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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide," Pure App. Geophys.HN0 ) and probably nitrogen dioxide (N0 ) at a few parts perorganic molecule and nitrogen dioxide. Several examples

Johnston, Harold S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

3

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

4

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

red power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is one of the sixeffects, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ground-levelgradually oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) once emitted

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

Hohorst, Frederick A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

8

Modeling of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from CFB Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, a simplified description of combustion and nitrogen oxides chemistry was implemented in a 1.5D model framework with the aim to compare the results with ones earlier obtained with a detailed react...

S. Kallio; M. Keinonen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

10

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and is located in a county designated as nonattainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone submit emission statements. Any facility that is located in a county described above is exempt from these requirements. If NOx

11

Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

Li, Sonny X.

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Photochemical doping of graphene oxide with nitrogen for photoluminescence enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped graphene oxide (NGO) was synthesized by irradiation of graphene oxide (GO) in NH{sub 3} atmosphere. NGO obtained by irradiation of GO for 10 min has high N content of 13.62 at. %. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of NGO were investigated. The results showed that compared with GO, NGO exhibits significant PL enhancement with a high enhancement ratio of approximately 1501.57%. It may attribute to the high content of amino-like N, which can effectively enhance PL of GO because of the amino conjugation effect.

Liu, Fuchi [Physics Department and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Physics Department and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Tang, Nujiang; Tang, Tao; Liu, Yuan; Feng, Qian; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei [Physics Department and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)] [Physics Department and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

13

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Assessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the formation and transport of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter and other species throughout EuropeAssessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS Date 18 March 2013, climate and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen availability is in turn determined by N-deposition from

Haak, Hein

15

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygen react to give nitrogen dioxide, which rapidly reactsis simultaneous, the nitrogen dioxide formed reacts withaccomplished by absorbing nitrogen dioxide in water, usually

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation.

Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C. (James River Corp., Camas, WA (United States)); Caron, A.L. (NCASI West Coast Regional Office, Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have experimentally measured that laser filaments in air generate up to 10{sup 14}, 3x10{sup 12}, and 3x10{sup 13} molecules of O{sub 3}, NO, and NO{sub 2}, respectively. The corresponding local concentrations in the filament active volume are 10{sup 16}, 3x10{sup 14}, and 3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, and allows efficient oxidative chemistry of nitrogen, resulting in concentrations of HNO{sub 3} in the parts per million range. The latter forming binary clusters with water, our results provide a plausible pathway for the efficient nucleation recently observed in laser filaments.

Petit, Yannick; Henin, Stefano; Kasparian, Jerome; Wolf, Jean-Pierre [GAP Biophotonics, Universite de Geneve, 20 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, CH1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Reduction of nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust: Prospects for use of synthesis gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Already commercialized and some of the most promising technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction in automotive diesel exhaust are compared. The Boreskov Institute of Catalysis... x ...

V. A. Kirillov; E. I. Smirnov; Yu. I. Amosov; A. S. Bobrin…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

23

Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. Patent data are used to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus 'forcing' innovation. It is demonstrated that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to {approximately} 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale. 38 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Sonia Yeh; Edward S. Rubin; Margaret R. Taylor; David A. Hounshell [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development,

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Titan's past and future: 3D modeling of a pure nitrogen atmosphere and geological implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several clues indicate that Titan's atmosphere has been depleted in methane during some period of its history, possibly as recently as 0.5-1 billion years ago. It could also happen in the future. Under these conditions, the atmosphere becomes only composed of nitrogen with a range of temperature and pressure allowing liquid or solid nitrogen to condense. Here, we explore these exotic climates throughout Titan's history with a 3D Global Climate Model (GCM) including the nitrogen cycle and the radiative effect of nitrogen clouds. We show that for the last billion years, only small polar nitrogen lakes should have formed. Yet, before 1 Ga, a significant part of the atmosphere could have condensed, forming deep nitrogen polar seas, which could have flowed and flooded the equatorial regions. Alternatively, nitrogen could be frozen on the surface like on Triton, but this would require an initial surface albedo higher than 0.65 at 4 Ga. Such a state could be stable even today if nitrogen ice albedo is higher than th...

Charnay, Benjamin; Tobie, Gabriel; Sotin, Christophe; Wordsworth, Robin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Chromatographic Determination of Total Nitrogen Following the Kjeldahl Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......23745 (1986). 3. B.M. Jones, and C.G. Daughton. Chemiluminescence vs. Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in oil shale retort waters and organo- nitrogen compounds. Anal. Chem. 57: 232025 (1985). 4. B.T. Croll, T. Tomlinson......

Serban Moldoveanu

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method for Detection of Microorganisms That Produce Gaseous Nitrogen Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with 02-free nitrogen; the tubes were...dishes to reduce water evaporation...Detection of gas producers. Culture...conductivity detector; nitrogen was used as the...Low-pressure solubility of gases in liquid water. Chem. Rev...

Gary E. Jenneman; Anne D. Montgomery; Michael J. McInerney

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Methods of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides at thermal power plants burning solid domestic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Essentially all the major methods of reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides from flue gases employed in power generation have been tested on plants in Moscow which burn solid domestic waste for production of h...

A. N. Tugov; V. F. Moskvichev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Calculation of the emission of nitrogen oxides in electric resistance heating furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper is devoted to the least studied topic in the field of use of modern electric heating equipment, namely, pollution of the atmosphere by nitrogen oxides and reduction of the intensity of this e...

A. V. Aksenov; V. A. Belyakov; Z. G. Sadykova

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy cost improvement of the nitrogen oxides synthesis in a low pressure plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of XIXth century, the synthesis of nitrogen oxides by an electric discharge through the air has been a microwave discharge. The total pressure is equal to 50 torr. The optimal value of energy consumption, equal with the industrial process used at present, and by 78 % in comparison with those obtained with a plasmajet arc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the high nitrogen content (1-2%) of the agricultural wastes, burning of the LCV gas derived from them can result in NO?emissions in excess of 2000 ppm. NO?emissions during combustion of LCV gas derived from gasification of cotton gin trash have been.... Wayne A. LePori for serving on my committee and for the advice and time he offer me. His experience on gasification and combustion of LCV gas was an invaluable source. I appreciate Dr. Mario A. Colaluca for serving on my committee and for his help...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Tunneling oxide engineering by ion implantation of nitrogen for 3D vertical silicon pillar SONOS flash memory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrical characteristics of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) flash memory with a 3D vertical silicon pillar structure were studied. As an alternative method for the formation of the tunneling oxide, nitrogen ion implantation was applied to thermally grown pure silicon dioxide with a low energy (5 keV). The devices show significant improvement in the erase characteristics compared to conventional tunneling oxide. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to analyze the nitrogen distribution within tunnel oxide, and the improved erase properties can be attributed to the incorporation of about 4.8% nitrogen (2 × 1021 atoms/cm3) into the tunnel oxide formed by nitrogen ion implantation.

Jae-Sub Oh; Seong-Dong Yang; Sang-Youl Lee; Young-Su Kim; Min-Ho Kang; Sung-Kyu Lim; Hi-Deok Lee; Ga-Won Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Coburn, M.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Spatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchange between gas-phase precursors and variability in reactive nitrogen sources. These findings product of NOx in the atmosphere. Due to its exceptionally high solubility in water, nitrate is rapidly deSpatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic

35

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reagent gas solubilities, mass trans- fer, stoichiometry, and reaction rate were not systematicallyKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ for the oxidation of these compounds and their incorpo- ration into atmospheric liquid water are not fully

Schwartz, Stephen E.

37

Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics.

Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complexes between nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous1992) Indoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide: A potential pathwaybed of SiO 2 pellets. Nitrogen dioxide is introduced from a

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Nitrogen oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality regulations may not effectively target a large source of fine, organic particle pollutants that contribute to hazy skies and poor air quality over the Los Angeles region. See also:

Tropospheric Ozone

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Field emission effects of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes on chlorination and oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With reference to our recent reports [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192107 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202102 (2007)] about the electronic structure of chlorine treated and oxygen-plasma treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), here we studied the electron field emission effects on chlorination (N-CNT:Cl) and oxidation (N-CNT:O) of N-CNT. A high current density (J) of 15.0 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on chlorination, whereas low J of 0.0052 mA/cm{sup 2} is observed on oxidation compared to J=1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} for untreated N-CNT at an applied electric field E{sub A} of {approx}1.9 V/{mu}m. The turn-on electric field (E{sub TO}) was {approx}0.875. The 1.25 V/{mu}m was achieved for N-CNT:Cl and N-CNT:O, respectively, with respect to E{sub TO}=1.0 V/{mu}m for untreated one. These findings are due to the formation of different bonds with carbon and nitrogen in the N-CNT during the process of chlorine (oxygen)-plasma treatment by the charge transfer, or else that changes the density of free charge carriers and hence enhances (reduces) the field emission properties of N-CNTs:Cl (N-CNTs:O)

Ray, S. C.; Palnitkar, U.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Pong, W. F.; Lin, I-N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ganguly, Abhijit; Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long-term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the first year of the project, the catalysts were investigated by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The results from TPR indicated that the interaction with support appears to promote reduction at lower temperatures. Copper oxide in excess of monolayer coverage reduces at temperatures close to the reduction temperature of the unsupported copper oxide. Increased dispersion increases the support effect. Low activity of ceria in NO reduction may be due to its resistance to reduction at low temperatures.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Kesselmeier, J. : Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) uptake byM. : Leaf uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in a tropicalMorikawa, H. : Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide gas is a plant

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on highly dispersed technetium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study, in infrared spectroscopy, the surface compounds formed on adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on Tc/SiO/sub 2/. The samples were prepared by soaking Aerosil with aqueous solution of ammonium pertechnetate containing 10 wt.% of Tc. Reduction with hydrogen to the metal was carried out at 700-800/sup 0/C. Results indicated that chemisorption of CO on highly dispersed technetium gives rise to a single type of linear and several types of multicentered adsorption forms. Occurrence of bridge form of adsorbed CO was also suggested on the basis of the data on chemisorption stoichiometry. Formation of a structure characterizable by absorption at 1790 cm/sup -1/ may indicate, only after protracted analysis, that the surface of the technetium introduced gradually suffers significant rearrangement facilitating formation of this type of complexes.

Serebryakova, N.V.; Sokolova, N.P.; Spitsyn, V.S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria:Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR and NnrR, two-component systems NarXL and NarQP, NO-responsive activator NorR, and nitrite sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches we predict DNA-binding signals for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA signal. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria including Clostridia, Thermotogales and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides metabolism not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species like Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding signal. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon includes also two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC(dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e., nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, EricJ.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Modeling of formaldehyde and nitrogen oxides from a proposed renewable energy biogas facility in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to use the CALPUFF modeling system an effective and reliable atmospheric modeling tool to predict the concentrations of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) released due to the combustion of biogas in the combined heat and power (CHP) engines from the Kawartha renewable energy generation facility at its proposed location in Ontario Canada. In this study HCHO and NOx were selected as the indicator and point source pollutants since they were the most significant products of biogas combustion emitted during the facility's normal operations (production of electricity and heat). The Lambert Conformal Conic projection coordinate system was implemented for the operation of the CALPUFF model. The proposed modeling scheme was coupled with both surface meteorological data (from 00:00 to 23:00) on an hourly basis and 12-h interval-based upper air meteorological data (from 00:00 to 12:00) to simulate the emission of these pollutants for the four seasonal Eastern Time meteorological conditions of winter (January 11–13 2013) spring (April 14–16 2013) summer (July 10–12 2013) and autumn (November 16–18 2013). The results from the CALPUFF dispersion model clearly demonstrated that the maximum 1-h average concentrations of both HCHO and NOx emitted from the combustion of biogas (composed of 60% CH4 and 40% CO2) in five CHP engines (operation load?=?100% maximum electricity generation capacity?=?9.8?MW) were found to be within the limits defined by Ontario Regulation 419/05.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells", (DoctoralImpedance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell LSM/YSZ CompositeCathode materials of solid oxide fuel cells: a review”, J

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of oxides of nitrogen emissions for the purpose of their transient regulation from a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of defining a regulatory standard for the maximum allowable emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a heavy-duty diesel engine on an instantaneous basis is presented. The significance of this concept from a regulatory point of view is the possibility to realise a steady brake specific NOx emissions result independent of the test schedule used. The emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engine have been examined on an integral as well as on an instantaneous basis over the Federal Test Procedure as well as over several other arbitrary transient cycles generated for this study. Three candidate standards of specific NOx emissions have been evaluated on a real-time, continuous basis. These include brake power specific, fuel mass specific, and carbon dioxide mass specific NOx emissions. Retaining the stock engine control module, the carbon dioxide specific emissions of NOx have been shown to be the most uniform, varying only by about 30% of its mean value regardless of the test schedule or engine operation. The instantaneous fuel specific NOx emissions are shown to be relatively less invariant and the least steady are the brake power specific emissions with a coefficient of variation of up to 200%. Advancing injection timing has been shown to have a wide range of authority over the specific emissions of oxides of nitrogen regardless of the units used, when operating at full load in the vicinity of peak torque speeds. The carbon dioxide specific NOx emissions have shown a linear dependence on the power specific emissions, independent of the examined operating conditions. The trade-off between better brake thermal efficiency, lower exhaust gas temperature at advanced timing and lower NOx emissions has also been shown to be independent of the units of the specific standard used.

Yasser Yacoub; Chris Atkinson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

schema for toxic inhalation of NO2 10 General representation of the proposed steps involved in substrate hydroxylation by cyto- chrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxida- tions 13 Schematic diagram of the Isolated and Per- fused Lung Apparatus 22... and biochemical functions of the lung is pre- sented in Table 1. This summary is followed by a schematic with a more complete representation of the toxic effects of N02 inhalation (Fig. 1). Nany of the biochemical effects of nitrogen dioxide on the lung...

Tucker, Leo Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO2, HNO3, N2O5 and a variety of...also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO(2), HNO(3), N(2)O...

Jonathan D. Raff; Bosiljka Njegic; Wayne L. Chang; Mark S. Gordon; Donald Dabdub; R. Benny Gerber; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

58

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Designing of SCR systems for reducing nitrogen oxide in diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SCR technology is the main strategy being pursued in order to comply with future NOx limits on the European, US and Japanese passenger car markets. Apart from a sound base of experience, the optimum design of SCR...

Rolf Kaiser; Klaus Rusch

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of bothZevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen 4.1 Introduction Probably the most damaging of the hazardous nitrogen compounds formed during combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen

Laughlin, Robert B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?CO, and H, O are initially present in exhaust stream [57]. .. . . . 42 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reaction path diagram for RAPRENOx process [63]. .. . Reduction of nitric oxide as a function of temperature, concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water... the influence of carbon monoxide [89]. . . . . . . . . 58 Fig. 28 Effect of residence time on the NOxOUT process as a function of temperature, NO(initial)=125ppm, 0-ratio of 4 [90]. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Fig. 29 Ammonia slip as a function...

Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

16 - Ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions combustion in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The historical development of gas turbine low \\{NOx\\} combustion from the pioneering NASA work in the early 1970s to the present generation of ultra-low \\{NOx\\} industrial gas turbine combustors is reviewed. The principles of operation of single digit ultra-low \\{NOx\\} gas turbine combustion for industrial applications are outlined. The review shows the potential has been demonstrated by several investigators using different flame stabilizers for \\{NOx\\} to be reduced to 1 ppm at 1700 K, 2 ppm at 1800 K and 3–4 ppm at 1900 K with no influence of operating pressure and with a practical operating flame stability margin. Under these conditions it is shown that no thermal \\{NOx\\} should occur and all the \\{NOx\\} is formed by the prompt \\{NOx\\} mechanisms. The elimination of thermal \\{NOx\\} makes the \\{NOx\\} emissions independent of residence time or reference velocity and independent of pressure. Also there is no influence of air inlet temperature for the same flame temperature. Where legislation requires emissions to be as low as can be achieved, emissions below 4 ppm in production engines are current technology and this review shows the potential to get even lower than this in the future.

G.E. Andrews

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Current and future effects of ozone and atmospheric nitrogen deposition on California’s mixed conifer forests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed conifer forests in southern California are exposed to elevated levels of ozone (O3) and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Growing season 12-h daily average O3 levels are 0.06–0.09 ppm, and N deposition rates are 5–45 kg N/ha per year. However, N deposition rates have high spatial variability due to the heterogeneous and open-patchy characteristics of these stands. Annual deposition fluxes are greatest to canopy-covered areas with high pollution exposure. The harmful effects of O3 on sensitive pines are well documented, and selected areas in the San Bernardino and San Gabriel mountains have reached N-saturation as demonstrated by high nitrate (NO3?) export in streams, and a suite of plant and edaphic indicators. The adverse effects of O3 culminate at the community level as a result of chronic effects on pine needle structure, retention, and physiology. Alterations in whole-tree biomass occur after several years due to higher carbon retention in the shoot for O3 detoxification, and lower carbon allocation to roots, as a result of O3 and N deposition. As a consequence, tree susceptibility to drought, windthrow, and root diseases could be exacerbated. Changes in forest community structure may occur due to the death of O3-sensitive pines and fire suppression, and pine replacement by faster-growing, O3-tolerant cedar and fir species. The negative impact of atmospheric N deposition occurs at the ecosystem-level as an alteration of biogeochemical nutrient cycling. For trees growing on N-deficient soils, increased supplies of N could moderate harmful O3 effects on growth for several decades. Over time, levels of soil N rise due to sustained inputs from the atmosphere, and the accelerated production and senescence of N-rich foliage by O3. The increase in soil N is expected to favor the proliferation of nitrophilous overstory and understory species relative to pines. At this stage, N-limitation of forest productivity would be partially alleviated, and N emissions from soil and NO3? leaching losses elevated as a result of high soil N availability. In the western San Bernardino Mountains and in low-elevation chaparral watersheds in the San Gabriel Mountains, NO3? levels in streams are as high or higher than in any other undisturbed montane watersheds in North America, and NO3? contamination of domestic water supplies is of near-term concern. The effects of chronic O3 exposure and N deposition are expected to become more prevalent in the southern Sierra Nevada as human populations and influences in adjacent areas increase in the coming years.

Brent K. Takemoto; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark E. Fenn

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse effect. We hope you are getting an understanding of how important all these gases are...

71

Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season Trading Program (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations may apply to fossil-fuel fired emission units, and describe nitrogen emission allocations that owners of such units must meet. The regulations also contain provisions for...

72

Hafnium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films for future CMOS technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the doped films were explained by their compositions and bond structures. The Hf-doped TaOx film is a potential high-k gate dielectric for future MOS transistors. A 5 Ã?Â? tantalum nitride (TaNx) interface layer has been inserted between the Hf-doped Ta...

Lu, Jiang

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Field Demonstration of 0.2 Grams Per Horsepower-Hour (g/bhp-hr) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: · Reducing health and environmental impacts from air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions related pollution and greenhouse gas emissions beyond applicable standards, and that benefit natural gas ratepayers of nitrogen (NOx) emission standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr for heavy duty engines to reduce levels of this critical

74

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Non-Catalytic Production of Hydrogen via Reforming of Diesel, Hexadecane and Bio-Diesel for Nitrogen Oxides Remediation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? After-treatment technologies are required for diesel engines to meet the current and future stringent emissions regulations. Lean NOx traps and SCR catalysts represent the… (more)

Hernandez-Gonzalez, Sergio Manuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Nitrite–dependent nitric oxide production pathway: implications for involvement of active nitrogen species in photoinhibition in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...as a convenient method for calibration...1. Chemical NO production from nitrite and...Figure 4. Sequential production of the activated...interactions. Like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...oxide protocols: methods in molecular biology...Nonenzymatic nitric oxide production in humans. Nitric...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

Jochen Stutz

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

79

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

80

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3]. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy) [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. 'Lazzaro Spallanzani', Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma (Italy); Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma 'Tor Vergata', Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy) [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma 'Tor Vergata', Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-87100 Bari (Italy); Fasano, Mauro [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)] [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.) ~Indirect: Phosphorus in excess causes eutrophication

Toohey, Darin W.

83

High-performance tin oxide-nitrogen doped graphene aerogel hybrids as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Tin dioxide nanoparticles on nitrogen doped graphene aerogel (SnO2-NGA) hybrid are synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method and successfully applied in lithium-ion batteries as a free-standing anode. The electrochemical performance of SnO2-NGA hybrid is investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, rate capability test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the SnO2-NGA hybrid with freestanding spongy-like structure exhibit remarkable lithium storage capacity (1100 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles), good cycling stability and high rate capability. The outstanding performance is attributed to the uniform SnO2 nanoparticles, unique spongy-like structure and N doping defect for Li+ diffusion.

Chunhui Tan; Jing Cao; Abdul Muqsit Khattak; Feipeng Cai; Bo Jiang; Gai Yang; Suqin Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 5, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 2, October--December 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Synthesis of graphene with both high nitrogen content and high surface area by annealing composite of graphene oxide and g-C3N4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a facile, catalyst-free thermal annealing approach for synthesis of N-doping graphene (NG) using graphitic carbon nitride (g...3N4) as the nitrogen source. Graphene with nitrogen content...

Yurong Deng; Kewei Liu; Hongmei Cao…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

96

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Multilayer films of indium tin oxide/TiO2 codoped with vanadium and nitrogen for efficient photocatalytic water splitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TiO22 films codoped with V cations and N anions were synthesised by RF-magnetron sputtering. The incorporation of V and N in TiO2 lattice produces isolated energy levels near the conduction and valence bands, respectively, causing an effective narrowing of the band gap to 2.5 eV. Recombination of photo-charges was reduced by depositing multilayer films of indium tin oxide (ITO)/V-N-codoped TiO2 with different numbers of bilayers. In multilayer structure, the generated photoelectrons, travelling into TiO2 film of limited thickness, rapidly enter the space charge interface of the ITO/TiO2 films from where they are instantaneously injected into the ITO layer and then removed towards the cathode. The synergic effects created by band narrowing and enhanced charge separation by using codoping and multilayer structure strategy in TiO2 generate higher photocurrent for water splitting under visible light which definitely exceeds that obtained by doping TiO2 with a single, V or N, element.

Z. El Koura; N. Patel; R. Edla; A. Miotello

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

99

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1994. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Method 6014. In:Molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide induced epithelialEC, OC), and 24-hr nitrogen dioxide. Ambient exposures

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Print a copy and insert into your laboratory the precautions and safe handling procedures for the use of Nitrogen Dioxide

Cohen, Ronald C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

ODD NITROGEN PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide, Pure Appl. Geophys,Stratosphere Observation of Nitrogen Dioxide Rates of Ozoneby photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and regeneration of ozone:

Johnston, Harold S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

106

Thermodynamic Analysis of the Possibility of Hydrogen Production by Oxidation of n-Butane, n-Pentane, and Carbon by Oxygen-Containing Nitrogen Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermodynamic analysis is performed to study the reactions of hydrogen production by oxidation of hydrocarbons of natural gas ... analysis suggests the possibility of developing a new hydrogen production method

A. M. Alekseev; Z. V. Komova; L. L. Klinova…

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

108

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 8, April--June, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Back-Trajectory Analysis and Source-Receptor Relationships: Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The chemical components of these acids, including nitrogen oxides (NOx nitric acid [NO] nitrogen dioxide [NO2Back-Trajectory Analysis and Source-Receptor Relationships: Particulate Matter and Nitrogen- search suggests that this agricultural presence emits a significant portion of the state's nitrogen (i

Niyogi, Dev

115

Quantum-chemical investigation of the interaction of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with the Lewis acid sites of aluminium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the framework of the cluster approximation, using covalent and ionic models of Lewis acid sites of aluminumoxide, their electronic structure, as well as that of complexes of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with them, was calculated. It was shown that the Lewis acid sites, representing a truncated tetrahedron, exhibit stronger electron-acceptor properties than the corresponding sites in the form of a truncated octahedron. For both molecules, the linear form of adsorption is energetically more profitable than the T-shaped form. The results obtained by the nonempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the STO-3GF basis and by semiempirical methods in CNDO/2 and INDO approximatations, are qualitatively the same.

Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Lignite-based nitrogenous fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of lignite from Elbistan was oxidized by nitric acid in two stages, using relatively dilute acid in the first stage and concentrated acid in the second stage, and then the oxidized product was ammoniated so that a coal-based fertilizer could be produced. The experiments of all the stages were designed by a 1/2 X full factorial design. It was observed that base exchange capacity and nitrogen content of coal-based fertilizers produced in this work were as good as or better than those obtained by other investigators.

Baris, H.; Dincer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

119

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

123

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

124

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrbohd-mediated oxidative burst Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extinction Brandon Lohman Summary: triggered by cosmic events. A high intensity gamma ray burst directed toward Earth may have irradiated our... of nitrogen oxides. These oxides...

130

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Future Accelerators (?)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

John Womersley

2003-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

136

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

137

The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...better known than natural fixation, in part...industrial sources. The gases created are the oxidized...derived from the natural or anthropogenic...exchange between semi-natural vegetation and the...of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Phil...2013 The nitrogen cascade from agricultural...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vanadium redox flow battery; nitrogen doping; carbon nanotubes; graphite felt ... Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ... Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ...

Shuangyin Wang; Xinsheng Zhao; Thomas Cochell; Arumugam Manthiram

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

139

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

nitrogen metabolism in lakes i. measurement of nitrogen fixation with ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

the originally introduced nitrogen gas and the total amount of .... This is accom- of spontaneous O2 production, which .... free nitrogen been available; the cost of.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...specific ammonia oxidation rate. Symbols represent...Research Council (ARC) for funding this...correlated to its ammonia oxidation rate. 51 Arp, D...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093449...2004 Anaerobic oxidation of inorganic nitrogen...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. Three different SCR catalysts are being studied. These are honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts are manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Test methods and experimental procedures were developed for current and future testing. The methods and procedures equalize factors influencing mercury adsorption and oxidation (surface area, catalyst activity, and pore structure) that normally differ for each catalyst type. Initial testing was performed to determine the time necessary for each catalyst to reach surface-adsorption equilibrium. In addition, the fraction of Hg oxidized by each of the SCR catalyst types is being investigated, for a given amount of catalyst and flow rate of mercury and flue gas. The next major effort will be to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to changes in mercury concentration and with respect to HCl concentration. Hg-sorption equilibrium times will also be investigated with respect to ammonia concentration in the simulated flue gas.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide Mitra Navi and Scott Dunham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Boston University diffusion. Gate oxides were grown with nitrogen contents varying from 0 to 1.4%. A series of SIMS mea

Dunham, Scott

147

The design of stable high nitrogen systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general strategy for the design of high nitrogen systems with an adequate degree of stability has been elaborated. The design of nitro compounds in which terminal nitro groups are bonded to the chain of several heteroatoms is a specific case within the strategy. In the process of working out the strategy a number of new high nitrogen systems (dinitrazenic acid or dinitroamide HN{sub 3}O{sub 4} and its salts, nitrodiazene oxides RN{sub 3}O{sub 3} and tetrazine dioxides) were discovered. A new of new types of nitro compounds (bicyclo nitro-bis-hydroxylamine, nitrohydrazine, nitrohydroxylamine, sulfo-N-nitroimide and bis-N-nitroimide) were synthesized. This study opens new prospects in the field of the synthesis of high energy materials.

Tartakovsky, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

New chemistry with gold-nitrogen complexes: synthesis and characterization of tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes. Oxidative-addition to the dinuclear gold(I) amidinate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst precursors for CO oxidation on TiO2 surface reported to date (87% conversion). The dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complex with a Auâ ¦Au distance of 2.711(3) Ã is rare. To our knowledge, there is only one other example of a symmetrical dinuclear gold...

Abdou, Hanan Elsayed

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic nitrous oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such concentrations of anesthetics are safe... ), hypoxemia (eg, nitrogen and carbon monoxide), addiction (eg, nitrous oxide), or health effects resulting... from chronic exposure...

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates oxidative damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 40 Charge-trapping properties of gate oxide grown on nitrogen-implanted silicon substrate Summary: Charge-trapping...

151

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project - honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. Most experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal will be performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation graph will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature and later sulfur will be investigated after this is complete. Also, last quarter's tests showed a potential linear relationship between SO3 conversion and mercury oxidation. As a result, SO3 samples will be taken more frequently to investigate each catalyst's ability to selectively oxidize mercury.

Alex J. Berry; Thomas K. Gale

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Viscosity Measurements on Nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Viscosity Measurements on Nitrogen ... (15)?Clarke, A. G.; Smith, E. B. Low-temperature viscosities and intermolecular forces of simple gases. ... The coupling also serves as a frictionless bearing for a slender rotating cylindrical body which is slowed down due to the viscous drag of the fluid surrounding the cylinder. ...

Daniel Seibt; Eckhard Vogel; Eckard Bich; Daniel Buttig; Egon Hassel

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

153

ODD NITROGEN PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is in three parts. The first concerns interpretations that can be made from atmospheric observations regarding nitrogen compounds and ozone, the second reviews some predictions made by atmospheric models, and the third compares between certain model results and atmospheric measurements with an emphasis on detecting evidence of significant disagreements.

Johnston, Harold S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

155

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

156

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Regenerative catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (R.T.O.`s) are an accepted technology for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP`s). This control technology, when introduced, offered substantial reductions in operating costs, especially auxiliary fuel requirements when compared to existing control technologies such as recuperative thermal and recuperative catalytic oxidizers. While these savings still exist, there is a demand for control of new and/or hybrid technologies, one of which is Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (R.C.O.`s). This paper will explore the development of regenerative catalytic oxidation from the theoretical stage through pilot testing through a commercial installation. The operating cost of R.C.O.`s will be compared to R.T.O.`s to verify the savings that are achievable through the use of regenerative catalytic oxidation. In the development of this technology, which is a combination of two (2) existing technologies, R.T.O.`s and catalysis, a second hybrid technology was explored and pilot tested. This is a combination R.C.O. for VOC and HAP control and simultaneous SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) control. Based on the pilot and full scale testing, both regenerative catalytic oxidizers and systems which combine R.C.O. with SCR for both VOC and NOx reduction are economically viable and are in fact commercially available. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Gribbon, S.T. [Engelhard Process Emission Systems, South Lyon, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multimodel approach: Analysis of nitrogen deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

100, 8873 – 8892. Hack, J. J. (1994), Parameterization ofLin, C. B. Bretherton, J. J. Hack, and P. J. Rasch (2003), AZhang and McFarlane, 1995; Hack, 1994], vertical diffusion [

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multimodel approach: Analysis of nitrogen deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lamar@ucar.edu) W. J. Collins, Hadley Centre, Met Office,Livermore, California, USA. Hadley Centre, Met Office,5° horizontal resolution. 2.1.2. Hadley Centre (Had) [ 17

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Formation of hydroxylamine on dust grains via ammonia oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quest to detect prebiotic molecules in space, notably amino acids, requires an understanding of the chemistry involving nitrogen atoms. Hydroxylamine (NH$_2$OH) is considered a precursor to the amino acid glycine. Although not yet detected, NH$_2$OH is considered a likely target of detection with ALMA. We report on an experimental investigation of the formation of hydroxylamine on an amorphous silicate surface via the oxidation of ammonia. The experimental data are then fed into a simulation of the formation of NH$_2$OH in dense cloud conditions. On ices at 14 K and with a modest activation energy barrier, NH$_2$OH is found to be formed with an abundance that never falls below a factor 10 with respect to NH$_3$. Suggestions of conditions for future observations are provided.

He, Jiao; Lemaire, Jean-Louis; Garrod, Robin T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

166

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

TiO2 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anatase TiO2...nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized ... as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO2 particles wer...

Dan Li; Dongqi Shi; Zongwen Liu; Huakun Liu…

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 MAY 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and * The Babcock & Wilcox Company * Energy and Environmental Research Corporation * New York State Electric & Gas Corporation MAY 1999 Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Cover image: Schematic of reburning technology Source: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Executive Summary ..................................................................................................

169

Effects of Future Ship Emissions in the North Sea on Air Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of model simulations with the chemistry transport model CMAQ the influence of ship emissions in the North Sea on concentrations ... and nitrogen oxides over Europe was investigated. Ship emissions for th...

Armin Aulinger; Volker Matthias…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

171

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Title Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Holder, Amara L., Brietta J. Carter, Regine Goth-Goldstein, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Atmospheric Pollution Research Volume 3 Start Page 25 Issue 1 Pagination 25-31 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords health effects, ozone, soot, toxicity Abstract Combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere undergo reactions with oxidants, which can change the particles' physiochemical characteristics. In this work, we compare the physical and chemical properties and cellular response of particles fresh from a flame with those oxidized by ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction with ozone and nitrogen dioxide does not significantly modify the physical characteristics of the particles (primary particle size, fractal dimension, and surface area). However, oxidation affects the chemical characteristics of the particles, creating more oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, and increases their hydrophilicity. In addition, oxidized soot generates more reactive oxygen species, as measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Furthermore, oxidized soot is 1.5-2 times more toxic than soot that was not reacted with ozone, but the inflammatory response, measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, is unchanged. These results imply that combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere will have an increased toxicity on or after high ozone days.

172

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

173

What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the chemistry of nitrogen, the processes by which nitrogen is added to and removed from the soil, and methods of preventing nitrogen losses on agricultural lands....

Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

Living a Sustainable Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Living a Sustainable Future Living a Sustainable Future August 1, 2013 Biomass to fuel project The Laboratory's biomass team is working to solve the energy crisis through...

175

Nuclear and Particle Futures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear and Particle Futures Nuclear and Particle Futures The Lab's four Science Pillars harness capabilities for solutions to threats- on national and global scales. Contacts...

176

OSCARS-Future-Tech  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OSCARS and Future Tech Engineering Services The Network OSCARS How It Works Who's Using OSCARS? OSCARS and Future Tech OSCARS Standard and Open Grid Forum OSCARS Developers...

177

Active stewardship: sustainable future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

stewardship: sustainable future Active stewardship: sustainable future Energy sustainability is a daunting task: How do we develop top-notch innovations with some of the...

178

Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

180

Global Energy Futures: With International Futures (IFs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dr. Hughes presents and discusses the results of simulations on alternative energy futures composed in collaboration with SNL's Sustainability Innovation Foundry.

Hughes, Barry

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

It's Elemental - The Element Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen The Element Nitrogen [Click for Isotope Data] 7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.0067 Melting Point: 63.15 K (-210.00°C or -346.00°F) Boiling Point: 77.36 K (-195.79°C or -320.44°F) Density: 0.0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming." Say what? Nitrogen is pronounced as NYE-treh-gen. History and Uses: Nitrogen was discovered by the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. It is the fifth most abundant element in the universe and makes up

182

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Future Climate Engineering Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Associations from around the world are part of the project `Future Climate - Engineering Solu- tions'. Within the project the participating associations have been developing national climate plansFuture Climate Engineering Solutions Joint report 13 engineering participating engeneering

187

Earth'future climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...their visions of the future I. Astronomy and Earth sciences compiled by J. M. T. Thompson Earth'future climate Mark A. Saunders 1 1 Benfield...provide informed scientific projections for Earth's climate into the next millennium. This...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Mai, T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

Hand, M. M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nitrogen-doped graphene as transparent counter electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? NG sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide. ? The transparent NG counter electrodes of DSCs are fabricated at room temperature. ? Transparent NG electrode exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup ?}. ? The DSC with NG electrode achieves a comparable efficiency to that of the Pt-based cell. ? The efficiency of rear illumination is about 85% that of front illumination. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of ammonia and applied to fabricate the transparent counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The atomic percentage of nitrogen in doped graphene sample is about 2.5%, and the nitrogen bonds display pyridine and pyrrole-like configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate a much higher electrocatalytic activity toward I{sup ?}/I{sub 3}{sup ?} redox reaction for nitrogen-doped graphene, as compared with pristine graphene. The dye-sensitized solar cell with this transparent nitrogen-doped graphene counter electrode shows conversion efficiencies of 6.12% and 5.23% corresponding to front-side and rear-side illumination, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell with a Pt counter electrode shows a conversion efficiency of 6.97% under the same experimental condition. These promising results highlight the potential application of nitrogen-doped graphene in cost-effective, transparent dye-sensitized solar cells.

Wang, Guiqiang, E-mail: wgqiang123@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air preheater interactions). SCR pro- cess improvements that1987; CS-5361s. 13. 13. SCR Projects Bid and Award Tracking;Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Control of NO x Emissions; SCR

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

Kharol, S. K.

195

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-of Cellulose and the Production of Ethanol," LBL-6859,the cellulose is a major obstacle to hydrolysis. Ethanol The

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jerusalem, loR. Parkinson, Tappi, Meller, Holzforschung,L.L. Schaleger and D.L. Brink, Tappi, No.4, 65 ( 1978). N.I.Holocellulose in Wood," Tappi Standard T9 m-54. C.R.

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Characterization of vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation stimulated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membranes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...oxidation activity of yeast plasma membranes for molecular DH...vanadate-dependent nonenzymatic and plasma mem- DH. Each point is brane-stimulated...aFor nonenzymatic nitrogen atmosphere, but NADH oxidation resumed...consumption of oxygen during Plasma membrane- the oxidation of...

L A Minasi; G R Willsky

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Combating Future Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Future Combating Future Threats Andy Clark On 21 September BCS, The Chartered...leadership debate about future security threats. Andy Clark, Head of Forensics at Detica...and where are they? These are different threats. Smartphones are powerful, connected......

Andy Clark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

CHARTING BC'S ECONOMIC FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARTING BC'S ECONOMIC FUTURE discussionguide 100communityconversations #12;1 Thank you for agreeing to participate in this Community Conversation about BC's economic future. Each year Simon Fraser is "Charting BC's Economic Future". Faced with an increasingly competitive global economy, it is more important

Kavanagh, Karen L.

200

Renewable Electricity Futures Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Electricity Futures Study End-use Electricity Demand Volume 3 of 4 Volume 2 PDF Volume 3;Renewable Electricity Futures Study Edited By Hand, M.M. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Baldwin, S. U Sandor, D. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Suggested Citations Renewable Electricity Futures Study

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with liquid niobium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of N{sub 2} and CO with liquid niobium were investigated in the temperature range of 2,700 to 3,000 K in samples levitated in N{sub 2}/Ar and CO/Ar streams. The nitrogen absorption and desorption processes were found to be second-order with respect to nitrogen concentration, indicating that the rate controlling step is either the adsorption of nitrogen molecules on the liquid surface or dissociation of absorbed nitrogen molecules into adsorbed atoms. The carbon and oxygen dissolution in liquid niobium from CO gas is an exothermic process and the solubilities of carbon and oxygen (C{sub Ce}, C{sub Oe} in at%) are related to the temperature and the partial pressure of CO. The reaction CO {yields} (C) + (O) along with the evaporation of niobium oxide takes place during C and O dissolution, whereas C and O desorption occurs via CO evolution only.

Park, H.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

203

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

204

IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protecting Cotton Squares and Blooms / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Nitrogen on Cotton Now is the time to apply N

Watson, Craig A.

205

Identifying the Active Site in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for the VO2+/VO2+ Redox Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS), synthesized by annealing graphite oxide (GO) with urea at 700–1050 °C, were studied as positive electrodes in a vanadium redox flow battery. ... graphene sheets; nitrogen doping; [VO]2+/[VO2]+ couple reaction; redox flow battery ... (7) Among these energy storage technologies, the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has been considered as a competitive and promising grid energy storage system for renewable energy due to its low cost, high efficiency, and good cycling stability. ...

Jutao Jin; Xiaogang Fu; Qiao Liu; Yanru Liu; Zhiyang Wei; Kexing Niu; Junyan Zhang

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

206

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

207

Future of Telecommunications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... . G. Radley, of the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill, spoke on Telecommunications of the future. He pointed out that in 1914, although wire telephony had been ...

1941-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Materials for the Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for the Future The Lab's four Science Pillars harness capabilities for solutions to threats- on national and global scales. Contacts Pillar Champion Mary Hockaday Email Pillar...

209

My Amazing Future 2012  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory's My Amazing Future program gives 8th grade women the opportunity to experience careers in science and engineering.

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

The Future Metropolitan Landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

care for the design of this landscape, for its water, air,The Future Metropolitan Landscape Peter Bosselmann and Denirather to an urbanized landscape with multiple centers,

Bosselmann, Peter; Ruggeri, Deni

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

212

The Hanford Story: Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Future Chapter of the Hanford Story illustrates the potential and possibilities offered by a post-cleanup Hanford. From land use plans and preservation at Hanford to economic development and tourism opportunities, the Future chapter touches on a variety of local economic, cultural and environmental perspectives.

213

FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab is a collaboration between NICTA, SAP and Fraunhofer. Australia's first Living Lab provides a platform for industry and research to work together, to investigate real-world problems and to demonstrate innovative technology

Heiser, Gernot

214

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

Hand, M.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

Hand, M.; Mai, T.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

Hand, M. M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fermilab | Plan for the Future | Fermilab's Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fermilab's Future Fermilab's Future 2013-2015 Next Fermilab's research program for 2015 and beyond New facilities at Fermilab, the nation's dedicated particle physics laboratory, would provide thousands of scientists from across the United States and around the world with world-class scientific opportunities. In collaboration with the Department of Energy and the particle physics community, Fermilab is pursuing a strategic plan that addresses fundamental questions about the physical laws that govern matter, energy, space and time. Fermilab is advancing plans for the best facilities in the world for the exploration of neutrinos and rare subatomic processes, far beyond current global capabilities. The proposed construction of a two-megawatt high-intensity proton accelerator, Project X, would enable a comprehensive

220

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

DeMeo, E.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Collaborative future event recommendation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a method for collaborative ranking of future events. Previous work on recommender systems typically relies on feedback on a particular item, such as a movie, and generalizes this to other items or other ...

Minkov, Einat

222

Preparing for the Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tx H2O | pg. 12 Preparing for the Future Story by Kathy Wythe Preparing for the Future University establishes water management degree program Texas A&M University launched an interdisci-plinary water management degree programduring the fall... 2005 semester with 12 stu-dents seeking either master?s or doctorate degrees in water management and hydrologic sciences. The degree program, the first in Texas, includes 42 faculty members in 12 departments from four differ- ent colleges, said Ron...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Buying Hedge with Futures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural Economist, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Many bulk purchasers of agricultural com- modities need price risk management tools to help stabilize input prices. Livestock feeders... anticipating future feed needs or grain export- ers making commitments to sell grain are two users of agricultural commodities who could benefit from input price management strate- gies. A common tool is a buying, or long, hedge using futures. Producers...

Welch, Mark; Kastens, Terry L.

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

Hand, M. M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen.

226

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Environmental biogeochemistry. V. 1: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

V. 1: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium cycles. V. 2: Metals transfer and ecological mass balances. Ann Arbor Sci. Publ., Inc., Ann. Arbor, Mich.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but getting too much of it can be harmful. Recent research in delicate alpine watersheds of the western United States has suggested that the amount... Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Conservation of mass: It?s not just a good idea, it?s the law Nitrogen, along with every other element in nature, obeys certain physical laws. The first of those laws, the law of conservation of mass...

Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

229

Future Climate Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department''. (BSC 2001b, Addendum B, Section 4.1).

James Houseworth

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Abundance of Interstellar Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the HST Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), we have obtained high S/N echelle observations of the weak interstellar N I 1160, 1161 A absorption doublet toward the stars Gamma Cas, Lambda Ori, Iota Ori, Kappa Ori, Delta Sco, and Kappa Sco. In combination with a previous GHRS measurement of N I toward Zeta Oph, these new observations yield a mean interstellar gas phase nitrogen abundance (per 10$^6$ H atoms) of 10$^6$ N/H = 75 +/- 4. There are no statistically significant variations in the measured N abundances from sightline to sightline and no evidence of density-dependent depletion from the gas-phase. Since N is not expected to be depleted much into dust grains in these diffuse sightlines, its gas-phase abundance should reflect the total interstellar abundance. Consequently, the GHRS observations imply that the abundance of interstellar nitrogen (gas plus grains) in the local Milky Way is about 80% of the solar system value of 10$^6$ N/H = 93 +/- 16. Although this interstellar abundance deficit is somewhat less than that recently found for oxygen and krypton with GHRS, the solar N abundance and the N I oscillator strengths are too uncertain to definitively rule out either a solar ISM N abundance or a 2/3 solar ISM N abundance similar to that of O and Kr.

David M. Meyer; Jason A. Cardelli; Ulysses J. Sofia

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Mechanisms of plant species impacts on ecosystem nitrogen cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this microbial nitrogen loop is driven by plant-supplied carbon and provides a strong negative feedback through by an increase in the relative nitrogen content in decomposing litter and a much lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by a microbial nitrogen loop. Nitrogen is released from the soil organic matter and incorporated into microbial

Minnesota, University of

232

Using carbon adsorbents for removing nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides from flue gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of carbon adsorbents in industrial power engineering outside Russia is briefly reviewed and the results of our own experimental investigations, made in the laboratory and at a pilot commercial installation, are given. The proposal to use the described device in a KE-25-24-C industrial boiler is outlined.

A.I. Blokhin; A.N. Nikitin; A.O. Gabibov

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells.7 the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic hindrance. 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Oxidation

McGaughey, Alan

234

Introduction to Futures Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Chicago. To reduce their risk exposure, grain dealers began selling ?To Arrive? contracts, which specified the future date (usually the month) a speci- fied quantity of grain would be delivered to a particular location at a price identified... in the contract. Fixing the price in advance of deliv- ery reduced the grain dealer?s risk and made it easier to obtain credit to finance grain purchas- es from farmers. The ?To Arrive? contracts were a forerunner of the futures contracts traded today. Although...

Mintert, James R.; Welch, Mark

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

235

Future Climate Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Other alternative approaches could include simulation of climate over the 10,000-year period; however, this modeling extrapolation is well beyond the bounds of current scientific practice and would not provide results with better confidence. A corroborative alternative approach may be found in ''Future Climate Analysis-10,000 Years to 1,000,000 Years After Present'' (Sharpe 2003 [DIRS 161591]). The current revision of this report is prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]).

C. G. Cambell

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

236

Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

Mai, T.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it is important to first understand the various transformations that N undergoes within the soil. Nitrogen Cycling to be the sum of ammonium and nitrate, although urea, a type of organic N, may also be plant available. Nitrogen a fraction) by dry yield (in lb/ac). It's useful to compare actual uptake rates to N fertilizer rates

Lawrence, Rick L.

238

NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN PALEOCLIMATE JULIAN P. SACHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

denitrification, the conversion of nitrate to N2 gas with its subsequent loss to the atmosphere (25-180 Tg N of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and is the precursor to petroleum deposits it is important to understand nitrogen of nitrogen is atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2), consisting of 3.9 x 109 Tg N (Wada and Hattori, 1990

Sachs, Julian P.

239

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, mechanisms, and expected levels of oxygen and nitrogen contamination during gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc indicating the importance of dec9mposition of SiOz into silicon monoxide and oxygen are presented, indicating

Eagar, Thomas W.

240

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...membrane to the outer membrane to drive a number of outer membrane receptors...nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium. Environ...ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. ASM News 67 :456-463. 49. Kuypers...associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environ. Microbiol...

Laura van Niftrik; Mike S. M. Jetten

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

242

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

243

Future of Optical Astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... I BELIEVE that optical astronomy in Great Britain has now reached, for virtually the first time in its history, ... studied in universities and in Government and industrial laboratories; but with two exceptions, optical astronomy is studied almost entirely in university laboratories only, and its future largely depends on ...

D. E. BLACKWELL

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quantum motor and future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

Fateev, Evgeny G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Quantum motor and future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

Evgeny G. Fateev

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

246

Simulation in the future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seven panelists, all simulation consultants, give their view of the future of simulation. There is some consistency in the views with four areas being mentioned by three of the panelists, and four areas being mentioned by two of the panelists. However, ...

Jerry Banks

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Food for the Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...harnessing free sources of energy, includ-ing the...volcanoes, and thermal gradients of the...exchangers, wind converters, and tide tur-bines...with quantities of energy of the magnitude...Fresh Water from the Ocean (Con-servation...P. C. Putnam, Energy in the Future (Van...

J. G. Harrar

1955-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

248

Nitrogen Fixation and Dentrification in Sediments of Eutrophic Mediterranean-Type Estuaries: Seasonal Patterns and Responses to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mechanisms controlling sediment nitrogen fixation in aKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in UpperKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in Upper

Kane, Tonya Lynn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by...

250

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

251

Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

Wang, Lee-Ping

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Oxidation of Propane by Doped Nickel Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... present study, however, indicate that in the absence of excess oxygen, direct oxidation of propane by the oxide lattice can occur.

D. W. McKEE

1964-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

253

Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

FUTURES with Jaime Escalante  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy awarded the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education (FASE) $826,000 as support to produce the second set of FUTURES segments consisting of 12, 15-minute programs. The programs provide motivation for students to study math by connecting math to the work place and real-life problem scenarios. The programs are broadcast in 50 states through PBS Elementary and Secondary Service (E/SS). The grant term ended on December 16, 1993 and this final report documents program and financial activity results. The 12 episodes are titled: Animal Care, Meteorology, Mass Communication, Advanced Energy, Oceanography, Graphic Design, Future Habitats, Environmental Science & Technology, Fitness & Physical Performance, Interpersonal Communications, Advanced Transportation and Product Design. Each program addresses as many as ten careers or job types within the broader field named. Minority and gender-balanced role models appear throughout the programs.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Driving the Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Future the Future A r g o n n e ' s v e h i c l e s ys t e m s r e s e A r c h 3 2 v e h i c l e s y s t e m s r e s e a r c h At Argonne National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Research, our goal is to accelerate the development and deployment of vehicle technologies that help reduce our nation's petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Our Vehicle Systems research focuses on maximizing vehicle performance and efficiency through in-depth studies of the interactions and integration of components and controls in a large, complex vehicle system. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the automotive industry, we investigate the potential of vehicle technologies ranging from alternative fuels to advanced powertrains, such as plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. Funding

256

Buildings of the Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are developing a vision for future buildings—at least one hundred years from today—based on the collective views of thought leaders. As part of this effort, we will explore technology and demographic trends that could revolutionize the built environment across energy, water, environment, resilient design, health, security, and productivity.

257

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Economic Removal of Nitrogen from LNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, economic factors have made transportation of natural gas in the form of LNG increasingly attractive. Shipping costs and heating value ... control necessitate specifications limiting the nitrogen ...

J-P. G. Jacks; J. C. McMillan

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Nitrogen fixation by a methanogenic archaebacterium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... fixing microbial systems able to convert wastes which are low in combined nitrogen, including lignocellulose biomass substrates, industrial wastes and food process wastes such as ... substrates, industrial wastes and food process wastes such as whey, to CH4.

Patti A. Murray; Stephen H. Zinder

1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING HMS microfluidics/microfabrication facility has one high pressure liquid nitrogen tank which supplies the nitrogen for some equipment normal operation. In case the liquid nitrogen tank is malfunctioning and requires to be shut down or replaced make

Paulsson, Johan

262

SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond efuent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water as ammonia (total ammonia nitrogen, TAN), through either direct excretion by animals or ammoni

Lorenzen, Kai

263

Bioenergy: America's Energy Future  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

Bioenergy: America's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Selling Hedge with Futures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trades price risk for basis risk. Once more, the basis forecast is a key to hedging with futures. Did Bill receive $5.60 per bushel for his en- tire crop? The answer depends on the quantity produced. If he produced his historical average of 24...,000 bushels, he was protected at $5.60 per bushel for the 15,000 bushels he hedged and received a price at harvest of $5.40 per bushel for the unhedged 9,000 bushels. This yields a weight- ed average price of $5.525 per bushel. Had he produced more than...

Kastens, Terry L.; Welch, Mark

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

The Future of Bioethics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Brody calls for a revolution in "future bioethics." He argues persuasively that "we need to understand how certain facts, issues, and questions turn invisible to us, depending on where we happen to be placed in a hierarchy of power" (italics in the original). According to Brody, "feminism teaches bioethics... Since the inception of bioethics as a discipline almost 40 years ago, its scholars and practitioners have devoted much of their time and attention to two sets of issues — namely, ethical quandaries posed by medical treatment, particularly end-of-life care,...

Marks J.H.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fiber for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is an interview with J.P. van Buijtenen, principal geneticist of the Texas Forest Service and professor at the Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, College Station, Texas. The maintenance of adequate supplies of wood and fiber for the pulp and paper industry is discussed. Tree improvement and more intensive forestry are highlighted as critical in attaining increased yields. Other topics discussed include: the establishment of second generation southern pine seed orchards, the economics of hardwood production in the South, and the future of short rotation energy plantations.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Milk Futures, Options and Basis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The milk futures and options market enables producers and processors to manage price risk. This publication explains hedging, margin accounts, basis and how to track it, and other fundamentals of the futures and options market....

Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Anderson, David P.; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

NYMEX Futures Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NYMEX Futures Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, All Others in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/ Contract 12/10/13 12/11/13 12/12/13 12/13/13 12/16/13 12/17/13 View History Crude Oil (Light-Sweet, Cushing, Oklahoma) Contract 1 98.51 97.44 97.5 96.6 97.48 97.22 1983-2013 Contract 2 98.66 97.72 97.82 96.93 97.77 97.47 1985-2013 Contract 3 98.58 97.72 97.77 96.91 97.7 97.36 1983-2013 Contract 4 98.19 97.39 97.42 96.55 97.28 96.92 1985-2013 Reformulated Regular Gasoline (New York Harbor) Contract 1 1985-2006 Contract 2 1994-2006 Contract 3 1984-2006 Contract 4 1994-2006 RBOB Regular Gasoline (New York Harbor)

270

Securing Our Energy Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Our Energy Our Energy Securing Our Energy Future Future World Energy Demand Growing Dramatically 12 1400 1200 10 1000 2000 2050 2100 Population of Population of Industrialized Countries Industrialized Countries Wo W rl r d o ld Po P pu p la l ti t on o o u a i n Wo W rl r d E d ne n rg r y o l E e gy Co C ns n um u pt p io i n o s m t on Population (Billions) Energy Consumption (Qbtu / yr) 8 800 6 600 4 400 2 200 0 0 1900 1950 Year U.S. Electricity Generation by Fue U.S. Electricity Generation by Fuel Electric Generation by Fuel 1980 - 2030 (billion kilowatt-hours) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Renewables/Other Nuclear Natural Gas Petroleum Coal Source: EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2008 Why Do We Keep Coal in the Mix? Why Do We Keep Coal in the Mix? World Energy Reserves World Energy Reserves Source: Energy Information Administration/ International Reserves Data

271

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  | HydrOgEn & Our EnErgy FuturE U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov u.S. department of Energy |  www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Contents Introduction ................................................... p.1 Hydrogen - An Overview ................................... p.3 Production ..................................................... p.5 Delivery ....................................................... p.15 Storage ........................................................ p.19 Application and Use ........................................ p.25 Safety, Codes and Standards ............................... p.33

272

Nitrogen is a natural and necessary part of every healthy ecosystem, but too much nitrogen in our rivers,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), sewage treatment plants, and animal ma- nure. Once in water, nitrogen can change in chemical form

Torgersen, Christian

273

The research programme Future Agriculture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research programme Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use Welcome to a lunch.slu.se/futureagriculture For questions, please contact KatarinaVrede (katarina.vrede@slu.se) About Future Agriculture ­ livestock, crops and land use The changes and challenges facing agriculture in the future will be substantial, not only

274

Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the environment. Dinitrogen contains two nitrogen atoms held together by one of nature's strongest chemical bonds in the environment include ammonia (NH3) and its related compounds, amines (NH2), nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3 responsible for producing 500 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer each year, combines dinitro- gen

Mukhtar, Saqib

276

future science group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

35 35 ISSN 1759-7269 10.4155/BFS.13.56 © 2013 Future Science Ltd While lignocellulosic feedstocks represent a promising renewable and sustainable alternative to petroleum- based fuels, high production costs associated with con- version processes currently prevent them from being economically viable for large-scale implementation [1]. The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks requires the depolymerization of cell wall carbohydrates into simple sugars that can be utilized during fermentation. However, the desired cellulose microfibrils are surrounded by a matrix of lignin and hemicellulose, which greatly inhibits their accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes [1,2]. Lignin is a phenolic polymer that reinforces the secondary cell wall, confers struc-

277

future science group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

61 61 ISSN 1759-7269 10.4155/BFS.11.150 © 2012 Future Science Ltd In 1950 Reese et al. proposed a mechanism for cel- lulose hydrolysis, which involved two general com- ponents, C 1 and C x , acting in sequence [1]. According to the model, the C 1 component first disrupted and swelled the crystalline cellulose, possibly releasing soluble oligo saccharides into solution. The C x compo- nent, which was shown to have endoglucanase activity, was then able to effectively hydrolyze the previously inaccessible substrate along with the soluble oligo- saccharides. Furthermore, the activity of the mixture was found to be higher than the activity of each com- ponent acting alone, indicating that the components were acting synergistically. In the following years, a number of groups began to identify and characterize

278

FAQ : Future Scientists  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FAQ FAQ How do I get started as a school volunteer? You can talk with program coordinator, Rick Diamond, or any of the EETD staff who have already participated in the Future Scientist program. To contact Rick Diamond, please call (510) 486-4459 or enable JavaScript within your browser's preferences. When you are ready to plan a classroom visit, call the Community Resources for Science (CRS) and ask about school and grade availability for your topic. CRS staff will place you with a K-6 grade teacher in the East Bay. CRS can also provide excellent advise on classroom guidance and materials, and handle all the contact logistics. All you do is give them a call. Community Resources for Science 1375 Ada Street Berkeley, CA 94702 (510) 654-6433 http://www.crscience.org/

279

The Future of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several factors are conspiring to create potentially ideal conditions for a mini-renaissance of domestic manufacturing, including the emergence of additive manufacturing, the forces of social, mobile, analytics and cloud, and ever-rising energy costs. | FUTURE OF WORKExecutive Summary U.S. manufacturing is better positioned today for revival than anytime since its slow and painful decline some 30 years ago. A big reason for its new-found strength stems from changes in China. Rising wages, concerns over IP protection and increases in digital automation globally have conspired to undermine the economic advantages that China has enjoyed for years. We believe the following additional factors will contribute to positioning the U.S. manufacturing industry for renewal: The U.S. is best positioned to lead manufacturing into the digital age because of its significant scale, consistently high

A Change Manifesto

280

Future Experimental Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I was asked to discuss future experimental programs even though I'm a theorist. As a result, I present my own personal views on where the field is, and where it is going, based on what I myself have been working on. In particular, I discuss why we need expeditions into high energies to find clues to where the relevant energy scale is for dark matter, baryon asymmetry, and neutrino mass. I also argue that the next energy frontier machine should be justified on the basis of what we know, namely the mass of the Higgs boson, so that we will learn what energy we should aim at once we nail the Higgs sector. Finally I make remarks on dark energy.

Hitoshi Murayama

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Quantification and characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents by electrodialysis treatment followed by size-exclusion chromatography with nitrogen detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can act as a precursor of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts during oxidative water treatment. Quantification and characterization of DON are still challenging for waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including ammonia, nitrate and nitrite) relative to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) due to the cumulative analytical errors of independently measured nitrogen species (i.e., DON = TDN ?  NO 2 ?  ?  NO 3 ?  ?  NH 4 + /NH3) and interference of DIN species to TDN quantification. In this study, a novel electrodialysis (ED)-based treatment for selective DIN removal was developed and optimized with respect to type of ion-exchange membrane, sample pH, and ED duration. The optimized ED method was then coupled with size-exclusion chromatography with organic carbon, UV, and nitrogen detection (SEC-OCD-ND) for advanced DON analysis in wastewater effluents. Among the tested ion-exchange membranes, the PC-AR anion- and CMT cation-exchange membranes showed the lowest DOC loss (1–7%) during ED treatment of a wastewater effluent at ambient pH (8.0). A good correlation was found between the decrease of the DIN/TDN ratio and conductivity. Therefore, conductivity has been adopted as a convenient way to determine the optimal duration of the ED treatment. In the pH range of 7.0–8.3, ED treatment of various wastewater effluents with the PC-AR/CMT membranes showed that the relative residual conductivity could be reduced to less than 0.50 (DIN removal >90%; DIN/TDN ratio ?0.60) with lower DOC losses (6%) than the previous dialysis and nanofiltration methods (DOC loss >10%). In addition, the ED method is shorter (0.5 h) than the previous methods (>1–24 h). The relative residual conductivity was further reduced to ?0.20 (DIN removal >95%; DIN/TDN ratio ?0.35) by increasing the ED duration to 0.7 h (DOC loss = 8%) for analysis by SEC-OCD-ND, which provided new information on distribution and ratio of organic carbon and nitrogen in different molecular weight fractions of effluent organic matter.

Kangmin Chon; Yunho Lee; Jacqueline Traber; Urs von Gunten

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Nitrogen management and the future of food: Lessons from the management of energy and carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...share to natural gas. Harness Market Forces. A general message...better protected “natural resource quality...Desire for autonomy drives interest in solar...human activity on the natural world, one finds ecological...Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems ( Island...1997 ) Chem Engin News 75 : 34 – 37...

Robert H. Socolow

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

285

Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V, .=DL ULL LI~C a~ailability 01 ILILKLL~: IIILIU~~I~ LU curn, l~aa, 8011 31LY3 1 27.3 .53 .I447 1 I 1 5: 1250 .I349 ic nitrogen ( 37.P' 1 -59 1 .2195 ru.. nv / 36.6 .57 1 .2086 I -2141 1 .O7b/ I 1. gm. nitrous nitrogen 30.2 1 .64 1 .I933 1... .12 -.01 ' .09 V1 -- I w 01 ---- I ------ el M - 1 --O6 X * ---- ------ U1 $ !z - --- i d $ --- - I -20 2 Y * F - I M 4 M .34 I --- .20 M .14 5 nitrogen --- --- -.02 .14 -.48 -.01 -12 .18 .OS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Future plans at ISOLDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CERN ISOLDE facility has operated for over 30 years delivering beams of exotic ions to an ever-growing user community. The facility went through a major up-grade in the early 1990s with the move from the 600 MeV synchrocyclotron to the 1 GeV PS-Booster proton synchrotron. This was followed by a primary proton beam energy up grade to 1.4 GeV in 1999. Lately, an important step forward was taken with the start of the REX-ISOLDE experiment for charge breeding and post acceleration of exotic ions. CERN has recently decided on a consolidation project for the facility to assure that the required number of shifts can be delivered in the future. An overview will be given of the on-going consolidation and development programme and its implications on the physics programme, in particular the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator experiment. An important parameter for a better yield of very exotic elements is the primary proton beam intensity, beam energy and time structure. The possible short-term improvements of, in particul...

Lindroos, M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional nitrogen responses Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tons of nitrogen fertilizer each year, combines dinitro- gen... National Park (Colorado, USA): a response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition." Geobiology 1... Nitrogen...

289

The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees. Photosynthesisloci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. Journal ofNitrogen Assimilation and Recycling Stéphanie M. Bernard 1

Bernard, S.M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic nitrogen cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biological nitrogen fixation of gaseous nitrogen. The water cycle is important to ecosystem... and Nitrogen Cycles As ... Source: Barboza, Perry - Institute of Arctic Biology,...

291

Optimizing hydrocarbon recoveries in nitrogen rejection units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to address conceptual questions such as process selection and natural gas liquids plant integration, an understanding of the effects of several additional factors on nitrogen rejection unit design is important. These factors, which may influence optimum hydrocarbon recovery, installed compression, etc., include current and forecast values for natural gas and utilities, project life, plant size, feed gas composition and product specifications, feed pressure, and process variations. Prices, project life, and plant size are analyzed in detail and presented in terms of methane recoveries as a function of nitrogen content in the feed for both double and single column processes. Trends are qualitatively discussed for the remaining factors. 13 references.

Chesney, J.D.; Davis, R.A.; Hilton, M.F.; Vines, H.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of enzyme concentration upon nitrogen so1ubi 1i zed in carrot tops ( 10g dry weight) . Conditions of assay: pH = 3. 5, i ncubati on time = 20 hr, incubation temperature = 45'C. 24 hydrolysis. These data confirm earlier reports that -. 01% is the pro... roots and tops, a concentration of 1. 0% A-12-C at pH 3. 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble ni trogenous consti tuents . For car~ot roots, a concentration of 1. 0/ ficin at pH 4, 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble nitrogen. With carrot...

Curry, James Cannon

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

We would like to thank everyone who attended Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future, including the speakers, moderators, sponsors, and exhibitors who helped make the conference a great success.

294

Recapitalizing EMSL: Meeting Future Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recapitalizing EMSL: Meeting Future Science and Technology Challenges Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory 2008 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

295

Future Applications Monitor Critical Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future Applications · Monitor Critical Structures ­ Bridges, dams, pipelines, power integrity for rescue efforts ­ Expendable for unstable conditions ­ Power system repair ­ Firefighting

Huston, Dryver R.

296

Saft Factory of the Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Future Principal Investigator - Peter Denoncourt Presentors - Karen Conner Saft America Inc. June 11, 2011 Project ID: ARRAVT007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

297

Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

298

Mechanisms of synfuel degradation. 3. Interactive effects in nitrogen compound induced storage instability in shale derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality upon storage has been a continuing problem in the utilization of middle distillate fuels. For diesel fuels, instability is usually defined by the formation of insoluble sediments and gums and by the accumulation of hydroperoxides. Gravimetric accelerated storage stability tests conducted with model compounds as dopants in otherwise stable distillate fuels have demonstrated that oxidative condensation reactions of polar heterocycles are deleterious to stability. In particular, nitrogen containing aromatics (pyrroles, pyridines, indoles, etc.) appear to be very harmful.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Beaver, B.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup ?}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633?nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5?K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ?}?=?37.0?MHz and A{sub ?}?=?8.4?MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1}?=?14.5?MHz, A{sub 2}?=?18.3?MHz, and A{sub 3}?=?20.5?MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup ¯}0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C., E-mail: Nancy.Giles@afit.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

300

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

302

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a...

304

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

305

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

306

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

307

groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producer profits. This will, in turn, benefit water bodies in the area that receive stream baseflow fromgroundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer water withdraws are used for irrigation while the cities of Vernon, Burk- burnett and Electra and many

308

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

309

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 NITROGEN #2NITROGEN #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(BFB), (CFB) (BFB), (CFB) Fuel nitrogen content Excess air Air staging Limestone addition , - (BFB), (CFB) SO2 level SNCR ­ NH3 , - SNCR ­ urea SCR - Pressure , (but NO2 ) #12;HELSINKI

Zevenhoven, Ron

310

Evolutionary tradeoffs can select against nitrogen fixation and thereby maintain nitrogen limitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. evolutionary ecology model Biological nitrogen (N) fixation--the conversion of atmo- spheric N2 gas) but is equally important to explaining the paradox of N limitation. Unlike the successional question

Menge, Duncan

311

The Future of Geothermal Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Future of Geothermal Energy Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century #12;The Future of Geothermal Energy Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS and Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, Under DOE Idaho Operations Office Contract DE-AC07-05ID

Laughlin, Robert B.

312

Temperature and nutrient supply interact to control nitrogen fixation ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature and nutrient supply interact to control nitrogen fixation in oligotrophic streams: An experimental examination. Marcarelli, Amy M., Wayne A.

313

Core-level spectroscopy of thin oxides and oxynitrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several spectroscopic methods are discussed that use core levels, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy with photoelectron or fluorescence detection. Measurements are presented on the desorption of a chemical oxide and the growth of oxynitrides with N{sub 2}0 on Si(100). The stoichiometry is found to change strongly with thickness, from a nitrogen-terminated Si surface to a nearly-pure oxide in the outer region of 40--60 {Angstrom} films. Using a third generation synchrotron beam line a sensitivity of better than a tenth of a monolayer is achieved by a simple photocurrent measurement.

Himpsel, F.J.; Akatsu, H. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Carlisle, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Vapour nucleation in a cryogenic–fluid–dissolved–nitrogen mixture during rapid depressurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the dissolved nitrogen comes out of the...effect of dissolved nitrogen was not addressed...non-condensable gas (nitrogen) in a cryogenic...g. superheated water or pure refrigerants...to estimate the solubility of nitrogen in...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA V.N. Owens a , D.R. Viands b , H Available online 17 August 2013 Keywords: Nitrogen removal Switchgrass Bioenergy Nitrogen use efficiency as a forage, conservation, and bioenergy crop [1e5]. It offers a number of distinct benefits including broad

Pawlowski, Wojtek

316

Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................ 6 Relation of the Crops to the Total Nitrogen of the Soil ........... 7 Relation of the Different Crops ................................. 8 Relation of Surface Soil to Subsoil ............................. 13 Acid Soils Compared with Non-Acid... of Production of Nitrates to the Results of the Pot Ex- periments ................................................ 21 Extensive Work ............................................ 24 Relation of Nitric Nitrogen to Nitrogen Removed by First Crop .... 24...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

QuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. 2004. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at roadside verges, and their contributionQuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside plant community composition? 1. Is there a gradient of nitrogen deposition to freeway verges from traffic exhaust? 2. Are there other sources of N

Hall, Sharon J.

318

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

319

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nitrogen and hydrogen gas [7,22,23...process surpassed natural N fixation [31...of the nitrogen cascade was proposed...terrestrial 104 118 --natural - - 30 50 50 170...consequences in the natural environment...2003 The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53...anthropogenic trace gases. In Interactions...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the 1940s atmospheric nitrogen pollution has steadily increased, primarily as a consequence in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen pollutants are likely to have contributed to improved forest productivityHow extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Special Aspects of Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aspects of Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae Rosalie M. Cox P. Fay When carbon dioxide...required for nitrogen fixation in this alga. A ratio of pyruvate decarboxylation to...independent of photosynthesis in blue-green algae. Special aspects of nitrogen fixation...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10?nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

David Henry, M., E-mail: mdhenry@sandia.gov; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Fabrication Facility PO Box 5800 MS 1084, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

323

Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen ?-doping technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen ?-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen ?-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freeze the Rainbow!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! Freeze the Rainbow! Starburst candy. They're fruity. They're chewy. They're delicious! But, can they survive taking a bath in liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A student visiting Jefferson Lab from Huntington Middle School in Newport News, Virginia, asked what happens to a starburst if you put it in liquid nitrogen. Well, we're going to find out! Steve: At room temperature, starburst isn't really all that special. I can kind of squish it if I squeeze it hard enough and, if I drop it, nothing

327

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Giant Koosh Ball!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Previous Video (Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Giant Koosh Ball! Sometimes, you just want to know what's going to happen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! A while ago, I was at the mall and I saw this. And, the first thing that popped into my head was 'I wonder what would happen if we were to put this in liquid nitrogen?' Now, that's one thing I really love about science. If you have a question, you can, sometimes, do an experiment to find out what the answer is! Here at the Lab, we have a lot of liquid nitrogen, so that's

328

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

329

Section 25: Future State Assumptions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Compliance Certification Application (CCA), Chapter 6.0, Section 6.2 and Appendices SCR and MASS (U.S. DOE 1996). Many of these future state assumptions were derived from the...

330

The Future of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Future of Geothermal Energy report is an evaluation of geothermal energy as a major supplier of energy in the United States. An 18-member assessment panel with broad experience and expertise...

331

Algae: fuel of the future?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Algae: fuel of the future? ... Start-ups and oil giants are investing millions in the photosynthetic powers of algae. ... Start-ups and oil giants are investing millions in the photosynthetic powers of algae. ...

Amanda Leigh Mascarelli

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future ... To explore both the immediate and long-term ramifications of the cutbacks, C&EN talked to the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg . ...

1964-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Future Hadron Physics at Fermilab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today, hadron physics research occurs at Fermilab as parts of broader experimental programs. This is very likely to be the case in the future. Thus, much of this presentation focuses on our vision of that future - a future aimed at making Fermilab the host laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Given the uncertainties associated with the ILC - the level of needed R&D, the ILC costs, and the timing - Fermilab is also preparing for other program choices. I will describe these latter efforts, efforts focused on a Proton Driver to increase the numbers of protons available for experiments. As examples of the hadron physics which will be coming from Fermilab, I summarize three experiments: MIPP/E907 which is running currently, and MINER A and Drell-Yan/E906 which are scheduled for future running periods. Hadron physics coming from the Tevatron Collider program will be summarized by Arthur Maciel in another talk at Hadron05.

Jeffrey A. Appel

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

AUTO ID FUTURE - FREQUENCY AGNOSTIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of information is one key to the development of intelligent decision systems of the future. Frequency agnostic automatic identification is only one step in the physical world to make physical objects identify ...

DATTA, SHOUMEN

335

Texas Industries of the Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of the Texas Industries of the Future program is to facilitate the development, demonstration and adoption of advanced technologies and adoption of best practices that reduce industrial energy usage, emissions, and associated costs...

Ferland, K.

336

Prompt-Month Energy Futures  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prompt-Month Energy Futures Prompt-Month Energy Futures Prices and trading activity shown are for prompt-month (see definition below) futures contracts for the energy commodities listed in the table below. Note that trading for prompt-month futures contracts ends on different dates at the end of the month for the various commodities; therefore, some commodity prices may reference delivery for the next month sooner than other commodity prices. Product Description Listed With Crude Oil ($/barrel) West Texas Intermediate (WTI) light sweet crude oil delivered to Cushing, Oklahoma More details | Contract specifications New York Mercantile Exchange (Nymex) Gasoline-RBOB ($/gallon) Reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) gasoline delivered to New York Harbor More details | Contract specifications Nymex

337

The Future of Home Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NG in PM 2.5 emissions B10 equal to NG in CO2e emissions High heating efficiency Lowest oil for oil replacement cost Ideal for high bio fraction future Best for existing oil...

338

The Wave of the Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Wave of the Future Story by Courtney Swyden THEWAVE OF THE FUTURE tx H2O | pg. 2 Plans use local involvement to enhance water quality Comprehensive watershed protection plans,outlining ways to preserve or restore water-sheds, are becoming a... popular approach for protecting Texas surface waters. The Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI), Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and Texas Cooperative Extension are taking an active role in providing assessment, educational outreach, manage...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

340

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and  the number of (liquefied natural gas, nitrogen  dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, particle  number,  and 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Physics Needs for Future Accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents: 1. Prologomena to any meta future physics 1.1 Physics needs for building future accelerators 1.2 Physics needs for funding future accelerators 2. Physics questions for future accelerators 2.1 Crimes and misapprehensions 2.1.1 Organized religion 2.1.2 Feudalism 2.1.3 Trotsky was right 2.2 The Standard Model as an effective field theory 2.3 What is the scale of new physics? 2.4 What could be out there? 2.5 Model-independent conclusions 3. Future accelerators 3.1 What is the physics driving the LHC? 3.2 What is the physics driving the LC? 3.2.1 Higgs physics is golden 3.2.2 LHC won't be sufficient to unravel the new physics as the TeV scale 3.2.3 LC precision measurements can pin down new physics scales 3.3 Why a Neutrino Factory? 3.4 Pushing the energy frontier

Joseph D. Lykken

2000-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitric ox- ide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ammonia (NHNitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

Greene, D.L.

2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Towards closing the nitrogen flow in UK agriculture: An explorative study of integrated food and bioenergy production with increased nitrogen recirculation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nitrogen is an essential growth factor in nature and for food production. It exists in many forms, including reactive nitrogen compounds available for plant uptake,… (more)

Skenhall, Sara Alongi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Energy Options for the Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Options Options for the Future * John Sheffield, 1 Stephen Obenschain, 2,12 David Conover, 3 Rita Bajura, 4 David Greene, 5 Marilyn Brown, 6 Eldon Boes, 7 Kathyrn McCarthy, 8 David Christian, 9 Stephen Dean, 10 Gerald Kulcinski, 11 and P.L. Denholm 11 This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geo- thermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major energy sources, means for resolving or mitigating environmental issues, and the role to be played by yet to be deployed sources, like fusion, were major topics of presentation and discussion. KEY WORDS: Energy; fuels; nuclear; fusion; efficiency; renewables.

349

Water for future Mars astronauts?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Within its first three months on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover saw a surprising diversity of soils and sediments along a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. September 26, 2013 This image shows two areas on Mars in a location named Rocknest that were scooped out by the Curiosity Rover last year. Researchers took samples of the areas to determine whether they were wetter underneath or whether they dried out after scooping. Researchers found that soil moisture was consistent at the surface and underneath. Nevertheless, there is a small amount of water in the soil that astronauts might be able to use to sustain themselves. These finding and others are outlined in a series of papers appearing today in the Journal "Science." (Image credit: NASA)

350

Hydrogen Future Act of 1996  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-271-OCT. 9, 1996 4-271-OCT. 9, 1996 HYDROGEN FUTURE ACT OF 1996 110 STAT. 3304 PUBLIC LAW 104-271-OCT. 9, 1996 Oct. 9, 1996 [H.R. 4138] Hydrogen Future Act of 1996. 42 USC 12401 note. 42 USC 7238 note. Public Law 104-271 104th Congress An Act To authorize the hydrogen research, development, and demonstration programs of the Department of Energy, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the ''Hydrogen Future Act of 1996''. SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS. For purposes of titles II and III- (1) the term ''Department'' means the Department of Energy; and (2) the term ''Secretary'' means the Secretary of Energy. TITLE I-HYDROGEN SEC. 101. PURPOSES AND DEFINITIONS.

351

11 - Future Automotive Electronic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the future of the automative electronic systems. Future applications of telematics are described. One of the interesting potential future developments in the application of electronics to automobiles is navigation. The concepts discussed in the chapter depend largely on their technical feasibility and marketability. The fundamental control strategy for fuel metering has not changed, although the technological changes have improved the performance and reliability of the electronically controlled engine. Some of the technical improvements described in the chapter include knock control, linear solenoid idle speed control, sequential fuel injection, distributorless ignition, self-diagnosis for fail-safe operation, back-up microprocessor (MPU), and hybrid vehicles. New mechanisms and electromechanical actuators have been developed to improve volumetric efficiency via induction systems, variable valve timing, variable nozzle turbochargers, and throttle actuators.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

GreenFuture Renewables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GreenFuture Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: GreenFuture Renewables Place: Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Zip: 90460000 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy...

353

On the Use of Thermal NF3 as the Fluorination and Oxidation Agent in Treatment of Used Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for use in a process for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by employing the volatility of many transition metal and actinide fluorides. Nitrogen trifluoride is less chemically and reactively hazardous than the hazardous and aggressive fluorinating agents used to prepare uranium hexafluoride and considered for fluoride volatility based nuclear fuels reprocessing. In addition, nitrogen trifluoride’s less aggressive character may be used to separate the volatile fluorides from used fuel and from themselves based on the fluorination reaction’s temperature sensitivity (thermal tunability) rather than relying on differences in sublimation/boiling temperature and sorbents. Our thermodynamic calculations found that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from candidate oxides and metals. Our simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses found that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium fluorinated but did not form volatile fluorides and that depending on temperature volatile fluorides formed from the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. We also demonstrated near-quantitative removal of uranium from plutonium in a mixed oxide.

Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalyst supports exhibit great influence on the cost, performance, and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. This review paper is to summarize several important kinds of novel support materials for PEM fuel cells (including direct methanol fuel cell, DMFC): nanostructured carbon materials (carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers, mesoporous carbon), conductive doped diamonds and nanodiamonds, conductive oxides (tin oxide/indium tin oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide) and carbides (tungsten carbides). The advantages and disadvantages, the acting mechanism to promote electrocatalysis, and the strategies to improve present catalyst support materials and to search for new ones are discussed. This is expected to throw light on future development of catalyst support for PEM fuel cells.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

FUTURE:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......systems alive. Protecting power and information The smart grid is the bidirectional supply chain that connects power...meters to compromise control and customer data. The smart grid deployments are happening at a rapid rate, and given......

Member Content

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

360

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Abstract: Chemical doping with foreign...

362

Flexible, integrated NGL recovery/nitrogen rejection systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the oil and gas industry uses nitrogen to recover more of the expensive hydrocarbons below the ground, there is a need for gas processing facilities above the ground that can efficiently and effectively handle the nitrogen coproduced with the hydrocarbon stream. Some of the key general economic variables that must be considered when evaluating proposed nitrogen rejection projects are reviewed. This work discusses the design of the nitrogen/ natural gas processing facilities. It also reviews these process specific criteria and examines some pertinent examples of process design and equipment selection features, which provide the flexibility and integration required to meet the demands of these interrelated driving forces.

Browne, L.W.; Aberle, J.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Crop Science 37:807-811.water- deficit stress, and the absorption of foliar-appliedgrowth favorable for N absorption and translocation. Four

Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

144 Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen in seawater time. Uncertainties result from a com- bination of factors including: sample storage effects, contami

365

Thermal bubble behaviour in liquid nitrogen under electric fields.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis describes thermally induced bubble behaviour changes in liquid nitrogen (LN2) under electric fields. Cryogenic liquids such as LN2 have been used not only… (more)

Wang, Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Astronomy: Bright Future for Infrared  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ALTHOUGH the prediction of what is likely to happen in astronomy in the future is a hazardous undertaking just now, it seems increasingly obvious in ... is a hazardous undertaking just now, it seems increasingly obvious in astronomical circles that infrared astronomy is going to be an important field of investigation during the next few years. ...

Our Astronomy Correspondent

1968-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

367

The future for radio astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Features The future for radio astronomy Rene P Breton Tom Hassall Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, UK; r...Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena......

Rene P Breton; Tom Hassall

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Envision your future in engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of my grandpa's history in engineering. He was a geological engineer and he encouraged me to give#12;e Envision your future in engineering © 2011 Montana State University #12;Table of Contents and personal success of minority and women students in the College of Engineering at Montana State University

Dyer, Bill

369

Life: past, present and future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...have the upper hand in terms of energy harvesting...new life. We should enter the search with an open mind, knowing...non-earth environments. In terms of both past and future...over which scales, to search for them. To summarize...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The future of oil supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Energy [64] argued...options such as electric vehicles and...prospects of electric vehicles (EVs...cells, and the energy use, driving...diverse urban planning and fuel taxation...Laherrere, J. 2000 Distribution of field sizes...future of oil. Energy Explor. Exploit...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Future hadron physics at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today, hadron physics research occurs at Fermilab as parts of broader experimental programs. This is very likely to be the case in the future. Thus, much of this presentation focuses on our vision of that future--a future aimed at making Fermilab the host laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Given the uncertainties associated with the ILC--the level of needed R&D, the ILC costs, and the timing--Fermilab is also preparing for other program choices. I will describe these latter efforts, efforts focused on a Proton Driver to increase the numbers of protons available for experiments. As examples of the hadron physics which will be coming from Fermilab, I summarize three experiments: MIPP/E907 which is running currently, and MINERvA and Drell-Yan/E906 which are scheduled for future running periods. Hadron physics coming from the Tevatron Collider program will be summarized by Arthur Maciel in another talk at Hadron05.

Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors: HYBRIDMATERIALS Our goal is to develop the scientific expertise needed to allow modeling and simulation to become the driving force in improving magnetic sensors effectiveness in developing new and improved magnetic sensors. By quantifying the improvement in sensor

373

Future prospects for geothermal energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For pt.II see ibid., vol.10, no.6, p.244 (1979). Attempts to assess the very important role that may well be played by earth heat in the world energy strategy of the future. Rock fracturing methods are discussed and applications considered

H.C.H. Armstead

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Future Prospects of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is important for the future of this nation to reach the goal of demonstrated definition and quantification of the parameters which influence the ability to use this country's vast resources of coal and oil shale for production of synthetic fuels...

Fryback, M. G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Options for Kentucky's Energy Future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

Larry Demick

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

377

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

378

Effect of nitrogen incorporation on improvement of leakage properties in high-k HfO{sub 2} capacitors treated by N{sub 2}-plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nitrogen incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films with an EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 9 A was performed by N{sub 2}-plasma to improve the electrical properties. The dielectric properties and a leakage current characteristics of the capacitors were investigated as a function of plasma power and plasma treatment temperature. The dielectric constant of the capacitors is not influenced by nitrogen incorporation. The N{sub 2}-plasma treatment at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits the most effective influence on improvement of the leakage current characteristics. Leakage current density of the capacitors treated at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits a half order of magnitude lower than that without plasma treatment. Nitrogen incorporated into the HfO{sub 2} films possesses the intrinsic effect that drastically reduce the electron leakage current through HfO{sub 2} dielectrics by deactivating the V{sub O} (oxygen vacancy) related gap states.

Seong, Nak-Jin; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Yeom, Seung-Jin; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Kil, Deok-Sin; Roh, Jae-Sung; Sohn, Hyun-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1 Ami-ri Bubal-eub Icheon-si Kyoungki-do, 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

379

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

O`Brien, J.V. [Process Systems International, Inc., Westborough, MA (United States); Maloney, J.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION STATE'S PERSPECTIVE. CALIFORNIAREQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIAREQUIREMENTS POR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIA

Sathaye, Jayant A.; Ritschard, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION STATE'S PERSPECTIVE. CALIFORNIAREQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIAREQUIREMENTS POR FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIA

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Solubility of Nitrogen in Water at High Pressures and Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... Two recent events allow a more detailed picture of the solubility of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and the noble gases in water to be given, than could have been given even a year ago. ...

John B. Goodman; Norman W. Krase

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment S. Marsili wastewater is too low, full denitrification is difficult to obtain and an additional source of organic carbon predictive control; wastewater treatment plant Introduction The problem of improving the nitrogen removal

386

Status and Future of TRANSCOM  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steve Casey Steve Casey U.S. Dept. of Energy Carlsbad Field Office ï‚¡ Current Program status g ï‚¡ Upcoming Changes ï‚¡ Glimpse at future options ï‚¡ DOE Commitments 2 6/3/2010 2 ï‚¡ Current Program status g * Computer Based Training * User Support Site * Program Support * Program Accomplishments U i Ch ï‚¡ Upcoming Changes ï‚¡ Glimpse at future options ï‚¡ DOE Commitments 3 ï‚¡ 1 st release - December 2009 9 ï‚¡ Covers general user training ï‚¡ Allows organizations access to training without waiting for a traditional class ï‚¡ Computer security module to be added Autumn 2010 Autumn 2010 ï‚¡ Shipper/Scheduler training - being considered 4 6/3/2010 3 ï‚¡ Completely overhauled in p y 2009 ï‚¡ Features are user friendly ï‚¡ Layout more intuitive

387

Brookhaven Physics: Into the Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics: Into the Future Physics: Into the Future To remain at the frontier of science, Brookhaven is continually evaluating its research programs and planning new or revised investigations in areas that the U.S. Department of Energy identifies as national science priorities and that make use of Brookhaven scientists' interests and strengths. STAR detector (L) and PHENIX detector After discovering quark-gluon plasma, physicists will proceed to measure details of its many intriguing characteristics and properties, and continue to investigate many other aspects of heavy ion physics and spin physics. To undertake these tasks, Brookhaven is planning to upgrade RHIC to RHIC-II by increasing the facility's luminosity, or collision rate, by a factor of ten, thereby increasing the rate of plasma production and the ability to

388

Natural Gas Futures Prices (NYMEX)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Nov-14 View History Spot Price Henry Hub 4.59 4.05 3.91 3.92 3.78 4.12 1997-2014 NGPL Composite 10.17 9.94 9.69 9.86 8.75 2009-2014 Futures Prices Contract 1 4.59 4.02 3.90 3.92...

389

Transplanckian collisions at future accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scattering at transplanckian energies offers model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. Black-hole production is one spectacular signal, though a full calculation of the cross section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which is maybe less spectacular but which can be nicely computed in the forward region using the eikonal approximation. In this talk I discuss the distinctive signatures of eikonalized scattering at future accelerators.

Riccardo Rattazzi

2002-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

390

The future of intellectual property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper uses two recent works as a springboard for discussing the proper contours of intellectual property protection. Professor Lessig devotes much of The Future of Ideas to demonstrating how the expanding scope of intellectual property protection ... Keywords: Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA), Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), Internet, Locke, Napster, authorship, business method patent, copyright, enclosure, hyperlink, intellectual commons, intellectual property rights, labor-desert theory, natural law, open source code, patents, public domain, utilitarianism

Richard A. Spinello

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

392

Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem, elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen enrichment, parasites, plant pathogensEffects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species

Crews, Stephen

393

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant richness

Minnesota, University of

394

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant enrichment, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant

Minnesota, University of

395

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

396

Atmospheric input of nitrogen to the coastal region of southeastern Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NH4+, N03-), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were measured in rainwater collected at three sampling sites (College Station, Houston, and Galveston, Texas). Dry deposition rate of nitrogen species was also measured...

Shon, Zang-Ho

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Questions and Answers - Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How cold is liquid nitrogen? How cold is liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (How cold is liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize?) If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen,would your body instantly crystallize? Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen? Yes, there are things colder than liquid nitrogen, like most of the Universe! I assume, though, that you mean things on the Earth. There actually is an entire branch of science called cryogenics that deals with really cold things. Generally the science of cryogenics is when the temperature goes below that which we can reach with conventional refrigeration equipment, around 250 degrees (Fahrenheit) below zero. Many

398

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Popping Film Canisters!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Exploding Rubber Stopper! Exploding Rubber Stopper! Previous Video (Exploding Rubber Stopper!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Insulators!) Insulators! Popping Film Canisters! What happens when liquid nitrogen is trapped inside a sealed container? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are a bunch of film canisters! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we trap the liquid nitrogen in the film canisters! Steve: Okay! Now the room, and everything in it, is way too hot for the liquid nitrogen to stay as a liquid. As soon as the liquid nitrogen touches anything in the room, it boils and changes into a gas.

399

Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin. 5. Sedimentary nitrogen and phosphorus budgets based upon kinetic models, mass balances, and the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rapid rates of sediment accumulation (approx.10-20 cm/yr) in the recently formed Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, have resulted in the deposition of approximately 157 moles of carbon, 14 moles of nitrogen and 1.3 moles of phosphorus, per square meter annually. The metabolism of the organic matter in these anoxic sediments is dominated by sulfate reduction and fermentation reactions. Sedimentary nitrogen and phosphorus budgets are estimated using 3 related approaches: 1) a kinetic model of solid phase diagenesis; 2) direct measurements of nutrient burial and regeneration; and 3) nutrient recycling rates estimated from annual rates of sulfate reduction and the SO/sub 4/:NH/sub 4/ and SO/sub 4/:PO/sub 4/ stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration. The mass balances derived agree reasonably well and indicate that approximately 30% of the total nitrogen and 15% of the total phosphorus deposited in these sediments are recycled. The mean residence time for recycled nutrients within the sediment is 4 to 6 months for nitrogen and 1.5 to 2 years for phosphorus. Nitrogen regeneration, like carbon, appears to be controlled by the microbially-mediated metabolism of labile organic matter. The greater asymmetry and lower percent turnover in phosphorus cycling is apparently due to changes in its solubility under oxidized and reduced conditions and selective regeneration prior to deposition.

Klump, J.V.; Martens, C.S.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part II: Assessment of exposure to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained from 1988 to 1991 in the homes of 1,205 infants living in Albuquerque, NM. Passive diffusion samplers were used to obtain a series of two-week integrated measurements from the home of each infant for use in a cohort study of the relation of residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses. Information on stove use and time spent inside the residence was collected at two-week and two-month intervals, respectively. During the winter, in the bedrooms of homes with gas cooking stoves, mean nitrogen dioxide concentrations were 21 parts per billion (ppb); mean concentrations in the living room and kitchen were 29 ppb and 34 ppb, respectively. In homes with electric cooking stoves, the mean bedroom concentration was 7 ppb during the winter. Lower indoor concentrations were observed during the summer in homes with both gas and electric stoves. On average, infants spent approximately 12.3 hours per day in their bedrooms, 7.3 hours in the living rooms, 35 minutes in the kitchens, and 3.8 hours out of their homes. (As a condition of participation, none of the infants spent more than 20 hours per week in day care outside of their homes). The mean time infants spent in the kitchen during cooking was approximately nine minutes per day. We tested whether exposures of infants living in homes with gas stoves could be reasonably estimated by measurements in the bedroom in comparison with time-weighted average concentrations based on time-activity data and simultaneous nitrogen dioxide measurements in the kitchen, living room, and bedroom. In 1,937 two-week intervals from 587 infants, 90% of time-weighted exposure (on the three-level classification used in this study) estimates were in agreement with estimates based on bedroom concentrations alone.

Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Hunt, W.C.; Skipper, B.J.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen fertilizers Michael Nicodemus and Douglass F. Jacobs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen INTRODUCTION N fertilization has been shown to positively affect photosynthesis in most studies N fertilization and photosynthesis is largely due to ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO

403

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245429 (2012) Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- cluding methane synthesis,1­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing for oxygen chemical potentials below the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic

McGaughey, Alan

404

Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas...

405

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic nitrogen fixation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 85 Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1 Summary: . In recent budgets of oceanic fixed nitrogen, N2...

406

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum: Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy, external-cavity quantum cascade laser, nitrogen dioxide, trace

407

E-Print Network 3.0 - and-or nitrogen fixative Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

show the importance of atmospheric iron deposition for nitrogen fixation across the Pacific Ocean Summary: Nitrogen (N) fixation by specialized microorganisms (diazotrophs)...

408

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric nitrogen loads Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and in the water running down tree trunks. We investigated how nitrogen pollution affected which... how well the species could recover from high levels of nitrogen exposure....

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-induced atmospheric nitrogen Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and in the water running down tree trunks. We investigated how nitrogen pollution affected which... how well the species could recover from high levels of nitrogen exposure....

410

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ethylene Oxide Explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE occasional occurrence of ethylene oxide explosions during the fumigation of dried fruit has led us to undertake a detailed ... yielded results somewhat like those for acetaldehyde1,2.. Cool flames can be initiated in ethylene oxide – air mixtures in the neighbourhood of 330° C. at atmospheric pressure. ...

J. H. BURGOYNE; F. A. BURDEN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Future Space Launch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Oxidizer: Liquid Fuel: Solid 2 Fuel and oxidizer are physically separated One of the two is in solid phase Reverse Hybrids: Oxidizer: Solid Fuel: Liquid #12;Aero/Astro 50th Year Anniversary Hybrid Rocket System Solid Fuel · Polymers: Thermoplastics, (Polyethylene, Plexiglas), Rubbers (HTPB) · Wood, Trash, Wax

Stanford University

414

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the mean of vertical wind speed and concentration.observed between vertical wind speed and temperature sincethe cospectral density of vertical wind speed and NO X as

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photochemically active gases. Particularly surprising...in medieval churches in Cyprus . Atmos Environ 41 : 9018...of inorganic chlorine gases other than hydrogen chloride...from anthropogenic and natural sources: Reactive chlorine...Christian TJ ( 2009 ) Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic...

Jonathan D. Raff; Bosiljka Njegic; Wayne L. Chang; Mark S. Gordon; Donald Dabdub; R. Benny Gerber; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

green sheet, (3) smoothing surface by chemically inducing reflow using a solvent,solvents comprised circa 35% of the weight of the feedstock materials for the green

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understand and control this air pollutant. The effectivenessair pollution time series requires long records of pollutant concentrations to control

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations and WRFChem simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Ghude et al., 2008]. Thermal power plants are the largest consumer of coal in India [Garg et al., 2001 and WRFChem simulations Sachin D. Ghude,1,2 Gabriele G. Pfister,2 Chinmay Jena,1 R.J. van der A,3 Louisa K tropospheric NO2 column retrievals over the Indian region, with tropospheric NO2 columns simulated

Haak, Hein

420

Application of satellite observations for identifying regions of dominant sources of nitrogen oxides over the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the growth in oil and coal consumption in India. The OMI-derived surface NO2 mixing ratios are indirectly are formed mostly by combustion processes (e.g., power plants, vehicles, fires) and to a lesser extent by natural sources (e.g., soils, lightning), play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. They lead to ozone

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Cylinder Concentrations of Flow Constituents. . . . . 16 Table 2. Maximum Output and Use of Flow ControHers. . . . 17 Table 3. Manufacturers and Purity Levels of Four Liquid Additives. . . . 30 Table 4. Nominal Inlet Concentrations of Simulated... OF THE EXPERIMENT Experimental Apparatus Species Calibration . Liquid Additive Mixture Preparation. Baseline Testing Additive Testing . . Data Acquisition and Reduction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Baseline Case . . Hydrogen . Methane. . . Ethylene...

Standridge, Brad Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the unfired ceramic sample during thermal processing steps.ceramic samples were affixed to 4” silicon “handle” wafers using the following bonding agents: thermal

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Nitrogen oxide removal processes for coal-fueled electric power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a global trend requiring lower NO{sub x}, emissions from stationary combustion sources. When NO{sub x} is released into the atmosphere it contributes to photochemical smog and acid rain. Elevated ozone concentrations have been implicated in crop and forest damage, and adverse effects on human health. Several alternative technologies have been developed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions resulting from the combustion of coal. The alternatives, which range from combustion modifications, to addition of post-combustion systems, to use of alternate coal combustion technologies, provide different degrees of NO{sub x} reduction efficiency with different associated costs. Only by careful evaluation of site specific factors can the optimum technology for each application be chosen. This chapter will investigate the alternatives for NO{sub x} control for new, large utility steam generators using coal as a fuel.

Van Nieuwenhuizen, Wm.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

425

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

426

Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

Coca, J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of total nitrate and ammonia were made during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study using a steam

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Nanocomposites for nitrogen oxide emissions control in lean-burn engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) reducing agent than propane in the SCR of NO. Pt-Rh/CuO/A1?O? nanocomposites capable of adsorbing SO? in oxygen-rich environment as metal sulfates and releasing SO? in reducing atmosphere were synthesized with ...

Pitukmanorom, Pemakorn, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately balancing the IRF associated with aviation CO2 emissions (28 mWm�2 yr (TgNO2)�1 ). The overall climate impact of global aviation is often represented by a simple multiplier for CO2 emissions­3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions [Lee et al., 2009], yet these emissions fall outside the remit

430

Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria contribute minimally to nitrification in a nitrogen-impacted forested ecosystem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil-moisture use by mixed conifer forest in a summer-drynitri?cation in a conifer forest soil as measured by 15 Nautotrophic AOB in mixed-conifer forest soils in the San

Jordan, F L; Cantera, JJL; Fenn, M E; Stein, L Y

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* 53% NO x sensors that meet stringent vehicle requirements are not available: a) Cost (Complex sensors compared to the automotive sensor) b) Sensitivity (Need 5ppm or...

432

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

complete NO x sensors that meet stringent vehicle requirements are not available: a) Cost (Complex sensors compared to the automotive sensor) b) Sensitivity (Need 5ppm or...

433

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Novel Denitrifying Bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2 Tolerates High Levels of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was replaced with argon gas by purging for 15 min...production was analyzed by gas chromatography as described...to easily visualize N2 bubbles generated by denitrification...exopolysaccharide in activated sludge. Bioresour. Technol...production in high-strength wastewater. Water Res...

Yuki Doi; Naoki Takaya; Noboru Takizawa

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, and inlocations, residential combustion of biomass and coal for

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.In United-States Air-Quality Studies. Atmos. Environ. , 27,

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

122 Table 22. Equivalent circuit model resistances for NOof the resistance elements of the equivalent circuit offersOver time, the resistance values of the equivalent circuit

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

439

New high-nitrogen energetic materials for gas generators in space ordnance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-nitrogen nitroheterocyclic energetic compounds are used as explosives, propellants, and gas generants when safe, thermally stable, cool-burning energetic materials are desired. A series of compounds are compared for sensitivity properties and calculated burn performance. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations by NASA/Lewis rocket propellant and Blake gun propellant codes gave flame temperatures, average molecular weight, and identity of the equilibrium burn products for ambient, rocket, and gun pressure environments. These compounds were subjected to calculations both as monopropellants and as 50/50 weight ratio mixtures with ammonium nitrate (AN). Special attention was paid to calculated toxic products such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, and how these were affected by the addition of an oxidizer AN. Several compounds were noted for further calculations of a formulation ad experimental evaluation.

Campbell, M.S.; Lee, Kien-Yin; Hiskey, M.A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of fine roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) at different sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of Norway spruce finest (energy content and nitrogen concentration was determined. After...

Krista Lõhmus; Mari Ivask

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of fine roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at different sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of Norway spruce finest (energy content and nitrogen concentration was determined. After...

Krista Lõhmus; Mari Ivask

442

Recapitalizing EMSL: Meeting Future Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recapitalizing EMSL: Recapitalizing EMSL: Meeting Future Science and Technology Challenges Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory 2008 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not

443

Physics Reach at Future Colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physics reach at future colliders is discussed, with focus on the Higgs sector. First we present the Standard Model and some results obtained at the existing high-energy hadron collider, Tevatron, together with the corresponding expectations for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which starts operating in 2008. Then we discuss important low energy measurements: the anomalous magnetic moment for muon and the leptonic B-decay together with b{yields}s{gamma}. Finally the potential of the planned e{sup +}e{sup -} International Linear Collider (ILC) and its possible option Photon Linear Collider (PLC), e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma}, is shortly presented.

Krawczyk, Maria [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoz-dota 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Superconductivity: Past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of superconductor research and development activities, with emphasis on the potential of high-{Tc} materials for future applications. Superconductor applications are grouped under the following categories: electronics/instrumentation, bulk material/castings, research devices, industrial/commercial, electric power, and transportation/propulsion. Near-term applications are typically based on thin film and cast forms of high-{Tc} materials, while large-scale applications requiring long lengths of wire are considered intermediate to long term. As a major side benefit of high-{Tc} superconductor research, renewed interest is being focused on the use of low-{Tc} materials for large-scale applications.

Uherka, K.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Superconductivity: Past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of superconductor research and development activities, with emphasis on the potential of high-{Tc} materials for future applications. Superconductor applications are grouped under the following categories: electronics/instrumentation, bulk material/castings, research devices, industrial/commercial, electric power, and transportation/propulsion. Near-term applications are typically based on thin film and cast forms of high-{Tc} materials, while large-scale applications requiring long lengths of wire are considered intermediate to long term. As a major side benefit of high-{Tc} superconductor research, renewed interest is being focused on the use of low-{Tc} materials for large-scale applications.

Uherka, K.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Clean Nanotube Unzipping by Abrupt Thermal Expansion of Molecular Nitrogen: Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a novel physicochemical route to produce highly crystalline nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. The technique consists of an abrupt N2 gas expansion within the hollow core of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) when exposed to a fast thermal shock. The multiwalled nanotube unzipping mechanism is rationalized using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, which highlight the importance of open-ended nanotubes in promoting the efficient introduction of N2 molecules by capillary action within tubes and surface defects, thus triggering an efficient and atomically smooth unzipping. The so-produced nanoribbons could be few-layered (from graphene bilayer onward) and could exhibit both crystalline zigzag and armchair edges. In contrast to methods developed previously, our technique presents various advantages: (1) the tubes are not heavily oxidized; (2) the method yields sharp atomic edges within the resulting nanoribbons; (3) the technique could be scaled up for the bulk production of crystalline nanoribbons from available MWNT sources; and (4) this route could eventually be used to unzip other types of carbon nanotubes or intercalated layered materials such as BN, MoS2, WS2, etc.

Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones, M. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Endo, M [Shinshu University; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Kim, Y A [Shinshu University; Morelos-Bomez, Aaron [Shinshu University; Vega-Diaz, Sofia [Shinshu University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Keynote Address: Future Vision | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Future Vision Keynote Address: Future Vision May 20, 2014 1:00PM to 1:30PM PDT Pacific Ballroom Tuesday's keynote address by Raffi Garabedian, Chief Technology Officer, First Solar...

448

Future Forests Program Plan 2013 2016  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is that knowledge produced by Future Forests will make possible an increased and yet, we envision that knowledge produced by Future Forests will contribute for biodiversity conservation, water protection, recreational needs, climate change mitigation

449

WHAT FUTURE FOR UK HIGHER EDUCATION?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BERKELEY http://cshe.berkeley.edu/ WHAT FUTURE FOR UK HIGHERof the course). Brown, What Future for UK Higher Educationand local trends and also on what happens on migration, and

Roger Brown

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Building Blocks for the Future of Manufacturing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for the Future of Manufacturing Building Blocks for the Future of Manufacturing Scott Smith 2011.05.04 Even though we grew up on opposite sides of the world, my colleague...

451

Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Oxidations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) offers many excellent opportunities for conducting oxidation reactions using inexpensive primary oxidants such as oxygen, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, electrooxidation...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Correcting Nitrogen Deficiencies in Cotton with Urea-Based Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control through aerial applicators and adding some foliar nitrogen to these products may provide enough nitrogen to keep the cotton growing through a temporary stress period. (Because of reduced uptake, it is possible that a nitrogen deficit can occur... been used on irrigated cotton in West Texas without leaf burn. (This equals 1.38 lb. N/gal. or 4.14 lb. N/3 gal./acre if aerial application is desired or must be used because fields are not accessible with ground equipment.) ?Feed-grade urea...

Livingston, Stephen; Stichler, Charles

1995-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

454

Release of Fuel-Bound Nitrogen during Biomass Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. ... The present study attempts to clarify the effects of gasification conditions and fuel on the release and evolution of biomass FBN through parallel experiments utilizing four different biomass feedstocks having significantly different FBN contents. ... Four types of biomass feedstocks were used in the experimentsleucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass. ...

Jiachun Zhou; Stephen M. Masutani; Darren M. Ishimura; Scott Q. Turn; Charles M. Kinoshita

2000-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

455

California's Energy Future - The View to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Future - The View to 2050 Bin Biofuel Technology Hydrogen Ethanol from sugar and starch (e.g. , corn,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Future Science & Technology Programs | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Future Science & Technology Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency...

457

Future Internet Infrastructures for FI Prototyping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

++ Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS, Berlin ++ www.fokus.fraunhofer.de/go/innovation ++ 11­2009 #12;Future Internet Berlin AV de- partment (Architektur für Vermittlungskno- ten). Part of the Fraunhofer innovation clusFuture Internet Infrastructures for FI Prototyping NGN Evolution toward Future Internet Fraunhofer

Wichmann, Felix

458

ENERGY WHITE PAPER Our energy future -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY WHITE PAPER Our energy future - creating a low carbon economy and consumers. And we stand up for fair and open markets in the UK, Europe and the world. #12;Our energy future ENERGY WHITE PAPER Our energy future - creating a low carbon economy 1 Foreword

459

Bachelor Thesis Future sustainable terraced houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cardiff University August 4, 2014 #12;Colophon Title: Future sustainable residential buildings in Cardiff a first introduction about sustainability in the building sector. Collecting data about the future climateBachelor Thesis Future sustainable terraced houses in Cardiff Karin Ernst University of Twente

Vellekoop, Michel

460

Tapered fiber coupling of single photons emitted by a deterministically positioned single nitrogen vacancy center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diamond nano-crystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center is optically selected with a confocal scanning microscope and positioned deterministically onto the subwavelength-diameter waist of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with the help of an atomic force microscope. Based on this nano-manipulation technique, we experimentally demonstrate the evanescent coupling of single fluorescence photons emitted by a single NV-center to the guided mode of the TOF. By comparing photon count rates of the fiber-guided and the free-space modes and with the help of numerical finite-difference time domain simulations, we determine a lower and upper bound for the coupling efficiency of (9.5?±?0.6)% and (10.4?±?0.7)%, respectively. Our results are a promising starting point for future integration of single photon sources into photonic quantum networks and applications in quantum information science.

Liebermeister, Lars, E-mail: lars.liebermeister@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Petersen, Fabian; Münchow, Asmus v.; Burchardt, Daniel; Hermelbracht, Juliane; Tashima, Toshiyuki [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Schell, Andreas W.; Benson, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meinhardt, Thomas; Krueger, Anke [Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Research Center for Complex Materials Systems, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Stiebeiner, Ariane; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, 1020 Wien (Austria); Weinfurter, Harald; Weber, Markus, E-mail: markusweber@lmu.de [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Complete genome sequence of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium adapted to low ammonium concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium that belongs to the family Nitrosomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Ammonia oxidation is the first step of nitrification, an important process in the global nitrogen cycle ultimately resulting in the production of nitrate. Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is an ammonia oxidizer of high interest because it is adapted to low ammonium and can be found in freshwater environments around the world. The 3,783,444-bp chromosome with a total of 3,553 protein coding genes and 44 RNA genes was sequenced by the DOE-Joint Genome Institute Program CSP 2006.

Bollmann, Annette [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Sedlacek, Christopher J [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J [Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW); Suwa, Yuichi [Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan; Stein, Lisa Y [University of California, Riverside; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Arp, D J [Oregon State University; Sayavedra-Soto, LA [Oregon State University; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 14 99.636% STABLE 15 0.364% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 10 No Data Available Proton Emission 100.00% 11 5.49×10-22 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 12 11.000 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% 13 9.965 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 14 STABLE - - 15 STABLE - - 16 7.13 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00% Beta-minus Decay with delayed Alpha Decay 1.2×10-3 % 17 4.173 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

463

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

464

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - The Flying Ring!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Pewter Bells) Pewter Bells The Flying Ring! A copper ring leaps off an electromagnet when it's turned on. What happens when the ring's resistance is lowered using liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is an AC powered electromagnet. And this is a copper ring. When I place the copper ring on the electromagnet and turn it on, the magnet's changing magnetic field will induce an electric current in the copper ring. The current in the ring will then create it's own magnetic

465

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

466

Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Prochlorococcus genetic transformation and genomics of nitrogen metabolism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prochlorococcus, a unicellular cyanobacterium, is the most abundant phytoplankton in the oligotrophic, oceanic gyres where major plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are at nanomolar concentrations. ...

Tolonen, Andrew Carl

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

469

An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AD Peacock, M Oostrom, and TW Wietsma.2007."An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during denitrification."Ground Water 45(4):461-467. Authors: JD Istok MM Park AD...

470

Safety Data Sheet Material Name: NITROGEN SDS ID: 00233394  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. * * * Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE * * * Handling Procedures Avoid b AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION * * * Material Name: NITROGEN Manufacturer Information ADVANCED GAS TECHNOLOGIES the fire is out. Apply water from a protected location or from a safe distance. Do not get water directly

Carpick, Robert W.

471

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that living plants needed nitrogen...to different treatments. They determined...in a Dutch wastewater treatment facility...a prototype plant, Bosch oversaw...allowed for the mass production...to use an N balance sheet for field...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Properties of Ion Beams Generated by Nitrogen Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical experiments have been systematically carried out using the modified Lee model code on various plasma focus devices operated with nitrogen gas. The ion ... flow density, and damage factor) of the plasma focus

M. Akel; S. Alsheikh Salo; S. H. Saw; S. Lee

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electric pulse resistance of liquid nitrogen and rubber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the results of experimental investigations of the breakdown amplitudes of pulsed voltages applied to centimeter-thick layers of liquid nitrogen and various kinds of rubber at 77 K. We report the char...

V. I. Kurets; É. N. Tarakanovskii; G. P. Filatov

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Institute of Technology Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge...nuclear reactors, turbine machineries...behavior of nitrogen gas environing a...following pressure development can be analytically...Institute of Technology Health Sciences...

Young S. Song; Douglas Adler; Feng Xu; Emre Kayaalp; Aida Nureddin; Raymond M. Anchan; Richard L. Maas; Utkan Demirci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

CURRENT AND FUTURE IGCC TECHNOLOGIES:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

16, 2008 16, 2008 DOE/NETL-2008/1337 A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R&D Using Bituminous Coal - Volume 1 Current and Future IGCC Technologies Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

476

Future Heating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating Heating Jump to: navigation, search Name Future Heating Place London, England, United Kingdom Sector Solar Product Designs and installs solar passive water heating systems. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

477

FutureGen_factsheet.cdr  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vision Vision for Tomorrow's Clean Energy FutureGen - A Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative Responding to the President's Initiatives The Technology The Integrated Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative is a $1 billion government/ industry partnership to design, build and operate a nearly emission-free, coal-fired electric and hydrogen production plant. The 275-megawatt prototype plant will serve as a large scale engineering laboratory for testing new clean power, carbon capture, and coal-to-hydrogen technologies. It will be the cleanest fossil fuel-fired power plant in the world. The project is a direct response to the President's Climate Change and Hydrogen Fuels Initiatives. President Bush emphasized the importance of technology in stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with two major policy announcements: the National Climate

478

Catalyzing a cleaner Energy Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 11 Catalyzing a Cleaner Energy Future When asked about catalysts, most people probably remember a simple definition copied from the chalkboard in an early chemistry class: a substance that accelerates or modifies a chemical reaction without itself being affected. Or certain personalities may spring to mind; the term is routinely borrowed from chemistry to refer, in social and professional contexts, to a person or team whose energetic, efficient work quickly creates change in a given field. Or the first thought may be of the car in one's driveway and its catalytic converter, which chemically grabs some of the worst pollutants from exhaust and makes them harmless before they reach the tailpipe. In a way, continuing work by scientists at the Environmental Molecular

479

Gamma ray bursts: The future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gamma-ray bursts are the most dramatic and powerful cosmic explosions known. They also continue to be the most puzzling. Thanks to breakthrough observations over the last decade however a picture has emerged of gamma-ray bursts being at cosmological distances and capable of releasing more than 10 51 ergs of energy within seconds. Despite the emergence of this picture the physical origin of bursts is still unknown and the classification of different types of bursts is still in its infancy. Further understanding of gamma-ray bursts requires the wise use of our current resources and the development of new observational capabilities. We outline the current state of our knowledge of bursts and describe the present and future instrumentation which will enable us to understand these baffling blasts.

N. Gehrels; D. Macomb

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Chapter 24 - Nuclear energy future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter attempts to concisely describe the role that nuclear power may take in the meeting the world’s future energy needs. Historically, economic considerations have triumphed all other considerations when selecting an energy source. Nuclear power growth stagnated in the late twentieth century for a variety of reasons. A revival in nuclear reactor construction is beginning in the United States and elsewhere at the start of the twenty-first century. World energy—and especially electricity—use is increasing and sustainable approaches to meeting this need are sought. With rising concern about climate change, nuclear power is found to be the lowest contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, even compared to solar and wind power. Besides electricity generation, power reactors can be utilized for large-scale desalination and hydrogen generation.

Raymond L. Murray; Keith E. Holbert

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "future nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov…

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Field test of liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic power cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic cable, 66 kV, 100 MVA, 30 m was constructed and tested with loads simulating actual operating loads from October 1970 to December 1971. The successful operation of the cable makes us hopeful it can be used for large capacity transmission. Our test line is composed of aluminium stranded hollow conductor, liquid-nitrogen impregnated polyethylene paper electrical insulation, and polyurethane foam thermal insulation.

H. Nagano; M. Fukasawa; S. Kuma; K. Sugiyama

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Nutritional quality of southernpeas as related to nitrogen fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF SOUTHERNPEAS AS RELATED TO NITROGEN FIXATION A Thesis by MARGARET GIVEN FUTCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF SOUTHERNPEAS AS RELATED TO NITROGEN FIXATION A Thesis by MARGARET GWEN FUTCH Approved as to style and content by: (Chai rman of Committee) (Head of Department) ember...

Futch, Margaret Gwen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

485

Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

Roche, Neil Gerard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

486

Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 27792787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings: a 15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abies; Air pollution; Dendroecology; Nitrogen deposition; Stable isotopes; Nitrogen dioxide 1Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 2779­2787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings 2004; accepted 27 February 2004 Abstract Nitrogen isotope analysis (d15 N) of tree rings is potentially

489

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

490

Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

Xiao, Shengmu; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; VanNostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Jianshe; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

491

Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

Mohamed El-Genk

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

492

Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Promising tools in cancer theranostics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Iron-oxide nanoparticles of small dimensions that have superparamagnetic properties show immense potential to revolutionize the future of cancer theranostics, the combinatorial diagnosis and therapeutic approach towards cancer. Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have unique magnetic properties, due to which they show excellent tumor-targeting efficiency, and this paves the way for effective personalized cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the ability of \\{SPIONs\\} to perform multiple roles in the field of cancer biology, such as in diagnosis, monitoring, targeting and therapy. Also, other topics are discussed, including the synthesis of SPIONs, the challenges and recent advances.

Poornima Budime Santhosh; Nataša Poklar Ulrih

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

Banks, Kenneth Phanon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ... Optimization of hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) requires consideration of (i) HC gas diffusion into the catalyst layer, (ii) HC gas adsorption and desorption from catalyst sites, and (iii) kinetics of the oxidation reaction. ... Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase ...

Yasushi Tanaka; Takashi Hihara; Makoto Nagata; Naoto Azuma; Akifumi Ueno

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

495

Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future | ANSER Center | Argonne...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Home > News & Events > Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Evanston, Ill---Energy consumption is...

496

Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of...

497

Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Future&0; Blue Ribbon Commission on America&8217;s Nuclear Future&0; Blue Ribbon Commission on America&8217;s Nuclear Future&0; More Documents & Publications Document...

498

Challenges in future linear colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For decades, electron-positron colliders have been complementing proton-proton colliders. But the circular LEP, the largest e-e+ collider, represented an energy limit beyond which energy losses to synchrotron radiation necessitate moving to e-e+ linear colliders (LCs), thereby raising new challenges for accelerator builders. Japanese-American, German, and European collaborations have presented options for the Future Linear Collider (FLC). Key accelerator issues for any FLC option are the achievement of high enough energy and luminosity. Damping rings, taking advantage of the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation, have been developed as the means for decreasing beam size, which is crucial for ensuring a sufficiently high rate of particle-particle collisions. Related challenges are alignment and stability in an environment where even minute ground motion can disrupt performance, and the ability to monitor beam size. The technical challenges exist within a wider context of socioeconomic and political challenges, likely necessitating continued development of international collaboration among parties involved in accelerator-based physics.

Swapan Chattopadhyay; Kaoru Yokoya

2002-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

499

17 - Future of Paper Recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycled fibre is becoming a globally traded commodity with countries that are rich in it developing important export businesses around its trade. The main drivers for the use of recycled fibre continue to be availability at an economic price, legislative and voluntary agreements based on environmental pressure, and continuously improving technologies for deinking and other recovered fibre processing. Despite this increasing role as a raw material for the paper industry, issues such as price volatility of recovered paper, quality factors, food contact proposals and ever-increasing environmental pressures and considerations may cause a rethink in some sectors. This is resulting in some companies opting for virgin fibre, which greatly reduces issues related to quality and food contact. Quality and price issues can, to a certain extent, be influenced by the industry and its supply chain. Environmental considerations and any new proposals relating to food contact will require effective lobbying to ensure the overall industry is not disadvantaged. The future of paper recycling is discussed in this chapter.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

The house of the future  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn what it will take to create tomorrow's net-zero energy home as scientists reveal the secrets of cool roofs, smart windows, and computer-driven energy control systems. The net-zero energy home: Scientists are working to make tomorrow's homes more than just energy efficient -- they want them to be zero energy. Iain Walker, a scientist in the Lab's Energy Performance of Buildings Group, will discuss what it takes to develop net-zero energy houses that generate as much energy as they use through highly aggressive energy efficiency and on-site renewable energy generation. Talking back to the grid: Imagine programming your house to use less energy if the electricity grid is full or price are high. Mary Ann Piette, deputy director of Berkeley Lab's building technology department and director of the Lab's Demand Response Research Center, will discuss how new technologies are enabling buildings to listen to the grid and automatically change their thermostat settings or lighting loads, among other demands, in response to fluctuating electricity prices. The networked (and energy efficient) house: In the future, your home's lights, climate control devices, computers, windows, and appliances could be controlled via a sophisticated digital network. If it's plugged in, it'll be connected. Bruce Nordman, an energy scientist in Berkeley Lab's Energy End-Use Forecasting group, will discuss how he and other scientists are working to ensure these networks help homeowners save energy.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z