Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis...
Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
upgrade cost for all low solar gain low-e glazed products. However, our experience suggests that a good estimate of the average upgrade cost for low solar gain low-e is less than a $1.50 per square foot of window area. This price has been..., Oregon and Washington back in 1996 were less than $2 per square foot. Similarly, a 1995 study by the Washington State Energy Office [M. Lubliner & T. Ossinger, ?Pricing of Energy Efficient Windows in the Pacific Northwest?], found the cost to upgrade...
Wythe, Kathy
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
are not as modern as the United States when it comes to water management,? he said, ?and that is something where we could use our knowledge to help others.? Munster agreed that the program gives students a diverse outlook. ?The students gain a different...
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES FOR
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about
Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
Lozano-Nieto, Albert
AMPLIFIER q G = +11 AMPLIFIER q INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The INA106 is a monolithic Gain = 10 deviation from the best-fit straight line as a percent of full-scale peak- to-peak output. (3) With zero
L. Begin; P. Mathieu; M. A. Walton
1992-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
A closed and explicit formula for all $\\su{(3)}_k$ fusion coefficients is presented which, in the limit $k \\rightarrow \\infty$, turns into a simple and compact expression for the $su(3)$ tensor product coefficients. The derivation is based on a new diagrammatic method which gives directly both tensor product and fusion coefficients.
The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw
Kenneth A. Griggs
2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw and their corresponding Elementals Ew are presented as solutions to the construction of the (beta)-derivative of Kauffman's Theta-function. Additionally, a new recursion relation is provided to construct the (beta)-derivative of Theta that requires only operational substitutions and summations; this algorithmically simplifies Kauffman's original technique. To demonstrate Kw, we generate the 30 Kw Coefficients from the corresponding Elementals Ew for the (9)-derivative of Theta and find that our results are in complete agreement with Kauffman's Mathematica\\texttrademark solutions. We further present a calculation of two coefficients for the (12)-derivative of Theta and invite readers to use Mathematica\\texttrademark or any other means to calculate and verify our results. Finally, we present a challenging calculation for a coefficient of the (40)-derivative of Theta; owing to the vast numbers of permutations involved, a Mathematica\\texttrademark approach may require substantial computer resources to obtain the solution in a reasonable time.
Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity
Loewe, W.E.
2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
The Production Coefficients of Feeds
Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)
1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 185 FEBRUARY, 1916 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Production Coefficients of Feeds POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT... STATION pp - -- - - BULLETIN NO. 185 FEBRUARY, 1916 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Production Coefficients of Feeds G. S. FRAPS, Ph. D. CHEMIST IN CHARGE; STATE CHEMIST POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN...
Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers
Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.
1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.
Coherent coupling of optical gain elements
Ury, I.; Yariv, A
1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
A coherent light source is described comprising: a non-linear photorefractive medium; a laser for illuminating the photorefractive medium; a mirror on the opposite side of the photorefractive medium from the laser and aligned for retroreflecting light back toward the laser; and optical gain elements. Each optical gain element has its optical axis aligned with the photo-refractive medium, each optical gain element having a reflective end remote from the photorefractive medium, the laser and optical gain elements being sufficiently aligned that laser light scattered from the photorefractive medium illuminates all of the optical gain elements for amplification and producing a coherent output beam.
Stirling's approximation for central polynomial coefficients
Eger, Steffen
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We derive asymptotic formulae for central polynomial coefficients, a generalization of binomial coefficients, using the distribution of the sum of independent uniform random variables and the CLT.
Linear tailored gain broad area semiconductor lasers
Lindsey, C.P.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.
1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tailored gain semiconductor lasers capable of high-power operation with single-lobed, nearly diffraction limited beamwidths only a few degrees wide have been demonstrated in proton implanted chirped arrays and ''halftone'' broad area lasers. The authors analyze lasers with a linear gain gradient, and obtain analytic approximations for their unsaturated optical eigenmodes. Unlike a uniform array, the fundamental mode of a linear tailored gain laser is the mode at threshold. Mode discrimination may be controlled by lasing the spatial gain gradient. All modes of asymmetric tailored gain waveguides have single-lobed far-field patterns offset from 0/sup 0/. Finally, they utilize tailored gain broad area lasers to make a measurement of the antiguiding parameter, and find b = 2.5 +- 0.5, in agreement with previous results.
Optimization Online - Lot sizing with inventory gains
Hamish Waterer
2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 27, 2006 ... Abstract: This paper introduces the single item lot sizing problem with inventory gains. This problem is a generalization of the classical single ...
Calculate thermal-expansion coefficients
Yaws, C.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)
1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
To properly design and use process equipment, an engineer needs a sound knowledge of physical and thermodynamic property data. A lack of such knowledge can lead to design or operating mistakes that can be dangerous, costly or even fatal. One useful type of property data is the thermal-expansion coefficient. This article presents equations and tables to find the thermal-expansion coefficients of many liquids that contain carbon. These data are useful in process-engineering applications, including the design of relief systems which are crucial to safeguarding process equipment. Data are provided for approximately 350 compounds. A computer software program, which contains the thermophysical property data for all of the compounds discussed in this article, is available for $43 prepaid from the author (Carl L. Yaws, Box 10053, Lamar University, beaumont, TX 77710; Tel. 409-880-8787; fax 409-880-8404). The program is in ASCII format, which can be accessed by most other types of computer software.
High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology
Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.
High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology
Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.
2000-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.
The Seebeck coefficient of iodine
Perez-Fernandez, Domingo Miguel
1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
will be P while 0 across the hot junction will be g + ( 3g/3dT) (dT/dx) (up to 0 first order). This means that 3)/3T will be measured as a thermo- electric potential. The contact potential is determined by the 36 difference between the energy outside... is defined by V Lim AT~ 0 (1. 1) where V is the voltage drop and dT is the difference in temperature of the end points of the sample. Por one type of carriers, the Seebeck coefficient is given by k O. ? ? [z ? p] / kT (1. 2) where e is the electronic...
Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.
Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle
2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.
Optimal PID gain schedule for hydrogenerators
Orelind, G. (Adept Technology, San Jose, CA (US)); Wozniak, L.; Medanic, J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Whittemore, T. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (USA))
1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes the development and testing of a digital gain switching governor for hydrogenerators. Optimal gains were found at different load points by minimizing a quadratic performance criterion prior to controller operating. During operation, the gain sets are switched in depending on the gate position and speed error magnitude. With gain switching operating, the digital governor was shown to have a substantial reduction of noise on the command signal and up to 42% faster responses to power requests. Non-linear control strategies enabled the digital governor to have a 2.5% to 2% reduction in speed overshoot on startups, and an 8% to 1% reduction in undershoot on load rejections as compared to the analog.
Financing Renewable Energy - No Pain, No Gain
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
newresourcebank.com Financing Renewable Energy "No Pain, No Gain" New Resource Bank: A Radical Idea Our mission is to promote sustainable living in our community with everything we...
Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This Act establishes the Gaines County Solid Waste Management District, a governmental body to develop and carry out a regional water quality protection program through solid waste management and...
Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media
Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene
2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.
Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,
season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can profiles, solar gain, net energy gain, low energy houses SUMMARY: This paper presents some of the research buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating
Superradiance and collective gain in multimode optomechanics
T. Kipf; G. S. Agarwal
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
We present a description of a strongly driven multimode optomechanical system that shows the emergence of cooperative effects usually known from systems of atom-light interaction. Our calculations show that under application of a coherent pump field the system's response can be switched from a superradiant regime to a collective gain regime by varying the frequency detuning of the pump. In the superradiant regime, enhanced optical cooling of a single vibrational mode is possible, whereas the collective gain regime would potentially enable one to achieve almost thresholdless phonon laser action. The threshold pumping power scales as 1/N.
Capital gains tax treatment and the cattleman
Rister, M. Edward
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Major Subject: Agricultural Economics CAPITAL GAINS TAX TREATMENT AND THE CATTLEMAN A Thesis by M I LTDN EDWARD R I STE R Approved as to style and content by: airman o ommi e Dr. Ronald R. Kay Head o D artment Dr. John opkin Mem er Dr. Donald... R. Levi e er Dr. Howard Hesby December 1976 ABSTRACT Capital Gains Tax Treatment and the Catt leman. (December 1976) Milton Edward Rister, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Or. Ronald D. Kay The federal tax...
Gain narrowing in few-atom systems
Tom Savels; Allard P. Mosk; Ad Lagendijk
2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
Using a density matrix approach, we study the simplest systems that display both gain and feedback: clusters of 2 to 5 atoms, one of which is pumped. The other atoms supply feedback through multiple scattering of light. We show that, if the atoms are in each other's near-field, the system exhibits large gain narrowing and spectral mode redistribution. The observed phenomena are more pronounced if the feedback is enhanced. Our system is to our knowledge the simplest exactly solvable microscopic system which shows the approach to laser oscillation.
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience
Shepard, Kenneth
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience There are myriad ways to build experience Sciences at Columbia University offers on-campus research opportunities for the summer term Dec. 13 - March careereducation.columbia.edu Join LionSHARE Â CCE's internship/job board Double Discovery Center Volunteer
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience
Hone, James
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience There are so many ways to build experience The Columbia University Office of Government and Community Affairs provides assistance to undergraduates.edu/academics/research/science Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship The Department of Biological Sciences at Columbia University
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience
Hone, James
Columbia University Opportunities to Gain Experience There are so many ways to build experience Program The Columbia University Office of Government and Community Affairs provides assistance.edu/academics/research/science Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship The Department of Biological Sciences at Columbia University
Gain International Work Experience in China
Virginia Tech
Gain International Work Experience in China www.StudyCLI.org "The CLI internship gave me a huge boost both personally and professionally. At 21 years old, I've lived in China and can speak basic city of Guilin, China. CLIinternsengageinadynamicrangeofprojects: Y Establishnewrelationshipswith
Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins Collaboration Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins...
U-030: Apache Tomcat Lets Untrusted Web Applications Gain Elevated...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
0: Apache Tomcat Lets Untrusted Web Applications Gain Elevated Privileges U-030: Apache Tomcat Lets Untrusted Web Applications Gain Elevated Privileges November 9, 2011 - 8:30am...
Friction Coefficient for Quarks in Supergravity Duals
E. Antonyan
2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
We study quarks moving in strongly-coupled plasmas that have supergravity duals. We compute the friction coefficient of strings dual to such quarks for general static supergravity backgrounds near the horizon. Our results also show that a previous conjecture on the bound has to be modified and higher friction coefficients can be achieved.
APPENDIX I Partition Coefficients For Thorium
APPENDIX I Partition Coefficients For Thorium #12;Appendix I Partition Coefficients For Thorium of thorium Kd values for the look-up table. These assumptions were based on the findings of the literature review conducted on the geochemical processes affecting thorium sorption. The assumptions are as follows
Wavelet Coefficients of Levy Process R. Suyundykov
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Wavelet Coefficients of Levy Process R. Suyundykov ENAC Dept. MI LMA 7, Avenue Edouard Belin 31055. Abstract--The main object of the paper is to study the wavelet decomposition of Levy processes by wavelets by Haar wavelets. Keywords : Ondelettes, Processus I. INTRODUCTION Estimation of wavelet coefficients
APPENDIX F Partition Coefficients For Lead
APPENDIX F Partition Coefficients For Lead #12;Appendix F Partition Coefficients For Lead F.1.0 Background The review of lead Kd data reported in the literature for a number of soils led to the following important conclusions regarding the factors which influence lead adsorption on minerals, soils
Coefficient of restitution for viscoelastic disks
Thomas Schwager
2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
The dissipative collision of two identical viscoelastic disks is studied. By using a known law for the elastic part of the interaction force and the viscoelastic damping model an analytical solution for the coefficient of restitution shall be given. The coefficient of restitution depends significantly on the impact velocity. It approaches one for small velocities and decreases for increasing velocities.
APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium
APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium #12;Appendix J Partition Coefficients For Uranium J.1.0 Background The review of uranium Kd values obtained for a number of soils, crushed rock and their effects on uranium adsorption on soils are discussed below. The solution pH was also used as the basis
APPENDIX G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium
APPENDIX G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium #12;Appendix G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium G.1.0 Background A number of studies have focussed on the adsorption behavior of plutonium that Kd values for plutonium typically range over 4 orders of magnitude (Thibault et al., 1990). Also
Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains
Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...
Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains
Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially... available roof coatings, and productivity gains associated with these energy saving strategies. This type of situation is evidenced in the justification of energy rebates distributed by Florida Power & Light in exchange for the application of Energy Star...
Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance
Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; York, Robbie Lynn [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL
2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.
Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit
Barrett, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.
Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit
Barrett, D.M.
1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.
Determination of diffusion coefficient for unsaturated soils
Sood, Eeshani
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
is non-linear but due to the complexity involved it has been simplified to a linear problem. The nonlinear behavior has been studied during this research. Therefore, certain refinements have been applied in the determination of the diffusion coefficient...
Symmetry energy coefficients for asymmetric nuclear matter
Fábio L. Braghin
2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
Symmetry energy coefficients of asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated as the inverse of nuclear matter polarizabilities with two different approaches. Firstly a general calculation shows they may depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry itself. The choice of particular prescriptions for the density fluctuations lead to certain isospin (n-p asymmetry) dependences of the polarizabilities. Secondly, with Skyrme type interactions, the static limit of the dynamical polarizability is investigated corresponding to the inverse symmetry energy coefficient which assumes different values at different asymmetries (and densities and temperatures). The symmetry energy coefficient (in the isovector channel) is found to increase as n-p asymmetries increase. The spin symmetry energy coefficient is also briefly investigated.
Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient
A. G. Ramm
2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method is given for creating material with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size $a$. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is $O(a^{\\frac{2-\\kappa}{3}})$ as $a\\to 0$, $0<\\kappa<1$ is a fixed parameter. The total number of the embedded particle is $O(a^{\\kappa-2})$. The physical properties of the particles are described by the boundary impedance $\\zeta_m$ of the $m-th$ particle, $\\zeta_m=O(a^{-\\kappa})$ as $a\\to 0$. The refraction coefficient is the coefficient $n^2(x)$ in the wave equation $[\
Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain
Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)
2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.
GainSpan Corporation | Open Energy Information
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Gaines, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865Â°, -86.0529604Â°Wisconsin:FyreStormGLOBALGabbsGaines, Michigan:
Gain the most business value from implementing IBM Optim
Services professionals Gain comprehensive project planning and execution, product education and on guide your decommissioning project. Optim makes decommissioning easier and safer by providing professionals for rapid implementation and reliable support. IBM Software Lab Services can help you gain
INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS
Sullivan, Paul W.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and AirFOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS Paul W. Sullivan,FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS* Paul W. Sullivan,t
Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations
Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations are described. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the DOE 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal-gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multi-family-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results of this study indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.
A very high frequency CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier
Tan, Siang Tong
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fully differential CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) consisting of an analog multiplier, current gain stages, and resistor loads is designed for very high frequency applications. The gain can be programmed from 0dB to 40dB with -3dB bandwidth...
Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions
G. Cristadoro
2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyze low dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand even simple one dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non smooth dependence of global observable on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.
Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models
Cardot, Hervé
Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models Herv´e Cardot1 and Pascal Sarda2 1, the ability of such non linear functional approaches to produce competitive estimations. Short title : Varying monograph. We propose here another generalization of the functional linear regression model in which
Coupling coefficients for coupled-cavity lasers
Lang, R.J.; Yariv, A.
1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors derive simple, analytic formulas for the field coupling coefficients in a two-section coupled-cavity laser using a local field rate equation treatment. They show that there is a correction to the heuristic formulas based on power flow calculated by Marcuse; the correction is in agreement with numerical calculations from a coupled-mode approach.
Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification. Revised
DeVolpi, A.
1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
When a pair of images is compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This report evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitations of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair of otherwise identical images. Results show an optimal three-stage procedure: first, establish congruence of the two images; second, use the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives; and, third, qualify a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These three algorithmic stages would be especially useful in application to arms control treaty verification, particularly for comparison of unique identifiers (tags or seals). This is illustrated by comparing scanning-electron microscope topographical images for an intrinsic-surface tag.
Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control
Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab (Albuquerque, NM)
2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.
Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design
Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings ofWater-based radiant cooling systems are gaining popularityGain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings of
Outside heat transfer coefficients for atmospheric coolers
George, David Mark
1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for the same conditions of operation is given by Robinson ()i. 9). TABLE I Comparison of various authors' values of outside heat transfer coefficients Btugour x square foot x F ~ ) Adams (1 ) 1001 1041 915 74, 6 1021 981 910 Clarke 945 997 841... ozeventing any recycling of the wet air. "M~4~ 1 f jc, : 1 C. X L, w 38 Cooled water fro~ the tower is centrifugally pmnoed through a 2 inch pipe to a rotameter and a I and operated control valve, Figure 8, before entering a 1 1/g inch by 5 foot...
Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon
Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.
1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low pressure cold wall reactor. The RSCs have non-Arrhenius temperature dependences and decreases with increasing flux at low (710/sup 0/) temperatures. A simple model involving dissociative adsorption of silane is consistent with these results. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction.
TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE
Tullos, Desiree
TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade
Using a Compound Gain Field to Compute a Reach Plan
Snyder, Larry
underlie more complex computations such as translation-invariance in inferior temporal cortex (Salinas and Thier, 2000; Salinas and Sejnowski, 2001). In summary, gain fields appear in many parts of the brain computations (Salinas and Sejnowski, 2001). Zipser and Andersen (1988) realized that eye position gain fields
Limited Dependent Variable Correlated Random Coefficient Panel Data Models
Liang, Zhongwen
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
for the average slopes of a linear CRC model with a general nonparametric correlation between regressors and random coefficients. I construct a sqrt(n) consistent estimator for the average slopes via varying coefficient regression. The identification of binary...
ON FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF AUTOMORPHIC FORMS OF GL(n)
Jiang, Dihua
ON FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF AUTOMORPHIC FORMS OF GL(n) DIHUA JIANG AND BAIYING LIU In memory of I- Fourier coefficient. Its proof follows from the Fourier expansion of the cuspidal automorphic form in terms of its Whittaker-Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we extend this Fourier expansion
Mossaad, Ehab
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. The objectives of this research are (1) to prove that our method is more accurate than existing methods for extracting second density virial coefficients from sonic velocity data, (2) to illustrate that the new numerical method is much simpler in convening sonic...
Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins
Buljan, Marija; Frankish, Adam; Bateman, Alex
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
, if a domain gain is reported in the genomes with better quality annotations it could be that in the genomes of lower quality the domain is missing only due to incomplete annotation. To investigate the possible extent of errors introduced by the first... by this error. Namely, domain gains that occurred in the human lineage after the divergence of vertebrates (121 reported domain gain events) can have on one side well studied genomes as human and mouse and on the other side, as an outgroup, lower quality...
FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS
Ratner, D.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
taper mea- surements from LCLS. We ?nd gain lengths of ? 2.9AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS ? D. Ratner † , A. Brachmann,et al. , First Results of the LCLS Laser-Heater Sys- tem,
Gain scheduling for geometrically nonlinear flexible space structures
Yung, Jeremy Hoyt, 1971-
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A gain-scheduling approach for the control of geometrically nonlinear structures is developed. The objective is to improve performance over current linear design techniques that are applied to the same control problem. The ...
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Gain Observer and High-Order Sliding Mode Controller for a DFIG-Based Wind Turbine in variable speed wind turbines. In this context, a control strategy is proposed to ensure...
Resonator Modes in High Gain Free Electron Lasers
Xie, M.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Optical Guiding in Free Electron Lasers", Department ofModes in High Gain Free Electron Lasers M. Xie. D.A.O.International Free Electron Laser Conference. Naples. FL.
Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ
Fisk, William J.
2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.
FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS
Ratner, D.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
more than double the coherent, FEL power over the satura-FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS ? D.Figure 11: Post-saturation FEL pulse energy for a taper with
additional net gain: Topics by E-print Network
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of contaminants discharged dispersion coefficient to be 70.1 ( 4.3 m2 s-1. Temporal evolution of the SF6 inventory indicates an average Ho, David 369 Building Bayes Nets with...
Construction of operator product expansion coefficients via consistency conditions
Jan Holland
2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis an iterative scheme for the construction of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients is applied to determine low order coefficients in perturbation theory for a specific toy model. We use the approach to quantum field theory proposed by S. Hollands [arXiv:0802.2198], which is centered around the OPE and a number of axioms on the corresponding OPE coefficients. This framework is reviewed in the first part of the thesis. In the second part we apply an algorithm for the perturbative construction of OPE coefficients to a toy model: Euclidean $\\varphi^6$-theory in 3-dimensions. Using a recently found formulation in terms of vertex operators and a diagrammatic notation in terms of trees [arXiv:0906.5313v1], coefficients up to second order are constructed, some general features of coefficients at arbitrary order are presented and an exemplary comparison to the corresponding customary method of computation is given.
Can fusion coefficients be calculated from the depth rule ?
A. N. Kirillov; P. Mathieu; D. Senechal; M. Walton
1992-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
The depth rule is a level truncation of tensor product coefficients expected to be sufficient for the evaluation of fusion coefficients. We reformulate the depth rule in a precise way, and show how, in principle, it can be used to calculate fusion coefficients. However, we argue that the computation of the depth itself, in terms of which the constraints on tensor product coefficients is formulated, is problematic. Indeed, the elements of the basis of states convenient for calculating tensor product coefficients do not have a well-defined depth! We proceed by showing how one can calculate the depth in an `approximate' way and derive accurate lower bounds for the minimum level at which a coupling appears. It turns out that this method yields exact results for $\\widehat{su}(3)$ and constitutes an efficient and simple algorithm for computing $\\widehat{su}(3)$ fusion coefficients.
Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool
Chen, Chien-Hsiang
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering CALCULATION OF SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENTS FOR A NEUTRON WELL LOGGING TOOL A Thesis by CHIEN-HSIANG CHEN Approved as to style and content by: Theodore A. Parish (Chair of Committee) Ron R. Hart... to calculate sensitivity coefficients. A benchmark problem for a neutron porosity logging tool was set up to test the methodology mentioned above. Through several tests and calculations of sensitivity coefficients, it was found that the response...
A pumping system for measuring coastal diffusion coefficients
Bolen, Zane Kevin
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
system was used to measure surface horizontal diffusion coefficients in the vicin- ity of the diffuser. These experiments were also used to develop tech- niques of underway sampling as well as measuring site specific horizon- tal diffusion... coefficients. Measurement of horizontal diffusion coef- ficients used a continuous point source of tracer material to produce a plume that could be profiled using the pumping system connected to a fluorometer. The resultant horizontal diffusion coefficients...
ar diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network
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diffusion is examined. Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura 2014-02-05 4 Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions Nonlinear Sciences (arXiv)...
axial diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network
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diffusion is examined. Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura 2014-02-05 5 Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions Nonlinear Sciences (arXiv)...
Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)] [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.
apparent digestibility coefficients: Topics by E-print Network
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STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Brazos County, Texas BULLETIN NO. 402 OCTOBER, 1929 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Supplementary Energy-Production Coefficients of...
accurate rate coefficients: Topics by E-print Network
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constant and the diffusion coefficient from molecular dynamics simulations: the case of SPCE water Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The effect of the applied trajectory length...
absorption coefficient based: Topics by E-print Network
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22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Lifshitz tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient Mathematics Websites Summary: Lifshitz tails for the Interband Light...
Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents
Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.
Single contact tailored gain phased array of semiconductor lasers
Lindsey, C.P.; Kapon, E.; Katz, J.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.
1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate a single contact tailored gain-guided array in which the gain profile across the array is made strongly asymmetric by varying the width of the contact stripes. A proton isolated array of six (GaAl)As lasers with 5-..mu..m separations and widths varying linearly between 3 and 8 ..mu..m had a single lobed far field 2/sup 0/ wide, close to the diffraction limit for a single supermode. Fabrication of this device is simple, and suited to large-scale processing techniques. We also show that in such an asymmetric gain-guided array the fundamental mode is favored over higher order modes, and that higher order modes can have single lobed far-field patterns differing only slightly from that of the fundamental.
Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor laser arrays
Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Katz, J.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.
1984-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that a gain-guided laser array couples via propagating fields rather than the evanescent mode coupling typically responsible for directional coupling in passive (directional couplers) and active (laser array) devices. We show that these phase-locked modes exhibit an interference pattern, in the junction plane, which arises from the curvature of the phase fronts of optical fields of the interacting lasers. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of a simple theoretical model, and the effect of the observed mode pattern on the coupling of gain-guided lasers is discussed.
High-frequency absorption and gain in superlattices: Semiquasistatic approach
A. V. Shorokhov; K. N. Alekseev
2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a generation and an amplification of THz radiation in semiconductor superlattices under the action of microwave pump field. Electrons belonging to a single miniband of the superlattice interact quasistatically with the pump field and dynamically with a signal THz field. Within this semiquasistic approach we derive elegant difference formulas describing absorption (gain) of the weak THz signal. We present an instructive geometric interpretation of the absorption formulas which allows a search of optimum conditions for the gain employing only a simple qualitative analysis. Our theoretical findings contribute to the development of sources and detectors of THz radiation that are using nonlinear electric properties of semiconductor superlattices.
Thomas Palberg; Patrick Wette; Dieter M. Herlach
2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
We extend previous analysis of data for the melt-nucleus interfacial free energy, $\\gamma$, gained from optical experiments on suspensions of charged colloidal spheres, which crystallize with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structures. Compiling data from five pure species with different polydispersities and one binary mixture, we find the equilibrium melt-crystal interfacial energy to be considerably larger than the hard sphere reference value. Both this quantity and the entropy of freezing decrease with increasing polydispersity. Moreover, we give a first experimental determination of the Turnbull coefficient for a bcc crystallizing material. The observed value $C_{T, bcc} \\approx 0.3$ agrees well with theoretical expectations for bcc systems with short to medium ranged interactions.
Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design
Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Bauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor
Physically Transparent Formulation of a Free-Electron Laser in the Linear Gain Regime
Barletta, W.A.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in High-Gain, High-Power Free-Electron Lasers: Physics andFormulation of a Free-Electron Laser in the Linear GainFormulation of a Free-Electron Laser in the Linear Gain
Performance of Hole-Coupling Resonator in the Presence of Asymmetric Modes and FEL Gain
Xie, M.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
is derived in, K. -1. Kim, "FEL Gain Taking into Accountof Asymmetric Modes :1nd FEL Gain M. Xie and K. -J. KimOF ASYMMETRIC MODES AND FEL GAIN· Ming Xie and Kwang-Je Kim
Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials
Lomboy, Gilson [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sundararajan, Sriram, E-mail: srirams@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Wang, Kejin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.
METHODS PAPER Addressing Practical Challenges of Low Friction Coefficient
Sawyer, Wallace
sensitive to the lubrication, environment, and contact conditions, and under nominally constant conditions Tribol Trans ASME 127:673Â678, 2005), ``...the measurement of friction coefficient is extremely sensitive, friction coefficients range from about 0.2 to 1 for typical material pairs under standard conditions
Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect
Boss, Emmanuel S.
Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect G. Dall'Olmo,1, E, USA gdal@pml.ac.uk Abstract: The particulate optical backscattering coefficient (bbp) is a fundamental optical property that allows monitoring of marine suspended particles both in situ and from space
Mayer coefficients in two-dimensional Coulomb systems
Speer E.R.
1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that, for neutral systems of particles of arbitrary charges in two dimensions, with hard cores, coefficients of the Mayer series for the pressure exist in the thermodynamic limit below certain thresholds in the temperature. The methods used here apply also to correlation functions and yield bounds on the asymptotic behavior of their Mayer coefficients.
VISCOSITY SOLUTIONS OF HAMILTONJACOBI EQUATIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS COEFFICIENTS
VISCOSITY SOLUTIONS OF HAMILTONJACOBI EQUATIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS COEFFICIENTS GIUSEPPE MARIA of viscosity solution to the Cauchy problem, and that the front tracking algorithm yields an L contractive semigroup. We define a viscosity solution by treating the discontinuities in the coefficients analogously
Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope
Attard, Phil
Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope Phil Attard1, Johanna axial method for measuring the friction coefficient with the atomic force microscope is given measurement by measuring the difference between the constant compliance slopes of the extend and retract force
Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon
Grandidier, Jonathan
Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide G. Colas des Francs,1, P. Bramant,1 J. Grandidier,1,2 A. Bouhelier,1 J.-C. Weeber,1.colas-des-francs@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract: We develop a theoretical model to compute the local density of states in a confined plasmonic
A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to track Maneuvering Targets
Naik, Naren
1 A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to track Maneuvering Targets Ashwin Yadav1 , Peeyush domains. One of the most fundamental and widely used approaches to target tracking is the Kalman filter. In presence of unknown noise statistics there are difficulties in the Kalman filter yielding acceptable
Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings
Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.
1 INTRODUCTION Alternative energy sources have increasingly gained
Sandborn, Peter
1 INTRODUCTION Alternative energy sources have increasingly gained the interest for governments it is required, is a major concern for alternative energy systems. Profits and environmental benefits, research institutes, academia, and industry in order to advance the penetration of sustainable energy
Theory of laser oscillation in resonators with photorefractive gain
Yariv, A.; Kwong, S.
1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A theory for oscillation in an optical resonator with photorefractive gain was formulated. The threshold conditions for the oscillation were also obtained. The result, applicable to a whole class of new devices, is a prediction for an oscillation frequency different from that of the pump beam.
Design of a variable gain amplifier for an ultrawideband receiver
Krishnanji, Sivasankari
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
and the analog VGA is formed by a digital-to-analog converter and an exponential voltage generator. The gain of the VGA varies dB-linearly from 0 to 52 dB with respect to the control voltage. The VGA is operated in open loop with a bandwidth greater than 500 MHz...
GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Cinabro, David
GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GRADUATE CERTIFICATE. · For additional program information: http://slis.wayne.edu/certificates/archival-administration.php Classification://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/cipdetail.aspx?y=55&cipid=89431 STANDARDIZED OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION (SOC) CODES · 25-4013.00 Museum Technicians
GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Cinabro, David
GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GRADUATE CERTIFICATE information: http://slis.wayne.edu/certificates/information-management.php Classification of Instructional://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/cipdetail.aspx?y=55&cipid=89431 STANDARDIZED OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION (SOC) CODES · 11-9199.07 Security Managers
PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost
Danforth, Bryan Nicholas
PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost by the ConstruCtion of Keystone XL a rePort by Corne, and Induced) Jobs from Keystone XL 26 KXL Will Have Minor Impact on Unemployment Levels 27 Four Ways Keystone to the Keystone XL budget and expenditures, steel sourcing, and the costs of environmental damage. #12;Corne
A Guide for International PhD Gain a Doctorate
Schüler, Axel
A Guide for International PhD Candidates Gain a Doctorate in Leipzig internationalCentre|AAA 1 #12;Contents page Why choose the Universität Leipzig for my PhD? 3 Application and Admission 4 Which PhD programme is right for me? 4 5 steps to a PhD 5 Research Academy Leipzig 8 Internationale
Accepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow
Mench, Matthew M.
) are a potentially enabling technology for intermittent, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power [1, for most stationary power uses, the #12;Page 3 of 18 Accepted M anuscript energy density per seAccepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through
Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients
Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)
Is the Gini coefficient a stable measure of galaxy structure?
Thorsten Lisker
2008-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
The Gini coefficient, a non-parametric measure of galaxy morphology, has recently taken up an important role in the automated identification of galaxy mergers. I present a critical assessment of its stability, based on a comparison of HST/ACS imaging data from the GOODS and UDF surveys. Below a certain signal-to-noise level, the Gini coefficient depends strongly on the signal-to-noise ratio, and thus becomes useless for distinguishing different galaxy morphologies. Moreover, at all signal-to-noise levels the Gini coefficient shows a strong dependence on the choice of aperture within which it is measured. Consequently, quantitative selection criteria involving the Gini coefficient, such as a selection of merger candidates, cannot always be straightforwardly applied to different datasets. I discuss whether these effects could have affected previous studies that were based on the Gini coefficient, and establish signal-to-noise limits above which measured Gini values can be considered reliable.
U-178: VMware vMA Library Loading Error Lets Local Users Gain...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Buffer Overflow and Null Pointer Dereference Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated Privileges...
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Khalifah, Peter [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles ?D of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles ?D of 0°more »to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less
Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem
Smirnov, Oleg
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as StefCal and peeling can be understood...
Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation via incoherent pump field
M. Mahmoudi; S. Worya Rabiei; L. Safari; M. Sahrai
2008-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the dispersion and the absorption properties of a weak probe field in a three-level Lambda-type atomic system. We use just an incoherent field for controlling the group velocity of light. It is shown that the slope of dispersion changes from positive to negative just with changing the intensity of the indirect incoherent pumping field. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation appears in this system. No laser field is used in the pumping processes.
Work and energy gain of heat-pumped quantized amplifiers
David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Robert Alicki; Gershon Kurizki
2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate heat-pumped single-mode amplifiers of quantized fields in high-Q cavities based on non-inverted two-level systems. Their power generation is shown to crucially depend on the capacity of the quantum state of the field to accumulate useful work. By contrast, the energy gain of the field is shown to be insensitive to its quantum state. Analogies and differences with masers are explored.
High gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification
Jovanovic, Igor; Bonner, Randal A.
2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A high-gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification. A first nonlinear crystal is operatively connected to a second nonlinear crystal. A first beam relay telescope is operatively connected to a second beam relay telescope, to the first nonlinear crystal, and to the second nonlinear crystal. A first harmonic beamsplitter is operatively connected to a second harmonic beamsplitter, to the first nonlinear crystal, to the second nonlinear crystal, to the first beam relay telescope, and to the second beam relay telescope.
apparent diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
4 sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size Yeh and Hummer, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15873 (2004) to obtain the size-independent...
apparent diffusion coefficients: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
4 sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size Yeh and Hummer, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15873 (2004) to obtain the size-independent...
On the friction coefficient of straight-chain aggregates
Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos
2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
A methodology to calculate the friction coefficient of an aggregate in the continuum regime is proposed. The friction coefficient and the monomer shielding factors, aggregate-average or individual, are related to the molecule-aggregate collision rate that is obtained from the molecular diffusion equation with an absorbing boundary condition on the aggregate surface. Calculated friction coefficients of straight chains are in very good agreement with previous results, suggesting that the friction coefficients may be accurately calculated from the product of the collision rate and an average momentum transfer,the latter being independent of aggregate morphology. Langevin-dynamics simulations show that the diffusive motion of straight-chain aggregates may be described either by a monomer-dependent or an aggregate-average random force, if the shielding factors are appropriately chosen.
Use of structure coefficients in published reports of regression analysis
Courville, Troy Gerard
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for the multiplicative weights can no longer be used alone in formulating interpretations. Although many techniques have been suggested to help in these situations, structure coefficients, or the correlations between predictor variables and the synthetic variable...
Measurements of molecular and thermal diffusion coefficients in ternary mixtures
Firoozabadi, Abbas
of a polymer and a colloid in a water-ethanol solvent, treating the ternary mixture as a pseudobinary; Gans et polymer in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. They reported a sign change in the Soret coefficient
activity coefficient model: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: Two non polarizable ones (SPCE with 3 sites, and TIP4P2005 with 4 sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, 4...
activity coefficient models: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: Two non polarizable ones (SPCE with 3 sites, and TIP4P2005 with 4 sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, 4...
ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT FOR RISK PROCESSES IN SOME DEPENDENT CONTEXTS
Maume-Deschamps, Véronique
ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT FOR RISK PROCESSES IN SOME DEPENDENT CONTEXTS H. COSSETTE, E. MARCEAU, AND V, ruin theory, non para- metric estimation, weak dependence. . 1 #12;2 H. COSSETTE, E. MARCEAU, AND V
ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT FOR RISK PROCESSES IN SOME DEPENDENT CONTEXTS
Boyer, Edmond
ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT FOR RISK PROCESSES IN SOME DEPENDENT CONTEXTS H. COSSETTE, E. MARCEAU, AND V" DOI : 10.1007/s11009-010-9182-y #12;2 H. COSSETTE, E. MARCEAU, AND V. MAUME-DESCHAMPS with UTu = u
attenuation coefficient determination: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
The emissivity-reduction coefficient ranges from about 0.44 to 1.00 within the umbra and 0.29 to 0.72 in the sunspot, and accounts for only abo... Ilonidis, Stathis;...
Estimation of Random-Coefficient Demand Models: Two Empiricists' Perspective
Metaxoglou, Konstantinos
We document the numerical challenges we experienced estimating random-coefficient demand models as in Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) using two well-known data sets and a thorough optimization design. The optimization ...
A dynamic model for the Lagrangian stochastic dispersion coefficient
Pesmazoglou, I.; Navarro-Martinez, S., E-mail: s.navarro@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kempf, A. M. [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics and Center for Computational Sciences and Simulation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, 47048 (Germany)] [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics and Center for Computational Sciences and Simulation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, 47048 (Germany)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
A stochastic sub-grid model is often used to accurately represent particle dispersion in turbulent flows using large eddy simulations. Models of this type have a free parameter, the dispersion coefficient, which is not universal and is strongly grid-dependent. In the present paper, a dynamic model for the evaluation of the coefficient is proposed and validated in decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The grid dependence of the static coefficient is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer and compared to the dynamic model. The dynamic model accurately predicts dispersion statistics and resolves the grid-dependence. Dispersion statistics of the dynamically calculated constant are more accurate than any static coefficient choice for a number of grid spacings. Furthermore, the dynamic model produces less numerical artefacts than a static model and exhibits smaller sensitivity in the results predicted for different particle relaxation times.
Intra-cavity gain shaping of mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser oscillations
Yefet, Shai; Pe'er, Avi
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The gain properties of an oscillator strongly affect its behavior. When the gain is homogeneous, different modes compete for gain resources in a `winner takes all' manner, whereas with inhomogeneous gain, modes can coexist if they utilize different gain resources. We demonstrate precise control over the mode competition in a mode locked Ti:sapphire oscillator by manipulation and spectral shaping of the gain properties, thus steering the competition towards a desired, otherwise inaccessible, oscillation. Specifically, by adding a small amount of spectrally shaped inhomogeneous gain to the standard homogeneous gain oscillator, we selectively enhance a desired two-color oscillation, which is inherently unstable to mode competition and could not exist in a purely homogeneous gain oscillator. By tuning the parameters of the additional inhomogeneous gain we flexibly control the center wavelengths, relative intensities and widths of the two colors.
Notes 14. Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients
San Andres, Luis
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An example of system parameter identification (Hybrid Brush Seal) Luis San Andr?s (lecturer) Thanks to Adolfo Delgado, Jos? Baker (RAs) & support from Siemens Power Generation MEEN 617 - April 2008 Structural parameters K shaft = 243 lbf/in (42...Notes 14. IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FORCE COEFFICIENTS. ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 1 Handout # 14 (MEEN 626) Application example Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients Experimental identification of the dynamic force...
Coefficient quantization effects in block state variable digital filters
Lee, Kab Joo
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
COEFFICIENT QUANTIZATION EFFECTS IN BLOCK STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis by KAB JOO LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering COEFFICIENT QIJANTIZATIOU EFFECTS IN l3LOCI~ STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis hs IiAB JOO LEE Approved as to style and content by: WVilliam G. )3liss (Chair of Comnaittee) Norman C...
Coefficient quantization effects in block state variable digital filters
Lee, Kab Joo
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
COEFFICIENT QUANTIZATION EFFECTS IN BLOCK STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis by KAB JOO LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering COEFFICIENT QIJANTIZATIOU EFFECTS IN l3LOCI~ STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis hs IiAB JOO LEE Approved as to style and content by: WVilliam G. )3liss (Chair of Comnaittee) Norman C...
Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients
Dan Wendt; Greg Mines
2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF data and discusses the next steps in the project evaluation of air-cooled condenser designs that can take advantage of the performance gains possible with these fluids.
FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS
Ratner, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Xiang, D.; Yocky, G.; Fawley, W. M.
2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
We present experimental studies of the gain length and saturation power level from 1.5 nm to 1.5 Angstroms at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). By disrupting theFEL process with an orbit kick, we are able to measure the X-ray intensity as a function of undulator length. This kick method is cross-checked with the method of removing undulator sections. We also study the FEL-induced electron energy loss after saturation to determine the optimal taper of the undulator K values. The experimental results are compared to theory and simulations.
Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain
Mansuripur, Tobias S
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet Maxwell's equations admit only a convergent solution. By examining a Gaussian beam obliquely incident on such a cavity, we find that the "side-tail" of the beam leaks into the cavity and gives rise to a field that interferes with the main portion of the beam, which is ultimately responsible for the convergence of the field. This mechanism offers perspective for many phenomena, and we specifically discuss the implications for amplified total internal reflection.
Exact coefficients for higher dimensional operators with sixteen supersymmetries
Chen, Wei-Ming; Wen, Congkao
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider constraints on higher dimensional operators for supersymmetric effective field theories. In four dimensions with maximal supersymmetry and SU(4) R-symmetry, we demonstrate that the coefficients of abelian operators F^n with MHV helicity configurations must satisfy a recursion relation, and are completely determined by that of F^4. As the F^4 coefficient is known to be one-loop exact, this allows us to derive exact coefficients for all such operators. We also argue that the results are consistent with the SL(2,Z) duality symmetry. Breaking SU(4) to Sp(4), in anticipation for the Coulomb branch effective action, we again find an infinite class of operators whose coefficient that are determined exactly. We also consider three-dimensional N=8 as well as six-dimensional N=(2,0),(1,0) and (1,1) theories. In all cases, we demonstrate that the coefficient of dimension-six operator must be proportional to the square of that of dimension-four.
LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS
Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)] [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bergeron, P., E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: benstrickland@ou.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find {approx}10{sup 5} eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.
Energy-Production Coefficients of American Feeding Stuffs for Ruminants.
Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)
1925-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
digestible fat by 1.796; in grains or similar material contain- ing more than 5 per cent fat by 1.814; in oil meal and materials high in protein by 1.966-2.177; and subtracting a variable quantity. The quant~ty subtracted is secured by multiplying... of digestibility of ether extract in feeds (oil bearing) containing over 5 per cent fat by 2.586 (A). I\\.lultiply the coefficient of digestibility of ether extract containing less than 5 per cent fat by 2.273 (B). Multiply the coefficient of digestibility...
Wave force coefficient correlation based on wake volume scaling
Horton, T.E.; Feifarek, M.J.; Golestanian, H. (Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States). School of Engineering)
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A correlation of the hydrodynamic drag force on a cylinder for a periodic motion is demonstrated. The correlation indicates the dependence of the unsteady flow drag coefficient on the wake volume parameter. This parameter is a measure of the volume of flow through the boundary layer and into the wake in a half-cycle. For a laminar boundary layer, this dimensionless parameter is proportional to the Keulegan-Carpenter number and inversely proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number. Using wake volume scaling, drag coefficients were effectively collapsed into a single curve.
Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients
Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan
2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.
Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models
Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.
Exact and variational solutions of 3D Eigenmodes in high gain Free Electron Lasers
Xie, M.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Motz, Undulators and Free-Electron Lasers, (Clarendon Press,in High . Gain Free Electron Lasers MingXie Accelerator andin High Gain Free Electron Lasers Ming Xie Accelerator and
FEL Gain Taking into Account Diffraction and Electron Beam Emittance; Generalized Madey's Theorem
Kim, K.-J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
be published in the Proceedings FEL Gain Taking into AccountLBL--30628 DE92 002262 FEL Gain Taking into Accountfunction SF contains the FEL dynamics, and will be regarded
T-591: VMware vmrun Utility Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
1: VMware vmrun Utility Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-591: VMware vmrun Utility Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 30, 2011 - 3:05pm Addthis PROBLEM: A...
GINI COEFFICIENTS, SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS, AND MARKOV CHAINS: QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR ANA-
GINI COEFFICIENTS, SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS, AND MARKOV CHAINS: QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR ANA- LYZING Management Project No.: 538 Title of Project: Gini Coefficients, social network analysis and Markov Chains
Relative Gain Monitoring of the GlueX Calorimeters
Anassontzis, Efstratios G. [JLAB/National and Kapodestrian University of Athens (Greece); Ioannou, P. [National and Kapodestrian University of Athens (Greece); Kourkoumelis, C. [National and Kapodestrian University of Athens (Greece); Vasileiadis, G. [National and Kapodestrian University of Athens (Greece); Voulgaris, G. [National and Kapodestrian University of Athens (Greece); Kappos, E. [Symmetron Electronic Applications, Gerakas (Greece); Beattie, T. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Krueger, S. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lolos, G. J. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Papandreou, Z. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Semenov, A. Yu. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Frye, John M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Leckey, John P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Shepherd, Matt [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Bogart, T. [JLAB/CNU, Newport News, VA (United States); Lawrence, David W. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Elton S. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The relative gain of the photodetectors for the GlueX Barrel and Forward calorimeters will be monitored using modular LED driver systems. The BCAL system consists of a global controller that feeds power, bias voltage and trigger signals to 96 local controllers situated at the ends of the 48 BCAL modules, which drive 40 LEDs associated with the 40 light guides at the end of each module. The FCAL system consists also of a global controller, a local controller for each acrylic quadrant covering the face of the FCAL, and ten 4-LED pulser boards per local controller connected in a star configuration along the edges of the acrylic panes. The respective systems are currently being installed on the detectors and their tested performance is presented herein.
Investigation of spectrally broad gain multiple-width quantum well material for colliding pulse
and MWQW devices, are shown in Fig. 1. At zero net modal gain, confined material gain is equal just below 1:5 kA cmÀ2 ; the net modal gain contribution is zero at 1560 nm, corresponding contributed to the zero net modal gain before the narrow wells at a current density of 23 kA cmÀ2 : The 6
Tang, Linlong [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China); Du, Jinglei, E-mail: dujl@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Shi, Haofei, E-mail: shi@cigit.ac.cn; Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei, E-mail: cldu@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.
Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of hydrogen electrodes related to the
Kjelstrup, Signe
Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of hydrogen electrodes related to the PEMFC Papy Zefaniya Chemical and Technology #12;#12;Thermopower of concentration cell with hydrogen electrodes related to PEMFC Papy Mutuwa and learn more thermal effects and the fuel cells. In deed, fuel cell were the best candidate to learn more
Adaptive Calculation of Variable Coefficients Elliptic Differential Equations via Wavelets
Averbuch, Amir
Description Generating a "good" discrete representation for continuous operators is one of the basic problemsAdaptive Calculation of Variable Coefficients Elliptic Differential Equations via Wavelets Amir rather than in the original physical space can speed up the performance of the sparse solver by a factor
On signal reconstruction from absolute value of frame coefficients
Casazza, Pete
Edidinb a Siemens Corporate Research, 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540; b Department transformation from the initial Hilbert space to the space of coefficients obtained by taking the inner product frames, Further author information: Send correspondence to Radu Balan Radu Balan: E-mail: radu.balan@siemens
IDENTIFICATION OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS USING FREE
Johansen, Tor Arne
been an ever increasing num- ber of applications for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) in variousIDENTIFICATION OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS USING FREE DECAY TESTS Andrew Ross the potential accuracy of these new methods. Copyright c 2004 IFAC. Keywords: Low-speed underwater vehicles
Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Sensible heat models
Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Research and Development Dept.
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Transient models for sensible heat were developed to assess the thermal performance of agitated vessels with coils and jackets. Performance is quantified with the computation of heat-transfer coefficients by introducing vessel heating and cooling data into model equations. Of the two model categories studied, differential and macroscopic, the latter is preferred due to mathematical simplicity and lower sensitivity to experimental data variability.
Evaluating transport coefficients in real time thermal field theory
S. Mallik; Sourav Sarkar
2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
Transport coefficients in a hadronic gas have been calculated earlier in the imaginary time formulation of thermal field theory. The steps involved are to relate the defining retarded correlation function to the corresponding time-ordered one and to evaluate the latter in the conventional perturbation expansion. Here we carry out both the steps in the real time formulation.
Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different
Yu, K.N.
Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different Ambient Environments K . N . Y Inhaled progeny of 222Rn (radon progeny) are the most important source of irradiation of the human-, urban-, and marine-influenced aerosols. The ASDs of attached radon progeny for all three studied ambient
Lifshitz tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient
W. Kirsch; M. Krishna
2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we consider the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points corresponding to the internal band edges of the density of states.
Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140
Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)
Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation and cerium ion doping
Wang, Dong-Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Song, Sheng-Chi; Guo, Wen-Ping; Lu, Ming, E-mail: minglu55@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, and Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Jia-Rong [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, and Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); School of Information Engineering, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang 550025 (China)
2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
We report optical gain enhancements in Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) via hydrogenation and Ce{sup 3+} ion doping. Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3?W/cm{sup 2} pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after hydrogenation and/or Ce{sup 3+} ion doping; gains after loss corrections were between 89.52 and 341.95?cm{sup ?1}; and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime was found to decrease with the increasing gain enhancement. At 0.04?W/cm{sup 2} power density, however, no net gain was found and the PL lifetime increased with the increasing PL enhancement. The results were discussed according to stimulated and spontaneous excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of Si-NCs.
Fedkiw, Peter
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Calculations for the Asymptotic, Diffusion Dominated Mass-Transfer Coefficient in Packed Bed Reactors
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor
10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor
2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John
10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor
1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm
GAiN: Distributed Array Computation with Python
Daily, Jeffrey A.
2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Scientific computing makes use of very large, multidimensional numerical arrays - typically, gigabytes to terabytes in size - much larger than can fit on even the largest single compute node. Such arrays must be distributed across a "cluster" of nodes. Global Arrays is a cluster-based software system from Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that enables an efficient, portable, and parallel shared-memory programming interface to manipulate these arrays. Written in and for the C and FORTRAN programming languages, it takes advantage of high-performance cluster interconnections to allow any node in the cluster to access data on any other node very rapidly. The "numpy" module is the de facto standard for numerical calculation in the Python programming language, a language whose use is growing rapidly in the scientific and engineering communities. numpy provides a powerful N-dimensional array class as well as other scientific computing capabilities. However, like the majority of the core Python modules, numpy is inherently serial. Our system, GAiN (Global Arrays in NumPy), is a parallel extension to Python that accesses Global Arrays through numpy. This allows parallel processing and/or larger problem sizes to be harnessed almost transparently within new or existing numpy programs.
The Elusive Coefficients of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502
C.B. Skidmore; T.A. Butler; C.W. Sandoval
2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
PBX 9502 has been in war reserve service for over two decades. Ninety-five percent of the solid phase of this insensitive high explosive is composed of energetic crystallites designated as TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), held together by the remaining solid fraction--an inert, polymeric binder named Kel-F 800. The unusual combination of extreme insensitivity and adequate performance characteristics is not the only enigmatic feature of such TATB-based materials. In this report, we describe the difficulty and progress to date in reliably determining the coefficients of thermal expansion for consolidated components of PBX 9502. We provide bulk linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values for PBX 9502 consolidated to a density of approximately 1.890 g/cm{sup 3} and offer a simple set of equations for calculating dimensional changes for temperatures from 218 to 347 K (-55 C to 74 C).
Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals
Sutton, M
2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, K{sub d} is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log K{sub D}). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log K{sub d} values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide K{sub d} values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each element of interest in Table 3.
Coefficient ? as a growth analysis parameter for wheat
Ledent, Jean-Francois
1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
). In a second article, Myer. , cough and Whitehead (1967), staLed that their coeffic ien' n was calculated by taking a ratio of the mean relative rates calculated each time on the interval from the initial harvest to each successive harvest... (Woodger, 1937; Rashevsky, 1960) are still purely theoretical, im- practical ways of progressing; and the simpler allometry method is better for the practical biologist. If in the definition of coefficient a by Whitehead and Myers- cough...
The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient
Amad, Mohamad Towfic
1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
" ? By Winkler Method 32 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 33 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C Using Distilled Water With "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 34 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C... Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 35 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water With "Aquasave" ? By D. O. Meter 37 10. Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water Without "Aquasave" ? By D. 0...
Broadband tunability of gain-flattened quantum well semiconductor lasers with an external grating
Mittelstein, M.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.; Ungar, J.E.; Sarfaty, R.
1989-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum well lasers are shown to exhibit flattened broadband gain spectra at a particular pumping condition. The gain requirement for a grating-tuned external cavity configuration is examined and applied to a semiconductor quantum well laser with an optimized length of gain region. The predicted very broadband tunability of quantum well lasers is confirmed experimentally by grating-tuning of uncoated lasers over 85 nm, with single longitudinal mode output power exceeding 200 mW.
antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain: Topics by E-print...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Notional Defined Contributions Accounts (NDCs) Actuarial Teachers' and Researchers' Conference Oxford 14-15th July 2011 by 12;Motivation of this paper Inheritance Gains in...
Post-Genomics Nanotechnology Is Gaining Momentum: Nanoproteomics and Applications in Life Sciences
Tan, Weihong
Post-Genomics Nanotechnology Is Gaining Momentum: Nanoproteomics and Applications in Life Sciences of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots
Towards flavour diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity without ultraviolet contamination
Y. Burnier; M. Laine
2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z
By subtracting from a recent lattice measurement of the thermal vector-current correlator the known 5-loop vacuum contribution, we demonstrate that the remainder is small and shows no visible short-distance divergence. It can therefore in principle be subjected to model-independent analytic continuation. Testing a particular implementation, we obtain estimates for the flavour-diffusion coefficient (2 pi T D \\gsim 0.8) and electrical conductivity which are significantly smaller than previous results. Although systematic errors remain beyond control at present, some aspects of our approach could be of a wider applicability.
Reactive sticking coefficients for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon
Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.
1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition-rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low-pressure cold-wall reactor. The RSCs have nonlinear Arrhenius temperature dependencies and decrease with increasing flux at low (710 /sup 0/C) temperatures. Several simple models are proposed to explain these observations. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition-rate measurements.
ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 FederalTransformers1 DIRECTORJoetheDose CoeffiCients
Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures
Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Murphy, Anthony B. [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30?000?K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.
Zhu, Qingyu; Moggridge, Geoff D.; D’Agostino, Carmine
2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
conventional techniques (e.g. Van Geet and Adamson, 1964). However, none of these efforts is able to give a full description of the temperature and composition dependence of mutual diffusion coefficients for a range of non-ideal liquid mixture. In particular... . Farad. Soc., 45, 801-818. Hwang, S.C., Robinson, R.L., 1977. Vapor–Liquid equilibriums at 25 oC for nine alcohol- hydrocarbon binary systems. J. Chem. Eng. Data 22,319–325. 24 Johnson, P.A., Babb, A.L., 1956. Self-diffusion in liquids. I...
Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns
Tow, Emily W.
High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, ...
Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for
Yu, K.N.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327Â340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients; Dose conversion coefficients; Scaling factors; Radon progeny 1. Introduction Epidemiological studies cancer associated with exposure to radon progeny (Lubin, 1988). More recently, Lubin et al (1994
Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water
Firoozabadi, Abbas
Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! DevelopmentStudiesImmersionProgram ACICIS
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! DevelopmentStudiesImmersionProgram ACICIS an internship in Indonesia! Â© Photograph by James Walsh #12;w w w . a c i c i s . m u r d o c h . e d u . a u development issues in Indonesia while also gaining im- portant practical skills related to advocacy
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! Unleash your creativity...
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! Unleash your creativity... Spend a semester at Indonesia's premiere institution for visual and performing arts... StudytheArtsinIndonesia Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! ACICIS #12;w w w . a c i c i s . m u r d o c h . e d u . a u
Sensor Management using Discrimination Gain and Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters
1 Sensor Management using Discrimination Gain and Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters Wayne multitarget tracking applications. The algorithm uses Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters to track discrimination gain can be computed in Kalman filter based tracking systems, recall that Kalman filters maintain
Coat Color and Solar Heat Gain in Animals Author(s): Glenn E. Walsberg
Cavitt, John F.
when exposed to solar radiation than do light surfaces. For ani- mals such as birds or mammalsCoat Color and Solar Heat Gain in Animals Author(s): Glenn E. Walsberg Source: BioScience, Vol. 33://www.jstor.org #12;Coat Color and Solar Heat Gain in Animals Glenn E. Walsberg The relationbetween coat color
Optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge-on-Si at room temperature
Liu, Jifeng
We report direct band gap optical gain of tensile strained n+ epitaxial Ge-on-Si at room temperature, which confirms that band-engineered Ge-on-Si is a promising gain medium for monolithic optical amplifiers and lasers on Si.
PPPL-3457 PPPL-3457 Broadening and Shifting of the Methanol 119 m Gain Line
PPPL-3457 PPPL-3457 UC-70 Broadening and Shifting of the Methanol 119 µm Gain Line of Linear and Shifting of the Methanol 119 mm Gain Line of Linear and Circular Polarization by Collision with Chiral handedness of a circularly polarized probe. The broadening of the 119 mm line of the methanol molecule
Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1
Johansen, Tor Arne
Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1 , Kenneth J. Hunt2 and Idar Petersen to a pilot-scale solar power plant is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto. Solar power plant, nonlinear control, gain scheduling, system identi cation. 1 Introduction
Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain
Benz, R,; Staedter, M.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter... Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 6-9, 2008. M. Staedter, R. Benz / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess...
A low power, high dynamic-range, broadband variable gain amplifier for an ultra wideband receiver
Chen, Lin
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
is designed for high frequency and low power communication applications, such as an Ultra Wideband (UWB) receiver system. The gain can be programmed from 0dB to 42dB in 2dB increments with -3dB bandwidth greater than 425MHz for the entire range of gain. The 3...
PRODUCTIVITY GAINS IN U.S. FISHERIES . FREDERICK W. BELL AND RICHARD K. KINOSHITA I
PRODUCTIVITY GAINS IN U.S. FISHERIES . FREDERICK W. BELL AND RICHARD K. KINOSHITA I ABSTRACT Changes in productivity or annual landings per fisherman help to determine the economic welfare of the fishing industry. Although a study of productivity gains in various U.S. fishing fleets over the last 20
A low power, high dynamic-range, broadband variable gain amplifier for an ultra wideband receiver
Chen, Lin
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
gain steps. The gain control scheme includes fine tuning (2dB/step) by changing the bias voltage of the proposed programmable current mirror, and coarse tuning (14dB/step) by switching on/off the source degeneration resistors in the differential pairs...
HIGH GAIN FEL AMPLIFICATION OF CHARGE MODULATION CAUSED BY A HADRON *
HIGH GAIN FEL AMPLIFICATION OF CHARGE MODULATION CAUSED BY A HADRON * Vladimir N. Litvinenko in a high gain FEL. The resulting amplified modulation of electron beam, its shape, form and its lethargy]). We also discuss the influence of the electron beam parameters on the FEL response. INTRODUCTION
THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION
Boyer, Edmond
of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel power plant has been investigated and fuel gain for isochoric model in this method is calculated. We have shown the effects of different physical parameters of inertial fusion on fuel gain and optimized
Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics
Shamma, Jeff S.
, into the mechanical energy acting on the turbine and generator. The steam generated in the boiler system servesGain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller
The relationship of the distribution coefficient to surface area for microcline and albite feldspars
Maxwell, John Reed
1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and coarse and fine microcline upon the sodium concentration . Dependence of the distribution coefficient, Kd, for strontium and coarse and fine microcline upon the potassium concentration 12 Dependence of the distribution coefficient, Kd, for strontium... and coarse and fine microcline upon the calcium concentration Dependence of the distribution coefficient, Kd, for strontium and microcline upon the strontium The relationship between the distribution coefficient, Kd, and strontium and microcline per cm...
Spin-dependent thermoelectric transport coefficients in near perfect quantum wires A. Ramsak,1,2
Ramsak, Anton
Spin-dependent thermoelectric transport coefficients in near perfect quantum wires T. Rejec,1 A 2002 Thermoelectric transport coefficients are determined for semiconductor quantum wires with weak in thermoelectric coefficients are also found in standard strongly correlated systems: the Anderson model,6
FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN
Gan, Wee Teck
FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN Abstract. We develop a theory of Fourier coefficients for modular forms on the split ex- ceptional group G2 on the group SL2(Z) is the wealth of information carried by the Fourier coefficients an(f), for n 0
Four-Button BPM Coefficients in Cylindrical and Elliptic Beam Chambers February 17, 1999
Kemner, Ken
Four-Button BPM Coefficients in Cylindrical and Elliptic Beam Chambers S. H. Kim February 17, 1999 Beam position monitor (BPM) coefficients are calculated from induced charges on four-button BPMs ring is different from an exact elliptic geometry, numerical values of the BPM coefficients
CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
Kandlikar, Satish
1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase
Fixed point of second virial coefficients in the glass transition
Jialin Wu
2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Classical thermodynamic theory still holds true in subsystem that is a percolation connected by 8 orders of self-similar 2-body-3-body coupling clusters. The fixed point, $B_2^* \\equiv 3/8$, for the clusters of different size, existing in reduced second Virial coefficients has been proved by scaling theory in percolation field. It is shown that, if $B_2^* \\equiv 3/8$ is combined with $B_3^* \\equiv 5/8$, the potentials of 2-body-3-body coupling clusters, in critical local cluster growth phase transition, balance the kinetic energy in the glass transition. It is also proved that the glass transition corresponds to the regime in which the chemical potentials in all subsystems hold zero.
Hydrodynamic transport coefficients in relativistic scalar field theory
Jeon, S. [Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Hydrodynamic transport coefficients may be evaluated from first principals in a weakly coupled scalar field theory at an arbitrary temperature. In a theory with cubic and quartic interactions, the infinite class of diagrams which contributes to the leading weak coupling behavior is identified and summed. The resulting expression may be reduced to a single linear integral equation, which is shown to be identical to the corresponding result obtained from a linearized Boltzmann equation describing effective thermal excitations with temperature-dependent masses and scattering amplitudes. The effective Boltzmann equation is valid even at very high temperature where the thermal lifetime and mean free path are short compared to the Compton wavelength of the fundamental particles. Numerical results for the shear and the bulk viscosities are presented.
Boyer, Edmond
509 E.-H. HALL. 2014 On the « rotational Coefficient in nickel and cobalt » ( Coefficients de rotation du nickel et du cobalt); Philosophical Magazine, 5e série, t. XII. p. 157; 1881. E.-H. HALL. 2014 pour le fer, le nickel, l'argent, l'or, le cobalt, l'aluminium, le magnésium; l'effet est bien moindre
Analytical formula of Free Electron Laser exponential gain for non-resonant electron beam
Jia, Qika
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The FEL gain formulas for non-resonant case are studied. For the mono-energetic and non-resonant electron beam, the exact expression of the solution of the FEL characteristic cubic equation is obtained with a form much more simple than that in the literatures, and the gain length as the function of the detuning parameter is explicitly given, then the gain for different detuning parameter and from low to high can be easily calculated. A simplified approximation formula is also given for the exponential gain calculation in the non-resonant case. For the case of the electron beam with an energy spread, the solution of the characteristic cubic equation is given explicitly for rectangular energy distribution and Lorentz distribution, respectively. Moreover the explicit expression also can be used for the solution of the characteristic cubic equation including the impact of the space charge. The transition from the low gain to the high gain is analyzed. The variations of the gain bandwidth and of the detuning param...
Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B., E-mail: liubin@tsinghua.edu.cn [AML, CNMM, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.
Calibration of photomultipliers gain used in the J-PET detector
Bednarski, T; Moskal, P; Bia?as, P; Giergiel, K; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Molenda, M; Moskal, I; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Pawlik, M; Raczy?ski, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Szyma?ski, K; Wi?licki, W; Witkowski, P; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Photomultipliers are commonly used in commercial PET scanner as devices which convert light produced in scintillator by gamma quanta from positron-electron annihilation into electrical signal. For proper analysis of obtained electrical signal, a photomultiplier gain curve must be known, since gain can be significantly different even between photomultipliers of the same model. In this article we describe single photoelectron method used for photomultipliers calibration applied for J-PET scanner, a novel PET detector being developed at the Jagiellonian University. Description of calibration method, an example of calibration curve and gain of few R4998 Hamamatsu photomultipliers are presented.
Analysis of gain margins and phase margins of a nonlinear reactor control system
Chang, C.H.; Chang, M.K. (Chung Cheng Inst. of Technology, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan, Province of China))
1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
By using the gain-phase margin tester, the parameter-plane method for the nonlinear control system is extended to frequency-domain related to gain margin and phase margin. The stability and self-excited oscillation are investigated with respect to the adjustable parameters. The useful information concerning the effect of adjustable parameters can be obtained, after the describing function curves and the boundaries of constant gain margin and constant phase margin are plotted in the parameter plane. Some interesting consequences are offered by employing the practical control system of a material testing reactor.
Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of sulfur hexafluoride in water
King. D.B.; Saltzman, E.S. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)
1995-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Sulfur hexafluoride has been widely used in field studies and laboratory experiments to develop a relationship between gas transfer and wind speed. The interpretation of the data from such studies requires the diffusion coefficient of SF{sub 6} (D{sub SF6}), which has not previously been measured. In this study, D{sub SF6} has been determined in pure water and in 35%NaCl over a temperature range of 5-25{degrees}C. The measurements were made using a continuous-flow diffusion cell where SF{sub 6} flows beneath an agar gel membrane while helium flows above the gel. The experimental data for pure water yielded the following equation: D{sub SF6}=0.029 exp ({minus}19.3/RT, where R is the gas constant and T is temperature in kelvins). Measurements of D{sub SF6} in 35% NaCl were not significantly different from the pure water values. On the basis of this data, the authors estimate the Schmidt numbers for seawater over the temperature range 5-25{degrees}C to be Sc=3016.1{minus}172.00t+4.4996t{sup 2}{minus}0.047965t{sup 3}, where t is temperature in degrees Celsius. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SIGNATURES IN HELIOSEISMIC SPLITTING COEFFICIENTS
Baldner, Charles S.; Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT, 06520-8101 (United States); Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Larson, Timothy P., E-mail: charles.baldner@yale.ed [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)
2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
Normal modes of oscillation of the Sun are useful probes of the solar interior. In this work, we use the even-order splitting coefficients to study the evolution of magnetic fields in the convection zone over solar cycle 23, assuming that the frequency splitting is only due to rotation and a large-scale magnetic field. We find that the data are best fit by a combination of a poloidal field and a double-peaked near-surface toroidal field. The toroidal fields are centered at r {sub 0} = 0.999 R {sub sun} and r = 0.996 R {sub sun} and are confined to the near-surface layers. The poloidal field is a dipole field. The peak strength of the poloidal field is 124 +- 17 G. The toroidal field peaks at 380 +- 30 G and 1.4 +- 0.2 kG for the shallower and deeper fields, respectively. The field strengths are highly correlated with surface activity. The toroidal field strength shows a hysteresis-like effect when compared to the global 10.7 cm radio flux. The poloidal field strength shows evidence of saturation at high activity.
Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping, E-mail: cesclp@mail.sysu.edu.cn [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Feng, Huajie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)
2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ?}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (?{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ? 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ? 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.
U-142: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain Access...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Unspecified Flaw Lets Remote Users Gain Access U-212: RSA Authentication Manager Flaws Permit Cross-Site and Cross-Frame Scripting and URL Redirection Attacks U-026: Cisco Small...
High gain proportional rf control stability at TESLA cavities Elmar Vogel
High gain proportional rf control stability at TESLA cavities Elmar Vogel Deutsches Elektronen) based on TESLA technology. Additional control loops improve the field regulation by treating repetitive loops is desirable for the strong suppression of nonpredictive and nonrepetitive disturbances. TESLA
Complexity within the Air Force acquisition system gaining insight from a theory of collapse
Marticello, Daniel Nicholas, Jr
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Joseph Tainter's theory of societal collapse is applied in an examination of the U.S. Air Force's aircraft acquisition system in order to gain insight into the enterprise's lagging performance. Theories of collapse at both ...
Spatial Interference Mitigation for Multiple Input Multiple Output Ad Hoc Networks: MISO Gains
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Spatial Interference Mitigation for Multiple Input Multiple Output Ad Hoc Networks: MISO Gains beamforming for a multiple input single output (MISO) ad hoc network to increase the density of successful
Spend a semester in Indonesia to gain linguistic and classroom competence!
Spend a semester in Indonesia to gain linguistic and classroom competence! Study in Indonesia institu- tions throughout Indonesia since 1994, offering a range of study options and in-country support
Optical gain and lasing from band-engineered Ge-on-Si at room temperature
Liu, Jifeng
We present theoretical modeling and experimental results of optical gain and lasing from tensile-strained, n[superscript +] Ge-on-Si at room temperature. Compatible with silicon CMOS, these devices are ideal for large-scale ...
Single-Polarization Cladding-Pumped Optical Amplifier Without Polarization-Maintaining Gain Fiber
Yarnall, Timothy M.
We demonstrate a single-polarization cladding-pumped Er : Yb optical amplifier using a dual-pass design with a Faraday rotator mirror and nonpolarization-maintaining gain fiber. Over a 25-nm range centered at 1562 nm, the ...
DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture and Storage Knowledge
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Future leaders and innovators in the area of carbon capture and storage can gain a unique and intensive tutorial on the subject by participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration program.
Chang, C.H. (Institute of Electronics, National Chiao-Tung Univ. (TW)); Han, K.W. (Chung-Shan Institute and National Chiao-Tung Univ., Hsinchu (TW))
1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper a method for finding the boundaries of constant gain margin and phase margin of control systems with transport lags and adjustable parameters is presented. The considered systems are first modified by adding a gain-phase margin tester, then the characteristic equations are formulated, and finally the stability equations are used to find the boundaries of constant gain margin and phase margin. The main advantage of the proposed method is to obtain complete information about the effects of adjustable parameters on gain margin and phase margin and their corresponding crossover frequencies. In order to show the usefulness of the proposed method a nuclear reactor control system with multiple transport lags is chosen as one of the examples.
Controlled fundamental supermode operation of phase-locked arrays of gain-guided diode lasers
Kapon, E.; Katz, J.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.
1984-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Uniform semiconductor laser arrays tend to oscillate in a superposition of their supermodes, thus leading to large beam divergence and spectral spread. Discrimination among the supermodes in phase-locked arrays is discussed theoretically. It is shown that supermode discrimination in gain-guided arrays, in favor of the fundamental supermode, is made possible by the near-field interference patterns which result from the complex optical fields of the gain-guided lasers. A fundamental supermode operation is demonstrated, for the first time, in GaAlAs/GaAs gain-guided laser arrays. This is achieved by control of the current (gain) profile across the array by means of individual laser contacts.
Large inherent optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge thin films
Wang, Xiaoxin
The recent demonstration of Ge-on-Si diode lasers renews the interest in the unique carrier dynamics of Ge involving both direct (?) and indirect (L) valleys. Here, we report a large inherent direct gap optical gain ...
High-Gain Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Laser at Saturation
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Gain Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Laser at Saturation T. Shaftan 1 , M. Babzien 1 , I. Ben-Zvi 1 , S. G. Biedron 2 , L. F. DiMauro 1 , A. Doyuran 1 , J.N. Galayda 2 , E....
High Gain Transformerless DC-DC Converters for Renewable Energy Sources
Denniston, Nicholas Aaron
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
Renewable energy sources including photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, and wind turbines require converters with high voltage gain in order to interface with power transmission and distribution networks. These conversions are conventionally made using...
Invariant Visual Responses From Attentional Gain Fields EMILIO SALINAS AND L. F. ABBOTT
Columbia University
Invariant Visual Responses From Attentional Gain Fields EMILIO SALINAS AND L. F. ABBOTT Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254-9110 Salinas, Emilio and L
U-112: PostgreSQL Bugs Let Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
PostgreSQL. PLATFORM: Version(s): prior to 8.3.18, 8.4.11, 9.0.7, 9.1.3 ABSTRACT: A remote authenticated user can gain elevated privileges. A remote authenticated user can inject...
The impact of personal gains and losses on social identification processes
Iuzzini, Jonathan Lawrence
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis integrates a number of social ge Micrographics. psychological principles to study individual-level benefit (gain) and discrimination (loss) in a group setting. Using a variation of the minimal group paradigm, participants were assigned...
Oscillator Seeding of a High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL in a Radiator-First Configuration
Gandhi, P.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Proceedings of the 2010 FEL Conference, Malm¨o, Sweden,Proceedings of the 2010 FEL Conference, Malm¨o, Sweden,of a high gain harmonic generation FEL in a radiator-first
Fin Rudder Roll Stabilisation of Ships: a Gain Scheduling Control Methodology
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
as possible, and is based on industrial data. A methodology is proposed, which leads to a gain scheduled at showing that a ship in a seaway can be modelled as a linear parameterically varying system. H. Tanguy
Fundamental lateral mode oscillation via gain tailoring in broad area semiconductor lasers
Lindsey, C.; Derry, P.; Yariv, A.
1985-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We show that by employing gain tailoring in a broad area semiconductor laser we achieve fundamental lateral mode operation with a diffraction-limited single-lobed far-field pattern. We demonstrate a tailored gain broad area laser 60 ..mu..m wide which emits 450 mW per mirror into a stable, single-lobed far-field pattern 3 1/2/sup 0/ wide at 5.3 I/sub th/.
Lipton, Robert, E-mail: lipton@math.lsu.edu; Polizzi, Anthony, E-mail: polizzi@math.lsu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4918 (United States)
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.
A circuit for gain measurement of frequency referenced digitally self tuned filters
Cook, Robert Wake
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A CIRCUIT FOR GAIN MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY REFERENCED DIGITALLY SELF TUNED FILTERS A Thesis by ROBERT WAKE COOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering A CIRCUIT FOR GAIN MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY REFERENCED DIGITALLY SELF TUNED FILTERS A Thesis bv ROl3ERT WAKE COOK Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Randal! L. Geiger (Chairman...
Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser
Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA)
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and/or parasitic oscillation modes in a laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing material arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE, parasitic oscillation modes and/or residual pump energy can be effectively suppressed.
Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser
Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA)
2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.
A circuit for gain measurement of frequency referenced digitally self tuned filters
Cook, Robert Wake
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A CIRCUIT FOR GAIN MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY REFERENCED DIGITALLY SELF TUNED FILTERS A Thesis by ROBERT WAKE COOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering A CIRCUIT FOR GAIN MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY REFERENCED DIGITALLY SELF TUNED FILTERS A Thesis bv ROl3ERT WAKE COOK Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Randal! L. Geiger (Chairman...
Effects of finite gain-bandwidth products on switched capacitor filters
Marciano, Frederic D.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. 'vlav 198o Major Subject: Electrical Engineering EFFECTS OF FINITE GAIN-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS ON SWITCHED CAPACITOR FILTERS A Thesis by FREDERIC D. MARCIANO Approved as to style and content by: o re E. Sanchez-Sinencio (Chairman of Committee... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. Sanchez-Sinencio A methodology for the systematic study of the effects of finite gain-bandwidth products on switched capacitor filters is presented. The algorithms are established for a general structure comprising...
Gain measurements at 182 /angstrom/ in C VI generated by a Nd/glass laser
Kim, D.; Skinner, C.H.; Umesh, G.; Suckewer, S.
1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present recent gain measurements in C VI at 182 A for a soft x-ray amplifier produced by a line-focused glass laser(1.053 ..mu..m) on a solid carbon target. The maximum gain measured was 8 +- 1 cm/sup /minus/1/ in the recombining plasma column with additional radiation cooling by iron impurities. 10 refs., 3 figs.
Chin, Y.-H.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Calculation of 3-D Free Electron Laser Gain: Comparison withInternational Free Electron Laser Conference, Kobe, Japan,relation for the free electron laser (FEL) gain in the
Chin, Y.H.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for a quick estimate of the FEL parameters which minimizefor the Optimization of the FEL Gain Length Including thet h e Optimization o f the FEL Gain Length Including t h e
Na, Uhn Joo
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE Page 38 SFD coefficients from test 26- 181 39 SFD coefficients from test 22- 182 40 SFD coefficients from test 27- 183 41 SFD coefficients &om ntg 184 42 SFD coefficients from nt9 185 43 Damping coefficients of open... It psi Ibm Ibmin Ibm-in 0. 95 2. 25 2 0. 283 30. DE+6 12. DE+6 0. 000 0. 0 0. 0 0. 15 2. 25 1 0. 283 30. DE+6 12. DE+6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 546 1. 42 1 0. 283 30. DE+6 12. DE+6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 26 1. 42 0. 8 0. 283 30. DE+6 12. DE+6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0...
Nozato, Hideaki; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recycling coefficients of carbon, aluminum, and titanium were evaluated using a new technique combining impurity pellet injection with high-spatial resolution bremsstrahlung measurement in hydrogen and helium plasmas on the large helical device. The recycling coefficient of impurities was investigated by measuring absolute intensities with the visible bremsstrahlung array. The time evolution of the bremsstrahlung signals was modeled by an impurity transport code adjusting the diffusion coefficient, convective velocity, and recycling coefficient. As a result, a finite value of the recycling coefficient was required in the case of carbon, whereas aluminum and titanium were explained as nonrecycled particles. It was also clarified that the recycling coefficient of carbon had a larger value in hydrogen plasmas (R=0.5-0.65) than in helium plasmas (R=0-0.2), suggesting the formation of hydrogen molecules.
Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution
Jiulin, Du [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law ?-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law ?-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the ?-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter ??? they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.
Materials with a desired refraction coefficient can be made by embedding small particles
A. G. Ramm
2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
A method is proposed to create materials with a desired refraction coefficient, possibly negative one. The method consists of embedding into a given material small particles. Given $n_0(x)$, the refraction coefficient of the original material in a bounded domain $D \\subset \\R^3$, and a desired refraction coefficient $n(x)$, one calculates the number $N(x)$ of small particles, to be embedded in $D$ around a point $x \\in D$ per unit volume of $D$, in order that the resulting new material has refraction coefficient $n(x)$.
Silvester, Leonard F.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
09 THERMODYNAMICS OFELECI'ROLYTES. X'rights. r'-" e. ct THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X.Coefficient, Electrolyte, Thermodynamics v ~p , I J ! l
Weakcontrast R/T coefficients in weakly anisotropic media: Pwave 9iFODY#9DYU\\XN
Cerveny, Vlastislav
of transversely isotropic halfspaces. Zillmer, Gajewski & Kashtan (1998) derived PP reflection coefficient
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor
10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm
Building accurate initial models using gain functions for waveform inversion in the Laplace domain
Wansoo Ha; Changsoo Shin
2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
We suggest an initial model building technique using time gain functions in the Laplace domain. Applying the gain expressed as a power of time is equivalent to taking the partial derivative of the Laplace-domain wavefield with respect to a damping constant. We construct an objective function, which minimizes the logarithmic differences between the gained field data and the partial derivative of the modeled data with respect to the damping constant. We calculate the modeled wavefield, the partial derivative wavefield, and the gradient direction in the Laplace domain using the analytic Green's function starting from a constant velocity model. This is an efficient method to generate an accurate initial model for a following Laplace-domain inversion. Numerical examples using two marine field datasets confirm that a starting model updated once from a scratch using the gradient direction calculated with the proposed method can be successfully used for a subsequent Laplace-domain inversion.
High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator
Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an City 710024 (China) [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.
Gain dynamics of quantum dot devices for dual-state operation
Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Kolarczik, M.; Owschimikow, N.; Woggon, U. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijevi?, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)
2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Ground state gain dynamics of In(Ga)As-quantum dot excited state lasers are investigated via single-color ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy below and above lasing threshold. Two-color pump-probe experiments are used to localize lasing and non-lasing quantum dots within the inhomogeneously broadened ground state. Single-color results yield similar gain recovery rates of the ground state for lasing and non-lasing quantum dots decreasing from 6 ps to 2 ps with increasing injection current. We find that ground state gain dynamics are influenced solely by the injection current and unaffected by laser operation of the excited state. This independence is promising for dual-state operation schemes in quantum dot based optoelectronic devices.
Functional Coefficient Regression Models for Non-linear Time Series: A Polynomial
Shen, Haipeng
Functional Coefficient Regression Models for Non-linear Time Series: A Polynomial Spline Approach of functional coefficient regression models for non-linear time series. Consistency and rate of convergence regression model extends several familiar non-linear time series models such as the exponential
Electro-optic coefficients of lithium tantalate at near-infrared wavelengths
Gopalan, Venkatraman
Electro-optic coefficients of lithium tantalate at near-infrared wavelengths Joanna L. Casson April 27, 2004 The unclamped linear electro-optic coefficients r13 and r33 for lithium tantalate. In the unclamped mode the effects of mechanical changes caused by piezoelectric and elasto-optic effects
Empirical Distributions of DFT-Domain Speech Coefficients Based on Estimated Speech Variances
obtained from a short-time discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in the context of speech enhancement frameworks. The distribution of clean speech spectral coefficients is of great importance for speech enhancement algorithmsEmpirical Distributions of DFT-Domain Speech Coefficients Based on Estimated Speech Variances Timo
DISTRIBUTIONS OF 3D DCT COEFFICIENTS FOR VIDEO Malavika Bhaskaranand and Jerry D. Gibson
Liebling, Michael
- tribution and a majority of the high-energy AC coefficients can be approximated by a Gamma distribution the dependency of adjacent data cubes along time. The coefficients are quantized and then scanned into a 1D array by the California Micro Program, Ap- plied Signal Technology, Cisco, Sony-Ericsson and Qualcomm, Inc., and by NSF
Ferreira, Márcia M. C.
QSPR models of boiling point, octanolwater partition coefficient and retention time index StructureProperty Relationship (QSPR) analysis and study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (bp), octanol water partition coefficient ðlog KowÞ and retention time index (RI) for reversed
Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar
Kandlikar, Satish
Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar York 14623, USA The flow boiling heat transfer in small diameter passages is being applied in many boiling heat transfer coefficient with the correlations developed for conventional channels. It is found
Scaling of Heat Transfer Coefficients Along Louvered Fins A. C. Lyman1
Thole, Karen A.
1 Scaling of Heat Transfer Coefficients Along Louvered Fins A. C. Lyman1 , R. A. Stephan2 , and K 23681-2199 #12;2 Abstract Louvered fins provide a method for improving the heat transfer performance for evaluating the spatially-resolved louver heat transfer coefficients using various reference temperatures
Measurementof Seebeck coefficient perpendicular to SiGe superlattice , Gehang Zeng2
Page 1 Measurementof Seebeck coefficient perpendicular to SiGe superlattice Yan Zhang1 , Gehang to measure the Seebeck coefficient of SiGe superlattice material perpendicular to the layers1 . Successful of the SiGe superlattice micro coolers. Extensive thermoreflectance imaging characterization was performed
Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project
Brent Dixon
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.
Long wavelength, high gain InAsSb strained-layer superlattice photoconductive detectors
Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A high gain photoconductive device for 8 to 12 .mu.m wavelength radiation including an active semiconductor region extending from a substrate to an exposed face, the region comprising a strained-layer superlattice of alternating layers of two different InAs.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x compounds having x>0.75. A pair of spaced electrodes are provided on the exposed face, and changes in 8 to 12 .mu.m radiation on the exposed face cause a large photoconductive gain between the spaced electrodes.
Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)
2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.
Gain-scheduled nonlinear control of u-tube steam generators at low powers
Menon, Sunil Kumar
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pressure, Pa. GW* avera. e recirculation flow rate, k /s. Disturbance Descri tion Hot-leg temperature, 'F. Primary mass flow rate, kg/s. Steam flow rate, kg/s. Feedwater temperature, 'F. Primary pressure. Pa. * Steam Dome-Downcomer ~ Geometrically.../LTR Compensstors. . . . . . . . . 5 cj 60 62 66 70 75 LINEAR COMPENSATOR DESIGN AND GAIN-SCHEDULING . . 76 V. 1 Introduction 76 CHAPTER Pa. ge V. 2 Design of the LQG/LTR Compensators for the UTSG V. 3 Analysis of the Linear Compensators . . V. 4 Gain...
Gain Improvement of Er-doped Amplifiers for the Feedback Filters
Song, Xiaomin
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
contrast between these two materials and the electro-optical properties of Ti: LiNbO3. Furthermore, waveguide gain is introduced through selective surface erbium (Er) doping which yields high quality loss-compensated or even amplifying waveguides without...
Comments on `Gain Scheduling Dynamic Linear Controllers for a Nonlinear and W.E. LEITHEAD
Duffy, Ken
Comments on `Gain Scheduling Dynamic Linear Controllers for a Nonlinear Plant' D.J.LEITH and W-scheduled controller should be chosen to satisfy a local linear equivalence condition. However, this provides of linear controllers. However, the dynamic behaviour of the resulting controller, being nonlinear, can
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! InternationalRelationsinIndonesia
Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! InternationalRelationsinIndonesia, Europe and the United States as well as Indonesia, are highly qualified and ex- perienced as both the Australia Indonesia Institute, the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, the Myer
Study in Indonesia... and gain credit towards your degree! JournalismProfessionalPracticum
Study in Indonesia... and gain credit towards your degree! JournalismProfessionalPracticum inIndonesia will deep- en their understanding of Indonesia whilst developing their journalism skills within will be a high-calibre journalist who has experience with different elements of the media in both Indonesia
A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to target tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks
Naik, Naren
A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to target tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks Ashwin Yadav1 domains. One of the most fundamen- tal and widely used approaches to target tracking is the Kalman filter. In presence of unknown noise statistics there are difficulties in the Kalman filter yielding good results
Drastic Productivity Gain for Large-Truck Operations with Automated Trailer Steering
Su, Xiao
] · A Solution Concept: Automated Trailer Steering · Elimination of Off-tracking (Vehicle Dynamics Only) Models & simulation with ad hoc steering angles [2007] LQR-RWA active control for high speeds [2007] CommandDrastic Productivity Gain for Large-Truck Operations with Automated Trailer Steering via Fuel
High Gain Observer for Backstepping Control of a MRI-guided Therapeutic Microrobot in Blood Vessels
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
-planned trajectory inherited from the model, with robustness concerns. This paper reports modeling and controlHigh Gain Observer for Backstepping Control of a MRI-guided Therapeutic Microrobot in Blood Vessels Laurent Arcese, Ali Cherry, Matthieu Fruchard, Antoine Ferreira Abstract-- This paper reports modeling
Gain dispersion in Visible Light Photon Counters as a function of counting rate
Bross, A.; /Fermilab; Buscher, V.; /Freiburg U.; Estrada, J.; /Fermilab; Ginther, G.; /Rochester U.; Molina, J.; /Rio de Janeiro State U.
2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present measurements of light signals using Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC), that indicate an increase in gain dispersion as the counting rate increases. We show that this dispersion can be understood on the basis of a recent observation of localized field reduction in VLPCs at high input rates.
Delivering pump light to a laser gain element while maintaining access to the laser beam
Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A lens duct is used for pump delivery and the laser beam is accessed through an additional component called the intermediate beam extractor which can be implemented as part of the gain element, part of the lens duct or a separate component entirely.
Gain and Equalization Adaptation to Optimize the Vertical Eye Opening in a Wireline Receiver
Chan Carusone, Tony
loss and skin-effect can severely limit a wireline receiver's ability to operate at high-speeds, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract--A strategy for the adaptation of an equalizer and variable gain amplifier is presented. Both control signals are generated by examining the probability density function
Co-op is an academic program that allows students to gain paid industry work experience
Wang, Hai
16 Co-op is an academic program that allows students to gain paid industry work experience before and practice, helps fine-tune career goals, and provides examples of industry structure and practices. Co.careers@usc.edu cooperative education (co-op) benefiTS · Agreatwaytoevaluateyourcareer options. · Earnacademiccreditandgetpaid
Co-op is an academic program that allows students to gain paid industry work experience
Rohs, Remo
16 Co-op is an academic program that allows students to gain paid industry work experience before and practice, helps fine-tune career goals, and provides examples of industry structure and practices. Co.careers@usc.edu COOPERATIVEEDUCATION(CO-OP) BENEFITS · Agreatwaytoevaluateyourcareer options. · Earnacademiccreditandgetpaid
An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low
Hamann, Andreas
The Potential of Aspen Clonal Forestry in Alberta: Breeding Regions and Estimates of Genetic Gain Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc., Boyle, Alberta, Canada Abstract Background: Aspen naturally grows to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns
Sub-Poissonian shot noise of a high internal gain injection photon detector
Mohseni, Hooman
Jin,2 and Ilesanmi Adesida2 1 Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical.northwestern.edu Abstract: The noise performance of an infrared injection photon detector with very high internal gain was evaluated. The optical to electrical conversion factor and Fano factor were measured under increasing
Neural Computation 9, 971983 (1997) Physiological Gain Leads to High ISI Variability in
Columbia University
Neural Computation 9, 971Â983 (1997) Physiological Gain Leads to High ISI Variability in a Simple@phy.ucsf.edu, ken@phy.ucsf.edu Abstract To understand the interspike interval (ISI) variability displayed by visual that have previously been proposed. When ISI's are dominated by postÂspike recovery, 1= p N arguments hold
Mode-locking via active gain modulation in quantum cascade lasers
Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios
A mode-locking mechanism by active gain modulation is studied numerically and experimentally. The parameter window for the emission of stable pulse trains was found. Pulses as short as 3 ps (~0.5 pJ) were characterized by ...
Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Multiplicative Gain Changes Are Induced by Excitation or
Columbia University
to play an important role in neural computations (for review, see Salinas and Thier, 2000). A particularly; Salinas and Abbott, 1995, 2001; Pouget and Sejnowski, 1997; Pouget and Snyder, 2000). Gain modulations (but, see Srinivasan and Bernard, 1976; Fox and Daw, 1992; Mel, 1993; Salinas and Abbott, 1996; Chance
Bandyopadhyay, Antar
1 Trade and plant level productivity gains: Role of Import Liberalisation, Technological Spillovers liberalization impact productivity at the micro level in the economy? Using a panel data of Indian manufacturing productivity growth at the production level in the economy. These mechanisms include trade induced pro
The Maroon and White Game: A simulation of trust and long-term gains and losses
Smith, James P.; Rybkowski, Zofia K.
2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
to players the advantages of systems thinking, as opposed to sub-optimization, during a live playing of the game. Although effective in illustrating the greater mathematic gains incurred from systems thinking to a community-at-large, the simulation might...
ANALYTIC MODEL OF HARMONIC GENERATION IN THE LOW-GAIN FEL REGIME
Wurtele, Jonathan
ANALYTIC MODEL OF HARMONIC GENERATION IN THE LOW-GAIN FEL REGIME G. Penn, M. Reinsch, J.S. Wurtele , LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Harmonic generation using free electron lasers (FELs) requires with simulation results using the FEL code GENESIS, both for single stages of harmonic generation and for the LUX
Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture
Katul, Gabriel
Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture Stefano Accepted 26 September 2013 Available online 9 October 2013 Keywords: Optimization Photosynthesis Soil moisture Stomatal conductance Transpiration a b s t r a c t Optimization theories explain a variety
Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems
Nesic, Dragan
Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems Dina via the Lyapunov method. In particular, an ISS Lyapunov function for the overall system is constructed from the ISS Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems. We consider parameterized families of discrete
Enhancement of sensitivity gain and frequency tuning by coupling of active hair bundles
Jülicher, Frank
Enhancement of sensitivity gain and frequency tuning by coupling of active hair bundles Kai Dierkes. A candidate for this process is active hair bundle mechanics observed, for instance, for hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus. Hair bundles in various inner ear organs are coupled by overlying membranes. Using
Extraction of the symmetry energy coefficients from the masses differences of isobaric nuclei
Junlong Tian; Haitao Cui; Kuankuan Zheng; Ning Wang
2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
The nuclear symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei are extracted by using the differences between the masses of isobaric nuclei. Based on the masses of more than 2400 nuclei with $A=9-270$, we investigate the model dependence in the extraction of symmetry energy coefficient. We find that the extraction of the symmetry energy coefficients is strongly correlated with the forms of the Coulomb energy and the mass dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient adopted. The values of the extracted symmetry energy coefficients increase by about 2 MeV for heavy nuclei when the Coulomb correction term is involved. We obtain the bulk symmetry energy coefficient $S_0=28.26\\pm1.3$ MeV and the surface-to-volume ratio $\\kappa=1.26\\pm 0.25 $ MeV if assuming the mass dependence of symmetry energy coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}(A)=S_0(1-\\kappa/A^{1/3})$, and $S_0=32.80\\pm1.7$ MeV, $\\kappa=2.82\\pm0.57$ MeV when $a_{\\rm sym}(A)=S_0 (1+\\kappa/A^{1/3})^{-1}$ is adopted.
Electron Excitation Coefficients in Helium, Neon, Oxygen and Methane at High E/N
Nikitovic, Zeljka D. [Institute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Swarm analysis is performed by comparing experimental and calculated transport coefficients. Comparisons are repeated until a satisfactory agreement is achieved after modifications of the cross sections. We have made an analysis of our excitation coefficient data for neon and methane by using detailed Monte Carlo simulation scheme. In this work we also present experimental electron excitation coefficients for other gases: helium, neon and oxygen. We used a drift tube technique to measure the absolute emission intensities in low current self sustained Townsend type discharges.
Mehra, Saahil
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermoelectrics are gaining significant amounts of attention considering their relevance today in the areas of sustainable energy generation and energy efficiency. In this thesis, the thermoelectric properties of bulk ...
Cunningham, David
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
IBUPROFEN ADMINSTERED PRE- OR POST- SIMULATED RESISTANCE EXERCISE TRAINING DOES NOT DIMINISH GAINS IN BONE FORMATION OR BONE MASS A Thesis by DAVID ARTHUR CUNNINGHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... Training Does Not Diminish Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass Copyright 2011 David Arthur Cunningham IBUPROFEN ADMINISTERED PRE- OR POST- SIMULATED RESISTANCE EXERCISE TRAINING DOES NOT DIMINSH GAINS IN BONE FORMATION OR BONE MASS A Thesis...
Balantrapu, Achuta Kishore Rama Krishna
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rotor-bearing system characteristics, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, stiffness and damping coefficients, are essential to diagnose and correct vibration problems during system operation. Of the above characteristics, accurate...
Liew, Heng Lee Henry
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Inspired by the importance of having a favourable sheathing material for superconducting wires, a high-strength, low thermal coefficient (CTE) super-alloy has been developed. Known as Incoloy 908, this super-alloy's material ...
Hardy-Littlewood theorem for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients
Dyachenko, Mikhail I [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nursultanov, Erlan D [Kazakhstan Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Astana (Kazakhstan)
2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The Hardy-Littlewood theorem is established for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients. Inequalities of Hardy-Littlewood kind are proved. Examples of series demonstrating that the results obtained are sharp are constructed. Bibliography: 15 titles.
Sharma, Ashish
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
at higher frequencies than tested previously. The seal coefficients are determined by measuring the logarithmic decrement and damped natural frequency in non-rotating free vibration tests and by computer simulations of these results using a computer program...
Tcaciuc, Alexandra Patricia
Recent studies have shown that membrane–water partition coefficients of organic chemicals can be used to predict bioaccumulation and type I narcosis toxicity more accurately than the traditional K[subscript OW]-based ...
Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differ- ences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations
ErAs/InGaAs superlattice Seebeck coefficient Gehong Zeng, John E. Bowers
Bowers, John
material, and the output power of thermal-to- electricity power generator is proportional to the square or generators. For TE coolers, the cooling power is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient of the element
Noel, James Michael
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
is the molecular diffusivity of the organic in the supercritical fluid. However, data for diffusivities in supercritical fluids are scarce. Because diffusion coefficients cannot be determined a priofi, it is necessary to measure them. We have utilized the Taylor...
Hou, Z.; Lian, Z.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The fundamental parameter that characterizes the hydraulic state of a water pipeline and largely determines the efficiency of the water-transport process is the hydraulic resistance coefficient (HRC). The actual values of the HRC may be different...
Ransom, David Lawrence
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Experiments to identify stiffness and damping force coefficients of a two bladed teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal and a gas damper seal, both of diverging clearance, are presented. Calibrated impact guns excite a housing holding the test seal...
Nolan, Steven Anthony
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL COMPARISON OF ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR SAWTOOTH-PATTERN DAMPER SEALS A Thesis by STEVEN ANTHONY NOLAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May &9BT Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL COMPARISON OF ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR SAWTOOTH-PATTERN DAMPER SEALS A Thesis by STEVEN ANTHONY NOLAN Approved as to style...
Choi, Sang Kyu
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
subsynchronous instability, which means that rotor whirl occurs at a frequency less than the rotating speed with amplitudes which grow as running speed increases. Synchronous response of high pressure turbines, compressors and other rotating machinery can also... equation turns out to be overdetermined. The present method consists of two parts; one a part to identify the rotor support properties - stifFness and damping coefficients of roller bearings, and the other a part to identify seal force coefficients...
Effect of surfactant on evaporative heat transfer coefficients in vertical film forced convection
Shah, Basit Husain
1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to the present design conditions in desalination evaporators. A commercial surfactant, procter and Gamble 'Joy ' (Ammon1um Lauryl Sulphate + Cl2-C)&-diethanoiamine, 3:1) was used in the present study. The evaporative coefficients were observed to increase... encountered in de- salinationn evaporators (36). The evaporative coeffici ents were determined under the above conditions for pure water as well as for solutions containing 15, 30, and 50 ppm of surfactant (Procter and Gamble 'Joy'). The feed to the boi...
Yarmukhamedov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 100214 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)
2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a?B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ? 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,?)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.
Orejuela, Mauricio
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...
Burton, Bruce Lawrence
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
RADIOTRACER DETERMINATION OF ANION DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN THE ELECTRONICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER POLYPYRROLE A Thesis by BRUCE LAWRENCE BURTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Chemistry RADIOTRACER DETERMINATION OF ANION DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN THE ELECTRONICALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER POLYPYRROLE A Thesis BRUCE LAWRENCE BURTON Approved as to style...
Measurements of the diffusion coefficient of silver 110-m in a nuclear grade graphite
McMillan, Thad Calhoun
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
MEASUREMENTS OF TEE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF SILVER 110-m IN A NUCLEAR GRADE. GRAPHITE A Thesis by THAD CALHOUN MCMILLAN, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF SILVER 110-m IN A NUCLEAR GRADE GRAPHITE A Thesis by THAD CALHOUN MCMILLAN, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...
Roston, Gerald Paul
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A COMPARISON OF LAGRANGIAN INERTIA COEFFICIENTS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATOR DYNAMICS TO EXAMINE REAL-TIME APPLICABILITY A Thesis by GERALD PAUL ROSTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A COMPARISON OF LAGRANGIAN INERTIA COEFFICIENTS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATOR DYiNAMICS TO EXAMINE REAL-TIME APPLICABILITY A Thesis by GERALD PAUL ROSTON...
Scharrer, Joseph Kirk
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESULTS FOR ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR LABYRINTH GAS SEALS A Thesis by JOSEPH KIRK SCHARRER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19B5 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESULTS FOR ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR LABYRINTH GAS SEALS A Thesis by JOSEPH KIRK SCHARRER Approved as to style...
Sharma, Rohit [Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143107 (India)] [Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143107 (India); Singh, Kuldip [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)] [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Z?, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter ?(= T{sub e}/T{sub h}) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1?atm, 10?atm, and 100?atm in the temperature range from 6000?K to 60?000?K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Z? with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter.
Jorge L. deLyra
2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
The results presented in this paper are refinements of some results presented in a previous paper. Three such refined results are presented. The first one relaxes one of the basic hypotheses assumed in the previous paper, and thus extends the results obtained there to a wider class of real functions. The other two relate to a closer examination of the issue of the representability of real functions by their Fourier coefficients. As was shown in the previous paper, in many cases one can recover the real function from its Fourier coefficients even if the corresponding Fourier series diverges almost everywhere. In such cases we say that the real function is still representable by its Fourier coefficients. Here we establish a very weak condition on the Fourier coefficients that ensures the representability of the function by those coefficients. In addition to this, we show that any real function that is absolutely integrable can be recovered almost everywhere from, and hence is representable by, its Fourier coefficients, regardless of whether or not its Fourier series converges. Interestingly, this also provides proof for a conjecture proposed in the previous paper.
Darden, Matthew Aguirre
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
concerning tactility, examining environmental and material properties that affect skin on fabric coefficient of friction. In this study, similar friction procedure was used to compare coefficients of friction of a fingerpad across varying polymer fabrics...
Gain, directionality and noise in microwave SQUID amplifiers: Input-output approach
Archana Kamal; John Clarke; Michel Devoret
2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new theoretical framework to analyze microwave amplifiers based on the dc SQUID. Our analysis applies input-output theory generalized for Josephson junction devices biased in the running state. Using this approach we express the high frequency dynamics of the SQUID as a scattering between the participating modes. This enables us to elucidate the inherently nonreciprocal nature of gain as a function of bias current and input frequency. This method can, in principle, accommodate an arbitrary number of Josephson harmonics generated in the running state of the junction. We report detailed calculations taking into account the first few harmonics that provide simple semi-quantitative results showing a degradation of gain, directionality and noise of the device as a function of increasing signal frequency. We also discuss the fundamental limits on device performance and applications of this formalism to real devices.
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
Yuan, Z. L., E-mail: zhiliang.yuan@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)
2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
Z. L. Yuan; M. Lucamarini; J. F. Dynes; B. Frohlich; A. Plews; A. J. Shields
2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a +/-20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.
Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates
Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.
and discussed. The desired refraction coefficient can be complex-valued. This means that the enrgy absorption
coefficient can be complex-valued. This means that the enrgy absorption in the new material can also
Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain
Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul
2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.
Stocking rate and weight gain with three forages utilized in sequence
Garcia Jurado, Andres
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
) (Member) August 1977 ABSTRACT STOCKING RATE AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH THREE FORAGES UTILIZED IN SEQUENCE (August 1977) Andres Garcia, Ing. Zoot. Univ. Aut. de Chihuahua (Mexico) Chairman of Advisory Committee g T. CD Cartwright Twenty seven steers were... and the pas- ture areas were not as large as would have been desired. This was the first grazing trial conducted at this center on the recently deforested land and somewhat newly estab- lished pastures. There was an immediate need to generate some animal...
Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain
Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)
Observation of transient gain without population inversion in a laser-cooled rubidium lambda system
S. R. de Echaniz; Andrew D. Greentree; A. V. Durrant; D. M. Segal; J. P. Marangos; J. A. Vaccaro
2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
We have observed clear Rabi oscillations of a weak probe in a strongly driven three-level lambda system in laser-cooled rubidium for the first time. When the coupling field is non-adiabatically switched on using a Pockels cell, transient probe gain without population inversion is obtained in the presence of uncoupled absorptions. Our results are supported by three-state computations.
High gain, Fast Scan, Broad Spectrum Parallel Beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for SEM
OHara, David
2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
During contract # DE-FG02-ER83545, Parallax Research, Inc. developed a High gain, Fast Scan Broad Spectrum Parallel beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for use on Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM). This new spectrometer allows very fast high resolution elemental analysis of samples in an electron microscope. By comparison to previous WDS spectrometers, it can change from one energy position to another very quickly and has an extended range compared to some similar products.
High Gain, Fast Scan, Broad Spectrum, Parallel Beam Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer for SEM
David OHara; Dr. Eric Lochmer
2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
Parallax Research, Inc. proposes to produce a new type of x-ray spectrometer for use with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that would have the energy resolution of WDS and the ease of use of EDS with sufficient gain for lower energies that it can be used at low beam currents as is EDS. Parallax proposes to do this by development of new multiple reflection x-ray collimation optics, new diffractor technology, new detector technology and new scan algorithms.
Gain scheduling adaptive control strategies for HVDC systems to accommodate large disturbances
Reeve, J.; Sultan, M. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))
1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Techniques have been developed to permit the response of the controls for dc transmission systems to adapt to large system changes. A gain scheduling approach tunes the control as an on-line function of the effective short-circuit ratio and contingency indicators. The method has been tested by digital simulation, based on EMTP, of a back-to-back dc system. It has been found to be robust and control performance has been enhanced.
High current gain InGaN=GaN HBTs with C operating temperature
Asbeck, Peter M.
with an $20 nm low-temperature (Tg ¼ 550 C) GaN buffer layer on a (0001) sapphire substrate. The layer 1018 cmÀ3 Buffer GaN 2.5 mm Substrate Sapphire HBT device processing began by depositing a 100 nmHigh current gain InGaN=GaN HBTs with 300 C operating temperature D.M. Keogh, P.M. Asbeck, T. Chung
Prediction of internal temperature swings in direct-gain passive-solar buildings
Balcomb, J.D.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The diurnal heat capacity method is presented for estimating inside-temperature swings attributable to direct winter solar gain. The procedures are simplified to be suitable for hand analysis, aided by tables of diurnal heat capacity for various materials. The method has been spot checked against computer simulation and has been used successfully by a group of 20 builders in New Mexico to analyze whether temperature swings would be excessive in their designs.
Jafarinia, F.; Jafari, S. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
A free-electron laser (FEL) scheme, which employs the whistler wave as a slow electromagnetic wave wiggler, was studied theoretically. Subjected to the transverse fields of whistler wave wiggler, the beam electrons are the source of the energy needed to produce electromagnetic radiation. The strength and the period of the wiggler field depend on the parameters of the magnetoplasma medium. This configuration has a higher tunability by controlling the plasma density, on top of the {gamma}-tunability of the conventional FELs. The theory of linear gain and electron trajectories was presented and four groups (I, II, III, and IV) of electron orbits were found in the presence of an axial guide magnetic field. Using perturbation analysis, it is found that these groups of orbits were stable except small regions of group I and IV orbits. The function {Phi} which determines the rate of change of axial velocity with beam energy was also derived. In the case in which {Phi}<0 represents a negative-mass regime in which the axial velocity accelerates as the electrons lose energy. Numerical solutions showed that by increasing the cyclotron frequency, the gain for group I and III orbits increased, while a gain decrement was obtained for group II and IV orbits.
Pinned modes in two-dimensional lossy lattices with local gain and nonlinearity
Ding, Edwin; Chow, K W; Malomed, Boris A
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a system with one or two amplified nonlinear sites ("hot spots", HSs) embedded into a two-dimensional linear lossy lattice. The system describes an array of evanescently coupled optical or plasmonic waveguides, with gain applied at selected HS cores. The subject of the analysis is discrete solitons pinned to the HSs. The shape of the localized modes is found in quasi-analytical and numerical forms, using a truncated lattice for the analytical consideration. Stability eigenvalues are computed numerically, and the results are supplemented by direct numerical simulations. In the case of self-focusing nonlinearity, the modes pinned to a single HS are stable or unstable when the nonlinearity includes the cubic loss or gain, respectively. If the nonlinearity is self-defocusing, the unsaturated cubic gain acting at the HS supports stable modes in a small parametric area, while weak cubic loss gives rise to a bistability of the discrete solitons. Symmetric and antisymmetric modes pinned to a symmetric se...
Nonlinear localized modes in PT-symmetric optical media with competing gain and loss
Midya, Bikashkali, E-mail: bikash.midya@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)] [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rroychoudhury123@gmail.com [Advanced Center for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, Kolkata 700075 (India)] [Advanced Center for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, Kolkata 700075 (India)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The existence and stability of the nonlinear spatial localized modes are investigated in parity-time symmetric optical media characterized by a generic complex hyperbolic refractive index distribution with competing gain and loss profile. The exact analytical expression of the localized modes are found for all values of the competing parameter and in the presence of both the self-focusing and self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearity. The effects of competing gain/loss profile on the stability structure of these localized modes are discussed with the help of linear stability analysis followed by the direct numerical simulation of the governing equation. The spatial localized modes in two-dimensional geometry as well as the transverse power-flow density associated with these localized modes are also examined. -- Highlights: • Existence of localized modes is investigated in PT-symmetric complex potentials. • Exact analytical expression of the localized modes is obtained. • Effect of gain/loss profile on the stability of these localized modes is discussed. • Localized modes in 2D and associated transverse power-flow density are also examined.
Jerby, Eli
model. Practical implementations of gain and phase control in CRM devices are discussed. DOI: 10 varying the phase delay. Phase control in high-power CRM amplifiers is essential for radiation beam-steering received 6 December 2001; published 28 February 2002 The control of gain and phase delay in a cyclotron
Schirmacher, Walter
Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in a niobium-phosphate glass for Raman gain: Raman scattering; Neutron scattering; Raman gain; Boson peak We present measurements of the vibrational, extracted from specific-heat or neutron scattering measurements [7,8]. Only very recently two of the present
Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions
Golbraikh, E
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.
Free cooling and high-energy tails of granular gases with variable restitution coefficient
Ricardo J. Alonso; Bertrand Lods
2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
We prove the so-called generalized Haff's law yielding the optimal algebraic cooling rate of the temperature of a granular gas described by the homogeneous Boltzmann equation for inelastic interactions with non constant restitution coefficient. Our analysis is carried through a careful study of the infinite system of moments of the solution to the Boltzmann equation for granular gases and precise Lp estimates in the selfsimilar variables. In the process, we generalize several results on the Boltzmann collision operator obtained recently for homogeneous granular gases with constant restitution coefficient to a broader class of physical restitution coefficients that depend on the collision impact velocity. This generalization leads to the so-called L1-exponential tails theorem. for this model.
Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.
A Simple Method for Finding the Scattering Coefficients of Quantum Graphs
Seth S. Cottrell
2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum walks are roughly analogous to classical random walks, and like classical walks they have been used to find new (quantum) algorithms. When studying the behavior of large graphs or combinations of graphs it is useful to find the response of a subgraph to signals of different frequencies. In so doing we can replace an entire subgraph with a single vertex with frequency dependent scattering coefficients. In this paper a simple technique for quickly finding the scattering coefficients of any quantum graph will be presented. These scattering coefficients can be expressed entirely in terms of the characteristic polynomial of the graph's time step operator. Moreover, with these in hand we can easily derive the "impulse response" which is the key to predicting the response of a graph to any signal. This gives us a powerful set of tools for rapidly understanding the behavior of graphs or for reducing a large graph into its constituent subgraphs regardless of how they are connected.
Equation of state at finite net-baryon density using Taylor coefficients up to sixth order
Pasi Huovinen; Peter Petreczky; Christian Schmidt
2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
We employ the lattice QCD data on Taylor expansion coefficients up to sixth order to construct an equation of state at finite net-baryon density. When we take into account how hadron masses depend on lattice spacing and quark mass, the coefficients evaluated using the p4 action are equal to those of hadron resonance gas at low temperature. Thus the parametrised equation of state can be smoothly connected to the hadron resonance gas equation of state. We see that the equation of state using Taylor coefficients up to second order is realistic only at low densities, and that at densities corresponding to s/n_B > 40, the expansion converges by the sixth order term.
Recursion relations for generalized Fresnel coefficients: Casimir force in a planar cavity
Marin-Slobodan Tomas
2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
We emphasize and demonstrate that, besides using the usual recursion relations involving successive layers, generalized Fresnel coefficients of a multilayer can equivalently be calculated using the recursion relations involving stacks of layers, as introduced some time ago [M. S. Tomas, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2545 (1995)]. Moreover, since the definition of the generalized Fresnel coefficients employed does not imply properties of the stacks, these nonstandard recursion relations can be used to calculate Fresnel coefficients not only for local systems but also for a general multilayer consisting of various types (local, nonlocal, inhomogeneous etc.) of layers. Their utility is illustrated by deriving a few simple algorithms for calculating the reflectivity of a Bragg mirror and extending the formula for the Casimir force in a planar cavity to arbitrary media.
Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems
Balcomb, J.D.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.
Second quarter trims earnings gain of OGJ group of U. S. oil companies
Beck, R.J.; Biggs, J.B.
1991-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reports that first half of 1991 profits for the Oil and Gas Journal group of 22 large U.S. oil companies totaled $10,553 billion, down a scant 0.1% from the same period the year before. However, second quarter profits were down sharply, dipping to $3.656 billion or 27.4% below the second quarter of 1990. This is in sharp contrast with first quarter profits, which totaled $6.897 billion and were up 24.8% from the same period of 1990. First half individuals results were widely diverse, with seven companies showing profit improvements from last year and 15 companies a decline. Only one, Murphy Oil Co., posted a loss in the first half. Six companies showed profit gains of more than 20% and 11 posted declines greater than 20%. In the second quarter 16 of the group had lower earnings than they booked in the same period of 1990. Restructuring charges and gains, along with provisions for future environmental costs, continued to have a great deal of influence over year to year changes in profits. Chemical earnings were down for the 6 months and in the second quarter for most companies. U.S. refining and marketing earnings were mixed but generally lower for both periods. Due to an economic recession product demand was down in the first half of this year. Non-U.S. refining and marketing profits were up for the first half, but the gain stemmed from improved margins in the first quarter.
Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems
Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)
2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.
Frequency dependence of mass flow gain factor and cavitation compliance of cavitating inducers
Otsuka, S.; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Kamijo, Kenjiro [National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda, Miyagi (Japan). Kakuda Research Center; Furuya, O. [AMP Technologies, Osaka (Japan)
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Unsteady cavitation characteristics are analyzed based on a closed cavity model in which the length of the cavity is allowed to oscillate. It is shown that the present model blends smoothly into quasisteady calculations in the low frequency limit, unlike fixed cavity length models. Effects of incidence angle and cavitation number on cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor are shown as functions of reduce frequency. The cavity volume is evaluated by three methods and the results were used to confirm the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical calculation. By comparison with experimental data on inducers, it was shown that the present model can simulate the characteristics of unsteady cavitation qualitatively.
Gain broadening mechanism in various GaAlAs laser structures
Ruehle, W.; Brosson, P.
1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coupling of an external grating to a GaAlAs laser results in a strong enhancement of the selected mode and a reduction of the nonselected modes. The spectral form of this reduction is measured with a new sensitive experimental arrangement for three types of laser structures: proton bombarded stripe geometry, V-groove and CSP lasers. This spectral form is determined by the gain curve of the laser only and is independent on the position of the selected mode, i.e., no spectral hole burning is observed at room temperature.
Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept
Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.
Are there Gains from Pooling Real-Time Oil Price Forecasts?
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5Are there Gains from Pooling
A closed formula for the barrier transmission coefficient in quaternionic quantum mechanics
De Leo, Stefano; Leonardi, Vinicius; Pereira, Kenia [Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of Campinas, SP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil); Ducati, Gisele [CMCC, Federal University of ABC, SP 09210-170, Santo Andre (Brazil)
2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we analyze, by using a matrix approach, the dynamics of a nonrelativistic particle in presence of a quaternionic potential barrier. The matrix method used to solve the quaternionic Schroedinger equation allows us to obtain a closed formula for the transmission coefficient. Up to now, in quaternionic quantum mechanics, almost every discussion on the dynamics of nonrelativistic particle was motivated by or evolved from numerical studies. A closed formula for the transmission coefficient stimulates an analysis of qualitative differences between complex and quaternionic quantum mechanics and by using the stationary phase method, gives the possibility to discuss transmission times.
Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules
Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.
Gibson, LaTosha M.; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V.; Shadle, Lawrence J.
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young's modulus should be considered in applications such as gasification and other cases involving the impact of non-spherical particles and complex surfaces. Sliding was observed when particles impacted on oblique surfaces; however, the resulting effects were within the range of measurement uncertainties.
Extraction of absorption coefficients from GaN nanowires grown on opaque substrates
Jayaprakash, Rahul; Germanis, Savvas; Androulidaki, Maria; Tsagaraki, Katerina; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Pelekanos, Nikos T
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate a new method to measure absorption coefficients in any family of nanowires, provided they are grown on a substrate having considerable difference in permittivity with the nanowire-air matrix. In the case of high crystal quality, strain-free GaN nanowires, grown on Si (111) substrates with a density of ~1010 cm-2, the extracted absorption coefficients do not exhibit any enhancement compared to bulk GaN values, unlike relevant claims in the literature. This may be attributed to the relatively small diameters, short heights, and high densities of our nanowire arrays.
The Use of Electricity in Industry and Energy Saving - The Gamma Co-Efficient
Wolf, R.; Froehlich, R.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of simple factors : the gamma factor. It is, when using energy, the number of thermies which are replaced by one kWh. Gamma is not a factor for measuring the oil saving but the using efficiency. For measuring the oil saving, the author uses 'the net gain...
Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters
Wu, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Schrimpf, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)
1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.
A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem
Oertel, J. A., E-mail: Oertel@lanl.gov; Archuleta, T. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 ?m while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (?6 ?m) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.
Multicolor operation and spectral control in a gain-modulated x-ray free-electron laser
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, Berlin, [33]Gain-Modulated X-Ray Free-Electron Laser A. Marinelli, 1, *emission x-ray free-electron laser can be controlled by
Yang, Yi
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
Prospect theory is a descriptive model of individual decision-making under risk (Kahneman and Tversky 1979). The central tenet of prospect theory posits that the risk orientation of decision-makers is affected by the gains vs. losses domains...
Columbia University
reachingBrandeis University (Zipser and Andersen, 1988; Salinas and Abbott, 1995;Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 Pouget and Sejnowski, 1997) to invariant object recogni- tion (Salinas and Abbott, 1997). Gain
Yang, Yi
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
Prospect theory is a descriptive model of individual decision-making under risk (Kahneman and Tversky 1979). The central tenet of prospect theory posits that the risk orientation of decision-makers is affected by the gains ...
Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers Hongping Zhao and Nelson Tansu
Gilchrist, James F.
O/SnO nanocomposites AIP Advances 2, 012133 (2012) Ultra-broad spontaneous emission and modal gain spectrum from a hybrid quantum well/quantum dot laser structure Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041118 (2012) Time
Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients
Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients C. GÂ´erard,1 , F of the Hamiltonian in the presence of the infrared problem, i.e. assuming that the boson mass tends to 0 at infinity state one usually speaks of the infrared problem or infrared divergence. The infrared problem arises
Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla
Duong, Timothy Q.
Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla Govind Nair* and ADC of the rat eyes were measured at 50 3 50 3 800 lm at 7 Tesla. Profiles of T1, T2, T2* and ADC
GRIGSBY KM
2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farms safety analysis. The basis equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included. In this revision, the time averaging for toxicological consequence evaluations is clarified based on a review of DOE complex guidance and a review of tank farm chemicals.
Kunkel, Peter
The linear quadratic optimal control problem for linear descriptor systems with variable coefficients Peter Kunkel 3 Volker Mehrmann y 17.01.97 Abstract We study linear quadratic optimal control, 93B11, 93B40 1 Introduction In this paper we study the linearÂquadratic optimal control problem
Row spacing effects on the canopy light extinction coefficient of upland cotton
Steglich, Evelyn Marie
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
coefficient (k) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Treatments consisted of four row spacings (0.19-m, 0.38-m, 0.76-m, and 1.00-m) and four plant densities [148, 222, 296, 445 (1998) and 371 (1999) thousand plants ha-1] with each treatment replicated three times...
Luhua, Lai
Estimating ProteinLigand Binding Free Energy: Atomic Solvation Parameters for Partition Coefficient and Solvation Free Energy Calculation Jianfeng Pei,1,2 Qi Wang,1,2 Jiaju Zhou,3 and Luhua Lai1 free energy and the correct scoring in docking studies. We have developed a new solvation energy
Specular highlights of plastic surfaces and the Fresnel Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou*
Angelopoulou, Elli
Specular highlights of plastic surfaces and the Fresnel Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou* and Sofya that the color of specularities for materials like plastics and ceramics can be approximated by the color by experiments performed on multispectral images of different colored plastic tiles. The refractive indices
Cenac, William
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
/15 scale model was attached to a tow carriage and towed through a water-filled tank to measure the drag forces and evaluate the drag coefficient. The anchor terminal velocity was measured using underwater cameras to track the free fall of the model anchor...
ClebschGordan coefficients for scattering tensors in ZnO and other
Nabben, Reinhard
ClebschGordan coefficients for scattering tensors in ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors Herbert, and A are investigated in wurtzite ZnO. The knowledge of the selection rules is required for the determination, in non-centro-symmetric crystals (zinc blende and wurtzite) the strain tensor and induced electric fields
On the Inversion of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Enhancement Applications
De Leon, Phillip
On the Inversion of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Enhancement Applications Laura E recognition system. The use of GMMs for speech enhancement applications has only recently been proposed present a means to invert MFCCs for use in speech enhancement applications. Results for cepstral inversion
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet August 2010; accepted 6 August 2010 A cell pellet biophantom technique is introduced, and applied verification purposes. BSC estimates from CHO cell pellet biophantoms of known number density were performed
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
866 In vivo ultrasonographic exposimetry: Human tissuespecific attenuation coefficients. O'Brien, Jr, PhDc Cincinnati, Ohio, and Urbana, Illinois OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study. Experimental observations from animal studies would unequivocally suggest that high-intensity ultra- sound has
Kerr, Bradley Gray
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS AND LEAKAGE OF STRAIGHT SMOOTH ANNULAR GAS SEALS A...: _____________________________ _____________________________ Dara W. Childs Paul G.A. Cizmas (Chair of Committee) (Member) _____________________________ _____________________________ John M. Vance Dennis O?Neal (Member) (Head of Department) December 2004 Major...
Taya, Minoru
measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity for the evaluation of thermoelectric electromotive force. · Employment of an infrared gold image heating furnace that excels in temperature.1 msec/0.3 msec or less Sensor Thermocouple Thermocouple, IR detector Measurement Thermal diffusivity
Internal conversion coefficients in (134)Cs, (137)Ba, and (139)La: A precise test of theory
Nica, N.; Hardy, John C.; Iacob, V. E.; Balonek, C.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recently we measured the ratio of K-shell internal conversion coefficients, alpha(K), for the 127.5-keV E3 transition in (134)Cs and the 661.7-keV M4 transition in (137)Ba. We here report a measurement of the 165.9-keV M1 ...
Asymptotic normalization coefficients and the Be-7(p, gamma)B-8 astrophysical S factor
Azhari, A.; Burjan, V.; Carstoiu, F.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Kroha, V.; Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Nunes, FM; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the results of two proton transfer reactions, B-10(Be-7, B-8)Be-9 and N-14(Be-7, B-8)C-13, to obtain a weighted average of the measured asymptotic normalization coefficients for the virtual transition 7Be +pB-8. ...
Boyer, Edmond
1 Fretting Corrosion Damage of Total Hip Prosthesis: Friction Coefficient and Damage Rate Constant Building, University Park 16802 PA USA 4 Chair Professor Center for Research Excellence in Corrosion hip prosthesis. Fretting corrosion tests were conducted with stainless steel and poly (methyl
Arie, Ady
reserved. Keywords: Moire´ interferometry; Ferroelectric; Thermal expansion 1. Introduction Lithium niobate-phase-matched interactions [46]. Design of such devices requires accurate knowledge of the relevant physi- cal parameters properties, as the thermo-optic coefficients [7]. Further- more, in quasi-phase-match nonlinear processes
Comparison of attenuation coefficients for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 pressure vessels
Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Vandlik, S. [Reactor Physics Dept., Research Centre Rez, Husinec 130, 25068 (Czech Republic)
2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The paper summarizes the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence with E > 0.5 MeV through a reactor pressure vessel for vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) reactor types measured and/or calculated for mock-up experiments, as well as for operated nuclear power plant (NPP) units. The attenuation coefficient is possible to evaluate directly only by using the retro-dosimetry, based on a combination of the measured activities from the weld sample and concurrent ex-vessel measurement. The available neutron fluence attenuation coefficients (E > 0.5 MeV), calculated and measured at a mock-up experiment simulating the VVER-440-unit conditions, vary from 3.5 to 6.15. A similar situation is used for the calculations and mock-up experiment measurements for the VVER-1000 RPV, where the attenuation coefficient of the neutron fluence varies from 5.99 to 8.85. Because of the difference in calculations for the real units and the mock-up experiments, the necessity to design and perform calculation benchmarks both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 would be meaningful if the calculation model is designed adequately to a given unit. (authors)
Asymptotic symmetries at null infinity and local conformal properties of spin coefficients
Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert
2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the symmetry algebra of asymptotically flat four dimensional spacetimes at null infinity in the sense of Newman and Unti is isomorphic to the direct sum of the abelian algebra of infinitesimal conformal rescalings with bms4. We then work out the local conformal properties of the relevant Newman-Penrose coefficients, as well as the surface charges and their algebra.
Deriving Unit Cost Coefficients for Linear Programming-Driven Priority-Based Simulations
Lund, Jay R.
Deriving Unit Cost Coefficients for Linear Programming-Driven Priority-Based Simulations By INES-by-step procedure to generate priority preserving weights for linear programming driven simulations models. Many-priority deliveries, the assignment of unit weights in the objective function can be a matter of some art
Shyy, Wei
National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #05-2 March 2005 The GINI Coefficient and Segregation at Dallas This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Chemical oxygen diffusion coefficient measurement by conductivity relaxation--correlation between J. P., Grenier J. C., Loup J. P. ABSTRACT Chemical oxygen diusion coecient ¯(D)was measured the oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding atmosphere of the sample. The consequent evolution
Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou
Angelopoulou, Elli
Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou a new, physics-based specularity detection method, which de- pends on the Fresnel term of the specular to the Fresnel term at various wave- lengths. We then use mean-shift analysis to segment the im- age based
Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny
Yu, K.N.
Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory
ON THE ORDER OF STIRLING NUMBERS AND ALTERNATING BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT SUMS
Lengyel, TamÃ¡s
ON THE ORDER OF STIRLING NUMBERS AND ALTERNATING BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT SUMS Ira M. Gessel \\Lambda=p is not an odd integer. Here S(n; k) denotes the Stirling number of the second kind; i.e., the number) denotes the Stirling number of the second kind, and n = a 2 q ; a is odd, and q is sufficiently large (for
ON THE ORDER OF STIRLING NUMBERS AND ALTERNATING BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT SUMS
Lengyel, TamÃ¡s
ON THE ORDER OF STIRLING NUMBERS AND ALTERNATING BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT SUMS Ira M. Gessel is sufficiently large and kip is not an odd integer. Here S(n, k) denotes the Stirling num- ber of the second kindStirling number of the second kind, and n = alq , a is odd, and q
Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs
George, Steven C.
Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI, is produced within the tissue of the airways of the lungs.16 As an intercellular messenger, NO is involved is available regarding the basic gas exchange dynamics of NO in the lungs. Ingested ethanol EtOH is transported
FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY
Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson
2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for Finite Element Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients
Kalchev, D
2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents a two-grid algorithm based on Smoothed Aggregation Spectral Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid (SA-{rho}AMGe) combined with adaptation. The aim is to build an efficient solver for the linear systems arising from discretization of second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with stochastic coefficients. Examples include PDEs that model subsurface flow with random permeability field. During a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation process, that draws PDE coefficient samples from a certain distribution, the PDE coefficients change, hence the resulting linear systems to be solved change. At every such step the system (discretized PDE) needs to be solved and the computed solution used to evaluate some functional(s) of interest that then determine if the coefficient sample is acceptable or not. The MCMC process is hence computationally intensive and requires the solvers used to be efficient and fast. This fact that at every step of MCMC the resulting linear system changes, makes an already existing solver built for the old problem perhaps not as efficient for the problem corresponding to the new sampled coefficient. This motivates the main goal of our study, namely, to adapt an already existing solver to handle the problem (with changed coefficient) with the objective to achieve this goal to be faster and more efficient than building a completely new solver from scratch. Our approach utilizes the local element matrices (for the problem with changed coefficients) to build local problems associated with constructed by the method agglomerated elements (a set of subdomains that cover the given computational domain). We solve a generalized eigenproblem for each set in a subspace spanned by the previous local coarse space (used for the old solver) and a vector, component of the error, that the old solver cannot handle. A portion of the spectrum of these local eigen-problems (corresponding to eigenvalues close to zero) form the coarse basis used to define the new two-level method of our interest. We illustrate the performance of this adaptive two-level procedure with a large set of numerical experiments that demonstrate its efficiency over building the solvers from scratch.
White, Marie Elinor
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Boonea (= Odostomia) impressa (SAY) (GASTROPODA: PYRAMIDELLIDAE): ITS LIFE HISTORY AND IMPACT ON SHELL WEIGHT GAIN IN Crassostrea virginica A Thesis by MARIE ELINOR WHITE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Agdi University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Oceanography Boonea (= Odostomia) impressa (SAY) (GASTROPODA: PYRAMIDELLIDAE): ITS LIFE HISTORY AND IMPACT ON SHELL WEIGHT GAIN IN Crassostrea virginica A...
S and 4 Reactor: Operating Lifetime and Estimates of Temperature and Burnup Reactivity Coefficients
King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)
2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
The S and 4 reactor has a sectored, Mo-14%Re solid core for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The reactor is loaded with UN fuel, cooled with a He-Xe gas mixture at {approx}1200 K and operates at steady thermal power of 550 kW. Following a launch abort accident, the axial and radial BeO reflectors easily disassemble upon impact so that the bare reactor is subcriticial when submerged in wet sand or seawater and the core voids are filled with seawater. Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) additives have been shown to increase the UN fuel enrichment and significantly reduce the total mass of the reactor. This paper investigates the effects of SSA additions on the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients and the operational lifetime of the S and 4 reactor. SSAs slightly decrease the temperature reactivity feedback coefficient, but significantly increase the operating lifetime by decreasing the burnup reactivity coefficient. With no SSAs, fuel enrichment is only 58.5 wt% and the estimated operating lifetime is the shortest (7.6 years) with the highest temperature and burnup reactivity feedback coefficients (-0.2709 cent /K and -1.3470 $/atom%). With europium-151 and gadolinium-155 additions, the enrichment (91.5 and 94 wt%) and operating lifetime (9.9 and 9.8 years) of the S and 4 reactor are the highest while the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients (-0.2382 and -0.2447 cent /K; -0.9073 and 0.8502 $/atom%) are the lowest.
Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey
Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.
Williams, Paul T.
2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.
Bai, Byong Chol [Department of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Hyun [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Korea Polytechnic IV College, Daejeon 300-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Korea Polytechnic IV College, Daejeon 300-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Seak, E-mail: youngslee@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: {yields} Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. {yields} Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. {yields} A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.
Minnesota, University of
Students gain experience through new internship program When the summer began, Samrakshak internship program, Lamichhane and three other undergraduates got a taste of real-world operations and gained
Lo, Chih-Yang
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in acidified milk 35 ANOVA of the partition coefficients of diacetyl in acidified milk 36 Effect of concentration of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 0% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C. . . . . 40 Effect of concentration... of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 10% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C. . . . . 41 Effect of concentration of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 20% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C...
Wilke, Anthony Gerald
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of diacetyl in acidified milk 30 10. 12. 13. Effect of milk fat concentration on the partition coefficients (Kd) of diacetyl at 3(IC. Effect of concenlration of SNF x pH interaction at 8% milk fat and at 30'C on the partition coefficients (Kd...) of diacetyl . , Effect of milk fat concentration on the partition coefficients (Kd) of diacetyl at 50'C Effect of concentration of diacetyl x pH interacfion at 16% milk fat and at MC on the partition coefficients (Kd) of diacetyl Effect of concentration...
Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.
Using Numerical Simulations to Gain Insight into the Structure of Superbubbles
Philip T. Komljenovic; Shantanu Basu; Doug Johnstone
1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
Recent high resolution observations of Galactic superbubbles have motivated us to re-examine several classes of superbubble models. We compare three classes of hydrodynamic models (the Kompaneets approximation, the thin shell model, and numerical simulations) in order to understand the structure of superbubbles and to gain insight into observations. In particular, we apply models to the W4 superbubble, which has been observed in the Pilot project of the arcminute resolution Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Normandeau et al. 1996). Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are also performed and point the way to a fuller understanding of the W4 superbubble. We suggest that the highly collimated bubble and apparent lack of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the superbubble shell can be explained by the presence of a magnetic field.
Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.
1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.
Large gain quantum-limited qubit measurement using a two-mode nonlinear cavity
Saeed Khan; R. Vijay; I. Siddiqi; Aashish A. Clerk
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of qubit state measurement in a setup where a driven, parametrically-coupled cavity system is directly coupled to the qubit, with one of the cavities having a weak Kerr nonlinearity. Such a system could be readily realized using circuit QED architectures. We demonstrate that this setup is capable in the standard linear-response regime of both producing a highly amplified output signal while at the same time achieving near quantum-limited performance: the measurement backaction on the qubit is near the minimal amount required by the uncertainty principle. This setup thus represents a promising route for performing efficient large-gain qubit measurement that is completely on-chip, and that does not rely on the use of circulators or complex non-reciprocal amplifiers.
Antenna Gain and Link Budget for Waves Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM)
Nguyen, Duy Kevin; Sokoloff, Jérôme; Chabory, Alexandre; Palacin, Baptiste; Capet, Nicolas
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper addresses the RF link budget of a communication system using unusual waves carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM) in order to clearly analyse the fundamental changes for telecommunication applications. The study is based on a typical configuration using circular array antennas to transmit and receive OAM waves. For any value of the OAM mode order, an original asymptotic formulation of the link budget is proposed in which equivalent antenna gains and free-space losses appear. The formulations are then validated with the results of a commercial electromagnetic simulation software. By this way, we also show how our formula can help to design a system capable of superimposing several channels on the same bandwidth and the same polarisation, based on the orthogonality of the OAM. Additional losses due to the use of this degree of freedom are notably clearly calculated to quantify the benefit and drawback according to the case.
Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings
Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.
Nguyen, Hieu T., E-mail: hieu.nguyen@anu.edu.au; Macdonald, Daniel [Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Baker-Finch, Simeon C. [Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia)
2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
The radiative recombination coefficient B(T) in crystalline silicon is determined for the temperature range 90–363?K, and in particular from 270 to 350?K with an interval of 10?K, where only sparse data are available at present. The band-band absorption coefficient established recently by Nguyen et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 043710 (2014)] via photoluminescence spectrum measurements is employed to compute the values of B(T) at various temperatures. The results agree very well with literature data from Trupke et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930 (2003).] We present a polynomial parameterization describing the temperature dependence of the product of B(T) and the square of the intrinsic carrier density. We also find that B(T) saturates at a near constant value at room temperature and above for silicon samples with relatively low free carrier densities.
Dean Lee; Thomas Schaefer
2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
We study cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice using an effective field theory. We work in the unitary limit in which the scattering length is much larger than the interparticle spacing. In this paper we focus on the equation of state at temperatures above the Fermi temperature and compare lattice simulations to the virial expansion on the lattice and in the continuum. We find that in the unitary limit lattice discretization errors in the second virial coefficient are significantly enhanced. As a consequence the equation of state does not show the universal scaling behavior expected in the unitary limit. We suggest that scaling can be improved by tuning the second virial coefficient rather than the scattering length.
Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils
Carson, Earl
1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
oils, is easily accounted for. Ilineral lubricating oils are not affected by high pressure steam or alkalies and these character- istics enable them to be used where other lubricants would be quite unfitted for the work. Animal Oils:-- These oils...RELATI01ISHII OF VISCOSITY, SUHFACE TEUSIOUS, A3D COEFFICIENT O? FlilCTIOB 0? LUBRICATING OILS. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Kansas, Lawrence. For The Degree of Master of Science ilechanioal...
Orejuela, Mauricio
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for removing organic contaminants from soil and from water. Most studies on SCF's concentrated on phase behavior in supercritical mixtures. Investigations of the adsorption phenomena and studies on hydrodynamics and transport rate parameters are relatively...LIMITING DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF HEAVY MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MAURICIO OREJUELA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...
Kruk, D. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, S?oneczna 54, PL-10710 Olsztyn (Poland); Universität Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Meier, R.; Rössler, E. A. [Universität Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Rachocki, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Pozna? (Poland); Korpa?a, A. [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków, Poland and Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Singh, R. K. [Ionic Liquid and Solid State Ionics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)
2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220–258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF{sub 4}, 243–318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF{sub 6}, 258–323 K). The dispersion of {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate R{sub 1}(?) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz–20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by {sup 19}F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF{sub 6} in the corresponding frequency range. From the {sup 1}H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF{sub 4}, and BMIM-PF{sub 6} are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R{sub 1} on square root of frequency. From the {sup 19}F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF{sub 6}. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids.
Werner, Thomas R. (Argonne, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Tucson, AZ); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.
Simulation of miscible displacement in soils and sensitivity to the dispersion coefficient
Smajstrla, Allen George
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in the porous media to the magnitude of the dispersion coefficient in the diffusion-type dispersion equation. Three simulation models were developed. One was capable of simulating unsaturated vertical infiltration of water into a homo- geneous, isotropic... porous media. The second simulated saturated dispersion of solutes during the steady state flow of water through homogeneous, isotropic porous media. The third general dispersion simulation model combined the aforementioned two and was capable...
The Quasi-Reversibility Method for the Thermoacoustic Tomography and a Coefficient Inverse Problem
Klibanov, Michael V; Nechaev, Dmitriy V; Kuzhuget, Andrey V
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An inverse problem of the determination of an initial condition in a hyperbolic equation from the lateral Cauchy data is considered. This problem has applications to the thermoacoustic tomography, as well as to linearized coefficient inverse problems of acoustics and electromagnetics. A new version of the quasi-reversibility method is described. This version requires a new Lipschitz stability estimate, which is obtained via the Carleman estimate. Numerical results are presented.
The Quasi-Reversibility Method for the Thermoacoustic Tomography and a Coefficient Inverse Problem
Michael V Klibanov; Sergey I Kabanikhin; Dmitriy V Nechaev; Andrey V Kuzhuget
2007-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
An inverse problem of the determination of an initial condition in a hyperbolic equation from the lateral Cauchy data is considered. This problem has applications to the thermoacoustic tomography, as well as to linearized coefficient inverse problems of acoustics and electromagnetics. A new version of the quasi-reversibility method is described. This version requires a new Lipschitz stability estimate, which is obtained via the Carleman estimate. Numerical results are presented.
Assessment of the Titanium Dioxide Absorption Coefficient by Grazing-An-
notes Assessment of the Titanium Dioxide Absorption Coefficient by Grazing-An- gle Fourier of the superficial TiO2 layer affects the biological response of titanium-based materials.68 Due to its effects. In particular, we selected the amorphous TiO2 layer present on the surfaces of bulk titanium (cpTi) and Ti6Al4V
Computer Simulation of Atoms Nuclei Structure Using Information Coefficients of Proportionality
Labushev, Mikhail M
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The latest research of the proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements made it possible to obtain 3 x 3 matrices for the calculation of information coefficients of proportionality Ip that can be used for 3D modeling of the structure of atom nucleus. The results of computer simulation show high potential of nucleus structure research for the characterization of their chemical and physical properties.
Computer Simulation of Atoms Nuclei Structure Using Information Coefficients of Proportionality
Mikhail M. Labushev
2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
The latest research of the proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements made it possible to obtain 3 x 3 matrices for the calculation of information coefficients of proportionality Ip that can be used for 3D modeling of the structure of atom nucleus. The results of computer simulation show high potential of nucleus structure research for the characterization of their chemical and physical properties.
Friction coefficients of sorghum grain on steel, teflon, and concrete surfaces
Hossain, Quazi A
1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
termed "Coulomb friction" or dry friction. Merriam (26) differentiated it from "fluid friction" (that which occurs in the presence of a separating layer of lubricating fluid) and "internal friction" (that which resists e~ternal shear in a cohesionless... by many investigators, notably by de la Hire (17) and Euler (13) . The latter agreed with Amontons in giving to all surfaces a frictional coefficient of one third. The most systematic work on friction was done by Coulomb (12) . He examined a large...
Supplementary Energy-Production Coefficients of American Feeding Stuffs Fed Ruminants.
Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)
1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-producing power. The productive energy may be stated in terms of matter, such as fat, or in terms of energy, such as therms. In the Unitecl States it is commonly stated in terms of therms. Productive energy may also be calculated from feed- ing experiments...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Brazos County, Texas BULLETIN NO. 402 OCTOBER, 1929 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Supplementary Energy-Production Coefficients of American Feeding Stuffs Fed Ruminants...
Boyer, Edmond
Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated has been developed based on periodic excitation by Joule effect and infrared thermography measurement. It has been applied to measure heat transfer coefficients of water flowing in a round tube
Chapman, Robin
's eight term exact sequence in integral group homology [BrLo] to an eight term exact sequence in group of nonabelian derived functors, an eight term exact sequence of Lie algebra homology with /q coefficients homology with Zq = Z/qZ coefficients, where q is a nonnegative integer. For any group G and its normal
Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.
2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/?·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift...
Chu, Xi
Dynamic polarizabilities of rare-earth-metal atoms and dispersion coefficients; published 29 March 2007 The dynamic scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the rare-earth-metal atoms coefficients for the interactions of the rare-earth-metal atoms with helium atoms. The static polarizabilities
Kaganovich, Igor
Coefficient in Energy in Bounded Collisional Plasmas Lev D. Tsendin Abstract--The electron energies in typical, the momentum relaxation in collisions with neutrals is sig- nificantly faster than the energy relaxation due be de- scribed by a diffusion coefficient in energy . Both collisional and stochastic heating mechanisms
Torquato, Salvatore
Effective conductivity, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media, dielectric constant and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media. This is accomplished by first then develop the appropriate first-passage-time equations for digitized media: first-passage squares in two
An interpretation of potential scale dependence of the effectivematrix diffusion coefficient
Liu, H.H.; Zhang, Y.Q.; Zhou, Q.; Molz, F.J.
2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
Matrix diffusion is an important process for solutetransport in fractured rock, and the matrix diffusion coefficient is akey parameter for describing this process. Previous studies indicatedthat the effective matrix diffusion coefficient values, obtained from alarge number of field tracer tests, are enhanced in comparison with localvalues and may increase with test scale. In this study, we have performednumerical experiments to investigate potential mechanisms behind possiblescale-dependent behavior. The focus of the experiments is on solutetransport in flow paths having geometries consistent with percolationtheories and characterized by local flow loops formed mainly bysmall-scale fractures. The water velocity distribution through a flowpath was determined using discrete fracture network flow simulations, andsolute transport was calculated using a previously derivedimpulse-response function and a particle-tracking scheme. Values foreffective (or up-scaled) transport parameters were obtained by matchingbreakthrough curves from numerical experiments with an analyticalsolution for solute transport along a single fracture. Results indicatethat a combination of local flow loops and the associated matrixdiffusion process, together with scaling properties in flow pathgeometry, seems to be the dominant mechanism causing the observed scaledependence of theeffective matrix diffusion coefficient (at a range ofscales).
Transport coefficients of heavy quarks around $T_c$ at finite quark chemical potential
H. Berrehrah; P. B. Gossiaux; J. Aichelin; W. Cassing; J. M. Torres-Rincon; E. Bratkovskaya
2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
The interactions of heavy quarks with the partonic environment at finite temperature $T$ and finite quark chemical potential $\\mu_q$ are investigated in terms of transport coefficients within the Dynamical Quasi-Particle model (DQPM) designed to reproduce the lattice-QCD results (including the partonic equation of state) in thermodynamic equilibrium. These results are confronted with those of nuclear many-body calculations close to the critical temperature $T_c$. The hadronic and partonic spatial diffusion coefficients join smoothly and show a pronounced minimum around $T_c$, at $\\mu_q=0$ as well as at finite $\\mu_q$. Close and above $T_c$ its absolute value matches the lQCD calculations for $\\mu_q=0$. The smooth transition of the heavy quark transport coefficients from the hadronic to the partonic medium corresponds to a cross over in line with lattice calculations, and differs substantially from perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations which show a large discontinuity at $T_c$. This indicates that in the vicinity of $T_c$ dynamically dressed massive partons and not massless pQCD partons are the effective degrees-of-freedom in the quark-gluon plasma.
Lindsey, C.P.; Yariv, A.
1988-12-13T23:59:59.000Z
This patent describes a broad area injection semiconductor laser having a predetermined two-dimensional pattern of injecting and noninjecting contacts over a broad area of the device in which laser the two-dimensional spatial gain profile is tailored over the broad area to conform to a predetermined tailored pattern of varying injection by a predetermined contact pattern of injecting and noninjecting areas over the broad area of the contact pattern being achieved by variation in the fractional surface coverage per unit area of injecting to noninjecting contact, thereby achieving the predetermined pattern of two-dimensional spatial gain profile.
Duill, Sean P O; Zhou, Rui; Barry, Liam P
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present detailed numerical simulations of the laser dynamics that describe optical frequency comb formation by injection-locking a gain-switched laser. The typical rate equations for semiconductor lasers including stochastic carrier recombination and spontaneous emission suffice to show the injection-locking behavior of gain switched lasers, and we show how the optical frequency comb evolves starting from the free-running state, right through the final injection- locked state. Unlike the locking of continuous wave lasers, we show that the locking range for gain switched lasers is considerably greater because injection locking can be achieved by injecting at frequencies close to one of the comb lines. The quality of the comb lines are formally assessed by calculating the FM-noise spectral density and we show that under injection-locking conditions the FM-noise spectral density of the comb lines tend to that of the maser laser.
Gain and tuning characteristics of mid-infrared InSb quantum dot diode lasers
Lu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Hayton, J.; Yin, M.; Krier, A. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
There have been relatively few reports of lasing from InSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, type II InSb/InAs QD laser diodes emitting in the mid-infrared at 3.1??m have been demonstrated and characterized. The gain was determined to be 2.9?cm{sup ?1} per QD layer, and the waveguide loss was ?15?cm{sup ?1} at 4?K. Spontaneous emission measurements below threshold revealed a blue shift of the peak wavelength with increasing current, indicating filling of ground state heavy hole levels in the QDs. The characteristic temperature, T{sub 0}?=?101?K below 50?K, but decreased to 48?K at higher temperatures. The emission wavelength of these lasers showed first a blue shift followed by a red shift with increasing temperature. A hybrid structure was used to fabricate the laser by combining a liquid phase epitaxy grown p-InAs{sub 0.61}Sb{sub 0.13}P{sub 0.26} lower cladding layer and an upper n{sup +} InAs plasmon cladding layer which resulted in a maximum operating temperature (T{sub max}) of 120?K in pulsed mode, which is the highest reported to date.
Insights gained from in-depth reviews of several industry generated PRAs
Pratt, W.T.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Bari, R.A.; Rosenthal, J.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
During the last several years BNL staff have performed in-depth reviews of the containment failure modes and fission product release analyses of all the ''industry'' PRAs submitted to the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC. This program started with a reevaluation of the risks reported in the Zion and Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Studies (PWRs with large dry containments) and was followed by reviews of the Limerick (BWR with Mark II containment) and Big Rock Point (early BWR design) PRAs. We are currently completing reviews of the GESSAR-II (BWR with a Mark III containment) and Millstone-3 (PWR with a subatmospheric containment) PRAs. This paper therefore presents the insights gained from extensive reevaluations of the risk associated with a wide range of reactor and containment designs. In particular, the paper shows how changing methodology has influenced our understanding of containment performance under degraded core conditions and how this influences the frequency, timing and magnitude of fission product release to the environment, which in turn impacts potential off-site consequences. 18 refs.
Methods And System Suppressing Clutter In A Gain-Block, Radar-Responsive Tag System
Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)
2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
Methods and systems reduce clutter interference in a radar-responsive tag system. A radar transmits a series of linear-frequency-modulated pulses and receives echo pulses from nearby terrain and from radar-responsive tags that may be in the imaged scene. Tags in the vicinity of the radar are activated by the radar's pulses. The tags receive and remodulate the radar pulses. Tag processing reverses the direction, in time, of the received waveform's linear frequency modulation. The tag retransmits the remodulated pulses. The radar uses a reversed-chirp de-ramp pulse to process the tag's echo. The invention applies to radar systems compatible with coherent gain-block tags. The invention provides a marked reduction in the strength of residual clutter echoes on each and every echo pulse received by the radar. SAR receiver processing effectively whitens passive-clutter signatures across the range dimension. Clutter suppression of approximately 14 dB is achievable for a typical radar system.
Z. L. Yuan; M. Lucamarini; J. F. Dynes; B. Frohlich; M. B. Ward; A. J. Shields
2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
Since the introduction of the decoy-state technique, phase-randomised weak coherent light pulses have been the key to increase the practicality of quantum-based communications. Their ultra-fast generation was accomplished via compact gain-switched (GS) lasers, leading to high key rates in quantum key distribution (QKD). Recently, the question arose of whether the same laser could be employed to achieve high-speed measurement-device-independent-QKD, a scheme that promises long-haul quantum communications immune to all detector attacks. For that, a challenging highvisibility interference between independent picosecond optical pulses is required. Here, we answer the above question in the affirmative by demonstrating high-visibility interference from two independent GS lasers triggered at 1GHz. The result is obtained through a careful characterization of the laser frequency chirp and time jitter. By relating these quantities to the interference visibility, we obtain a parameter-free verification of the experimental data and a numerical simulation of the achievable key rates. These findings are beneficial to other applications making use of GS lasers, including random number generation and standard QKD.
Observation of spectral gain narrowing in a high-order harmonic seeded soft-x-ray amplifier
Tissandier, F.; Sebban, S.; Ribiere, M.; Gautier, J.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Lambert, G.; Barszczak Sardinha, A.; Goddet, J.-Ph.; Burgy, F.; Lefrou, T.; Valentin, C.; Rousse, A.; Guilbaud, O.; Klisnick, A.; Nejdl, J.; Mocek, T.; Maynard, G. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA Paristech/Ecole Polytechnique/CNRS UMR 7639, F-91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Laboratoire d'Interaction du Rayonnement X Avec la Matiere, Universite Paris Sud/CNRS UMR 8624, F-91495 Orsay Cedex (France); Department of X-ray Lasers, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris Sud/CNRS UMR 8578, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report an observation of spectral gain narrowing of a high-order harmonic amplified by a soft-x-ray optical-field-ionized plasma. The temporal coherence and spectral linewidth of both the seeded and unseeded soft-x-ray lasers were experimentally measured using a varying-path-difference interferometer. The results showed that the high-order harmonic is subject to a strong spectral narrowing during its propagation in the plasma amplifier without rebroadening at saturation. This is in good agreement with a radiative transfer calculation including gain narrowing and saturation rebroadening.
P. Butera; P. Federbush; M. Pernici
2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
Using a relation between the virial expansion coefficients of the pressure and the entropy expansion coefficients in the case of the monomer-dimer model on infinite regular lattices, we have shown that, on hypercubic lattices of any dimension, the virial coefficients are positive through the 20th order. We have observed that all virial coefficients so far known for this system are positive also on infinite regular lattices with different structure. We are thus led to conjecture that the virial expansion coefficients $m_k $ are always positive. These considerations can be extended to the study of related bounds on finite graphs generalizing the infinite regular lattices, namely the finite grids and the regular biconnected graphs. The validity of the bounds $\\Delta^k {\\rm ln}(i! N(i)) \\le 0$ for $k \\ge 2$, where $N(i)$ is the number of configurations of $i$ dimers on the graph and $\\Delta$ is the forward difference operator, is shown to correspond to the positivity of the virial coefficients. Our tests on many finite lattice graphs indicate that on large lattices these bounds are satisfied, giving support to the conjecture on the positivity of the virial coefficients. An exhaustive survey of some classes of regular biconnected graphs with a not too large number $v$ of vertices shows only few violations of these bounds. We conjecture that the frequency of the violations vanishes as $v \\to \\infty$. We find rigorous upper bounds on $N(i)$ valid for arbitrary graphs and for regular graphs. The similarity between the Heilman-Lieb inequality and the one conjectured above suggests that one study the stricter inequality $m_k \\ge \\frac{1}{2k}$ for the virial coefficients, which is valid for all the known coefficients of the infinite regular lattice models.
Ginzburg-Landau theory of the bcc-liquid interface kinetic coefficient
Kuo-An Wu; Ching-Hao Wang; Jeffrey J. Hoyt; Alain Karma
2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
We extend the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory of atomically rough bcc-liquid interfaces [Wu {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. B \\textbf{73}, 094101 (2006)] outside of equilibrium. We use this extension to derive an analytical expression for the kinetic coefficient, which is the proportionality constant $\\mu(\\hat n)$ between the interface velocity along a direction $\\hat n$ normal to the interface and the interface undercooling. The kinetic coefficient is expressed as a spatial integral along the normal direction of a sum of gradient square terms corresponding to different nonlinear density wave profiles. Anisotropy arises naturally from the dependence of those profiles on the angles between the principal reciprocal lattice vectors $\\vec K_i$ and $\\hat n$. Values of the kinetic coefficient for the$(100)$, $(110)$ and $(111)$ interfaces are compared quantitatively to the prediction of linear Mikheev-Chernov (MC) theory [J. Cryst. Growth \\textbf{112}, 591 (1991)] and previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of crystallization kinetics for a classical model of Fe. Additional MD simulations are carried out here to compute the relaxation time of density waves in the liquid in order to make this comparison free of fit parameter. The GL theory predicts a similar expression for $\\mu$ as the MC theory but yields a better agreement with MD simulations for both its magnitude and anisotropy due to a fully nonlinear description of density wave profiles across the solid-liquid interface. GL theory is also used to derive an inverse relation between $\\mu$ and the solid-liquid interfacial free-energy. The general methodology used here to derive an expression for $\\mu(\\hat n)$ also applies to amplitude equations derived from the phase-field-crystal model, which only differ from GL theory by the choice of cubic and higher order nonlinearities in the free-energy density.
Tucker, M.D.
1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup {minus}1} while the half-velocity constant (K{sub s}) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub d}) was calculated as 0.072 days{sup {minus}1}. After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.
Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.
Lankford, Jr., James (San Antonio, TX)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.
Wrick Sengupta
2009-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
A new analytical operator method is discussed which solves linear ordinary differential equations with regular singularities. Solutions are obtained in analytic series form and also in Mellin-Barnes-type contour integral form. Exact series solution is obtained without having to calculate series coefficients by recurrence relation.Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous equations are solved identically without having to calculate the Green's function explicitly in the case of inhomogeneous equation.Closed-form solutions are obtained for all the special functions appearing in mathematical physics. For a second-order equation both the independent solutions are obtained without invoking Wronskians, even when the indices differ by an integer.
Hall-Coefficient and Resistivity of Amorphous Ti1-Xalx Films
RATHNAYAKA, KDD; HENNINGS, BD; Naugle, Donald G.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. INTRODUCTION The Hall coefficients of amorphous metals are general- ly positive when the alloy is dominated by an early- transition-metal component. (See reviews by Howson and Gallager, ' Mizutani, Naugle, and Naugle and Rhie. ) This has been thoroughly... investigated for early- transition-metal ?late-transition-metal (ETM-LTM) al- loys. The Zr-based amorphous alloys [Zr-Cu, ' Zr-Ni, Zr-Co, ' Zr-Fe (Refs. 8 and 11)] compose one of the most completely studied ETM-LTM alloy system. As the composition...
Inversion of Robin coefficient by a spectral stochastic finite element approach
Jin Bangti [Department of Mathematics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: kimbtsing@yahoo.com.cn; Zou Jun [Department of Mathematics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: zou@math.cuhk.edu.hk
2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper investigates a variational approach to the nonlinear stochastic inverse problem of probabilistically calibrating the Robin coefficient from boundary measurements for the steady-state heat conduction. The problem is formulated into an optimization problem, and mathematical properties relevant to its numerical computations are investigated. The spectral stochastic finite element method using polynomial chaos is utilized for the discretization of the optimization problem, and its convergence is analyzed. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is derived for the optimization system. Numerical results for several two-dimensional problems are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the stochastic finite element method.
Experimental identification of structural force coefficients in a bump-type foil bearing
Breedlove, Anthony Wayne
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
/m] KW Prediction model stiffness of bump with one welded and one free end [MN/m] kB Thermal conductivity of FB housing material [W/mK] kf Thermal conductivity of foil layer [W/mK] kS Thermal conductivity of test shaft material [W/mK] L Bearing axial... foil weld location [degrees] Subscript B Bearing b Bump I Initial condition f Foil S Shaft Superscript ' Denotes new radial dimension after thermal expansion Acronyms ACM Air Cycle Machine APU Auxiliary Power Units CTE Coefficient...
The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient
Amad, Mohamad Towfic
1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
by organisms in a lake and the quantity of oxygen diffusion through the air-water interface were determined and the results were verified by field measurements. It was shown that the oxygen uptake rate of organisms in a body of water can be measured... diffusion. 3. To derive an expression to predict the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration during the critical night period for a lake o" pond treated with "Aquasave". The ~sco e of this research has been to determine the oxygen transfer coefficient...
The Calculation of Clebsh-Gordan Coefficients for the Permutation Group by the Eigenfunction Method
Chin-Sheng wu
2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
We use the eigenfunction method to calculate the Clebsh-Gordan coefficients for the permutation group . This method is well-established by Jin-Quan Chen. Here we elaborate the detailed procedures for the pedagogical purpose. Due to the nature of the symmetry, one may get the degeneracy from the solution of eigenfunctions for given one class operator. In order to remove the degeneracy we use extra class operators, which may be the subgroup class operator or even the state permutation operator. In doing so, a variety of eigenvalues come out. Every eigenfunction is therefore obtained, and basis vectors are completely found.
Wang, Ling
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
and F1 in cavity I and cavity II, respectively. The theory of this generic model of ICAM has been developed by Fry et. al. [27, 28]. Let the scalar L(r, a0) denote the radiance in the direction of unit vector a1 at point r. Then, at point r, we can... to avoid the confusion with speed of light), a1s is the scattering coefficient, and p is the scattering phase function. The equation is easy to understand: the change of the radiance along one specific direction is due to the loss from the attenuation...
Gray, M.; Nilsson, M. [University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Zalupski, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)
Heat transfer coefficients in two-dimensional Yukawa systems (numerical simulations)
Khrustalyov, Yu. V., E-mail: yuri.khrustalyov@gmail.com; Vaulina, O. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
New data on heat transfer in two-dimensional Yukawa systems have been obtained. The results of a numerical study of the thermal conductivity for equilibrium systems with parameters close to the conditions of laboratory experiments in dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. The influence of dissipation (internal friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems is studied. New approximations are proposed for the thermal conductivity and diffusivity for nonideal dissipative systems. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and numerical data.
Gains From Real-Time Tracking of Prostate Motion During External Beam Radiation Therapy
Li Jinsheng, E-mail: jinsheng.li@fccc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Jin Lihui; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Price, Robert A.; Ma Changming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)
2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To study the gains from real-time tracking of prostate motion and threshold-based intervention and the feasibility of margin reduction for external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Prostate intrafractional motion data from 775 randomly selected treatment fractions (105 prostate patients) were analyzed. Statistical distributions of prostate intrafractional displacement from baseline were used for treatment margin calculation together with other geometrical uncertainties for all patients and a subset of 7 patient who exhibited the largest intrafractional motion. Compared with treatment without any intrafractional intervention, potential reductions in treatment margins were evaluated for treatments with 5-mm and 3-mm threshold-based intervention and four-dimensional (4D) treatments with and without prostate rotation correction. Results: The percentage of time of prostate displacement from the baseline by 3 mm and 5 mm in any direction was 13.4% and 1.8%, respectively, for the general patient population. The ratios were 41% and 15% for the 7 selected patients. Reductions in the posterior margin were 0.2, 0.5, 1.3, and 3.1 mm from the original 7.7 mm, respectively, for 5-mm and 3-mm threshold-based treatments and 4D treatments with and without prostate rotation correction for all patients. They were 1.3, 1.9, 3.1 and 4.9 mm from the original 9.5 mm, corresponding to the 7 selected patients. The treatment margin reductions in other directions were even smaller. Conclusions: Real-time motion tracking and threshold-based intrafractional intervention may play a significant roll in treatment margin reduction for a small fraction of patients but not for the general patient population. Four-dimensional treatments with prostate rotation correction can reduce the treatment margin more significantly.
Hochberg, Michael
Engineers, Inc. Laboratory Consultant: Research Facilities Design Energy Modeling: SOLARC ArchitectureFor natural ventilation to work, solar gains through the facade needed to be reduced--largely due to the enormous ventilation demands and the energy associated with moving and conditioning
Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser ampli er perturbed by a strong injected X-ray eld
Wang, Yong [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Oliva, E [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas; Lu, L [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Yin, Liang [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Nejdl, J [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Proux, C [Laboratoire d’Optique Applique´e, ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique] [Laboratoire d’Optique Applique´e, ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique; Le, T. T. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas; Dunn, James [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ros, D [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Gaz et des Plasmas; Zeitoun, Philippe [École Polytechnique] [École Polytechnique; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Seeding soft X-ray plasma ampli ers with high harmonics has been demonstrated to generate high-brightness soft X-ray laser pulses with full spatial and temporal coherence. The interaction between the injected coherent eld and the swept-gain medium has been modelled. However, no exper- iment has been conducted to probe the gain dynamics when perturbed by a strong external seed eld. Here, we report the rst X-ray pump X-ray probe measurement of the nonlinear response of a plasma ampli er perturbed by a strong soft X-ray ultra-short pulse. We injected a sequence of two time-delayed high-harmonic pulses (l518.9 nm) into a collisionally excited nickel-like molybdenum plasma to measure with femto-second resolution the gain depletion induced by the saturated ampli cation of the high-harmonic pump and its subsequent recovery. The measured fast gain recovery in 1.5 1.75 ps con rms the possibility to generate ultra-intense, fully phase-coherent soft X-ray lasers by chirped pulse ampli cation in plasma ampli ers.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Influence of digestibility of bulky forages in daily gains in penned steers using two levels Experimental Agropecuaria, 2700 Pergamino, Buenos Aires, Argentina Digestibility of bulky forages directly, 95-121). In general there is more information about high quality forage digestibility than about low
Chatziantoniou, Damianos
IN GREECE» ( ) Abstract Income inequality gains significance from its close relationship with social distribution in Greece utilizing alternative data sources and employing several statistic and econometric is the introduction. Chapter 2 presents a detailed literature review of income inequality in Greece. Data
Turner, Matthew C.
constraints. Although its introduction in (Lin & Saberi1993) was fairly modest, it has since been used on predictive control. The low-and-high gain technique was introduced in Lin & Saberi (1995) as a method ensuring that the region in which stability was guaranteed did not shrink. With the work in Lin & Saberi
Chow, Mo-Yuen
Abstract--Health management systems have been gaining substantial attentions in power engineering of the proposed health management systems. Index Terms--health management systems, power distribution systems will be used to illustrate the features of the proposed health management systems for power engineering
Mohaghegh, Shahab
-2007, at 0.1 percent, which equaled the state rate but fell far below the national average. In addition. Harrison County showed strong job growth in manufacturing (2.7 percent per year) during the past five years. The aerospace sector contributed significantly to manufacturing job gains during the period. Also posting strong
Wurtele, Jonathan
IEEEJOURNAL OF QUANTUMELECTRONICS, VOL. QE-21,NO. 7, JULY 1985 831 High-Gain Free Electron Lasers, AND J. S. WURTELE Abstract-High-power free electron lasers (FEL's) can be realized using induction. INTRODUCTION THE free electron laser (FEL)[11 can produce coherent radiation at wavelengths from
Analytic model of bunched beams for harmonic generation in the low-gain free electron laser regime
Wurtele, Jonathan
Analytic model of bunched beams for harmonic generation in the low-gain free electron laser regime employs free electron lasers (FELs) with two undulators: the first uses a seed laser to modulate Many proposed x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) are designed to produce radiation starting from
Mittelmann, Hans D.
, infrared sensors, and ultrasound sensors. These sensors are becoming increasingly important due to a wide locations are evaluated. Our goal is to assign each sensor to a particular direction such that the overallDirectional Sensor Control for Maximizing Information Gain Shankarachary Ragia, Hans D. Mittelmannb
Energy gain spectroscopic study of Ar{sup q+}-Ar collisions at 40 qeV
Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.
1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Energy gain spectra of Ar{sup q+}(8 {le} q {le} 16) on Ar at 40 qeV collision energy and 0.4 qeV energy resolution are presented. Capture into definite states of the projectile is observed which seems to exhibit a definite even-odd projectile charge state dependence.
Measurement of positive gain on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine pumped by O2,,a1
Carroll, David L.
state I 2 P3/2 . Conventionally, the O2 1 is produced by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator of gain. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1784519] The classic chemical oxygen the metastable excited singlet oxygen molecule, O2 a1 [de- noted O2 1 hereafter], and the iodine atom ground
Chow, Mo-Yuen
Internet, networks, adaptive control, DC motors, distributed control, real time system. I. INTRODUCTION RECENT and advancing trend in the networked control area is to substitute specialized industrial networksAbstractThis paper presents an implementation of a networked PI controller using a gain scheduling
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Robust Control Using High-Order Sliding Modes and a High Gain Observer
Brest, UniversitÃ© de
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Robust Control Using High-Order Sliding Modes and a High Gain Observer with the power generation control in variable speed wind turbines. In this context, a control strategy is proposed to ensure power extraction optimization of a DFIG- based wind turbine. The proposed control
TOWARDS AN ER-DOPED SI NANOCRYSTAL SENSITIZED WAVEGUIDE LASER THE THIN LINE BETWEEN GAIN AND LOSS
Kik, Pieter
and waveguide. If the pump laser could somehow be eliminated from this scheme, the fabrication of low-cost SiTOWARDS AN ER-DOPED SI NANOCRYSTAL SENSITIZED WAVEGUIDE LASER Â THE THIN LINE BETWEEN GAIN AND LOSS-doped SiO2, a composite material that can potentially be fabricated using a VLSI compatible process
Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser the thin line between gain and loss
Polman, Albert
somehow be eliminated from this scheme, the fabrication of low-cost Si based Er doped optical amplifiers1 Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser Â the thin line between gain-doped Si nanocrystal co-doped SiO2, a composite material that can potentially be fabricated using a VLSI
Brennan, D. P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Finn, J. M. [Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.
Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump
Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.
1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.
Effective anomalous Hall coefficient in an ultrathin Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers
Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Jiang, Zhengsheng; Sang, Hai, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lin, Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.lin@u-psud.fr, E-mail: haisang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France)
2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pt multilayer is important to study the effect of interface with strong spin-orbit coupling. However, the shunting effect of the layers in such system and the circuit in the plane perpendicular to the injected current were overlooked in most works and thus, anomalous Hall coefficient in Co/Pt multilayer has not been determined accurately. Considering the shunting effect and the equivalent circuit, we show that the effective anomalous Hall coefficient of a 0.5?nm thick Co layer sandwiched by Pt layers R{sub S} is 0.29?±?0.01????cm/T at the zero temperature limit and increases to about 0.73????cm/T at the temperature of 300?K. R{sub S} is one order larger than that in bulk Co film, indicating the large contribution of the Co/Pt interface. R{sub S} increases with the resistivity of Co as well as a resistivity independent contribution of ?0.23?±?0.01????cm/T. The equivalent anomalous Hall current in the Co layer has a maximum of 1.1% of the injected transverse current in the Co layer around the temperature of 80?K.
Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada, Montreal (Canada)
2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)
Kaplan, D.; et. al
2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
The uncertainty associated with the sorption coefficient, or K{sub d} value, is one of the key uncertainties in estimating risk associated with burying low-level nuclear waste in the subsurface. The objective of this study was to measure >648 K{sub d} values and provide a measure of the range and distribution (normal or log-normal) of radionuclide K{sub d} values appropriate for the E-Area disposal site, within the Savannah River Site, near Aiken South Carolina. The 95% confidence level for the mean K{sub d} was twice the mean in the Aquifer Zone (18-30.5 m depth), equal to the mean for the Upper Vadose Zone (3.3-10 m depth), and half the mean for the Lower Vadose Zone (3.10-18 m depth). The distribution of K{sub d} values was log normal in the Upper Vadose Zone and Aquifer Zone, and normal in the Lower Vadose Zone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural radionuclide Kd variability in the literature. Using ranges and distribution coefficients that are specific to the hydrostratigraphic unit improved model accuracy and reduced model uncertainty. Unfortunately, extension of these conclusions to other sites is likely not appropriate given that each site has its own sources of hydrogeological variability. However, this study provides one of the first examples of the development stochastic ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values for a hydrological unit for stochastic modeling.
On the coefficients of the liquid drop model mass formulae and nuclear radii
G. Royer
2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
The coefficients of different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and including or not the curvature energy, the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, different forms of the Wigner term and different powers of the relative neutron excess $I=(N-Z)/A$ have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses. The Coulomb diffuseness correction $Z^2/A$ term or the charge exchange correction $Z^{4/3}/A^{1/3}$ term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately for the same purpose. The introduction of an $|I|$ dependence in the surface and volume energies improves slightly the efficiency of the expansion and is more effective than an $I^4$ dependence. Different expressions reproducing the experimental nuclear charge radius are provided. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV and a relative equivalent rms charge radius r$_0$ of 1.22-1.23 fm.
Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump
Brantley, Vanston R. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, Donald R. (Kingston, TN)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.
Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework
Gong, R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lu, C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Cheng, H. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL
2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.
Critical thickness of an optimum extended surface characterized by uniform heat transfer coefficient
Leontiou, Theodoros
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of extended surfaces (fins) subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional heat conduction and (ii) the base of the fin is included in the heat transfer process. The problem is modeled as an arbitrary two-dimensional channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic array of extensions/fins which are subjected to heat convection with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Using the generalized Schwarz-Christoffel transformation the domain is mapped onto a straight channel where the heat conduction problem is solved using the boundary element method. The boundary element solution is subsequently used to pose a shape optimization problem, i.e. an inverse problem, where the objective function is the normalized Shape Factor and the variables of the optimization are the parameters of the Sch...
Azad, Abdul-Majeed
Active and Passive Elec. Comp., September 2003, Vol. 26, pp. 151166 ULTRA-LOW TEMPERATURE that this material system possessed low dielectric constant and ultra-low temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC
Geb, David; Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the Hydraulic Drag and Heat Transfer Coefficients in Porous5] Locke, G. L. , 1950, “Heat Transfer and Flow FrictionA. P. , 1993, “Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Resistance in
Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN Quantum-Well Gain Media for Mid-and Deep-Ultraviolet Lasers
Gilchrist, James F.
Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN Quantum-Well Gain Media for Mid- and Deep-Ultraviolet Lasers Volume.1109/JPHOT.2013.2248705 1943-0655/$31.00 Ó2013 IEEE #12;Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN Quantum-Well Gain@Lehigh.Edu). Abstract: The gain characteristics of AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells (QWs) with varying delta-GaN positions
The role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions
Ishwar Dutt; Rajeev K. Puri
2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.
The shifted harmonic approximation and asymptotic SU(2) and SU(1,1) Clebsch--Gordan coefficients
David J Rowe; Hubert de Guise
2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of SU(2) and SU(1,1) are defined as eigenfunctions of a linear operator acting on the tensor product of the Hilbert spaces for two irreps of these groups. The shifted harmonic approximation is then used to solve these equations in asymptotic limits in which these eigenfunctions approach harmonic oscillator wave functions and thereby derive asymptotic expressions for these Clebsch--Gordan coefficients.
COWLEY, W.L.
2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the general methodology of calculating the atmospheric dispension coefficients ({chi}/Q{prime}s) to be used in the safety basis documents for the tank farm facilities. Values of {chi}/Q{prime} given in this report were generated using the GXQ code Version 4.0F, which reproduces the statistical treatment of the Hanford Site joint frequency meteorology specified in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guide (NRC) 1.145, ''Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments ut Nuclear Power Plants''. GXQ is documented in WHC-SD-GN-SWD-30002, GXQ 4.0 Program Users' Guide, and a listing of the code is shown in Appendix A. Alternate calculations used to verify the GXQ results are contained in the appendices. The alternate calculations are included to demonstrate compliance with Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 requirements for software use. Calculation of the basic dispersion parameters used at the tank farms is discussed in Section 2.2 with results given in Section 2.2.6. Specific assumptions and input used to generate the {chi}/Q{prime}s at the tank farms are discussed. The logarithmic interpolation procedure used to generate {chi}/Q{prime}s used for long-duration (>2 hr) releases is described in detail. A sample input file and a set of run files are listed in Appendix B. Modifications to the basic dispersion coefficients to account for plume depletion, momentum/thermal plume rise, and large source effects are discussed in Section 2.3 with examples calculated. Corresponding sample run files are listed in Appendix C. The GXQ results were verified using a set of alternate calculations documented in Chapter 3.0. Special GXQ run files used in the independent verification are listed in Appendices D, E, and F. Chapters 4.0 and 5.0 present detailed discussions of the procedures used to estimate radiological and toxicological exposures using the dispersion coefficients developed in Chapters 2.0 and 3.0. Additional {chi}/Q{prime} values that were requested to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) are included as Appendices G, H, I, and J. Future requests for {chi}/Q{prime}s will be documented as additional appendices to this report.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
294. DÉTERMINATION GRAPHIQUE DES COEFFICIENTS DE FRESNEL EN INCIDENCE OBLIQUE A LA SURFACE DE coefficients de Fresnel ainsi obtenus, on a également déterminé pour diverses incidences le facteur de. Cette précision atteint I/I000 en valeur relative pour les coefficients de Fresnel et quelques millièmes
Kinetic freeze-out, particle spectra and harmonic flow coefficients from mode-by-mode hydrodynamics
Stefan Floerchinger; Urs Achim Wiedemann
2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
The kinetic freeze-out for the hydrodynamical description of relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed using a background-fluctuation splitting of the hydrodynamical fields. For a single event, the particle spectrum, or its logarithm, can be written as the sum of background part that is symmetric with respect to azimuthal rotations and longitudinal boosts and a part containing the contribution of fluctuations or deviations from the background. Using a complete orthonormal basis to characterize the initial state allows one to write the double differential harmonic flow coefficients determined by the two-particle correlation method as matrix expressions involving the initial fluid correlations. We discuss the use of these expressions for a mode-by-mode analysis of fluctuating initial conditions in heavy ion collisions.
Austin, Larry Morton
1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
" ? ' + 2 2 3 x x x The expansion of Equation (I-4) is as follows. (. D + f (x) ] R) + g (x) j y = [ D + f (x) 3 L y' t g (x) y ) = D I. y ' + g (x) y J + f (x) Ly ' + g (x) y) = y" +g(x) y' + g'(x) y + f(x) y' + f (x) g (x) y . Collecting terms, we... have Y" + & 9 (x) + f(x) ) Y' + &g'(x) + I (x) 9 (x) &Y = O. (I-6) The similarity between Equations (I-3) and (I-5) is obvious, and we note that both equations are monic. Thus, equating the coefficients of y' and y in the two equations yields...
Impact of higher-order flows in the moment equations on Pfirsch-Schlüter friction coefficients
Honda, M., E-mail: honda.mitsuru@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The impact of the higher-order flows in the moment approach on an estimate of the friction coefficients is numerically examined. The higher-order flows are described by the lower-order hydrodynamic flows using the collisional plasma assumption. Their effects have not been consistently taken into account thus far in the widely used neoclassical transport codes based on the moment equations in terms of the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux. Due to numerically solving the friction-flow matrix without using the small-mass ratio expansion, it is clearly revealed that incorporating the higher-order flow effects is of importance especially for plasmas including multiple hydrogenic ions and other lighter species with similar masses.
Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu
Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)
2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
A 5?nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup ?8}]exp[?(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT]?cm{sup 2}/s.
Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficients of Icosahedral Boron Arsenide Films on Silicon Carbide
Y Gong; Y Zhang; M Dudley; Y Zhang; J Edgar; P Heard; M Kuball
2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal conductivity of icosahedral boron arsenide (B{sub 12}As{sub 2}) films grown on (0001) 6H-SiC substrates by chemical vapor deposition was studied by the 3{omega} technique. The room temperature thermal conductivity decreased from 27.0 to 15.3 W/m K as the growth temperature was decreased from 1450 to 1275 C. This is mainly attributed to the differences in the impurity concentration and microstructure, determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Callaway's theory was applied to calculate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Seebeck coefficients were determined as 107 {micro}V/K and 136 {micro}V/K for samples grown at 1350 C with AsH{sub 3}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow ratio equals to 1:1 and 3:5, respectively.
Dobos, A. P.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes an improved algorithm for calculating the six parameters required by the California Energy Commission (CEC) photovoltaic (PV) Calculator module model. Rebate applications in California require results from the CEC PV model, and thus depend on an up-to-date database of module characteristics. Currently, adding new modules to the database requires calculating operational coefficients using a general purpose equation solver - a cumbersome process for the 300+ modules added on average every month. The combination of empirical regressions and heuristic methods presented herein achieve automated convergence for 99.87% of the 5487 modules in the CEC database and greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency by which new modules can be characterized and approved for use. The added robustness also permits general purpose use of the CEC/6 parameter module model by modelers and system analysts when standard module specifications are known, even if the module does not exist in a preprocessed database.
Yang, Zhen; Robb, D.A. (Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology)
1994-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
The effect of solvent on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase toward three substrates was studied at a constant water activity of either 0.74 or 0.86. No simple correlation was observed between enzyme activity and log P, but partition coefficients of substrate (P[sub s]) and product (P[sub p]) gave systematic relations with enzyme activity. When initial reaction rates were considered, there was a bell-shaped relationship between enzyme and P[sub s] with an optimal P[sub s] for each substrate. This can be explained by assuming that the solvent affected the enzyme activity primarily by affecting the substrate concentration in the aqueous layer around the catalyst where the enzymic reaction occurs. When long-term reaction rates were considered, a high P[sub p]/P[sub s] ratio was consistent with preservation of enzyme activity.
Ware, James Harold
1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of gain in beef animals~ it seeesg XogLoal thai the Xoeele af aortain nutrient blocaL ocaayoneccte shouM be ~sureiL in tbe Xabesatory in this search for a gsoeth incLm, eLnoe these bloog eaterials sores as tbe buUcLing stones fcn groeth anc...LNaLLeae NLe14eLLeal eeelyreLe eae ayykh4 Le eD data ebLaLee4 La %a abeea 4eLeeaLIaaLeae La aa aeLeeLA ee ~L? aey et 4h~ btee4 eeaeLL|eeaLe eLLb eaLe et NsLa et ebe ~i StcaKes bass been oocduotcd oonoercdng possible correlations between rate of gain in bsof...
Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates
Guo, Wei, E-mail: wguo2@ncsu.edu; Bryan, Zachary; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Hussey, Lindsay; Bobea, Milena; Haidet, Brian; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji [HexaTech, Inc., 991 Aviation Pkwy, Suite 800, Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States); Gerhold, Michael [Engineering Science Directorate, Army Research Office, P.O. BOX 12211, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27703 (United States)
2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
Optical gain spectra for ?250?nm stimulated emission were compared in three different AlGaN-based structures grown on single crystalline AlN substrates: a single AlGaN film, a double heterostructure (DH), and a Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) structure; respective threshold pumping power densities of 700, 250, and 150?kW/cm{sup 2} were observed. Above threshold, the emission was transverse-electric polarized and as narrow as 1.8?nm without a cavity. The DH and MQW structures showed gain values of 50–60?cm{sup ?1} when pumped at 1?MW/cm{sup 2}. The results demonstrated the excellent optical quality of the AlGaN-based heterostructures grown on AlN substrates and their potential for realizing electrically pumped sub-280?nm laser diodes.
Ware, James Harold
1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of gain in beef animals~ it seeesg XogLoal thai the Xoeele af aortain nutrient blocaL ocaayoneccte shouM be ~sureiL in tbe Xabesatory in this search for a gsoeth incLm, eLnoe these bloog eaterials sores as tbe buUcLing stones fcn groeth anc...LNaLLeae NLe14eLLeal eeelyreLe eae ayykh4 Le eD data ebLaLee4 La %a abeea 4eLeeaLIaaLeae La aa aeLeeLA ee ~L? aey et 4h~ btee4 eeaeLL|eeaLe eLLb eaLe et NsLa et ebe ~i StcaKes bass been oocduotcd oonoercdng possible correlations between rate of gain in bsof...
Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.
2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.
Ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion
Brown, Jesse (Christiansburg, VA); Hirschfeld, Deidre (Elliston, VA); Liu, Dean-Mo (Blacksburg, VA); Yang, Yaping (Blacksburg, VA); Li, Tingkai (Blacksburg, VA); Swanson, Robert E. (Blacksburg, VA); Van Aken, Steven (Blacksburg, VA); Kim, Jin-Min (Seoul, KR)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compositions having the general formula (Ca.sub.x Mg.sub.1-x)Zr.sub.4 (PO.sub.4).sub.6 where x is between 0.5 and 0.99 are produced by solid state and sol-gel processes. In a preferred embodiment, when x is between 0.5 and 0.8, the MgCZP materials have near-zero coefficients of thermal expansion. The MgCZPs of the present invention also show unusually low thermal conductivities, and are stable at high temperatures. Macrostructures formed from MgCZP are useful in a wide variety of high-temperature applications. In a preferred process, calcium, magnesium, and zirconium nitrate solutions have their pH adjusted to between 7 and 9 either before or after the addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. After dehydration to a gel, and calcination at temperatures in excess of 850.degree. C. for approximately 16 hours, single phase crystalline MgCZP powders with particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 nm to 50 nm result. The MgCZP powders are then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200.degree. C. to 1350.degree. C. to form solid macrostructures with near-zero bulk coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivities. Porous macrostructures of the MgCZP powders of the present invention are also formed by combination with a polymeric powder and a binding agent, and sintering at high temperatures. The porosity of the resulting macrostructures can be adjusted by varying the particle size of the polymeric powder used.
Hursin, M.; Koeberl, O.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
High Conversion Light Water Reactors (HCLWR) allows a better usage of fuel resources thanks to a higher breeding ratio than standard LWR. Their uses together with the current fleet of LWR constitute a fuel cycle thoroughly studied in Japan and the US today. However, one of the issues related to HCLWR is their void reactivity coefficient (VRC), which can be positive. Accurate predictions of void reactivity coefficient in HCLWR conditions and their comparisons with representative experiments are therefore required. In this paper an inter comparison of modern codes and cross-section libraries is performed for a former Benchmark on Void Reactivity Effect in PWRs conducted by the OECD/NEA. It shows an overview of the k-inf values and their associated VRC obtained for infinite lattice calculations with UO{sub 2} and highly enriched MOX fuel cells. The codes MCNPX2.5, TRIPOLI4.4 and CASMO-5 in conjunction with the libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, -VII.0, JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 are used. A non-negligible spread of results for voided conditions is found for the high content MOX fuel. The spread of eigenvalues for the moderated and voided UO{sub 2} fuel are about 200 pcm and 700 pcm, respectively. The standard deviation for the VRCs for the UO{sub 2} fuel is about 0.7% while the one for the MOX fuel is about 13%. This work shows that an appropriate treatment of the unresolved resonance energy range is an important issue for the accurate determination of the void reactivity effect for HCLWR. A comparison to experimental results is needed to resolve the presented discrepancies. (authors)
Design of a high-power, high-gain, 2nd harmonic, 22.848 GHz gyroklystron
Veale, M. [University of California, Berkeley, CA, 24720 (United States)] [University of California, Berkeley, CA, 24720 (United States); Purohit, P. [Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. USA (United States)] [Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. USA (United States); Lawson, W. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we consider the design of a four-cavity, high-gain K-band gyroklystron experiment for high gradient structure testing. The frequency doubling gyroklystron utilizes a beam voltage of 500 kV and a beam current of 200 A from a magnetron injection gun (MIG) originally designed for a lower-frequency device. The microwave circuit features input and gain cavities in the circular TE{sub 011} mode and penultimate and output cavities that operate at the second harmonic in the TE{sub 021} mode. We investigate the MIG performance and study the behavior of the circuit for different values of perpendicular to parallel velocity ratio (?= V{sub ?}/ V{sub z}). This microwave tube is expected to be able to produce at least 20 MW of power in 1?s pulses at a repetition rate of at least 120 Hz. A maximum efficiency of 26% and a large signal gain of 58 dB under zero-drive stable conditions were simulated for a velocity ratio equal to 1.35.
Perkins, L J; Betti, R; Schurtz, G P; Craxton, R S; Dunne, A M; LaFortune, K N; Schmitt, A J; McKenty, P W; Bailey, D S; Lambert, M A; Ribeyre, X; Theobald, W R; Strozzi, D J; Harding, D R; Casner, A; Atzemi, S; Erbert, G V; Andersen, K S; Murakami, M; Comley, A J; Cook, R C; Stephens, R B
2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term ({approx}3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of {approx}60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around {approx}0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R&D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.
Wang, Xiaodong; Pan, Ming; Hou, Liwei; Xie, Wei [No. 50 Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, 200331 Shanghai (China); Hu, Weida, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Xiaoshuang, E-mail: xschen@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Lu, Wei [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China)
2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The gain and photoresponse characteristics have been numerically studied for back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The parameters of fundamental models are calibrated by simultaneously comparing the simulated dark and light current characteristics with the experimental results. Effects of environmental temperatures and device dimensions on gain characteristics have been investigated, and a method to achieve the optimum thickness of charge layer is obtained. The dependence of gain characteristics and breakdown voltage on the doping concentration of the charge layer is also studied in detail to get the optimal charge layer. The bias-dependent spectral responsivity and quantum efficiency are then presented to study the photoresponse mechanisms inside SAM GaN APDs. It is found the responsivity peak red-shifts at first due to the Franz-Keldysh effect and then blue-shifts due to the reach-through effect of the absorption layer. Finally, a new SAM GaN/AlGaN heterojunction APD structure is proposed for optimizing SAM GaN APDs.
Groppi, Christopher
1 The power gain is the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the power delivered to the input of the amplifier [2]. 2 The transducer gain is the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the available power of the source [2] and is a function of the source impedance. If the source impedance has
Anlage, Steven
for High-Gain, Free Electron Lasers (FELs) By David Leonard Demske Scholarly paper submitted In partial Milchberg #12;- 1 - Abstract The realization of extremely high gain, and high power in Free Electron Lasers laser arrangements to extract electron bunches from photocathodes. The performance of FELs depends
Mathur, G.D. [Zexel USA Corp., Decatur, IL (United States)
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Tube-side heat transfer coefficients for single-phase flow, evaporation, and condensation are presented for propane (R-290), isobutane (R-600a), and a 50/50 mixture (by weight) of propane and isobutane. Heat transfer coefficients have been presented for smooth tubes based on the standard correlations available in the literature for pure refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The mass flux of the refrigerant is varied over a wide range that is typically encountered in residential, commercial, and automotive applications. Evaporation temperatures of {minus}6.7 C (20 F) and 4.4 C (40 F) and condensation temperatures of 37.8 C (100 F) and 48.9 C (120 F) have been used for this investigation. The heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a, R-290/R-600a) have been compared with R-12 and R-134a. The REFPROP computer program developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290, R-600a, and R-290/R-600a. This study shows that the heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are significantly higher than those for both R-12 and R-134a. For the range of refrigerant temperatures and mass flux studied, single-phase vapor heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 234% to 259% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 167% to 181% in comparison to R-134a. The single-phase liquid heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 193% to 245% in comparison to R-12; and are greater by 155% to 198% in comparison to R-134a. Average evaporative heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 194% to 238% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 157% to 192% in comparison to R-134a. Finally, average condensing coefficients are greater by 220% to 233% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 177% to 187% in comparison to R-134a. Tables 3 through 6 show a summary of the heat transfer coefficient enhancement of the hydrocarbons in comparison to both R-12 and R-134a.
Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H
2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction coefficient, yet it is rarely measured directly, and therefore verification of parametrizations is difficult. The obvious solution is to be able to measure microphysical properties and extinction at the same time and for the same volume. This is best done by in situ sampling by instruments mounted on either balloon or aircraft. The latter is the usual route and the one employed here. Yet the problem of actually measuring extinction coefficient directly for arbitrarily complicated particles still remains unsolved.