost effective weatherization measure on its priority list for the state weatherization assistance program. (b) No technical barriers that could hinder widespread application were identified in the case studies. However, educational barriers have been identified, in that weatherization personnel commonly misunderstand how the application of low-E storm windows is very different than much more expensive full window replacement. (c) A package of educational materials was developed to help communicate the benefits of low-E storm windows and retrofits as a cost effective tool for weatherization personnel. (d) Using detailed thermal simulations, more accurate U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) values were determined for low-E storm windows installed over different primary windows. IN SUMMARY, this work confirmed the potential for low-E storm windows, panels, and retrofit systems to provide significant energy savings, reductions in air leakage, and improvements in thermal comfort in both residential and commercial existing buildings.

  17. Scientists gain insight into origin of tungsten ditelluride's...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jared Sagoff at (630) 252-5549 or media@anl.gov. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  18. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  19. ALCF summer students gain experience with high-performance computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of computing that my textbooks couldn't keep up with," said Brown, who is majoring in computer science and computer game design. "Getting exposed to many-core machines and...

  20. Critical Materials Institute gains new member Eck Industries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which utilize byproducts of rare-earth mining as alloying elements to improve aluminum casting alloys," Weiss said. "We are devoting significant resources to this partnership,...

  1. Students can gain valuable work experience and income at Los...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    internship opportunities this summer and in some cases throughout the year. But Scott Robbins, team leader for the Laboratory's Student Programs office, already is getting ready...

  2. U.S. pipelines continue gains into 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1996-11-25

    US interstate natural gas, crude oil, and petroleum product pipelines turned in health performances for 1995, continuing impressive efficiency improvements that were evident in 1994. Revenues and incomes earned from operations along with volumes moved are among data annually submitted to FERC and tracked by Oil and Gas Journal year to year in this exclusive report. This year`s report expands coverage of plans for new construction and completed-cost figures by including Canadian activity for the same 12-month period: July 1, 1995, to June 30, 1996. The paper includes data on the following: pipeline revenues, incomes--1995; North American pipeline costs, estimated; US pipeline costs, estimated vs. actual; North American compressor-construction costs; US compressor costs, estimated vs. actual; Canadian pipeline construction costs, actual; US interstate mileage; investment in liquids pipelines; 10 years of land construction costs; to 10 interstate liquids lines; top 10 interstate gas lines; liquids pipeline companies; and gas pipeline companies.

  3. U.S., Canada pipeline work shows gain in 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, J.

    1994-01-01

    Pipeline construction activity in the US and Canada is expected to be down slightly during 1994 from 1993 mileage, even though natural gas pipeline work remains steady on both sides of the border. Pipeline and Gas Journal and Pipeline and Utilities Construction estimate that a total of 3.638 miles of new gas, crude oil and refined products pipeline will be installed during 1994 in the US, down from a total of 4.278 miles built in 1993. Canadian 1994 work remains essentially unchanged in 1994, with 1,094 new miles compared to 1,091 miles in 1993. This paper reviews the proposed construction by region and company. It includes information on mileage, type pipeline, and estimated completion date.

  4. An analysis of the saturation of a high gain FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Okamoto, Hiromi; Krinsky, S.

    1992-12-01

    We study the saturated state of an untapered free electron laser in the Compton regime, arising after exponential amplification of an initial low level of radiation by an initially monoenergetic, unbunched electron beam. The saturated state of the FEL is described by oscillations about an equilibrium state. Using the two invariants of the motion, and certain assumptions motivated by computer simulations, we provide approximate analytic descriptions of the radiation field and electron distribution in the saturation regime. We first consider a one-dimensional approximation, and later extend our approach to treat an electron beam of finite radial extent. Of note is a result on the radiated power in the case of an electron beam with small radius.

  5. Fort Yukon Gains Heat and Insight with Biomass Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005, residents of the Native Village of Fort Yukon were seeking a better, less costly way to heat the village’s common buildings and shared water system. At that time, leaders of the 600-person community eight miles north of the Arctic Circle began researching more efficient fuel options than diesel or fuel oil for their village, which is accessible by boat during the summer but only via snowmobiles and airplanes in the winter.

  6. Two Savannah River Site Projects Gain National Recognition |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    environmental stewardship. They are awarded for projects and programs that reduce environmental impacts, enhance site operations, and reduce costs. One award, for Renewable...

  7. ORISE: CDC Travelers' Health Mobile App, Designed by ORISE, Gains...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    choices while traveling internationally and tasked ORISE with designing iPhone and Android versions. "Nothing is more important to us than the health and safety of travelers,...

  8. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry Resources with Additional Information Henry Taube Chuck Painter/Stanford News Service Henry Taube, a Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Stanford University, received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes" Taube 'received a doctorate from the University of California-Berkeley in 1940 and was an instructor there from 1940-41. "I

  9. Solar heat gain through a skylight in a light well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    2001-08-01

    Detailed heat flow measurements on a skylight mounted on a light well of significant depth are presented. It is shown that during the day much of the solar energy that strikes the walls of the well does not reach the space below. Instead, this energy is trapped in the stratified air of the light well and eventually either conducted through the walls of the well or back out through the skylight. The standard model for predicting fenestration heat transfer does not agree with the measurements when it is applied to the skylight/well combination as a whole (the usual practice), but does agree reasonably well when it is applied to the skylight alone, using the well air temperature near the skylight. A more detailed model gives good agreement. Design implications and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Students gain valuable supercomputing skills while getting paid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer summer institute Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016 all issues All Issues ...

  11. Sandia Research on Rooftop Structural Strength Gains Attention

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid ... A roof structure is made stronger by the system elements working ...

  12. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The steam system at the Union City plant is served by four dual fueled (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) boilers. The plant uses more than 400,000 MMBtu of natural gas and 4 million ...

  13. Agua Caliente Band's Pursuit of Energy Self-Sufficiency Gains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 1, 2016 - 11:02am Addthis Concept drawing of the Agua Caliente Bands Heritage ... Photo from Larry Fossum, Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. Concept drawing of the ...

  14. Route-Based Controls Potential for Efficiency Gains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  15. Users view gas ruling: problems now, gains later

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-20

    Although recent court decisions about natural gas carriage and discount sales programs may cause problems for users in the short term, in the long run they could provide open access on non-discriminatory terms. The programs will continue current operation until July, and the final impact of the decisions will depend upon the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to the court's nullification of its programs. A lapse before establishing new rules could be disruptive. Arguments that the programs boost pipeline profits and unfairly aid dual-fuel users led to the court decision. Refusal to transport gas could generate anti-trust suits against pipelines. FERC expects to issue final rules by the end of summer.

  16. Insight Gained from Simplified Dynamic Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Injury and Illness Reporting Guide Injury and Illness Reporting Guide August 16, 2012 DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting Order establishes requirements to ensure timely and accurate information about events that have or could impact worker, the environment, operations or the public. The Injury and Illness Reporting Guide is referenced in DOE Order 231.1B as a resource for supplemental information needed to facilitate uniform data reporting for events resulting in worker

  17. Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for 14C + n <--> 15C, the 14C(n, gamma)15C reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Eremenko, V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Lui, Y. W.; McCleskey, E.; Roeder, B. T.; Spiridon, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-04-17

    The 14C + n <--> 15C system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on 14C, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the 15C SF via its mirror nucleus 15F and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

  18. Piezooptic coefficients of four neodymium-doped laser glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waxler, R.M.; Feldman, A.

    1980-08-01

    The stress-induced birefringence was measured for the phosphate glasses Q-88, LG-812, E-181, and LHG-10. (AIP)

  19. Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, L.C.; Grossman, C.; Fjeld, R.A.; Coates, J.T.; Elzerman, A.W.

    2002-05-10

    An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

  20. Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Laurence Charles; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, R. A.; Coates, C.J.; Elzerman, A.

    2002-08-01

    An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

  1. Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients inwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2007-06-25

    Noble gas isotopes are used extensively as tracers inhydrologic and paleoclimatic studies. These applications requireknowledge of the isotopic mass (m) dependence of noble gas diffusioncoefficients in water (D), which has not been measured but is estimatedusing experimental D-values for the major isotopes along with an untestedrelationship from kinetic theory, D prop m-0.5. We applied moleculardynamics methods to determine the mass dependence of D for four noblegases at 298 K, finding that D prop m-beta with beta<0.2, whichrefutes the kinetic theory model underlying all currentapplications.

  2. Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methods, difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR CELL ARRAYS; SOLAR CELLS; MEASURING METHODS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE;...

  3. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; DILUTION; REACTION KINETICS; SOLUBILITY; THERMODYNAMIC ACTIVITY; THERMODYNAMICS; VAPOR PRESSURE ...

  4. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 75 ...

  5. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    msup o (Lisub 2SOsub 4 centerdot Hsub 2O, cr, 298.15 K) -(1564.6 +- 0.5) kJ centerdot molsup -1. less Authors: Rard, J A ; Clegg, S L ; Palmer, D A ...

  6. New measurement of the α asymptotic normalization coefficient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that dominates the C 13 ( , n ) O 16 reaction rate at temperatures relevant for the s ... Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal ...

  7. THE EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY IN MODELING COEFFICIENTS USED TO PREDICT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    likely to vary for systems in different climates, depending on the distribution of temperature and irradiance, as well as for different technology types. As previously reported,...

  8. High Performance Window Attachments

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Performance Window Attachments D. Charlie Curcija Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory dccurcija@lbl.gov 510-495-2602 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Impact of Project: * Motivate manufacturers to make improvements in Window systems U-Factors, SHGC and daylighting utilization * Increase awareness of benefits from energy efficient window attachments Problem Statement: * A wide range of residential window attachments are available, but

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Source(s): 1) Width varies from about 74 ft. to 59 ft. along different sections of the length. 2) Solar heat gain coefficient. NREL, Analysis of the Energy Performance of the ...

  10. GAINING CONSENSUS: THE STORY OF ''OAK RIDGE TENNESSEE - A CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO THE ENVIRONMENT''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Robert; Freeman, Jenny; Gawarecki, Susan L; Hardy, Parker; Kopp, Steve; Mulvenon, Norman A; Pardue, William; Sarno, Doug

    2003-02-27

    In 2001, a diverse group of citizens ranging from conservationists to industrial developers joined forces to produce a factual description of Oak Ridge's environment and the issues associated with contamination on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. This consensus effort was a result of common values not generally seen in this spectrum of philosophies, and of shared concerns about rising property taxes, declining city services, fleeing retail establishments, and diminishing real estate values. These problems are attributed to waning local DOE budgets coupled with Oak Ridge's national reputation of being contaminated and unsafe. This undeserved reputation harms the city's ability to attract new industry to replace declining federal employment and to induce families to live in the community. Representatives from a spectrum of conservation, environmental, economic development, local government, and civic organizations were invited to meet regarding how to best explain the complex environmental story of Oak Ridge and the DOE reservation. This large group decided to publish a straightforward explanation of the environmental quality of the city and its relationship to the DOE reservation in easy-to-understand language. The result was Oak Ridge, Tennessee--A Citizen's Guide to the Environment, a 28-page glossy booklet, distributed through the Chamber of Commerce and other organizations. The Oak Ridger ensured wide distribution in the community by publishing it as an insert in the daily paper. The material is also available on several web sites. A trifold brochure summarizing and promoting the larger document was also produced for wider distribution. The integrity of the Citizen's Guide was ensured by having a six-member editorial team manage writing and review of the document. There was no direct involvement by the DOE and its contractor. Knowledgeable citizen writers from throughout the community contributed technical and descriptive text. A professional technical editor melded the disparate styles into a cohesive publication. Volunteers from about 100 organizations reviewed the draft for accuracy of content and readability. Participating organizations, upon review of the final draft, then decided whether their names would be listed in the document as contributors and supporters. While the writing and editing was primarily accomplished by conservation and civic organizations, funding to print the final publications came largely from economic development interests and their supporters. The positive reception from the public upon release of Oak Ridge, Tennessee--A Citizen's Guide to the Environment stands as testament to the ability of diverse interest groups to come to consensus and communicate the environmental value of their community.

  11. CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    COGR&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;Council on Governmental Relations COGR&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;Council on Governmental Relations Reducing Regulatory Burden - EO 13563 Retrospective Review PDF icon COGR&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;&#9;Council on Governmental Relations More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden - EO 13563 Retrospective Review Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on

  12. U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EMC Documentum Content Server contains a privilege elevation vulnerability that may allow an unauthorized user to obtain highest administrative privileges on the system.

  13. EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Aims for Major Accomplishments in 2013 Budget Request EM Aims for Major Accomplishments in 2013 Budget Request February 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Aims for Major Accomplishments in 2013 Budget Request WASHINGTON, D.C. - Today EM Acting Assistant Secretary David Huizenga rolled out EM's $5.65 billion budget request for fiscal year 2013 that would support major accomplishments in all areas of the program's environmental cleanup mission. Highlights of scheduled accomplishments across

  14. Physics World names NIF fuel gain top 10 breakthrough of the...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF - the world's largest and most energetic laser - is funded by NNSA and is a key element of NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the effectiveness and safety of the ...

  15. RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    REALTORS® in western Washington have been lining up to attend the Sustainability Training for Accredited Real Estate Professionals (S.T.A.R.) offered in Kitsap County by Earth Advantage in through RePower Kitsap. The free, accredited S.T.A.R. course—sponsored in partnership with the RePower program, U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Initiative, Washington State University (WSU) Energy Program, and Conservation Services Group—prepares real estate professionals to market and sell new and remodeled "green" homes. After taking the two-day course, which includes visits to two energy-efficient homes, real estate professionals are able to identify which features and building products provide greater energy and water efficiency and create a healthier living environment for their clients. The success of S.T.A.R. didn't happen overnight; it is the result of determined effort, effective marketing, and word-of-mouth excitement.

  16. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project objective is to develop a smart manufacturing (SM) Platform for two commercial test beds that can be scaled to manufacturing operations to catalyze low-cost commercialization of the...

  17. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  18. V-218: HP Service Manager Unspecified Flaw Lets Remote Users Gain Unauthorized Access

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This security update resolves a vulnerability in the HP Service Manager which allows people to have access to unauthorized information

  19. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, Lloyd L.; Smith, Larry K.

    1994-01-01

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises Ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

  20. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.; Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Smith, L.K.

    1994-01-18

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca[sub 5](PO[sub 4])[sub 3]F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode. 9 figures.

  1. Fact #653: December 13, 2010 Import Cars and Trucks Gaining Ground

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The market share for import cars and light trucks has been growing nearly every year since the mid-1990's. Import car market share more than doubled in that time -- from 14.9% in 1996 to 33.7% in...

  2. Insights Gained for Updating an Analog I&C System to a Digital System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A.; Carte, N.; Hardesty, Duane; Hardin, LeRoy A; Wilson, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Licensees at both Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and Non-Power Reactors (NPRs) are increasing their use of state-of-the-art digital technology in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems because digital systems offer improved reactor control, information processing, and information storage over analog. Digital I&C systems can range from experimental systems for reactor control research (at NPRs), to measurement and display systems, to complete reactor console replacements. Because of the increasing difficulty in finding spare parts for their original analog I&C systems, many licensees have begun or have plans to upgrade, refurbish, or replace their old analog I&C systems with digital systems. The perception is that upgrading to a digital I&C system will solve all of a facility s obsolescence problems. However, licensees need to be aware of several issues associated with upgrading to a digital system including obsolescence of the digital system (hardware and software) because of the short product life cycle and the associated cost to acquire, store, and maintain a long-term supply of spare parts. Configuration management and cyber security are also vitally important for any upgrade. Further, it must be recognized that the introduction of software and microprocessors could create new failure mechanisms, such as software errors and increased susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. In fact, experience has shown that these failure mechanisms may cause the reactor to malfunction in a way not previously considered. Thus, a conversion from analog to digital I&C systems solves some problems while potentially introducing others. Recognition of the additional risks coupled with good design, engineering, review, and testing can identify and minimize these risks.

  3. U-092: Sudo Format String Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A local user can supply a specially crafted command line argument to trigger a format string flaw and execute arbitrary commands on the target system with root privileges.

  4. V-199: Solaris Bugs Let Local Users Gain Root Privileges, Remote...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    recommends applying July Critical Patch Update Addthis Related Articles V-181: Oracle Java SE Critical Patch Update Advisory - June 2013 V-051: Oracle Solaris Java Multiple...

  5. Microscopic analysis of non-equilibrium dynamics in the semiconductor-laser gain medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2014-04-14

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to analyze the carrier dynamics in situations where a strong sub-picosecond pulse interacts with an inverted semiconductor quantum well. Electron-electron and electron-phonon scatterings are calculated on a second Born-Markov level. Intra-subband scatterings on a scale of tens of femtoseconds are shown to quickly re-fill the kinetic holes created in the carrier distributions during the pulse amplification. Even for sub-100 fs pulses, this significantly influences the pulse amplification as well as its spectral dependence. Interband scatterings on a few picosecond timescale limit the possibly achievable repetition rate in pulsed semiconductor lasers.

  6. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  7. EM Employee to Gain Expertise in Japan Through Unique One-Year Fellowship

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – An EM employee has been selected for a unique program established by Congress two decades ago to build a corps of federal employees with substantial Japan expertise.

  8. Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  9. T-601: Windows Kernel win32k.sys Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities were reported in the Windows Kernel. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A local user can trigger a use-after free or null pointer dereference to execute arbitrary commands on the target system with kernel level privileges.

  10. U-112: PostgreSQL Bugs Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in certain cases. reference LINKS: Vendor Advisory Security Tracker ID 1026744 CVE-2012-0866 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: For trigger functions marked SECURITY...

  11. China's growing CO{sub 2} emissions - a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen P. Peters; Christopher L. Weber; Dabo Guan; Klaus Hubacek

    2007-09-15

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO{sub 2} emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries. 65 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; et al

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore » instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  13. T-591: VMware vmrun Utility Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the target system. PLATFORM: VMware Workstation 6.5.5 and 7.1.3 and prior; VIX API for Linux 1.10.2 and prior ABSTRACT: The VMware vmrun utility is susceptible to a local...

  14. T-608: HP Virtual Server Environment Lets Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A potential security vulnerability has been identified in HP Virtual Server Environment for Windows. The vulnerability could be exploited remotely to elevate privileges.

  15. Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  16. Hanford’s Robust Safety Culture Gains One More Site-Wide Safety Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – The safety of the Hanford Site workforce has been bolstered with another program added to the list of Site-wide Safety Standards. The latest Site-wide Safety Standard covers Fall Protection.

  17. T-591: VMware vmrun Utility Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The VMware vmrun utility is susceptible to a local privilege escalation in non-standard configurations.

  18. U-068:Linux Kernel SG_IO ioctl Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vulnerability was reported in FreeBSD Telnet. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system.

  19. Atom-to-continuum methods for gaining a fundamental understanding of fracture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, David Lynn; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Jones, Reese E.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Belytschko, Ted.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Lloyd, Jeffrey T.; Oswald, Jay; Delph, Terry J.; Kimmer, Christopher J.

    2011-08-01

    This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. Under this aegis we developed new theory and a number of novel techniques to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. These developments ranged from a material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics to an atomic level J integral. Each of the developments build upon each other and culminated in a cohesive zone model derived from atomic information and verified at the continuum scale. This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. The effort is predicated on the idea that processes and information at the atomic level are missing in engineering scale simulations of fracture, and, moreover, are necessary for these simulations to be predictive. In this project we developed considerable new theory and a number of novel techniques in order to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. Chapter 2 gives a detailed account of the material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics we constructed in order to best use atomic information from solid systems. With this framework, in Chapter 3, we were able to make a direct and elegant extension of the classical J down to simulations on the scale of nanometers with a discrete atomic lattice. The technique was applied to cracks and dislocations with equal success and displayed high fidelity with expectations from continuum theory. Then, as a prelude to extension of the atomic J to finite temperatures, we explored the quasi-harmonic models as efficient and accurate surrogates of atomic lattices undergoing thermo-elastic processes (Chapter 4). With this in hand, in Chapter 5 we provide evidence that, by using the appropriate energy potential, the atomic J integral we developed is calculable and accurate at finite/room temperatures. In Chapter 6, we return in part to the fundamental efforts to connect material behavior at the atomic scale to that of the continuum. In this chapter, we devise theory that predicts the onset of instability characteristic of fracture/failure via atomic simulation. In Chapters 7 and 8, we describe the culmination of the project in connecting atomic information to continuum modeling. In these chapters we show that cohesive zone models are: (a) derivable from molecular dynamics in a robust and systematic way, and (b) when used in the more efficient continuum-level finite element technique provide results that are comparable and well-correlated with the behavior at the atomic-scale. Moreover, we show that use of these same cohesive zone elements is feasible at scales very much larger than that of the lattice. Finally, in Chapter 9 we describe our work in developing the efficient non-reflecting boundary conditions necessary to perform transient fracture and shock simulation with molecular dynamics.

  20. Agua Caliente Band's Pursuit of Energy Self-Sufficiency Gains Momentum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in the Palm Springs area of California is a shining example of the type of leadership tribes can provide on the clean energy development front.

  1. Winning the Future: Tonto Apache Tribe Uses DOE Funding to Gain Momentum on Solar Energy Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tonto Apache Tribe in Payson, Arizona, undertook a decades-long reservation infrastructure development effort that is still ongoing. In 2004, the small tribe was still actively looking for ways to fulfill its long-term vision, which is focused on sustainability and residential growth.

  2. Prospects for High-Gain, High Yield NIF Targets Driven by 2w (green) Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oades, K; Divol, L; Stevenson, M; Glenzer, S; Suter, L J; Meezan, N; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Moody, J; Hammel, B; Haan, S

    2003-12-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), operating at green (2{omega}) light, has the potential to drive ignition targets with significantly more energy than the 1.8 MJ it will produce in its baseline, blue (3{omega}) operations. This results in a greatly increased ''target design space'', providing a number of exciting opportunities for fusion research including the possibility of ignition experiments with capsules absorbing energies in the vicinity of 1 MJ. We report the progress made exploring 2{omega} for NIF ignition, including potential 2{omega} laser performance, 2{omega} ignition target designs and 2{omega} Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) studies.

  3. Residential hybrid power for load leveling and efficiency gains: A concept overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.; Salzano, F.

    1986-04-01

    In this new concept, a local direct current (DC) power distribution system for residential consumers is proposed for its advantages to both the utility and its customers. The DC distribution is limited to the short spans emanating from the residential power terminal. Alternating current power is maintained for its transmission advantages to the load center of the residence and is there converted to low voltage direct current for distribution in the house. This approach used in combination with electronically monitored appliance-resident electrical storage constitutes the basics of a new system that promises greatly improved load management and higher operating efficiency. The objective in this concept is to make the residential customer look like a quasi-steady state power consumer with the additional option for load shedding without any disturbance in service. Even utilities with a good overall match between supply and demand can benefit from this new approach and cut operating cost by redistributing demand more evenly throughout the hours of the day. The basic object is to improve the utility load curves by smoothing out the peaks and valleys of customer demand without resorting to the complex assorted options being considered today.

  4. Carrier diffusion and recombination influencing gain and current profiles in planar injection lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shore, K.A.

    1984-09-01

    Carrier diffusion and spontaneous recombination processes are analyzed within the framework of a consistent treatment for lateral current spreading in injection lasers. The formalism allows analysis of the above-threshold behavior of the device and results of relevance to mode stability properties are obtained. The extension of the model to the analysis of three-dimensional effects following from longitudinal nonuniformities in the laser is briefly considered.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.6 Office Building Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (1) Shell Percent Glass (WWR) 20-40% Window U-Factor 0.33-0.56 SHGC 0.31-0.49 Wall R-Value 7.6-15.2 Roof R-Value Attic 30-60 Insulation Above Deck 15-30 Wall Material Mass (HC > 7 Btu/ft^2) Lighting Average Power Density (Watts/SF) 0.9 System and Plant System and Plant Packaged Single-Zone Packaged Single-Zone w/ Economizer Cooling Capacity > 54 kBtu Heating Plant: Gas Furnace 80% Combustion Efficiency Cooling Plant: Air conditioner

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Case Study, The Visitor Center at Zion National Park, Utah (Service/Retail/Office) Building Design Vistors Center (1): 8,800 SF Comfort Station (2): 2,756 SF Fee Station: 170 SF Shell Windows Type U-Factor SHGC (3) South/East Glass Double Pane Insulating Glass, Low-e, Aluminum Frames, Thermally Broken 0.44 0.44 North/West Glass Double Pane Insulating Glass, Heat Mirror, Aluminum Frames, Thermally Broken 0.37 0.37 Window/Wall Ratio: 28% Wall/Roof Materials Effective R-Value Trombe Walls:

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Case Study, The Thermal Test Facility, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (Office/Laboratory) Building Design Floor Area: 10,000 SF Floors(1): 2 Aspect Ratio: 1.75 Offices Laboratories Conference Room Mechanical Level Shell Windows Material U-factor SHGC(2) Viewing Windows: Double Pane, Grey Tint, Low-e 0.42 0.44 Clerestory Windows: Double Pane, Clear, Low-e 0.45 0.65 Window Area(SF) North 38 South(3) 1,134 East 56 West 56 Wall/Roof Material Effective R-Value North Wall

  8. Building America Case Study: Strategies for Improving Thermal Comfort in Low-Load Homes in Sunny Climates, Denver, Colorado (Fact Sheet), Efficient Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Impact of Thermostat Placement in Low-Load Homes in Sunny Climates Denver, Colorado MAIN HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS Location: Denver, CO Climate Zone: Cold (International Energy Conservation Code CZ 5) Type: Two-story, single-family Foundation: Conditioned basement Size: 3,399 ft 2 Number of Bedrooms: 3 Wall Insulation: R-13 cavity; R-5 continuous Basement Insulation: R-15 continuous Ceiling Insulation: R-50; no radiant barrier Windows: U-value 0.27; SHGC 0.27 Heating Load: 35,883 Btu/h Cooling

  9. Jet quenching and broadening: The transport coefficient q in an anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baier, Rudolf; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2008-12-15

    The jet quenching parameter q is analyzed for a quark jet propagating in an anisotropic plasma. The momentum anisotropy is calculated at high temperature of the underlying quark-gluon plasma. q is explicitly estimated in leading-logarithmic approximation by the broadening of the massless quark interacting via gluon exchange. A plasma instability is present. Strong indications are found that q is increasing with increasing anisotropy. Possible implications for the saturation scale Q{sub s} in A-A collisions are pointed out.

  10. Joining of silicon carbide using interlayer with matching coefficient of thermal expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perham, T.

    1996-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a technique for joining a commercially available Silicon Carbide that gives good room temperature strength and the potential for good high temperature strength. One secondary objective is that the joining technique be adaptable to SiC{sub f}/SiC composites and/or Nickel based superalloys, and another secondary objective is that the materials provide good neutron irradiation resistance and low activation for potential application inside nuclear fusion reactors. The joining techniques studied here are: (1) reaction bonding with Al-Si/Si/SiC/C; (2) reaction/infiltration with calcium aluminum silicate; (3) ion exchange mechanism to form calcium hexaluminate (a refractory cement); and (4) oxide frit brazing with cordierite.

  11. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Li-Hui; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-15

    The study of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which can describe the fiber laser system, is of significance for ultra-fast laser. In this paper, dromion-like structures for the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation are considered due to their abundant nonlinear dynamics. Via the modified Hirota method and simplified assumption, the analytic dromion-like solution is obtained. The partial asymmetry of structure is particularly discussed, which arises from asymmetry of nonlinear and dispersion terms. Furthermore, the stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed. Oscillation structure emerges to exhibit strong interference when the dispersion loss is perturbed. Through the appropriate modulation of modified exponent parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified exponent parameter. Results in this paper may be useful in accounting for some nonlinear phenomena in fiber laser systems, and understanding the essential role of modified Hirota method.

  12. CASL-U-2015-0171-000 Improved Diffusion Coefficients for SPN...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Co., LLC Aaron Graham Thomas Downar University of Michigan April 19, 2015 CASL-U-2015-0171-000 ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the US Department of Energy Improved ...

  13. Mathematical Model for Transmutation System with a Two-Member Chain and Variable Separation Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Joonhong; Kurata, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    Mathematical models for mass flow in a fuel cycle have been established for a two-member chain in a reactor with reductive extraction for partitioning process. A sub-model for reductive extraction has been implemented into the mass flow model. Recursive solutions for the mass fractions of two actinide isotopes and fission products have been obtained as a function of cycle number. As a performance measure, the reduction ratios have been defined for two actinide isotopes. Effects of discharged fuel composition on the partitioning efficiency and on waste generation have been observed. The numerical results show that at early cycles the partitioning efficiency is relatively low because of large mass fractions of actinides in discharged fuel. With more cycles, fission products accumulate, and the partitioning efficiency becomes better, approaching asymptotic values. Consequently, waste generation at early cycles would be greater than at later cycles. (authors)

  14. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  15. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  16. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  17. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Haifeng

    2014-10-15

    Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 ?A was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  18. Near zero coefficient of thermal expansion of beta-eucryptite without microcracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimanis, Ivar; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-06-16

    The present invention is drawn to a lithia alumina silica material that exhibits a low CTE over a broad temperature range and a method of making the same. The low CTE of the material allows for a decrease in microcracking within the material.

  19. Sign problem in Z-coefficient for particle emission angular distributi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Nuclear Physics & Radiation Physics(73) Atomic and Nuclear Physics...

  20. Method of preloading superconducting coils by using materials with different thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heim, J.R.

    1993-02-23

    The invention provides a high magnetic field coil. The invention provides a preloaded compressive force to the coil maintain the integrity of the coil. The compressive force is obtained by reinforcing the coil with two materials of different thermal expansion rates and then heating the coil to 700 C to obtain the desired compression. The embodiment of the invention uses Nb[sub 3]Sn as the conducting wire, since Nb[sub 3]Sn must be heated to 700 C to cause a reaction which makes Nb[sub 3]Sn superconducting.

  1. Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2006-07-25

    Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?

  2. U-193: NetBSD System Call Return Value Validation Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Intel CPUs, the sysret instruction can be manipulated into returning to specific non-canonical addresses, which may yield a CPU reset. We cannot currently rule out with utter confidence that this vulnerability could not also be used to execute code with kernel privilege instead of crashing the system.

  3. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  4. U-128: VMware ESX/ESXi Buffer Overflow and Null Pointer Dereference Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in VMware ESX. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system.

  5. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  6. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less

  7. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.

  8. U-264: Apple OS X Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several vulnerabilities were reported in Apple OS X. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system. A remote user can obtain a password hash in certain cases. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A local user can obtain password keystrokes.

  9. V-117: Symantec Enterprise Vault for File System Archiving Unquoted Search Path Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Symantec Enterprise Vault (EV) for File System Archiving has an unquoted search path in the File Collector and File PlaceHolder services

  10. T-563: Red Hat Directory Server Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges and Remote and Local Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several vulnerabilities were reported in Red Hat Directory Server. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions. A local user can cause denial of service conditions.

  11. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  12. How Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source came to life and gained its niche : the view from an ecosystem perspective.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, C.; Office of The Director

    2008-02-25

    At first glance the story of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) appears to have followed a puzzling course. When researchers first proposed their ideas for an accelerator-driven neutron source for exploring the structure of materials through neutron scattering, the project seemed so promising that both Argonne managers and officials at the laboratory's funding agency, the Department of Energy (DOE), suggested that it be made larger and more expensive. But then, even though prototype building, testing, and initial construction went well a group of prominent DOE reviewers recommended in fall 1980 that it be killed, just months before it had been slated to begin operation, and DOE promptly accepted the recommendation. In response, Argonne's leadership declared the project was the laboratory's top priority and rallied to save it. In late 1982, thanks to another review panel led by the same scientist who had chaired the panel that had delivered the death sentence, the project was granted a reprieve. However, by the late 1980s, the IPNS was no longer top priority within the international materials science community, at Argonne, or within the DOE budget because prospects for another, larger materials science accelerator emerged. At just this point, the facility started to produce exciting scientific results. For the next two decades, the IPNS, its research, and its experts became valued resources at Argonne, within the U.S. national laboratory system, and within the international materials science community. Why did this Argonne project prosper and then almost suffer premature death, even though it promised (and later delivered) good science? How was it saved and how did it go on to have a long, prosperous life for more than a quarter of a century? In particular, what did an expert assessment of the quality of IPNS science have to do with its fate? Getting answers to such questions is important. The U.S. government spends a lot of money to produce science and technology at multipurpose laboratories like Argonne. For example, in the mid-1990s, about the time the IPNS's fortunes were secured, DOE spent more than $6 billion a year to fund nine such facilities, with Argonne's share totaling $500 million. And an important justification for funding these expensive laboratories is that they operate expensive but powerful scientific tools like the IPNS, generally considered too large to be built and managed by universities. Clearly, 'life and death' decision making has a lot to tell us about how the considerable U.S. federal investment in science and technology at national laboratories is actually transacted and, indeed, how a path is cleared or blocked for good science to be produced. Because forces within Argonne, DOE, and the materials science community obviously dictated the changing fortunes of the IPNS, it makes sense to probe the interactions binding these three environments for an understanding of how the IPNS was threatened and how it survived. In other words, sorting out what happened requires analyzing the system that includes all three environments. In an attempt to find a better way to understand its twists and turns, I will view the life-and-death IPNS story through the lens of an ecological metaphor. Employing the ideas and terms that ecologists use to describe what happens in a system of shared resources, that is, an ecosystem, I will describe the IPNS as an organism that vied with competitors for resources to find a niche in the interrelated environments of Argonne, DOE, and the materials science community. I will start with an explanation of the Argonne 'ecosystem' before the advent of the IPNS and then describe how the project struggled to emerge in the 1970s, how it scratched its way to a fragile niche in the early 1980s, and how it adapted and matured through the turn of the 21st century. The paper will conclude with a summary of what the ecosystem perspective shows about the life and death struggle of the IPNS and reflect on what that perspective reveals about how research is produced in the laboratory.

  13. U-230: Sudo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux %postun Symlink Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An updated sudo package that fixes one security issue and several bugs is now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.

  14. T-567: Linux Kernel Buffer Overflow in ldm_frag_add() May Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in the Linux Kernel. A local user may be able to obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A physically local user can connect a storage device with a specially crafted LDM partition table to trigger a buffer overflow in the ldm_frag_add() function in 'fs/partitions/ldm.c' and potentially execute arbitrary code with elevated privileges.

  15. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  16. Structures for attaching or sealing a space between components having different coefficients or rates of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Pecchioli, Mario

    2005-06-28

    A structure for attaching together or sealing a space between a first component and a second component that have different rates or amounts of dimensional change upon being exposed to temperatures other than ambient temperature. The structure comprises a first attachment structure associated with the first component that slidably engages a second attachment structure associated with the second component, thereby allowing for an independent floating movement of the second component relative to the first component. The structure can comprise split rings, laminar rings, or multiple split rings.

  17. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.

    2014-09-24

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  18. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  19. Grain-boundary strengthening in nanocrystalline chromium and the Hall- Petch coefficient of body-centered cubic metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Dong; Junyan, Zhang; Huang, J C; Bei, Hongbin; Nieh, Tai-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Cr (nc-Cr) was synthesized by electrodeposition. Samples with various grain sizes (19 57 nm) were prepared by annealing the as-deposited sample. Microstructures were examined using X-ray and electron microscopy, and the mechanical prop- erties were evaluated using nanoindentation. The strength of nc-Cr samples apparently obeyed the classical Hall Petch relationship. It was found that hardening potency caused by grain refinement was generally higher in body-centered cubic metals than that in face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals. A possible explanation was offered.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis on the Half-Life of Trichloroethylene and the Distribution Coefficient at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Joshua D

    2007-06-01

    To determine the future extent of the TCE contamination plume at PGDP, a groundwater and solute transport model has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The model used to perform these calculations is MODFLOWT which is an enhanced groundwater transport model developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). MODFLOWT models groundwater movement as well as the transport of species that are subject to adsorption and decay by using a finite difference method (Duffield et al 2001). A significant limitation of MODFLOWT is that it requires large amounts of data. This data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. MODFLOWT also requires excessive computational time to perform one simulation. It is desirable to have a model that can predict the spatial extent of the contaminant plume without as much required data and that does not require excessive computational times. The purpose of this study is to develop and alternative model to MODFLOWT that can produce similar results for possible use in a companion management model. The alternative model used in this study is an artificial neural network (ANN).

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (1) Shell Percent Glass 0.4 Window (U-Factor 0.38-0.69 SHGC 0.40-0.44 Wall R-Value (2) 7.6-15.2 c.i. Roof R-Value Attic 30-60 Insulation Above Deck 15-25 c.i. Lighting Average Power Density (W/ft.^2) 1.3 System and Plant Heating Plant Gas Furnace(>225 kBtuh) 80% Combustion Efficiency Cooling Plant Air conditioner (>135-240 kBtuh) 10.8 EER/11.2 IPLV - 11.0 EER/11.5 IPLV Service Hot Water Gas Storage Water Heater (>75kBtuh) 90%

  2. Approach for evaluating the thermal comfort effects of nonresidential building fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Arasteh, D.; Papamichael, K.; Selkowitz, S.

    1988-03-01

    This paper documents an approach for evaluating the comfort impacts associated with varying fenestration system parameters primarily under the influence of direct solar radiation. The authors present a method of evaluation in which it was shown that an annual comfort index could be determined by knowing the fenestration system solar heat gain coefficient and aperture size.

  3. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-07

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ???|? mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ???|? mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ???|? and ???|? modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active AgSiO?Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  4. Somatic mutational analysis of FAK in breast cancer: A novel gain-of-function mutation due to deletion of exon 33

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Liu, Xiang-Fan; Yao, Ling; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Gu, Zhi-Dong; Ni, Pei-Hua; Zheng, Xin-Min; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY ; Fan, Qi-Shi

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: A novel FAK splicing mutation identified in breast tumor. FAK-Del33 mutation promotes cell migration and invasion. FAK-Del33 mutation regulates FAK/Src signal pathway. -- Abstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. We identified a novel splicing mutant, FAK-Del33 (exon 33 deletion, KF437463), in both breast and thyroid cancers through colony sequencing. Considering the low proportion of mutant transcripts in samples, this mutation was detected by TaqMan-MGB probes based qPCR. In total, three in 21 paired breast tissues were identified with the FAK-Del33 mutation, and no mutations were found in the corresponding normal tissues. When introduced into a breast cell line through lentivirus infection, FAK-Del33 regulated cell motility and migration based on a wound healing assay. We demonstrated that the expression of Tyr397 (main auto-phosphorylation of FAK) was strongly increased in FAK-Del33 overexpressed breast tumor cells compared to wild-type following FAK/Src RTK signaling activation. These results suggest a novel and unique role of the FAK-Del33 mutation in FAK/Src signaling in breast cancer with significant implications for metastatic potential.

  5. Photosynthesis, Nitrogen, Their Adjustment and its Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Gain at Elevated CO{sub 2}l. A Comparison of Loblolly and Ponderosa Pines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J. Timothy; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Tissue, David T.; Lewis, James D.; Picone, Johnn B.; Ross, Peter D.

    1996-12-01

    A functional understanding of terrestrial ecosystem carbon processes is essential for two reasons. First, carbon flow is a most fundamental aspects of ecosystem function as it mediates most of the energy flow in these systems. Second, carbon flow also mediates the majority of energy flow in the global economy and will do for the foreseeable future. The increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and its inevitable flow through global ecosystems will influence ecosystem processes. There is, of course, great interest in the potential of ecosystems to sequester some of the carbon being loaded into the atmosphere by economic activity.

  6. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kayzar, Theresa M.; Williams, Ross W.

    2015-09-26

    The model age or ‘date of purification’ of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing.

  7. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk; Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W.

    2014-02-03

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  8. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  9. Laboratory determination of gas-side mass transfer coefficients applicable to soil-venting systems for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from vadose-zone soils. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valkenburg, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface environment by organic solvents has become a national problem. The EPA's Superfund list (40 CFR Part 300, 1990) continues to grow, with continual discovery of new hazardous waste sites. Various techniques are employed to remediate these sites, including excavation and removal of the contaminated soil for proper disposal, pumping and treatment of contaminated ground water and an organic phase if present, containment by slurried soil-bentonite cut-off barriers, in situ biological treatment of the organic wastes, and vadose zone soil venting for gas absorption of volatiles. Each technique, or combination, may have merit at a given site. The soil venting process, an inexpensive but relatively successful technique for removal of contaminants from the vadose (unsaturated) zone, is the focus of the research.

  10. Determines the Thermal and Optical Properties of Fenestration Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-01-27

    WINDOW4.1 computes the thermal properties of windows and other fenestration elements used in typical residential and commercial buildings. Manufactures, specifiers, architects, consumers, and the energy code specialists all need to know these properties (U-values, Solar Heat Gain Coefficients, optical properties). The use of this program to calculate these properties is typically much more cost effective than laboratory test procedures. Properties of complete window systems are based on libraries (or user input) component data.

  11. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Carini, Gabriella

    2009-05-12

    A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

  12. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurementmore » technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.« less

  13. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-08-06

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors.

  14. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records frommore » IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the frame and divider elements and corresponding edge-of-glass areas (based on generic correlations); The total solar and visible transmittance and reflectances of the glazing system. Color properties, i.e. L*, a*, and b* color coordinates, dominant wavelength, and purity for transmitted and reflected (outdoor) solar radiation; The damage-weighted transmittance of the glazing system between 0.3 an 0.38 microns; The angular dependence of the solar and visible transmittances, solar and visible reflectances, solar absorptance, and solar heat gain coefficient of the glazing system; The percent relative humidity of the inside and outside air for which condensation will occur on the interior and exterior glazing surfaces respectively; The center-of-glass temperature distribution.« less

  15. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the frame and divider elements and corresponding edge-of-glass areas (based on generic correlations); The total solar and visible transmittance and reflectances of the glazing system. Color properties, i.e. L*, a*, and b* color coordinates, dominant wavelength, and purity for transmitted and reflected (outdoor) solar radiation; The damage-weighted transmittance of the glazing system between 0.3 an 0.38 microns; The angular dependence of the solar and visible transmittances, solar and visible reflectances, solar absorptance, and solar heat gain coefficient of the glazing system; The percent relative humidity of the inside and outside air for which condensation will occur on the interior and exterior glazing surfaces respectively; The center-of-glass temperature distribution.

  16. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  17. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayzar, Theresa M.; Williams, Ross W.

    2015-09-26

    The model age or ‘date of purification’ of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing.

  18. Structure of crystalline oxide ceramics studied by phonon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Taranov, A V; Khazanov, E N

    2013-03-31

    This paper describes a method for gaining detailed insight into the structure and phonon spectrum of polycrystalline oxide ceramics. We examine how the diffusion coefficient of subterahertz phonons is related to the properties of a system of grain boundaries and to the grain size and structure and demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the phonon diffusion coefficient at liquid-helium temperatures is determined by the spectral properties of the intergranular layer, which allows one to estimate the volumeaveraged intergranular layer thickness and acoustic impedance. We also analyse the effect of plastic deformation via twinning on the formation of the structure of grains and intergranular layers, which determine the thermophysical, acoustic and optical properties of ceramic materials. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N.

    1993-12-01

    The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the temperature dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.

  20. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan e?e? Pairs in the Z Mass Region from pp? Collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; lvarez Gonzlez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; dAscenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; De Lorenzo, G.; DellOrso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; dErrico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; DOnofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzlez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martnez, M.; Martnez-Ballarn, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in pp???*/Z?e?e?+X events produced in the Z boson mass region at ?s=1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1 fb? of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that, at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  1. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs in the Z Mass Region from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}*/Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} + X events produced in the Z boson mass region at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark anti-quark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  2. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan e⁺e⁻ Pairs in the Z Mass Region from pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; et al

    2011-06-15

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in pp̄→γ*/Z→e⁺e⁻+X events produced in the Z boson mass region at √s=1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that, at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Case Study, The Solaire, New York, New York (Apartments/Multi-Family) Building Design Floor Area: 357,000 SF Units: 293 Maximum Occupancy: 700 Floors: 27 Site Size: 0.38 Acres Typical Occupancy(1): 578 Black-Water Treatment Facility (2) Shell Windows Material: Double Glazed, Low-e, Thermal Breaks with Insulated Spacers Operable Windows Fixed Windows Visual Transminttance 0.68 0.68 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 0.35 0.35 U-Factor 0.47 0.41 Wall/Roof Material R-Value Exterior Walls: Insulated

  4. Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montereali, R. M.; Piccinini, M.; Burattini, E.

    2001-06-25

    In this letter we report the observation of amplified spontaneous emission of the red light from LiF:F{sub 2} centers in active channel waveguides realized by electron-beam lithography in lithium fluoride crystals. Low pumping power densities have been used in quasi-continuous-wave regime at room temperature; the appreciable values of the gain coefficients, 4.67 cm{minus}1 with an exciting power density of 0.31 W/cm2 at 458 nm, make this material a good candidate for the realization of active integrated optical devices. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Widder, Sarah H.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-07-17

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  6. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, J.L. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  7. Effect of electron withdrawing unit for dye-sensitized solar cell based on D-A-?-A organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Chang, Dong Min; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-?-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dye as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye.

  8. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  9. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  10. Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.

  11. Los Alamos passive test cell results for the 1981-82 winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Balcomb, J.D.; Moore, S.W.

    1982-10-01

    This report covers Los Alamos test cell operation during the winter of 1981-82 including comparisons with the 1980-81 winter. Extensive data have been taken and computer-analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and discomfort index. The data from different test cells are directly comparable because each has similar heating-load coefficient and collector area. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water wall, phase-change wall, and sunspaces. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two types of improved glazing systems, a heat pipe system, and convection suppression baffles. Significant differences in both auxiliary heat and comfort were observed among the various system types. The results are useful, not only for direct system comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs. Availability of hourly data is described.

  12. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  13. Los Alamos test-room results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen Los Alamos test rooms have been operated for several years; this paper covers operation during the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Extensive data have been taken and computer analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and comfort index. The rooms are directly comparable because each has the same net coefficient and solar collection area and thus the same load collector ratio. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water walls, phase change walls, and two sunspace geometries. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two brands of superglazing windows, a heat pipe system, and convection-suppression baffles. Significant differences in both backup heat and comfort are observed among the various rooms. The results are useful, not only for direct room-to-room comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs.

  14. Off-Resonance Photosensitization of a Photorefractive Polymer Composite Using PbS Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Liang, Yichen; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Mahala, Benjamin D.; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-26

    The photosensitization of photorefractive polymeric composites for operation at 633 nm is accomplished through the inclusion of narrow band gap semiconductor nanocrystals composed of PbS. Unlike previous studies involving photosensitization of photorefractive polymer composites with inorganic nanocrystals, we employ an off-resonance approach where the first excitonic transition associated with the PbS nanocrystals lies at ~1220 nm and not the wavelength of operation. Using this methodology, internal diffraction efficiencies exceeding 82%, two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 211 cm1, and response times of 34 ms have been observed, representing some of the best figures of merit reported for this class of materials. Furthermore, these data demonstrate the ability of semiconductor nanocrystals to compete effectively with traditional organic photosensitizers. In addition to superior performance, this approach also offers an inexpensive and easy means by which to photosensitize composite materials. Additionally, the photoconductive characteristics of the composites used for this study will also be considered.

  15. Enhanced photorefractive performance in CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xiangping; Embden, Joel van; Chon, James W. M.; Gu Min; Evans, Richard A.

    2010-06-21

    This paper reports on the enhanced photorefractive behavior of a CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed less expensive polymer of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The capability of CdSe quantum dots used as photosensitizers and the associated photorefractive performance are characterized through a photocurrent experiment and a two-beam coupling experiment, respectively. An enhanced two-beam coupling gain coefficient of 12.2 cm{sup -1} at 46 V/mum was observed owning to the reduced potential barrier. The photorefractive performance per CdSe quantum dot is three orders of magnitude higher than that in the sample sensitized by trinitrofluorenone in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), and almost ten times higher than that in the CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized poly(N-vinylcarbazole) polymers.

  16. How fenestration can significantly affect energy use in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Sullivan, R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper reports conclusions of an extensive series of computer analyses of annual energy use and electrical peak demand in two climates as functions of fenestration parameters. Particular attention is paid to daylighting and its associated energy tradeoffs. The study includes the effects of climate, orientation, glazing area, U-value, shading coefficient, visible transmittance, lighting power density, and lighting control strategy. The extensive set of parametric analyses generated in this study suggest that for a simple office module, fenestration can provide annual net energy savings in all climates if daylighting is used. Control of solar gain is critical to realization of energy benefits from daylighting. Fenestration and daylighting design strategies that reduce net annual energy consumption can also reduce peak electrical demand. The optimum combination of fenestration variables is a function of climate, orientation, and electric lighting power density.

  17. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  18. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  19. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Convection & Radiation Inverter Thermal Considerations Thermally Sensitive Electronics Passive vs. Active Cooling Solar Gain & Thermal Gain Shading & Topology...

  20. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  1. WINDOW 4.0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  2. WINDOW 4. 0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  3. Photocopia-A Unibody Mono-material Compact and Scalable Photomultiplier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    The Photocopia photomultiplier tube (PMT) takes advantage of two of the many unique properties of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium (a-SiGe) photoemitter material: its mechanical flexibility and mostly substrate-independent properties. The a-SiGe photoemitter has high secondary electron (SE) yield. It can be used both as the photocathode and as the gain medium. The active material can be grown on a flat, thin unibody substrate, formed and then “rolled up” ex situ. The completed structure would then be activated and sealed within a tube. The Ge component can be increased to enhance red-sensitivity. Compact sizes are possible, minimizing magnetic field effects. The Photocopia PMT will be a low cost alternative to MCPs for TOF detectors and provide better timing discrimination for Cherenkov detectors. Retention of the ability to activate to a normal photoyield state upon flexing (bending) the substrate of the a-SiGe material after growth, but prior to activation has been shown. The SE coefficient of the activated material has been characterized over the voltage range suitable for utilization as the gain material. The time response of the material is suited to PMT use.

  4. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  5. Ion Desorption Stability in Superconducting High Energy Physics Proton Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-05-29

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of cold beam tube vacuum in a superconducting proton collider to include ion desorption in addition to thermal desorption and synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. The new ion desorption terms introduce the possibility of vacuum instability. This is similar to the classical room temperature case but now modified by the inclusion of ion desorption coefficients for cryosorbed (physisorbed) molecules which can greatly exceed the coefficients for tightly bound molecules. The sojourn time concept for physisorbed H{sub 2} is generalized to include photodesorption and ion desorption as well as the usually considered thermal desorption. The ion desorption rate is density dependent and divergent so at the onset of instability the sojourn time goes to zero. Experimental data are used to evaluate the H{sub 2} sojourn time for the conditions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the situation is found to be stable. The sojourn time is dominated by photodesorption for surface density s(H{sub 2}) less than a monolayer and by thermal deposition for s(H{sub 2}) greater than a monolayer. For a few percent of a monolayer, characteristic of a beam screen, the photodesorption rate exceeds ion desorption rate by more than two orders of magnitude. The photodesorption rate corresponds to a sojourn time of approximately 100 sec. The paper next turns to the evaluation of stability margins and inclusion of gases heavier than H{sub 2} (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), where ion desorption introduces coupling between molecular species. Stability conditions are worked out for a simple cold beam tube, a cold beam tube pumped from the ends and a cold beam tube with a co-axial perforated beam screen. In each case a simple inequality for stability of a single component is replaced by a determinant that must be greater than zero for a gas mixture. The connection with the general theory of feedback stability is made and it is shown that the gains of the diagonal uncoupled feedback loops are first order in the ion desorption coefficients whereas the gains of the off diagonal coupled feedback loops are second and higher order. For this reason it turns out that in practical cases stability is dominated by the uncoupled diagonal elements and the inverse of the largest first order closed loop gain is a useful estimate of the margin of stability. In contrast to the case of a simple cold beam tube, the stability condition for a beam screen does not contain the desorption coefficient for physisorbed molecules, even when the screen temperature is low enough that there is a finite surface density of them on the screen surface. Consequently there does not appear to be any particular advantage to operating the beam screen at high enough temperature to avoid physisorption. Numerical estimates of ion desorption stability are given for a number of cases relevant to LHC and all of the ones likely to be encountered were found to be stable. The most important case, a I % transparency beam screen at {approx}4.2 K, was found to have a stability safety margin of approximately thirty determined by ion desorption of CO. Ion desorption of H{sub 2} is about a factor of eighty less stringent than CO. For these estimates the beam tube surface was assumed to be solvent cleaned but otherwise untreated, for example by a very high temperature vacuum bakeout or by glow discharge cleaning.

  6. OXIDATION OF INCONEL 718 IN AIR AT TEMPERATURES FROM 973K TO 1620K.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    As part of the APT project, it was necessary to quantify the release of tungsten from the APT spallation target during postulated accident conditions in order to develop accident source terms for accident consequence characterization. Experiments with tungsten rods at high temperatures in a flowing steam environment characteristic of postulated accidents revealed that considerable vaporization of the tungsten occurred as a result of reactions with the steam and that the aerosols which formed were readily transported away from the tungsten surfaces, thus exposing fresh tungsten to react with more steam. The resulting tungsten release fractions and source terms were undesirable and it was decided to clad the tungsten target with Inconel 718 in order to protect it from contact with steam during an accident and mitigate the accident source term and the consequences. As part of the material selection criteria, experiments were conducted with Inconel 718 at high temperatures to evaluate the rate of oxidation of the proposed clad material over as wide a temperature range as possible, as well as to determine the high-temperature failure limit of the material. Samples of Inconel 718 were inserted into a preheated furnace at temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1620 K and oxidized in air for varying periods of time. After oxidizing in air at a constant temperature for the prescribed time and then being allowed to cool, the samples would be reweighed to determine their weight gain due to the uptake of oxygen. From these weight gain measurements, it was possible to identify three regimes of oxidation for Inconel 718: a low-temperature regime in which the samples became passivated after the initial oxidation, an intermediate-temperature regime in which the rate of oxidation was limited by diffusion and exhibited a constant parabolic rate dependence, and a high-temperature regime in which material deformation and damage accompanied an accelerated oxidation rate above the parabolic regime. At temperatures below 1173 K, the rate of oxidation of the Inconel 718 surface was found to decrease markedly with time; the parabolic oxidation rate coefficient was not a constant but decreased with time. This was taken to indicate that the oxide film on the surface was having a passivating effect on oxygen transport through the oxide to the underlying metal. For temperatures in the range 1173 K to 1573 K, the time-dependent rate of oxidation as determined once again by weight-gain measurements was found to display the classical parabolic rate behavior, indicating that the rate of transport of reactants through the oxide was controlled by diffusion through the growing oxide layer. Parabolic rate coefficients were determined by least-squares analysis of time-dependent mass-gain data at 1173 K, 1273 K, 1373 K, 1473 K and 1573 K. At temperatures above 1540 K, post test examination of the oxidized samples revealed that the Inconel 718 began to lose strength and to deform. At 1540 K, samples which were suspended from their ends during testing began to demonstrate axial curvature as they lost strength and bowed under their own weight. As the temperatures of the tests were increased, rivulets were seen to appear on the surfaces of the test specimens; damage became severe at 1560 K. Although melting was never observed in any of these tests even up to. 1620 K, it was concluded from these data that the Inconel 718 clad should not be expected to protect the underlying tungsten at temperatures above 1540 K.

  7. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.; Robino, C. V.

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volume gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10–4 mm3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.

  8. Internal hydraulic analysis of impeller rounding in centrifugal pumps as turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute of Water and River Basin Management (IWG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The use of pumps as turbines in different applications has been gaining importance in the recent years, but the subject of hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. One of these optimization techniques that include rounding of the sharp edges at the impeller periphery (or turbine inlet) has shown tendencies of performance enhancement. In order to understand the effect of this hydraulic optimization, the paper introduces an analytical model in the pump as turbine control volume and brings out the functionalities of the internal variables classified under control variables consisting of the system loss coefficient and exit relative flow direction and under dependent variables consisting of net tangential flow velocity, net head and efficiency. The paper studies the effects of impeller rounding on a combination of radial flow and mixed flow pumps as turbines using experimental data. The impeller rounding is seen to have positive impact on the overall efficiency in different operating regions with an improvement in the range of 1-3%. The behaviour of the two control variables have been elaborately studied in which it is found that the system loss coefficient has reduced drastically due to rounding effects, while the extent of changes to the exit relative flow direction seems to be limited in comparison. The reasons for changes to these control variables have been physically interpreted and attributed to the behaviour of the wake zone at the turbine inlet and circulation within the impeller control volume. The larger picture of impeller rounding has been discussed in comparison with performance prediction models in pumps as turbines. The possible limitations of the analytical model as well as the test setup are also presented. The paper concludes that the impeller rounding technique is very important for performance optimization and recommends its application on all pump as turbine projects. It also recommends the standardization of the rounding effects over wide range of pump shapes including axial pumps. (author)

  9. Thermoelectric study of crossroads material MnTe via sulfur doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Wenjie Populoh, Sascha; Sagarna, Leyre; Trottmann, Matthias; Ga??zka, Krzysztof; Xiao, Xingxing; Liu, Yufei; He, Jian; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2014-03-14

    Here, we report thermoelectric study of crossroads material MnTe via iso-electronic doping S on the Te-site. MnTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} samples with nominal S content of x?=?0.00, 0.05, and 0.10 were prepared using a melt-quench method followed by pulverization and spark plasma sintering. The X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ZAF-corrected compositional analysis confirmed that S uniformly substitutes Te up to slightly over 2%. A higher content of S in the starting materials led to the formation of secondary phases. The thermoelectric properties of MnTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} samples were characterized by means of Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity measurements from 300?K to 773?K. Furthermore, Hall coefficient measurements and a single parabolic band model were used to help gain insights on the effects of S-doping on the scattering mechanism and the carrier effective mass. As expected, S doping not only introduced hole charge carriers but also created short-range defects that effectively scatter heat-carrying phonons at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, we found that S doping degraded the effective mass. As a result, the ZT of MnTe{sub 0.9}S{sub 0.1} was substantially enhanced over the pristine sample near 400?K, while the improvement of ZT became marginal at elevated temperatures. A ZT???0.65 at 773?K was obtained in all three samples.

  10. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.; Robino, C. V.

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volumemore » gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10–4 mm3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.« less

  11. Space charge field in a FEL with axially symmetric electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, I.A.; Belyavskiy, E.D.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear two-dimensional theory of the space charge of an axially symmetric electron beam propagating in combined right-hand polarized wiggler and uniform axial guide fields in a presence of high-frequency electromagnetic wave is presented. The well-known TE{sub 01} mode in a cylindrical waveguide for the model of radiation fields and paraxial approximation for the wiggler field are used. Space charge field components are written in the Lagrange coordinates by the twice averaged Green`s functions of two equally charged infinitely thin discs. For that {open_quotes}compensating charges{close_quotes} method is applied in which an electron ring model is substituted by one with two different radii and signs discs. On this approach the initial Green`s functions peculiarities are eliminated and all calculations are considerably simplified. Coefficients of a twice averaged Green`s function expansion into a Fourier series are obtained by use of corresponding expansion coefficients of longitudinal Green`s functions of equal radii discs and identical rings known from the one-dimensional theory of super HF devices taking into account electron bunches periodicity. This approach permit the space charge field components for an arbitrary stratified stream to be expressed in a simple and strict enough form. The expressions obtained can be employed in a nonlinear two-dimensional FEL theory in order to investigate beam dynamical defocusing and electrons failing on the waveguide walls in the high gain regime. This is especially important for FEL operation in mm and submm.

  12. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  13. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-03-14

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters.

  14. Exploration of the Versatility of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerizati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an Approach for Gaining Access to Low Density Polymeric Aerogels Citation Details ... an Approach for Gaining Access to Low Density Polymeric Aerogels Authors: Kim, S H ; ...

  15. Program Fact Sheets | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain Considers the projected impacts of future LED lighting efficacy gains in advancing major national goals, as well as in strengthening the ...

  16. V-156: Linux Kernel Array Bounds Checking Flaw Lets Local Users...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: Linux Kernel Array Bounds Checking Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-156: Linux Kernel Array Bounds Checking Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges May...

  17. V-150: Apache VCL Input Validation Flaw Lets Remote Authenticated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Apache VCL Input Validation Flaw Lets Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-150: Apache VCL Input Validation Flaw Lets Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated...

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Cooling Solar Gain & Thermal Gain Shading & Topology Temperature Sensing & Controls Derates & AgingFailure Modes 2 Natural Convection (Incropera and Dewitt, ...

  19. U-242: Linux Kernel Netlink SCM_CREDENTIALS Processing Flaw Lets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Linux Kernel Netlink SCMCREDENTIALS Processing Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges U-242: Linux Kernel Netlink SCMCREDENTIALS Processing Flaw Lets Local Users Gain...

  20. Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle ...

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices & Coefficients of Variation Report

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Detailed Price and CV Report Motor Gasoline Prices & Coefficients of Variation Spreadsheet

  3. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shijia Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-15

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ∼30%, with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by  60%, with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  4. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  5. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda, Debasree

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup ?}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1?y} lattice matched to InP, as example of IIIV compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  6. Thermonuclear targets for direct-drive ignition by a megajoule laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bel’kov, S. A.; Bondarenko, S. V.; Vergunova, G. A.; Garanin, S. G.; Gus’kov, S. Yu. Demchenko, N. N.; Doskoch, I. Ya.; Kuchugov, P. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A.

    2015-10-15

    Central ignition of a thin two-layer-shell fusion target that is directly driven by a 2-MJ profiled pulse of Nd laser second-harmonic radiation has been studied. The parameters of the target were selected so as to provide effective acceleration of the shell toward the center, which was sufficient for the onset of ignition under conditions of increased hydrodynamic stability of the ablator acceleration and compression. The aspect ratio of the inner deuterium-tritium layer of the shell does not exceed 15, provided that a major part (above 75%) of the outer layer (plastic ablator) is evaporated by the instant of maximum compression. The investigation is based on two series of numerical calculations that were performed using one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic codes. The first 1D code was used to calculate the absorption of the profiled laser-radiation pulse (including calculation of the total absorption coefficient with allowance for the inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance mechanisms) and the spatial distribution of target heating for a real geometry of irradiation using 192 laser beams in a scheme of focusing with a cubo-octahedral symmetry. The second 1D code was used for simulating the total cycle of target evolution under the action of absorbed laser radiation and for determining the thermonuclear gain that was achieved with a given target.

  7. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  8. Intense {ital J}=0{endash}1 soft-x-ray lasing at 28.5 nm in neonlike chromium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Praeg, A.R.; Loewenthal, F.; Balmer, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    Intense 3{ital p}-3{ital s}, {ital J}=0{endash}1 soft-x-ray lasing at 28.5 nm in neonlike chromium has been observed experimentally using a compact Nd:glass laser as the driver. 2.4-cm-long polished chromium slab targets were irradiated with up to 100-J/500-ps pulses at the fundamental wavelength of 1.054 {mu}m. The prepulse technique was applied using a defined prepulse 5 ns before the main pulse and with a prepulse-to-main pulse energy ratio of 0.7{percent}. It is demonstrated that a pump energy of {approximately}80 J, corresponding to a pump irradiance of approximately 9 TW/cm{sup 2} is sufficient to observe soft-x-ray lasing at 28.5 nm. At a drive laser energy of {approximately}90 J a gain coefficient of (2.2{plus_minus}0.5) cm{sup {minus}1} was measured. The one-dimensional space-resolved measurements show that the 28.5-nm laser line is emitted from a 60-{mu}m-wide (full width at half maximum) plasma region. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  10. NATURAL CONVECTION IN ROOM GEOMETRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, R.; Ruberg, K.

    1980-06-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in room geometries in two and three dimensions. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment reported here. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single thermal zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. The results indicate that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may be in error by as much as 50% as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure. It is also found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface.

  11. Experimental and analytical study of rotating cavitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamijo, Kenjiro; Shimura, Takashi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu [National Aerospace Lab., Miyagi (Japan). Kakuda Research Center

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes experimental and analytical results of rotating cavitation. There are four major sections in this paper. The first section presents the main characteristics of rotating cavitation which was found in the inducer test using a water tunnel. The second section describes the rotating cavitation which occurred in the development test of an LE-7 liquid oxygen pump for the H-II rocket. Also described in this section is how the rotating cavitation was suppressed. The rotating cavitation was the cause of both super synchronous shaft vibration and an unstable head coefficient curve. The third section presents how the theory of rotating cavitation was developed. The final section shows the measured cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor of the LE-7 pump inducer for comparison of the experimental and analytical results of the rotating cavitation of the LE-7 pump inducer. Almost all the information presented in this paper has already been reported by Kamijo et al. (1977, 1980, 1993, 1993) and by Shimura (1993). In the present paper, the authors attempt to combine and give a clear overview of the experimental and analytical results described in the previous papers to systematically show their experience and findings on rotating cavitation.

  12. Parameter spaces and design optimization of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades thermoacoustic refrigerators were developed in research laboratories with the goal to understand the basic physics and thermodynamics of thermoacoustic heat pumping. These research efforts led to a good understanding of this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology that employs acoustic power to pump heat. Consequently the next step is to improve and optimize the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators and seek commercial applications. For this purpose, the need for fast and simple engineering estimates arises. By implementing the simplified linear model of thermoacoustic refrigerators--the short stack boundary layer approximation--such design estimates were derived and presented in this paper in the form of a design algorithm. Calculations obtained with this algorithm predict values for the Coefficient Of Performance (COP) of the order of 5 to 6. These values cannot be achieved at this time because of loss mechanisms in key parts of the thermoacoustic refrigerator, which are not quite understood yet. Nevertheless, these values are encouraging and gaining a better understanding of these loss mechanisms will be a big step towards the commercial market for this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology.

  13. RESONANT AMPLIFICATION OF TURBULENCE BY THE BLAST WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zankovich, A. M.; Kovalenko, I. G.

    2015-02-10

    We discuss the idea of whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a nonlocal resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with increasing amplification the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- (l ∼ 1), meso- (l ∼ 20), and microscopic (l > 200) scales. Since the resonance width is narrow (typically, Δl < 1), resonance should select and amplify discrete isolated harmonics. We speculate on a possible explanation of an observed regular filamentary structure of regularly shaped round supernova remnants such as SNR 1572, 1006, or 0509-67.5. Resonant mesoscales found (l ≈ 18) are surprisingly close to the observed scales (l ≈ 15) of ripples in the shell's surface of SNR 0509-67.5.

  14. Off-Resonance Photosensitization of a Photorefractive Polymer Composite Using PbS Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Liang, Yichen; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Mahala, Benjamin D.; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-26

    The photosensitization of photorefractive polymeric composites for operation at 633 nm is accomplished through the inclusion of narrow band gap semiconductor nanocrystals composed of PbS. Unlike previous studies involving photosensitization of photorefractive polymer composites with inorganic nanocrystals, we employ an off-resonance approach where the first excitonic transition associated with the PbS nanocrystals lies at ~1220 nm and not the wavelength of operation. Using this methodology, internal diffraction efficiencies exceeding 82%, two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 211 cm–1, and response times of 34 ms have been observed, representing some of the best figures of merit reported for this class of materials. Furthermore, these data demonstrate the ability of semiconductor nanocrystals to compete effectively with traditional organic photosensitizers. In addition to superior performance, this approach also offers an inexpensive and easy means by which to photosensitize composite materials. Additionally, the photoconductive characteristics of the composites used for this study will also be considered.

  15. Off-Resonance Photosensitization of a Photorefractive Polymer Composite Using PbS Nanocrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moon, Jong-Sik; Liang, Yichen; Stevens, Tyler E.; Monson, Todd C.; Huber, Dale L.; Mahala, Benjamin D.; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-26

    The photosensitization of photorefractive polymeric composites for operation at 633 nm is accomplished through the inclusion of narrow band gap semiconductor nanocrystals composed of PbS. Unlike previous studies involving photosensitization of photorefractive polymer composites with inorganic nanocrystals, we employ an off-resonance approach where the first excitonic transition associated with the PbS nanocrystals lies at ~1220 nm and not the wavelength of operation. Using this methodology, internal diffraction efficiencies exceeding 82%, two-beam-coupling gain coefficients of 211 cm–1, and response times of 34 ms have been observed, representing some of the best figures of merit reported for this class of materials. Furthermore,more » these data demonstrate the ability of semiconductor nanocrystals to compete effectively with traditional organic photosensitizers. In addition to superior performance, this approach also offers an inexpensive and easy means by which to photosensitize composite materials. Additionally, the photoconductive characteristics of the composites used for this study will also be considered.« less

  16. View from the Bridge: Commercial Vehicle Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Truck manufacturer's perspective on technologies to achieve truck propulsion system efficiency gains

  17. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for energy conservation. In mobile hydraulic systems, efficiency gains through low friction would translate into improved fuel economy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Stationary hydraulic systems, accordingly, would consume less electrical power. Reduced tooling wear in machining operations would translate to greater operating yields, while lowering the energy consumed during processing. The AlMgB14 nanocoatings technology progressed beyond baseline laboratory tests into measurable energy savings and enhancements to product durability. Three key hydraulic markets were identified over the course of the project that will benefit from implementation: industrial vane pumps, orbiting valve-in-star hydraulic motors, and variable displacement piston pumps. In the vane pump application, the overall product efficiency was improved by as much as 11%. Similar results were observed with the hydraulic motors tested, where efficiency gains of over 10% were noted. For variable displacement piston pumps, overall efficiency was improved by 5%. For cutting tools, the most significant gains in productivity (and, accordingly, the efficiency of the machining process as a whole) were associated with the roughing and finishing of titanium components for aerospace systems. Use of the AlMgB14 nanocoating in customer field tests has shown that the coated tools were able to withstand machining rates as high as 500sfm (limited only by the substrate material), with relatively low flank wear when compared to other industrial offerings. AlMgB14 coated tools exhibited a 60% improvement over similarly applied TiAlN thin films. Furthermore, AlMgB14-based coatings in these particular tests lasted twice as long than their TiAlN counterparts at the 500sfm feed rates. Full implementation of the technology into the industrial hydraulic and cutting tool markets equates to a worldwide energy savings of 46 trillion BTU/year by 2030. U.S.-based GHG emissions associated with the markets identified would fall accordingly, dropping by as much as 50,000 tonnes annually.

  18. Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.

  19. Smoothed aggregation adaptive spectral element-based algebraic multigrid

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-20

    SAAMGE provides parallel methods for building multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for elliptic equations with highly heterogeneous coefficients. Additionally, hierarchy adaptation is implemented allowing solving multiple problems with close coefficients without rebuilding the hierarchy.

  20. Frequency dependence of the electrical asymmetry effect in dual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction in electrical asymmetry is a sensitive function of the secondary electron emission coefficient, we are able to non-invasively estimate this coefficient as 0.035 for...