National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for future carbon cycle

  1. A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Collins, Bill

    2011-06-08

    Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  2. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bill Collins

    2010-09-01

    Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wetland peat carbon cycle Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are uncertain. This is in part because many climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems will partition future releases of carbon to the atmosphere. Ecosystem observations of CH4 emissions lack mechanistic links to the processes that

  4. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle Terrestrial Carbon Cycle "Only about half of the CO2 released into the atmosphere by human activities currently resides in the atmosphere, the rest absorbed on land and in the oceans. The period over which the carbon will be sequestered is unclear, and the efficiency of future sinks is unknown." US Carbon Cycle Research Plan "We" desire to be able to predict the future spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 and their interaction

  5. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  6. Forest Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forest carbon cycle Forest Carbon Cycle Terrestrial carbon stocks above- and belowground (in humus and litter layers, woody debris, and mineral soil) are not only sensitive to physical environmental controls (e.g., temperature, precipitation, soil moisture) but also to land use history/management, disturbance, "quality" of carbon input (a reflection of plant carbon allocation and species controls), and the microbial community. The relative importance of these controls on soil carbon

  7. ARM - What is the Carbon Cycle?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is the Carbon Cycle? Oceanic Properties Future Trends Carbon Cycle Balance Destination of Atmospheric Carbon Sources of Atmospheric Carbon The cycling of carbon from the atmosphere to organic compounds and back again not only involves

  8. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

    2011-06-08

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director...

  12. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-08

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  14. Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay D

    2011-06-03

    Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2011-06-08

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  16. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-09-01

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  17. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  18. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore » this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  19. Carbon Cycle Engineering | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cycle Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Cycle Engineering Address: 13725 Dutch Creek Road Place: Athens, Ohio Zip: 45701 Sector: Biofuels, Biomass, Efficiency,...

  20. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  1. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jay Keasling

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  2. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  3. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nitash Balsara

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  4. Integrated Climate and Carbon-cycle Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-03-06

    The INCCA model is a numerical climate and carbon cycle modeling tool for use in studying climate change and carbon cycle science. The model includes atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components.

  5. Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions Dr. John P. Krasting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling of Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions Dr. John P. Krasting geophysical fluid dynamics Laboratory Wednesday, Jan 23, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy The interactions between Earth's carbon cycle and climate are key to understanding both past and future climate change. NOAA-GFDL developed two coupled climate- carbon cycle models - or Earth System Models (ESMs) - that are able to simulate

  6. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2010-02-04

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  7. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Alivisatos

    2010-09-01

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  8. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-06-08

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

    2011-06-08

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous OC stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global C cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil OC stocks to changing climatic conditions. In this review,more » we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of OC stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this OC to permafrost thaw under a warming climate.« less

  11. Future nuclear fuel cycles: prospects and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boullis, Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has played, from the early steps, a major role in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies, both in the front end and back end. Today's stakes in the field of energy enhance further than before the need for a sustainable management of nuclear materials. Recycling actinides appears as a main guideline, as much for saving resources as for minimizing the final waste impact, and many options can be considered. Strengthened by the important and outstanding performance of recent PUREX processing plants, solvent-extraction processes seem a privileged route to meet the new and challenging requirements of sustainable future nuclear systems. (author)

  12. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that ... understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon partitioning ...

  13. The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions on Mitigation Policy Stringency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle ...

  14. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover ... Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land ...

  15. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  16. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  17. Observing terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle from space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schimel, David; Pavlick, Ryan; Fisher, Joshua B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Saatchi, Sassan; Townsend, Philip; Miller, Charles E.; Frankenberg, Christian; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Cox, Peter

    2015-02-06

    Modeled terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute substantial uncertainty to projections of future climate. The limitations of current observing networks contribute to this uncertainty. Here we present a current climatology of global model predictions and observations for photosynthesis, biomass, plant diversity and plant functional diversity. Carbon cycle tipping points occur in terrestrial regions where fluxes or stocks are largest, and where biological variability is highest, the tropics and Arctic/Boreal zones. Global observations are predominately in the mid-latitudes and are sparse in high and low latitude ecosystems. Observing and forecasting ecosystem change requires sustained observations of sufficient density in time and space in critical regions. Using data and theory available now, we can develop a strategy to detect and forecast terrestrial carbon cycle-climate interactions, by combining in situ and remote techniques.

  18. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http:carboncycle2.lbl.gov Authors: Alivisatos, Paul...

  19. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http:carboncycle2.lbl.gov Authors: Alivisatos, Paul...

  20. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http:carboncycle2.lbl.gov Authors: Alivisatos, Paul Publication Date:...

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-04-11

    This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined

  2. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 ...

  3. Energy Storage: Breakthrough in Battery Technologies (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Balsara, Nitash

    2011-06-03

    Nitash Balsara speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  4. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-09-01

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  5. JGI's Carbon Cycling Studies on Restored Marshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, Susannah; Theroux, Susanna

    2015-06-02

    DOE Joint Genome Institute Metagenome Program Head, Susannah Tringe, and postdoc, Susie Theroux, discuss the lessons to be learned from studying the microbial diversity of marshes that have been converted to other uses, and are now being restored, as well as the potential impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  6. Sandia's Supercritical Carbon-Dioxide/Brayton-Cycle Laboratory Signs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Important MOU with Industry Partners Supercritical Carbon-Dioxide/Brayton-Cycle Laboratory Signs Important MOU with Industry Partners - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power

  7. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-02-16

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  8. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ramamoorthy Ramesh: Low-cost Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh:

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  9. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  10. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  11. China and a Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Economy and Society Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: China and a Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy and Society AgencyCompany...

  12. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  13. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Sienicki, James; Moisseytsev, Anton; Nellis, Gregory; Klein, Sanford

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  14. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process for FutureGen 2.0 | Department of Energy Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 October 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON -- The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that

  15. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Brayton Energy, aims to develop and demonstrate a low-cost, high-efficiency solar receiver that is compatible with s-CO2 cycles and modern thermal storage subsystems. Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle

  16. COLLOQUIUM: Human Impacts on the Earth's Geologic Carbon Cycle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 15, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Human Impacts on ... Human Impacts on the Earth's Geologic Carbon Cycle Colloquium Committee: The Princeton ...

  17. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    www.ntis.gov. Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere...

  18. Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biomass feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest Σ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to

  19. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-02-02

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2011-06-08

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois. ...

  2. Carbon Cycle Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to carbon cycle includes: • Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets • Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) • Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2002) (Trends Online) • Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) • Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A. and the District of Columbia for Each Year from 1960 through 2001 (Trends Online) • Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1999 (updated 2002) • Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (1997) • Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (1998) • AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group 1, 1994: Modelling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995) • Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994) (2003) • Global

  3. Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale: An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Brown, Gordon E.; Plata, Charity

    2014-02-21

    As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel meeting held in February 2013, attendees discussed critical biogeochemical processes that regulate carbon cycling in soil. The meeting attendees determined that as a national scientific user facility, EMSL can provide the tools and expertise needed to elucidate the molecular foundation that underlies mechanistic descriptions of biogeochemical processes that control carbon allocation and fluxes at the terrestrial/atmospheric interface in landscape and regional climate models. Consequently, the workshop's goal was to identify the science gaps that hinder either development of mechanistic description of critical processes or their accurate representation in climate models. In part, this report offers recommendations for future EMSL activities in this research area. The workshop was co-chaired by Dr. Nancy Hess (EMSL) and Dr. Gordon Brown (Stanford University).

  4. The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions on Mitigation Policy Stringency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2015-07-01

    Climate sensitivity and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks interact to determine how global carbon and energy cycles will change in the future. While the science of these connections is well documented, their economic implications are not well understood. Here we examine the effect of climate change on the carbon cycle, the uncertainty in climate outcomes inherent in any given policy target, and the economic implications. We examine three policy scenarios—a no policy “Reference” (REF) scenario, and two policies that limit total radiative forcing—with four climate sensitivities using a coupled integrated assessment model. Like previous work, we find that, within a given scenario, there is a wide range of temperature change and sea level rise depending on the realized climate sensitivity. We expand on this previous work to show that temperature-related feedbacks on the carbon cycle result in more mitigation required as climate sensitivity increases. Thus, achieving a particular radiative forcing target becomes increasingly expensive as climate sensitivity increases.

  5. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site Title: ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern ...

  6. Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook S Biraud March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  7. Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

    2005-02-17

    In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

  8. Carbon dioxide release from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, H.J. ); Guenther, P.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} release from an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} release from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term release. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  10. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating

  11. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  12. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

    2004-10-03

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected.

  13. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Bobby; Pasch, James Jay; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Walker, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  14. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent W. Dixon; Steven J. Piet

    2004-10-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository (63,000 MTiHM commercial, 7,000 MT non-commercial). There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected. The first step in understanding the need for different spent fuel management approaches is to understand the size of potential spent fuel inventories. A full range of potential futures for domestic commercial nuclear energy is considered. These energy futures are as follows: 1. Existing License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus extrapolation of future plant-by-plant discharges until the end of each operating license, including known license extensions. 2. Extended License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus a plant-by-plant extrapolation of future discharges assuming on all operating plants having one 20-year extension. 3. Continuing Level Energy Generation - Based on extension of the current ~100 GWe installed commercial base and average spent fuel discharge of 2100 MT/yr through the year 2100. 4. Continuing Market Share Generation Based on a 1.8% compounded growth of the electricity market through the year 2100, matched by growing nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge. 5. Growing Market Share Generation - Extension of current nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge through 2100 with 3.2% growth representing 1.5% market growth (all energy, not just electricity) and 1.7% share growth. Share growth results in

  15. Organic carbon cycling in landfills: Model for a continuum approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.; Lagerkvist, A.

    1997-09-01

    Organic carbon cycling in landfills can be addressed through a continuum model where the end-points are conventional anaerobic digestion of organic waste (short-term analogue) and geologic burial of organic material (long-term analogue). Major variables influencing status include moisture state, temperature, organic carbon loading, nutrient status, and isolation from the surrounding environment. Bioreactor landfills which are engineered for rapid decomposition approach (but cannot fully attain) the anaerobic digester end-point and incur higher unit costs because of their high degree of environmental isolation and control. At the other extreme, uncontrolled land disposal of organic waste materials is similar to geologic burial where organic carbon may be aerobically recycled to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, anaerobically converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} during early diagenesis, or maintained as intermediate or recalcitrant forms into geologic time (> 1,000 years) for transformations via kerogen pathways. A family of improved landfill models are needed at several scales (molecular to landscape) which realistically address landfill processes and can be validated with field data.

  16. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  17. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois.

  18. Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidhi, Rachana; Goswami, Yogi D.; Chen, Huijuan; Stefanakos, Elias; Kuravi, Sarada; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-01-01

    Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

  19. Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  1. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction The

  2. Carbon cycling in western equatorial atlantic sediments: Insights from carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNichol, A.P.; McCorkle, D.C.; Martin, W.R.; Berry, J.N.

    1995-12-01

    Sediments from a site on the Ceara Rise in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean (5{degrees} 17N, 44{degrees}8W) were collected in March 1994 to study the carbon cycle of ocean sediments. Sediments were collected in 3270 m of water, above the calcite saturation horizon ({triangle}CO{sub 3}{sup 2} {approx} 20). Relatively large volumes (20-30 ml) of pore water were extracted from 1-2 cm interval sections of the surface 10 cm of the sediments using both whole core squeezing and centrifugation techniques. The whole core squeezer permits the in-situ or shipboard extraction of large volumes of pore water without sectioning sediment cores. We analyzed the pore water dissolved inorganic carbon ({Sigma}CO{sub 2}) to yield high resolution profiles of concentration, {gamma}{sup 13}C, and {triangle}{sup 14}C at this site. The bottom water values we measured are about 10 {per_thousand} lower than that measured at a nearby site during the GEOSECS Program in 1974. Pore water {gamma}{sup 13}C decreases regularly from a value of 0.75 {per_thousand} in the bottom water to -0.8 {per_thousand} at 11 cm and {triangle}{sup 14}C decreases regularly from -109 {per_thousand} in the bottom water to -180 at 10 cm. The stable isotope results indicate the addition of carbon to the pore water from both the dissolution of CaCO{sub 3} and the oxidation of organic matter. Pore water radiocarbon results indicate that at least one of these carbon sources is quite old. We will use results from isotopic analyses of the sediment organic matter and CaCO{sub 3} to constrain the sediment carbon budget and discuss the implications for oceanic carbon modelling,

  3. Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Eva E.; Worrall, Andrew; Peterson, Joshua L.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Gehin, Jess C.; Gregg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies performed an evaluation and screening (E&S) study of nuclear fuel cycle options to help prioritize future research and development decisions. Previous work for this E&S study focused on establishing equilibrium conditions for analysis examples of 40 nuclear fuel cycle evaluation groups (EGs) and evaluating their performance according to a set of 22 standardized metrics. Following the E&S study, additional studies are being conducted to assess transitioning from the current US fuel cycle to future fuel cycle options identified by the E&S study as being most promising. These studies help inform decisions on how to effectively achieve full transition, estimate the length of time needed to undergo transition from the current fuel cycle, and evaluate performance of nuclear systems and facilities in place during the transition. These studies also help identify any barriers to achieve transition. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuel Cycle Options Campaign team used ORION to analyze the transition pathway from the existing US nuclear fuel cycle—the once-through use of low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel in thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs) —to a new fuel cycle with continuous recycling of plutonium and uranium in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). This paper discusses the analysis of the transition from an LWR to an SFR fleet using ORION, highlights the role of lifetime extensions of existing LWRs to aid transition, and discusses how a slight delay in SFR deployment can actually reduce the time to achieve an equilibrium fuel cycle.

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Rowe-Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Final_Updated.pptx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nathan Rowe Chris Pickett Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Users Annual Training Meeting May 20-23, 2013 St. Louis, Missouri 2 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Introduction * Changing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities * Nuclear Security Challenges * How to Respond? - Additional Protocol - State-Level Concept - Continuity of Knowledge * Conclusion 3 Future

  5. Transporting carbon dioxide recovered from fossil-energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Molburg, J. C.; Brockmeier, J. F.

    2000-07-24

    Transportation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technology, with operating experience dating from the mid-1980s. Because of this maturity, recent sequestration studies for the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have been able to incorporate transportation into overall energy-cycle economics with reasonable certainty. For these studies, two different coal-fueled plants are considered; the first collects CO{sub 2} from a 456-MW integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plant, while the second employs a 353-MW pulverized-coal boiler plant retrofitted for flue-gas recycling (Doctor et al. 1999; MacDonald and Palkes 1999). The pulverized-coal plant fires a mixture of coal in a 33% O{sub 2} atmosphere, the bulk of the inert gas being made up to CO{sub 2} to the greatest extent practical. If one power plant with one pipe feeds one sequestration reservoir, projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline are problematic, because when supplying one reservoir both plant availability issues and useful pipeline life heavily influence capital recovery costs. The transportation system proposed here refines the sequestration scheme into a network of three distinctive pipelines: (1) 80-km collection pipelines for a 330-MW pulverized-coal power plant with 100% CO{sub 2} recovery; (2) a main CO{sub 2} transportation trunk of 320 km that aggregates the CO{sub 2} from four such plants; and (3) an 80-km distribution network. A 25-year life is assumed for the first two segments, but only half that for the distribution to the reservoir. Projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline, assuming an infrastructure, are $7.82/tonne ($17.22/10{sup 3} Nm{sub 3} CO{sub 2} or $0.49/10{sup 3} scf CO{sub 2}), a savings of nearly 60% with respect to base-case estimates with no infrastructure. These costs are consistent only with conditioned CO{sub 2} having low oxygen and sulfur content; they do not include CO{sub 2} recovery, drying

  6. FY-05 First Quarter Report on Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

  7. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

  8. A Comparison of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations with an Emphasis on CSP Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T.; Turchi, C.

    2013-09-01

    Recent research suggests that an emerging power cycle technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) operated in a closed-loop Brayton cycle offers the potential of equivalent or higher cycle efficiency versus supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures relevant for CSP applications. Preliminary design-point modeling suggests that s-CO2 cycle configurations can be devised that have similar overall efficiency but different temperature and/or pressure characteristics. This paper employs a more detailed heat exchanger model than previous work to compare the recompression and partial cooling cycles, two cycles with high design-point efficiencies, and illustrates the potential advantages of the latter. Integration of the cycles into CSP systems is studied, with a focus on sensible heat thermal storage and direct s-CO2 receivers. Results show the partial cooling cycle may offer a larger temperature difference across the primary heat exchanger, thereby potentially reducing heat exchanger cost and improving CSP receiver efficiency.

  9. Ignoring mesophyll diffusion causes carbon cycle models to underestima...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... achieved via a parameter conversion function that was ... Biomass carbon residence time will need to be considered as ... about key biochemical processes of photosynthesis (13-14). ...

  10. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brayton Energy's supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO 2 ) solar receiver has the potential to significantly improve reliability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs of CSP systems. ...

  11. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact...

  12. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  13. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle: The Key Uncertainties

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Peng, T. H.; Post, W. M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Dale, V. H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1987-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other global carbon reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO{sub 2} produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO{sub 2} uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO{sub 2} uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO{sub 2} fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2} creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years.

  14. Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-06-11

    Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

  15. Sandia's Supercritical Carbon-Dioxide/Brayton-Cycle Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For example, their 20 MW generator takes up only 4 m3, where a typical 20 MW Rankine-cycle steam turbine generator takes up 240 m3 (12 4 5 m), 60 times as much space (and ...

  16. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012. progressreportsunshotbraytonfy12q4.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1...

  17. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for...

  18. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. ... Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle engines have the potential to increase conversion efficiency to more ...

  19. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  20. Carbon Cycling, Environmental & Rural Economic Impacts from Collecting & Processing Specific Woody Feedstocks into Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review March 24, 2015 Technology Area Review Steve Kelley, NCSU Rick Gustafson, U of WA Elaine Oneil, CORRIM Carbon Cycling, Environmental & Rural Economic Impacts from Collecting & Processing Specific Woody Feedstocks into Biofuels 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement Woody biomass converted into durable wood products can sequester carbon for 20-70 years, offering an immediate carbon offset. Thus, there is a need to understand how woody biomass can also contribute to

  1. FutureCarbon GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Place: Bayreuth, Germany Zip: 95448 Sector: Carbon, Efficiency, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The company originated out of a former Mannesmann think tank. Its focus is...

  2. Simulating the Impacts of Disturbances on Forest Carbon Cycling in North America: Processes, Data, Models, and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shuguang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Hicke, J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jing Ming; Edburg, Steve; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Jinxun; McGuire, A. David; Xiao, Jingfeng; Keane, Robert; Yuan, Wenping; Tang, Jianwu; Luo, Yiqi; Potter, Christopher; Oeding, Jennifer

    2011-11-08

    on the relative importance of various disturbances at the continent and regional scales on the carbon cycle. Fourth, our capability of simulating the occurrences and severity of disturbances under climate change and management futures are very limited. Fifth, uncertainty exists in every step of the effort to simulating the impacts of disturbances on carbon dynamics. Procedures are needed to quantify the uncertainty of model inputs or data layers, model parameters, and model structures, and their impacts on model simulations. Working together, modelers and data layer developers can identify the most uncertain areas and develop working hypotheses to reduce the uncertainty.

  3. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrall, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    To date, the US reactor fleet has generated approximately 68,000 MTHM of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and even with no new nuclear build in the US, this stockpile will continue to grow at approximately 2,000 MTHM per year for several more decades. In the absence of reprocessing and recycle, this UNF is a liability and needs to be dealt with accordingly. However, with the development of future fuel cycle and reactor technologies in the decades ahead, there is potential for UNF to be used effectively and efficiently within a future US nuclear reactor fleet. Based on the detailed expected operating lifetimes, the future UNF discharges from the existing reactor fleet have been calculated on a yearly basis. Assuming a given electricity demand growth in the US and a corresponding growth demand for nuclear energy via new nuclear build, the future discharges of UNF have also been calculated on a yearly basis. Using realistic assumptions about reprocessing technologies and timescales and which future fuels are likely to be reprocessed, the amount of plutonium that could be separated and stored for future reactor technologies has been determined. With fast reactors (FRs) unlikely to be commercially available until 2050, any new nuclear build prior to then is assumed to be a light water reactor (LWR). If the decision is made for the US to proceed with reprocessing by 2030, the analysis shows that the UNF from future fuels discharged from 2025 onwards from the new and existing fleet of LWRs is sufficient to fuel a realistic future demand from FRs. The UNF arising from the existing LWR fleet prior to 2025 can be disposed of directly with no adverse effect on the potential to deploy a FR fleet from 2050 onwards. Furthermore, only a proportion of the UNF is required to be reprocessed from the existing fleet after 2025. All of the analyses and conclusions are based on realistic deployment timescales for reprocessing and reactor deployment. The impact of the delay in recycling the UNF

  4. Ocean Carbon Cycle Models from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The following Ocean Carbon Cycle models and modeling results are available from CDIAC: • CSIRO/Matear Data [Model simulation of climate change from 1880 till 2100 (Matear and Hirst 2003, GBC) • Lequere Data, Model Results • McKinley MITgcm offline biogeochemical model - posted May 2004 • McKinley MITgcm offline biogeochemical model - posted December 2004 • NCOM-Pacific-Biogeochemical Modeling Results from Fei Chai • ROMS-Pacific-Biogeochemical Modeling Results from Fei CHai • WHOI/NCAR/Irvine Eco-BGC (Doney, Moore, Lindsay, and Lima) - Posted May 2005 • Max-Planck-Institut f?r Biogeochemie (Lequere, Buitenhuis) Modeling Results • Max-Planck-Institut f?r Biogeochemie (Lequere, Buitenhuis) Modeling Results - Posted March 2005 • Jim Christian model output for (a) Climatologies of T, S, PO4 at 50 m depth intervals; (b) SST, SSS, MLD, pCO2, CO2 flux from 1990-2003, and (c) climatological surface horizontal velocity • Max-Planck-Institut f?r Biogeochemie (Lequere, Buitenhuis) Modeling Results • Deutsch (UW) model output results for Oxygen variability in the North Pacific • Pacific data-model intercomparison from Patrick Wetzel (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany)

  5. Sharing Knowledge for a Low-Carbon Future: Zoellick and Chu in "live"

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    discussion | Department of Energy Sharing Knowledge for a Low-Carbon Future: Zoellick and Chu in "live" discussion Sharing Knowledge for a Low-Carbon Future: Zoellick and Chu in "live" discussion July 13, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis On Wednesday July 13, World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick and US Energy Secretary Steven Chu will discuss how technology and policy can help the world move toward a low-carbon future. Their half-hour discussion at the World Bank's Washington

  6. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  7. ARM - PI Product - ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central

  8. Wetlands, Microbes, and the Carbon Cycle: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    Susannah Tringe, who leads the Metagenome Program at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a collaboration in which Berkeley Lab plays a leading role, takes us behind the scenes to show how DNA from unknown wild microbes is extracted and analyzed to see what role they play in the carbon cycle. Tringe collects samples of microbial communities living in the wetland muck of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, organisms that can determine how these wetlands store or release carbon.

  9. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

    2005-05-27

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation

  10. Wetlands, Microbes, and the Carbon Cycle: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tringe, Susannah

    2013-05-29

    Susannah Tringe, who leads the Metagenome Program at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a collaboration in which Berkeley Lab plays a leading role, takes us behind the scenes to show how DNA from unknown wild microbes is extracted and analyzed to see what role they play in the carbon cycle. Tringe collects samples of microbial communities living in the wetland muck of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, organisms that can determine how these wetlands store or release carbon.

  11. ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Torn, Margaret

    Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

  12. ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Torn, Margaret

    2008-01-15

    Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

  13. Modeling the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon which includes a five-compartment submodel for circulation in terrestrial ecosystems of the world is presented. Although this terrestrial submodel divides carbon into compartments with more functional detail than previous models, the variability in carbon dynamics among ecosystem types and in different climatic zones is not adequately treated. A new model construct which specifically treats this variability by modeling the distribution of ecosystem types as a function of climate on a 0.5/sup 0/ latitude by 0.5/sup 0/ longitude scale of resolution is proposed.

  14. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  15. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and

  16. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature

  17. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Pacala, S.W.

    1998-06-01

    The primary accomplishment of this research was the development of an ocean biogeochemistry model for the carbon cycle, and the application of this model to studies of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and the global carbon cycle. The model has been used to study the oceanic uptake that would occur if future atmospheric CO{sub 2} were to be stabilized with the ocean circulation remaining constant. The authors also modeled how oceanic uptake would be affected by changes in ocean circulation that are predicted to occur due to global warming. The research resulted in 21 publications, and an additional 5 papers either in press or in preparation. The accomplishments of this research served as the foundation on which the Carbon Modeling Consortium was built. The CMC is a NOAA funded collaborative program involving principal investigators from various NOAA laboratories and universities. It has the goal of developing techniques to monitor the global carbon cycle on land as well as the ocean, and to predict its future course.

  18. Numerical evaluation of mechanisms driving Early Jurassic changes in global carbon cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beerling, D.J.; Brentnall, S.J.

    2007-03-15

    The Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, ca. 183 Ma) carbon cycle perturbation is characterized by aabout -5 parts per thousand {delta} {sup 13}C excursion in the exogenic carbon reservoirs, a 1000 ppm rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and a 6-7 degrees warming. Two proposed explanations for this presumed global carbon cycle perturbation are the liberation of massive amounts of isotopically light CH4 from (1) Gondwanan coals by heating during the intrusive eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) or (2) the thermal dissociation of gas hydrates. Carbon cycle modeling indicates that the release of CH4 from Gondwanan coals synchronous with the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP fails to reproduce the magnitude or timing of the CO{sub 2} and {delta} {sup 13}C excursions. However, sensitivity analyses constrained by a marine cyclostratigraphically dated {delta}{sup 13}C record indicate that both features of geologic record can be explained with the huge input of about 15,340-24,750 Gt C over about 220 k.y., a result possibly pointing to the involvement of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin. The simulated release of > 6000 Gt C from gas hydrates also reproduces aspects of the early Toarcian rock record, but the large mass involved raises fundamental questions about its formation, storage, and release.

  19. The Application of CYCLUS to Fuel Cycle Transition Analysis ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: GLOBAL 2015, 21st International Conference & Exhibition: "Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future", Paris, France, Sep 20 - Sep 24, ...

  20. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-05-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal

  1. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Elliott; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, Joe; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-28

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one-third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. Furthermore, the source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life weremore » ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.« less

  4. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  5. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  6. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage FutureGen 2.0 Project Moves Forward Into Second

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase | Department of Energy FutureGen 2.0 Project Moves Forward Into Second Phase Carbon Capture and Storage FutureGen 2.0 Project Moves Forward Into Second Phase February 4, 2013 - 7:25pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Following the successful completion of the first phase, the Energy Department today announced the beginning of Phase II of project development with a new cooperative agreement between the FutureGen Industrial Alliance and the Department of Energy for

  8. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-11-07

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO{sub 2} cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO{sub 2} cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO{sub 2} cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5

  9. Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Future Print Information about the future expansion of research fields for synchrotrons and the growing number of light sources, including free electron lasers (FELs) will be posted here shortly.

  10. Carbon Cycling and Biosequestration Integrating Biology and Climate Through Systems Science Report from the March 2008 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graber, J.; Amthor, J.; Dahlman, R.; Drell, D.; Weatherwax, S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most daunting challenges facing science in the 21st Century is to predict how Earth's ecosystems will respond to global climate change. The global carbon cycle plays a central role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and thus Earth's climate, but our basic understanding of the myriad of tightly interlinked biological processes that drive the global carbon cycle remains limited at best. Whether terrestrial and ocean ecosystems will capture, store, or release carbon is highly dependent on how changing climate conditions affect processes performed by the organisms that form Earth's biosphere. Advancing our knowledge of biological components of the global carbon cycle is thus crucial to predicting potential climate change impacts, assessing the viability of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and informing relevant policy decisions. Global carbon cycling is dominated by the paired biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic plants and microbes of Earth's land-masses and oceans use solar energy to transform atmospheric CO{sub 2} into organic carbon. The majority of this organic carbon is rapidly consumed by plants or microbial decomposers for respiration and returned to the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Coupling between the two processes results in a near equilibrium between photosynthesis and respiration at the global scale, but some fraction of organic carbon also remains in stabilized forms such as biomass, soil, and deep ocean sediments. This process, known as carbon biosequestration, temporarily removes carbon from active cycling and has thus far absorbed a substantial fraction of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  12. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Seasonal Pattern of Photosynthetic Capacity and the Implications for Carbon Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauerle, William L.; Oren, Ram; Way, Danielle A.; Qian, Song S.; Stoy, Paul C.; Thornton, Peter E; Bowden, Joseph D.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Reynolds, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Although temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, but photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon-cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO{sub 2} cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production 2.5% ({approx}4 PgC y{sup -1}), resulting in a >3% ({approx}2 PgC y{sup -1}) decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence.

  13. Microbial food web mapping: linking carbon cycling and community structure in soils through pyrosequencing enabled stable isotope probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, Daniel H.

    2015-03-15

    Soil represents a massive reservoir of active carbon and climate models vary dramatically in predicting how this carbon will respond to climate change over the coming century. A major cause of uncertainty is that we still have a very limited understand the microorganisms that dominate the soil carbon cycle. The vast majority of soil microbes cannot be cultivated in the laboratory and the diversity of organisms and enzymes that participate in the carbon cycle is staggeringly complex. We have developed a new toolbox for exploring the carbon cycle and the metabolic and ecological characteristics of uncultivated microorganisms. The high-resolution nucleic acid stable isotope probing approach that we have developed makes it possible to characterize microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil. The approach allows us to track multiple 13C-labeled substrates into thousands of microbial taxa over time. Using this approach we have discovered several major lineages of uncultivated microorganisms that participate in cellulose metabolism and are found widely in soils (including Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi, which have not previously been implicated as major players in the soil carbon cycle). Furthermore, isotopic labelling of nucleic acids enables community genomics and permits genome fragment binning for a majority of these cellulolytic microorganisms allowing us to explore the metabolic underpinnings of cellulose degradation. This approach has allowed us to describe unexpected dynamics of carbon metabolism with different microbial taxa exhibiting characteristic patterns of carbon substrate incorporation, indicative of distinct ecological strategies. The data we describe allows us to characterize the activity of novel microorganisms as they occur in the environment and these data provide a basis for understanding how the physiological traits of discrete microorganisms sum to govern the complex responses of the soil carbon cycle.

  14. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  15. Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

    2014-03-31

    The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650°C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650°C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features

  16. Climate-change effects on soils: Accelerated weathering, soil carbon and elemental cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-04-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2, and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils are the subject of active current investigations, with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries, identifies key research needs, and highlights opportunities offered by the climate-change effects on soils.

  17. International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research Outline and Future Perspectives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research Outline and Future Perspectives P. Sofronis Professor and Director University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 7 March 2011 A World Premier Institute 2 There is no Time more Opportune for such an Effort (President Obama visited Tokyo on Nov. 13, 2009) Announcement of initial areas relevant to the Proposed Institute of Kyushu University for joint activities to strengthen US/Japan cooperation „ Acceleration of joint activities between

  18. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, J. E.; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, J. A.; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-16

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a currentmore » anthropogenic source that is only one third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. As a result, changes in the anthropogenic source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.« less

  19. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J. E.; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, J. A.; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-16

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. As a result, changes in the anthropogenic source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  20. Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects of Large-Scale Deforestation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M; Phillips, T J; Lobell, D B; Delire, C; Mirin, A

    2006-10-17

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These are the first such simulations performed using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, since the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. While these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

  1. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.E.; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, J.A.; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-28

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. Furthermore, changes in the anthropogenic source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  2. Ocean Carbon Cycle Data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP). Data are available throughout the U.S. JGOFS web site at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/ and from the U.S. JGOFS Data System at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/jg/dir/jgofs/. Major named segments of the project are: Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study, Equatorial Pacific Process Study, North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (1989), Arabian Sea Process Study, and the Southern Ocean Process Study.

  3. Global warming and the future of coal carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman

    2007-05-15

    The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing carbon taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low carbon portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-carbon generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: global warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat global warming; a potential path to zero emissions through carbon capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with carbon caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low carbon portfolio standard; carbon tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.

  4. Product Life-Cycle Management: The future of product and packaging design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, L.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Product Life-Cycle Management (PLCM) is the control of environmental impacts associated with all the life phases of a product, from design through manufacture, packaging and disposal. PLCM dictates that products be manufactured using less harmful chemicals and fewer resources. Product packaging must be minimal and made of renewable and recyclable resources. Both the product and the package must contain recycled material. Packaging and products must also be collected for recycle at the end of their intended use, requiring infrastructure to collect, transport and process these materials. European legislation now requires the return and recycle of packaging materials by the end of 1993. Requirements are also being imposed on manufacturers of automobile related products; automotive batteries, tires and even automobiles themselves must now be accepted back and recycled. Increasing public concerns and awareness of environmental impacts plus the decreasing availability of natural resources will continue to push product life-cycle legislation forward.

  5. Unveiling Microbial Carbon Cycling Processes in Key U.S. Soils using ''Omics''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrold, David D.; Bottomely, Peter J.; Jumpponen, Ari; Rice, Charles W.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; David, Maude M.; Jansson, Janet K.; Prestat, Emmanuel; Hettich, Robert L.

    2014-09-17

    biology approach, considering the complex soil microbial community as a functioning system and using state-of-the-art metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic, and metabolomic approaches. These omics tools were refined, applied to field experiments, and confirmed with controlled laboratory studies. Our experiments were designed to specifically identify microbial community members and processes that are instrumental players in processing of C in the prairie soils and how these processes are impacted by wetting and drying events. This project addresses a key ecosystem in the United States that current climate models predict will be subjected to dramatic changes in rainfall patterns as a result of global warming. Currently Mollisols, such as those of the tallgrass prairie, are thought to sequester more C than is released into the atmosphere, but it is not known what changes in rainfall patterns will have on future C fluxes. Through an analysis of the molecular response of the soil microbial community to shifts in precipitation cycles that are accompanied by phenologically driven changes in quality of plant C rhizodeposits, we gained deeper insight into how the metabolism of microbes has adapted to different precipitation regimes and the impact of this adaption on the fate of C deposited into soil. In doing so, we addressed key questions about the microbial cycling of C in soils that have been identified by the DOE.

  6. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  7. Genomic expansion of Domain Archaea highlights roles for organisms from new phyla in anaerobic carbon cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelle, Cindy; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Hug, Laura A.; Brown, Christopher T.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Singh, Andrea; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-03-01

    cultivated representatives, the biogeochemical impacts of this major radiation of archaea are primarily through anaerobic carbon and hydrogen cycling.

  8. Heterotrophic Archaea Contribute to Carbon Cycling in Low-pH, Suboxic Biofilm Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justice, Nicholas B; Pan, Chongle; Mueller, Ryan; Spaulding, Susan E.; Shah, Vega; Sun, Christine; Yelton, Alexis P; Miller, CS; Thomas, BC; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-01-01

    Archaea are widely distributed and yet are most often not the most abundant members of microbial communities. Here, we document a transition from Bacteria- to Archaea-dominated communities in microbial biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine acid mine drainage (AMD) system (pH 1.0,38 C) and in laboratory-cultivated biofilms. This transition occurs when chemoautotrophic microbial communities that develop at the air-solution interface sink to the sediment-solution interface and degrade under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. The archaea identified in these sunken biofilms are from the class Thermoplasmata, and in some cases, the highly divergent ARMAN nanoarchaeal lineage. In several of the sunken biofilms, nanoarchaea comprise 10 to 25% of the community, based on fluorescent in situ hybridization and metagenomic analyses. Comparative community proteomic analyses show a persistence of bacterial proteins in sunken biofilms, but there is clear evidence for amino acid modifications due to acid hydrolysis. Given the low representation of bacterial cells in sunken biofilms based on microscopy, we infer that hydrolysis reflects proteins derived from lysed cells. For archaea, we detected 2,400 distinct proteins, including a subset involved in proteolysis and peptide uptake. Laboratory cultivation experiments using complex carbon substrates demonstrated anaerobic enrichment of Ferroplasma and Aplasma coupled to the reduction of ferric iron. These findings indicate dominance of acidophilic archaea in degrading biofilms and suggest that they play roles in anaerobic nutrient cycling at low pH.

  9. Switchgrass Biofuel Research: Carbon Sequestration and Life Cycle Analysis; Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liska, Adam J; Suyker, Andrew E; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Pelton, Matthew; Fang, Xiao Xue

    2013-12-20

    Soil emissions have been inadequately characterized in life cycle assessment of biofuels (see section 3.2.3). This project measures the net differences in field‐level greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, and CH4) due to corn residue removal for cellulosic ethanol production. Gas measurements are then incorporated into life cycle assessment of the final biofuel product to determine whether it is in compliance with federal greenhouse gas emissions standards for biofuels (Renewable Fuel Standard 2, RFS2). The field measurements have been conducted over three years on two, quarter‐section, production‐scale, irrigated corn fields (both roughly 50 hectares, as this size of field is necessary for reproducible eddy covariance flux measurements of CO2; chamber measurements are used to determine N2O and CH4 emissions). Due to a large hail storm in 2010, estimates of the emission from residue could not be separated from the total CO2 flux in 2011. This led us to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) modeling techniques to estimate changes in CO2 emissions from residue removal. Modeling has predicted emissions of CO2 from oxidation of SOC that are consistent (<12%) with 9 years of CO2 flux measurements at the two production field sites, and modeling is also consistent with other field measurements (Liska et al., submitted). The model was then used to estimate the average change in SOC and CO2 emissions from nine years of simulated residue removal (6 Mg biomass per hectare per year) at the sites; a loss of 0.43 Mg C ha‐1 yr‐1 resulted. The model was then used to estimate SOC changes over 10 years across Nebraska using supercomputing, based on 61 million, 30 x 30 meter, grid cells to account for regional variability in initial SOC, crop yield, and temperature; an average loss of 0.47 Mg C ha‐1 yr‐1 resulted. When these CO2 emissions are included in simple life cycle assessment calculations, emissions from cellulosic ethanol from crop residue are above mandated levels of

  10. Models of carbon flow in tropical ecosystems with emphasis on their role in the global carbon cycle. Final report, September 15, 1978-September 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The role of tropical forests on the carbon balance of the world is studied with four different approaches: (1) to quantify the area of tropical forests and the changes in forest cover; (2) to calculate the storage and production of organic carbon in tropical forests; (3) the modelling of land use changes in tropical countries using computer simulation models; and (4) the synthesis of information from many sources into conceptual schemes using Life Zone and energy use concepts. Results are not yet conclusive but indicate that tropical forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, and they are likely to be small sources of carbon to the atmosphere. The basis for this statement is: (1) the large area of tropical forests do not appear to be changing as fast as suggested earlier; (2) the storage of carbon in the tropics is about one half as previously suggested; (3) the turnover of carbon in the tropics is very fast with large exports to the ocean via rivers; and (4) models of land use change using data from Bolivia show only a small net addition of carbon to the atmosphere.

  11. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  12. Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors/Advanced Burner Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Cho, Dae H.; Momozaki, Yoichi; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Haglund, Robert C.; Reed, Claude B.; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2007-07-01

    An optimized supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle power converter has been developed for the 100 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) eliminating the potential for sodium-water reactions and achieving a small power converter and turbine generator building. Cycle and plant efficiencies of 39.1 and 38.3 %, respectively, are calculated for the ABTR core outlet temperature of 510 deg. C. The ABTR S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle will incorporate Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger{sup TM} units in the Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers, high and low temperature recuperators, and cooler. A new sodium test facility is being completed to investigate the potential for transient plugging of narrow sodium channels typical of a Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger under postulated off-normal or accident conditions. (authors)

  15. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  16. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations for Use in Concentrating Solar Power Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    The research will characterize and evaluate advanced S-CO2 Brayton cycle power generation with a modular power tower CSP system.

  17. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  18. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  19. Modernization of the graphics post-processors of the Hamburg German Climate Computer Center Carbon Cycle Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, E.J.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    The existing National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) code in the Hamburg Oceanic Carbon Cycle Circulation Model and the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic Ocean General Circulation Model was modernized and reduced in size while still producing an equivalent end result. A reduction in the size of the existing code from more than 50,000 lines to approximately 7,500 lines in the new code has made the new code much easier to maintain. The existing code in Hamburg model uses legacy NCAR (including even emulated CALCOMP subrountines) graphics to display graphical output. The new code uses only current (version 3.1) NCAR subrountines.

  20. Development and Integration of Genome-Enabled Techniques to Track and Predict the Cycling of Carbon in Model Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, Jillian

    2014-11-26

    The primary objective of this project was to establish widely applicable, high-throughput omics methods for tracking carbon flow in microbial communities at a strain-resolved molecular level. We developed and applied these methods to study a well-established microbial community model system with a long history of omics innovation: chemoautotrophic biofilms grown in an acid mine drainage (AMD) environment. The methods are now being transitioned (in a new project) to study soil. Using metagenomics, stable-isotope proteomics, stable-isotope metabolomics, transcriptomics, and microscopy, we tracked carbon flow during initial biofilm growth involving CO2 fixation, through the maturing biofilm community consisting of multiple trophic levels, and during an anaerobic degradative phase after biofilms sink. This work included explicit consideration of the often overlooked roles of archaea and microbial eukaryotes (fungi) in carbon turnover. We also analyzed where the eosystem begins to fail in response to thermal perturbation, and how perturbation propagates through a carbon cycle. We investigated the form of strain variation in microbial communities, the importance of strain variants, and the rate and form of strain evolution. Overall, the project generated an array of new, integrated omics approaches and provided unprecedented insight into the functioning of a natural ecosystem. This project supported graduate training for five Ph.D. students and three post doctoral fellows and contributed directly to at least 26 publications (two in Science).

  1. Fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons and possible path to the future of US experimental high-energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    The authors outline primary physics motivation, present proposed new arrangement for Fermilab accelerator complex, and then discuss possible long-range application of fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons at Fermilab.

  2. Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mosier, Annika C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Ohm, Robin A.; Li, Zhou; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; et al

    2016-03-03

    The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and inmore » the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. Finally, these findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches.« less

  3. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  4. Carbon Cycling Dynamics in Response to Pine Beetle Infection and Climate Variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monson, Russell K.

    2015-01-26

    We originally proposed to study and discover the changes that have occurred in soil carbon pools, as a result of tree mortality due to beetle infection, and the ease by which those pools release CO2 to the atmosphere in mountain forests in the Western US. We studied forest plots at two sites – the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site and the Fraser Experimental Forest site, both in Colorado.

  5. Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-03-24

    The commonly adopted biogeochemistry spin-up process in an Earth system model (ESM) is to run the model for hundreds to thousands of years subject to periodic atmospheric forcing to reach dynamic steady state of the carbon–nitrogen (CN) models. A variety of approaches have been proposed to reduce the computation time of the spin-up process. Significant improvement in computational efficiency has been made recently. However, a long simulation time is still required to reach the common convergence criteria of the coupled carbon–nitrogen model. A gradient projection method was proposed and used to further reduce the computation time after examining the trend of the dominant carbon pools. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) with a carbon and nitrogen component was used in this study. From point-scale simulations, we found that the method can reduce the computation time by 20–69% compared to one of the fastest approaches in the literature. We also found that the cyclic stability of total carbon for some cases differs from that of the periodic atmospheric forcing, and some cases even showed instability. Close examination showed that one case has a carbon periodicity much longer than that of the atmospheric forcing due to the annual fire disturbance that is longer than half a year. The rest was caused by the instability of water table calculation in the hydrology model of CLM4. The instability issue is resolved after we replaced the hydrology scheme in CLM4 with a flow model for variably saturated porous media.

  6. Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-03-24

    The commonly adopted biogeochemistry spin-up process in an Earth system model (ESM) is to run the model for hundreds to thousands of years subject to periodic atmospheric forcing to reach dynamic steady state of the carbon–nitrogen (CN) models. A variety of approaches have been proposed to reduce the computation time of the spin-up process. Significant improvement in computational efficiency has been made recently. However, a long simulation time is still required to reach the common convergence criteria of the coupled carbon–nitrogen model. A gradient projection method was proposed and used to further reduce the computation time after examining the trendmore » of the dominant carbon pools. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) with a carbon and nitrogen component was used in this study. From point-scale simulations, we found that the method can reduce the computation time by 20–69% compared to one of the fastest approaches in the literature. We also found that the cyclic stability of total carbon for some cases differs from that of the periodic atmospheric forcing, and some cases even showed instability. Close examination showed that one case has a carbon periodicity much longer than that of the atmospheric forcing due to the annual fire disturbance that is longer than half a year. The rest was caused by the instability of water table calculation in the hydrology model of CLM4. The instability issue is resolved after we replaced the hydrology scheme in CLM4 with a flow model for variably saturated porous media.« less

  7. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  8. Oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    This project emphasizes CO2-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems, CO2 transportation, and options for the long-term sequestration Of CO2. The intent is to quantify the CO2 budget, or an ``equivalent CO2`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal, followed by Claus/SCOT treatment, to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO2 release rate of 0.801 kg/kV-Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H2S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO2 recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H2S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle, with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline takes the CO2 to geological sequestering. For the optimal CO2 recovery case, the net electric power production was reduced by 37.6 MW from the base case, with a CO2 release rate of 0.277 kg/kWhe (when makeup power was considered). In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO2-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, while the cost for oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh. For the optimal cases employing glycol CO2 recovery, there was no clear advantage; the cost for air-blown IGCC was 95.48 mills/kWh, and the cost for the oxygen-blown IGCC was slightly lower, at 94.55 mills/kWh.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage FutureGen 2.0 Project Moves Forward...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In cooperation with the FutureGen project partners, the Department of Energy is investing in the upgrade of a coal-fired power plant in Meredosia, Ill. with oxy-combustion ...

  11. The effect of compost on carbon cycling and the active soil microbiota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Esther; Woyke, Tanja; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee

    2014-09-02

    Rangelands cover an estimated 40-70percent of global landmass, approximately one-third of the landmass of the United States and half of California. The soils of this vast land area has high carbon (C) storage capacity, which makes it an important target ecosystem for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and effects on climate change, in particular under land management techniques that favor increased C sequestration rates. While microbial communities are key players in the processes responsible for C storage and loss in soils, we have barely shed light on these highly complex processes in part due to the tremendous and seemingly intractable diversity of microbes, largely uncultured, that inhabit soil ecosystems. In our study, we compare Mediterranean grassland soil plots that were amended with greenwaste compost in a single event 6 years ago. Subsampling of control and amended plots was performed in depth increments of 0-10 cm. We present data on greenhouse gas emissions and budgets of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in dependence of compost amendment. Changes in the active members of the soil microbial community were assessed using a novel approach combining flow cytometry and 16S tag sequencing disclosing who is active. This is the first study revealing the nature of actively metabolizing microbial community members linked to the geochemical characteristics of compost-amended soil.

  12. Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL

    2013-01-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  14. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-03-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  15. Structural analysis of three global land models on carbon cycle simulations using a traceability framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rafique, R.; Xia, J.; Hararuk, O.; Luo, Y.

    2014-06-27

    Modeled carbon (C) storage capacity is largely determined by the C residence time and net primary productivity (NPP). Extensive research has been done on NPP dynamics but the residence time and their relationships with C storage are much less studied. In this study, we implemented a traceability analysis to understand the modeled C storage and residence time in three land surface models: CSIRO's Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM3.5-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools. The globally averagedmoreC storage and residence time was computed at both individual pool and total ecosystem levels. The spatial distribution of total ecosystem C storage and residence time differ greatly among the three models. The CABLE model showed a closer agreement with measured C storage and residence time in plant and soil pools than CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4. However, CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 were close to each other in modeled C storage but not with measured data. CABLE stores more C in root whereas CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 store more C in woody pools, partly due to differential NPP allocation in respective pools. The C residence time in individual C pools is greatly different among models, largely because of different transfer coefficient values among pools. CABLE had higher bulk residence time for soil C pools than the other two models. Overall, the traceability analysis used in this study can help fully characterizes the behavior of complex land models.less

  16. Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use.After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  17. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  18. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  19. ARM - Carbon Cycle Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  20. Linking ecosystem scale vegetation change to shifts in carbon and water cycling: the consequences of widespread piñon mortality in the Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvak, Marcy Ellen

    2012-10-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, were extremely vulnerable to this drought. An abrupt die-off of 40 to 95% of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) across 1.5 million ha triggered rapid and extensive changes in the structure of PJ woodlands with potentially large, yet unknown, consequences for ecosystem services and feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate system. Given the spatial extent of PJ woodlands (3rd largest biome in the US) and climatic predictions of increased frequency and intensity of drought in the region, it is crucial to understand the consequences of these disturbances on regional carbon and energy dynamics, biogeochemical processes and atmospheric CO2. The overall objective of our research was to quantify what impact widespread mortality of piñon trees has for carbon and water cycling in PJ woodlands. Our specific objectives for this proposal were: 1) Quantify the carbon, water and energy exchange trajectory after mortality in PJ woodlands; 2) Determine the mechanisms controlling the response and recovery of ecosystem production and respiration processes following large-scale piñon mortality; 3) Use the relationships we measure between ecosystem structure and function PJ woodlands recover from mortality to scale the results of our study up to the regional scale.

  1. Prospective life-cycle modeling of a carbon capture and storage system using metal-organic frameworks for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathre, R; Masanet, E

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising new material media for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Their tunable adsorption patterns may allow relatively efficient separation of gases, e.g. from power plant exhaust. Here we conduct scenario-based prospective life-cycle system modeling to estimate the potentials and implications of large-scale MOF application for post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS), and estimate the source and magnitude of uncertainties. The methodological approach includes parametric system modeling to quantify relations between system components; scenario projections of plausible pathways for system scale-up; proxy data on analogous materials and processes; and uncertainty analysis of parameter significance. We estimate the system-wide material and energy flows and economic costs associated with projected large-scale CCS deployment. We compare the performance of a MOF-based system to currently more mature amine-based capture technology. We discuss balancing two critical factors that determine the success of CO2 capture media: thermodynamic efficiency of the capture/regeneration cycle, and life-cycle embodied energy and cost of the material and its ancillary systems.

  2. 10 MWe power cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWe power cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  3. Coupled modeling of a directly heated tubular solar receiver for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle: Structural and creep-fatigue evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortega, Jesus; Khivsara, Sagar; Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-06-06

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycle is an emerging high energy-density cycle undergoing extensive research due to the appealing thermo-physical properties of sCO2 and single phase operation. Development of a solar receiver capable of delivering sCO2 at 20 MPa and 700 °C is required for implementation of the high efficiency (~50%) solar powered sCO2 Brayton cycle. In this work, extensive candidate materials are review along with tube size optimization using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Moreover, temperature and pressure distribution obtained from the thermal-fluid modeling (presented in a complementary publication) are used to evaluate the thermal andmore » mechanical stresses along with detailed creep-fatigue analysis of the tubes. For resulting body stresses were used to approximate the lifetime performance of the receiver tubes. A cyclic loading analysis is performed by coupling the Strain-Life approach and the Larson-Miller creep model. The structural integrity of the receiver was examined and it was found that the stresses can be withstood by specific tubes, determined by a parametric geometric analysis. The creep-fatigue analysis display the damage accumulation due to cycling and the permanent deformation on the tubes showed that the tubes can operate for the full lifetime of the receiver.« less

  4. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant

  5. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP) MANAGING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURING A FUTURE FOR THE MIDWEST'S INDUSTRIAL BASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Ball; Robert Burns; Judith Bradbury; Bob Dahowski; Casie Davidson; James Dooley; Neeraj Gupta; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom

    2005-04-29

    This is the third semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two-year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  6. Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit; Mundra, Anupriya

    2016-08-01

    Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model's sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentrationmore » Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector's carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification projections and sensitivity analyses, and it is capable of emulating both current observations

  7. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K.

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  8. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 20812100 and 18501869/18611880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmorethe emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 19802011 is about 1.25.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 19802005 versus 20752100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.less

  9. FutureGen Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabe, Jim; Elliott, Mike

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes the comprehensive siting, permitting, engineering, design, and costing activities completed by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, the Department of Energy, and associated supporting subcontractors to develop a first of a kind near zero emissions integrated gasification combined cycle power plant and carbon capture and storage project (IGCC-CCS). With the goal to design, build, and reliably operate the first IGCC-CCS facility, FutureGen would have been the lowest emitting pulverized coal power plant in the world, while providing a timely and relevant basis for coal combustion power plants deploying carbon capture in the future. The content of this report summarizes key findings and results of applicable project evaluations; modeling, design, and engineering assessments; cost estimate reports; and schedule and risk mitigation from initiation of the FutureGen project through final flow sheet analyses including capital and operating reports completed under DOE award DE-FE0000587. This project report necessarily builds upon previously completed siting, design, and development work executed under DOE award DE-FC26- 06NT4207 which included the siting process; environmental permitting, compliance, and mitigation under the National Environmental Policy Act; and development of conceptual and design basis documentation for the FutureGen plant. For completeness, the report includes as attachments the siting and design basis documents, as well as the source documentation for the following: • Site evaluation and selection process and environmental characterization • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit Application including well design and subsurface modeling • FutureGen IGCC-CCS Design Basis Document • Process evaluations and technology selection via Illinois Clean Coal Review Board Technical Report • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for slurry-fed gasifier configuration • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance

  10. Coupled modeling of a directly heated tubular solar receiver for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle: Optical and thermal-fluid evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortega, Jesus; Khivsara, Sagar; Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford; Yellowhair, Julius; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-30

    In single phase performance and appealing thermo-physical properties supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) make a good heat transfer fluid candidate for concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The development of a solar receiver capable of delivering s-CO2 at outlet temperatures ~973 K is required in order to merge CSP and s-CO2 Brayton cycle technologies. A coupled optical and thermal-fluid modeling effort for a tubular receiver is undertaken to evaluate the direct tubular s-CO2 receiver’s thermal performance when exposed to a concentrated solar power input of ~0.3–0.5 MW. Ray tracing, using SolTrace, is performed to determine the heat flux profiles on the receivermore » and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) determines the thermal performance of the receiver under the specified heating conditions. Moreover, an in-house MATLAB code is developed to couple SolTrace and ANSYS Fluent. CFD modeling is performed using ANSYS Fluent to predict the thermal performance of the receiver by evaluating radiation and convection heat loss mechanisms. Understanding the effects of variation in heliostat aiming strategy and flow configurations on the thermal performance of the receiver was achieved through parametric analyses. Finally, a receiver thermal efficiency ~85% was predicted and the surface temperatures were observed to be within the allowable limit for the materials under consideration.« less

  11. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services » Soil and Groundwater Soil and Groundwater Soil and Groundwater Legacy soil and groundwater remediation activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements, DOE regulations, and other applicable environmental laws. The scope of work requires investigation and remediation of contaminated sites known as solid waste management units (SWMUs) or areas of concern (AOCs). The protection of surface water and groundwater is also within

  12. Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

  13. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K.; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, Wilfred M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-long (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly

  14. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore » (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied

  15. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. ...

  16. Binary Cycle Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    binary-cycle power plants in the future will be binary-cycle plants1 Enel's Salts Wells Geothermal Plant in Nevada: This plant is a binary system that is rated at 13 MW...

  17. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian; Thiess, Sebastian; Alff, Lambert; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

  18. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Research and Development Materials Recovery and Waste Form Development Campaign Overview Jim Bresee, DOE NE NEET Webinar September 17, 2014 Campaign Objectives  Develop advanced fuel cycle material recovery and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion to provide options for future fuel cycle policy decisions  Campaign strategy is based

  19. Benefits and concerns of a closed nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.

    2010-11-17

    Nuclear power can play an important role in our energy future, contributing to increasing electricity demand while at the same time decreasing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States today is unsustainable. As stated in the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of spent nuclear fuel generated by commercial nuclear power plants operating in a “once-through” fuel cycle in the deep geologic repository located at Yucca Mountain. However, unyielding political opposition to the site has hindered the commissioning process to the extant that the current administration has recently declared the unsuitability of the Yucca Mountain site. In light of this the DOE is exploring other options, including closing the fuel cycle through recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of closing the fuel cycle is receiving special attention because of its ability to minimize the final high level waste (HLW) package as well as recover additional energy value from the original fuel. The technology is, however, still very controversial because of the increased cost and proliferation risk it can present. To lend perspective on the closed fuel cycle alternative, this presents the arguments for and against closing the fuel cycle with respect to sustainability, proliferation risk, commercial viability, waste management, and energy security.

  20. Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Ralph

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

  1. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  2. Energy futures-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the Symposium on Energy Futures II. Topics covered include: The National Energy Strategy; The Gas and petroleum industry; energy use in the paper industry; solar energy technology; hydroelectric power; biomass/waste utilization; engine emissions testing laboratories; integrated coal gassification-combined-cycle power plants.

  3. Strike variability of carbonate platform margin stratal architecture and cycle stacking patterns: Outcrop and seismic examples from lower Permian depositional sequences of the Permian Basin, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitchen, W.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Strike variability in stratal architecture, cycle stacking patterns and facies differentiation within sequences exemplifies the potential for differential stratigraphic response of platforms to eustasy. Variability exists within base-level cycles of several scales within a compound stratigraphic hierarchy, though the causes may vary among different scales. Cross-sections from outcrops in the Sierra Diablo document the framework and stacking pattern of 3rd-order sequences (HFS), including: two progradational middle Wolfcampian HFS (mW1-2), one backstepped upper Wolfcampian HFS (uW1), one progradational lower Leonardin HFS (L1), aggradational middle (L2) and upper Leonardian HFS (L3), three progradatic upper Leonardian HFS (L4-6), and two backstepped, aggradational upper Leonardian HFS (L7-8). Seismic lines from the northern Delaware and Midland Basins and San Simon Channel area document the regional consistency of 3rd-order sequence stacking patterns (a response to eustasy), but show variability related to local subsidence, antecedent topography (owing to deeper structures and platform margin erosion), windward vs. leeward facing, and siliciclastic sediment supply. Sequences L2 and L3 appear to exhibit the greatest variability in stacking pattern. Strike variability in 4th/5th-order cycle stacking patterns within 3rd-order sequences as studied in outcrop is greatest in sequences L2 and L3, in which headland-bight margin trends are developed on a lateral scale of 1-2 miles. Aggrational to backstepping reef-margin facies with steep ([le]35[degrees]) foreslopes developed along headlands. Mudstones abut these margin facies abruptly along headlands and may contain megabreccias at the toe-of-slope. More gently sloping (10-15[degrees]) [open quotes]ramp[close quotes] margin strata composed of fusulinid packstones characterize bights.

  4. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  5. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-06-16

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomoremulti-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 5070% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 7080%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m-2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m-2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 23 ?mol mol-1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel

  6. The influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-15

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year data set from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction χc). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle)more » to multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found the following: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70 % to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 90 and 110 %, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10 %), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m−2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m−2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6 % in dry conditions and between 15 and 25 % in partially wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, even though precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced the magnitude of Rnet, LE increased from ≈ 10 to over 20 W m−2 due to increased evaporation. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Low-Carbon Scenarios TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative Fuel ... A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable ...

  8. Forest Carbon Index | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Carbon Index Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forest Carbon Index AgencyCompany Organization: Resources for the Future Partner: United Nations...

  9. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  10. Energy for the Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy for the Future

  11. Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide using Solar Energy ... the hercynite cycle allows faster, more efficient cycling and less wear on the equipment ...

  12. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  13. Development of a plant dynamics computer code for analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle energy converter coupled to a natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2007-03-08

    STAR-LM is a lead-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept operating under natural circulation of the coolant. The reactor core power is 400 MWt. The open-lattice core consists of fuel pins attached to the core support plate, (the does not consist of removable fuel assemblies). The coolant flows outside of the fuel pins. The fuel is transuranic nitride, fabricated from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. The cladding material is HT-9 stainless steel; the steady-state peak cladding temperature is 650 C. The coolant is single-phase liquid lead under atmospheric pressure; the core inlet and outlet temperatures are 438 C and 578 C, respectively. (The Pb coolant freezing and boiling temperatures are 327 C and 1749 C, respectively). The coolant is contained inside of a reactor vessel. The vessel material is Type 316 stainless steel. The reactor is autonomous meaning that the reactor power is self-regulated based on inherent reactivity feedbacks and no external power control (through control rods) is utilized. The shutdown (scram) control rods are used for startup and shutdown and to stop the fission reaction in case of an emergency. The heat from the reactor is transferred to the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle in in-reactor heat exchangers (IRHX) located inside the reactor vessel. The IRHXs are shell-and-tube type heat exchangers with lead flowing downwards on the shell side and CO{sub 2} flowing upwards on the tube side. No intermediate circuit is utilized. The guard vessel surrounds the reactor vessel to contain the coolant, in the very unlikely event of reactor vessel failure. The Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) implementing the natural circulation of air flowing upwards over the guard vessel is used to cool the reactor, in the case of loss of normal heat removal through the IRHXs. The RVACS is always in operation. The gap between the vessels is filled with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) to enhance the heat removal by air by significantly reducing the thermal

  14. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2012-05-10

    Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO{sub 2}. It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO{sub 2}-to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the

  15. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models. Current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, A. M.; Cook, Robert B.; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K.; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, W. M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and loss from soil accounts for a large pro portion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Due to large pool size and variable residence time from years to millennia, even small changes in soil organic C(SOC) have substantial effects on the terrestrial C budget, thereby affecting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C storage and fluxes remains a key research challenge his study has compiled century-long (1901-2010)estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from ten terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and two observation based datasets. The ten-TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate range from 4 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C33 in 2010. Modeling approach estimates a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr-1 with a median value of 51Pg C yr-1 during 200–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude band while Rh differences are the largest in the tropics. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes have decreased SOC stocks while elevated CO2 and atmospheric nitrogen deposition have increased SOC stocks though the response varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity,nutrient limitation and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil fluxes in this study. In addition, major sources of uncertainty from model estimation include exclusion of SOC storage in

  16. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing...

  17. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics Grigoriev, Igor 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAircraft Carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Abstract Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle

  19. 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation’s current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to...

  20. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  1. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  2. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Jobs Dispatched / Hour What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler to complete all

  3. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  4. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  5. Supercritical CO2-Brayton Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercritical CO2-Brayton Cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  6. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  7. Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system: from past to future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arneth, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Zaehle, S.; Tsigaridis, K; Menon, S; Bartlein, P.J.; Feichter, J; Korhola, A; Kulmala, M; O'Donnell, D; Schurgers, G; Sorvari, S; Vesala, T

    2010-01-05

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a major role in the regulation of atmospheric composition, and hence climate, through multiple interlinked biogeochemical cycles (BGC). Ice-core and other palaeoenvironmental records show a fast response of vegetation cover and exchanges with the atmosphere to past climate change, although the phasing of these responses reflects spatial patterning and complex interactions between individual biospheric feedbacks. Modern observations show a similar responsiveness of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles to anthropogenically-forced climate changes and air pollution, with equally complex feedbacks. For future conditions, although carbon cycle-climate interactions have been a major focus, other BGC feedbacks could be as important in modulating climate changes. The additional radiative forcing from terrestrial BGC feedbacks other than those conventionally attributed to the carbon cycle is in the range of 0.6 to 1.6 Wm{sup -2}; all taken together we estimate a possible maximum of around 3 Wm{sup -2} towards the end of the 21st century. There are large uncertainties associated with these estimates but, given that the majority of BGC feedbacks result in a positive forcing because of the fundamental link between metabolic stimulation and increasing temperature, improved quantification of these feedbacks and their incorporation in earth system models is necessary in order to develop coherent plans to manage ecosystems for climate mitigation.

  8. 2013 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  9. 2014 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  10. 2015 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  12. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

  13. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  14. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  15. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  16. Effect of organics on nuclear cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riddle, J.M. . Chemistry Services Section)

    1992-07-01

    Organics entering the nuclear cycle undergo hydrolysis or radiolysis and form carboxylic acids, acetic, formic, and propionic acids being the most prominent. Sequestered sulfur, halogens, metal species, and silica may also be released. The corrosion effects of halogens and sulfate are reasonably well understood. Historically, organic acids at low levels (e.g., 10 to 50 ppb) in nuclear cycles have been viewed as a nuisance or as potentially detrimental. This study reviews literature references of the effects of organics in nuclear cycles. Sources of organics and corrosion effects on plant materials are given from various references. Acetate can neutralize caustic in PWR steam generator crevices, whereas formate and oxalate as sodium salts can decompose to sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate in crevices hydrolyzes to carbon dioxide and sodium hydroxide, which promotes SCC and IGA of Alloy 600. Formate and oxalate can act as oxygen scavengers in the BWR cycle and mitigate IGSCC of austenitic stainless steel. No firm evidence exists that organic acids have caused corrosion in turbines, piping, or heat exchangers in nuclear cycles, although organic acids at high levels can cause specific corrosion effects as a result of low pH.

  17. Fossil energy, clean coal technology, and FutureGen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkus, T.A.

    2008-07-15

    Future fossil use will rely heavily on carbon sequestration. Clean coal technologies are being incorporated in the USA, including air pollution control, and will need to incorporate carbon capture and sequestration. The paper ends with an outline of the restructured FutureGen project. 7 figs.

  18. Transposed critical temperature Rankine thermodynamic cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The transposed critical temperature (TPCT) is shown to be an extremely important thermodynamic property in the selection of the working fluid and turbine states for optimized geothermal power plants operating on a closed organic (binary) Rankine cycle. When the optimum working fluid composition and process states are determined for given source and sink conditions (7 parameter optimization), turbine inlet states are found to be consistently adjacent to the low pressure side of the working fluids' TPCT line on pressure-enthalpy coordinates. Although the TPCT concepts herein may find numerous future applications in high temperature, advanced cycles for fossil or nuclear fired steam power plants and in supercritical organic Rankine heat recovery bottoming cycles for Diesel engines, this discussion is limited to moderate temperature (150 to 250/sup 0/C) closed simple organic Rankine cycle geothermal power plants. Conceptual design calculations pertinent to the first geothermal binary cycle Demonstration Plant are included.

  19. State options for low-carbon coal policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

    2008-02-15

    There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of options for states to encourage the deployment of carbon capture and sequestration. It describes actions (including legislation, regulations, and incentives) throughout the country. It also reviews in greater detail the range of policies available to state Public Utility Commissions for advancing deployment of CCS. Many states are adopting meaningful incentives for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and, as a handful of states are beginning to demonstrate, a number of these incentives can apply to CCS as well. States also have a number of authorities relevant to advancement of clean coal power, particularly within the domain of state public utility commissions (PUCs). State commissions have a wide array of policy options available to them in pursuing this goal, and will play a crucial role in determining the speed and effectiveness with which such technologies are deployed. States also enjoy major advantages, such as their direct jurisdiction over many critical power plant issues (including siting and retail ratemaking) that federal agencies do not possess. Regardless of the final form of federal greenhouse gas rules, states have the chance to gain experience as first movers and policy innovators, and will play an important role in shaping a low-carbon future. Although national policy is essential, a proactive approach by state policymakers and regulators to drive CCS can reduce future compliance costs, speed the required technological developments, and pave the way for future national policy.

  20. An option making for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Shimada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2007-07-01

    A four-year-research has been completed as a collaborative work by Nagoya University Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corporation and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in order to develop a super critical carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) based technology, 'SUPER-DIREX process', for nuclear fuel reprocessing. As a result obtained in Phase II of the Japan's feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems, this technology was evaluated as one of the alternatives for the advanced Purex process for he future FBR fuel cycle. Although further investigation is required for a scaled-up demonstration of processing spent fuels by SUPER-DIREX process, we could conclude that an option has been made for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide. (authors)

  1. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  2. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  3. Technologies for improved soil carbon management and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reicosky, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the carbon cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover management for carbon sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of May 1, 2014 Washington, DC May 28, 2014 Al ... for the May 1, 2014 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting and list of presenters is given below. ...

  5. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE ...

  6. ARM - The Hydrologic Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrologic Cycle Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans The Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle is the cycle through which water passes from sea to land and from land to sea. Water vapor enters the air through the evaporation of water. Water vapor in the air eventually condenses

  7. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycles | Department of Energy Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Brayton logo --This project is inactive -- Brayton Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is building and testing a new solar receiver that uses supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the heat-transfer fluid. The research team is designing the receiver to withstand higher operating temperatures

  8. DOE Selects Project to Help Advance More Efficient Supercritical Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dioxide-Based Power Cycles | Department of Energy Project to Help Advance More Efficient Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Based Power Cycles DOE Selects Project to Help Advance More Efficient Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Based Power Cycles August 3, 2015 - 10:25am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected Thar Energy, LLC to develop new recuperator technologies leading to more cost-effective and efficient supercritical carbon dioxide

  9. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  10. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of