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Sample records for fusion reactions work

  1. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-03-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  2. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  3. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  4. How Fusion Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 likes How Fusion Energy Works Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. In fusion, two light atomic nuclei are fused together to create energy (as ...

  5. COLLOQUIUM: Magnetized Target Fusion Work at General Fusion | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab December 18, 2014, 12:30pm to 2:00pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Magnetized Target Fusion Work at General Fusion Dr. Michel Laberge General Fusion FOR THIS COLLOQUIUM - PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL TIME OF 12:30PM General Fusion is working on compressing a Compact Torus in liquid metal using an acoustic wave generated by compressed gas pistons. This approach has attractive reactor engineering features: strongly reduced neutrons damage (1E-5 reduction in neutron flux with

  6. Ab initio calculations of light-ion fusion reactions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recent applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions relevant to energy production in stars and Earth based fusion facilities, such as the deuterium-sup 3He ...

  7. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Abhishek Sharma, Vijay R. Singh, Devendra P. Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Sharma, M. K.

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  8. How Fusion Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 likes How Fusion Energy Works Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. In fusion, two light atomic nuclei are fused together to create energy (as opposed to fission where the nucleus of an atom is split apart). The scientific basis underlying fusion energy is known as plasma physics. Plasma is one of the one of the four fundamental states of matter and makes up 99 percent of the visible universe. On a basic level, a plasma is a hot ionized gas. The ultimate goal of

  9. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.

    2009-05-04

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 96}Zr fusion reactions at E{sub lab} = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the {gamma}-ray energy spectra and the {gamma}-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  10. Barrier Distributions for Cold-Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sunchan; Satou, Ken-ichiro

    2006-08-14

    Coulomb barrier distributions for the capture process in the cold fusion reactions for 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn projectiles incident on 208Pb target are obtained by the measurement of the quasi-elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles. The obtained barrier distributions are compared with the result of a coupled-channels calculation. It is found that the barrier distributions are well reproduced by the calculation taking account of the coupling of one phonon of the quadrupole vibration for these projectile nuclei and two phonons of the octupole vibration for 208Pb.

  11. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, R.T. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM.

  12. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  13. Experimental study of nuclear fusion reactions in muonic molecular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanova, L. N.

    2013-03-15

    Since the pioneering discovery of the muon catalysis by Alvarez [L. W. Alvarez, K. Brander, F. S. Crawford, et al., Phys. Rev. 105, 1127 (1957)], considerable efforts were aimed at observation of various fusion processes. Results of these studies facilitated understanding the properties of lightest nuclei and dynamics of low-energy fusion reactions. There still remain unsolved theoretical and experimental problems, especially in case of pt fusion.

  14. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  15. On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anghaie, S.; Froelich, P.; Monkhorst, H.J. )

    1990-05-01

    In this paper the possibility of fusion/fission chain reactions following d-d source reactions in electrochemical cold fusion experiments have been investigated. The recycling factors for the charged particles in fusion reactions with consumable nuclei deuteron, {sup 6}Li nd {sup 7}Li, are estimated. It is concluded that, based on the established nuclear fusion cross sections and electronic stopping power, the recycling factor is four to five orders of magnitude less than required for close to critical conditions. It is argued that the cross generation of charged particles by neutrons does not play a significant role in this process, even if increased densities at the surface of electrodes do occur.

  16. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions with exotic nuclear beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baran, V.; Rizzo, C.; Colonna, M.; Toro, M. Di; Pierroutsakou, D.

    2009-02-15

    We report the properties of the prompt dipole radiation, produced via a collective bremsstrahlung mechanism, in fusion reactions with exotic beams. We show that the {gamma} yield is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy below/around saturation. Moreover, we find that the angular distribution of the emitted photons from such fast collective mode can represent a sensitive probe of its excitation mechanism and of fusion dynamics in the entrance channel.

  17. Cherenkov neutron detector for fusion reaction and runaway electron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, MunSeong Kim, Junghee

    2015-08-15

    A Cherenkov-type neutron detector was newly developed and neutron measurement experiments were performed at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. It was shown that the Cherenkov neutron detector can monitor the time-resolved neutron flux from deuterium-fueled fusion plasmas. Owing to the high temporal resolution of the detector, fast behaviors of runaway electrons, such as the neutron spikes, could be observed clearly. It is expected that the Cherenkov neutron detector could be utilized to provide useful information on runaway electrons as well as fusion reaction rate in fusion plasmas.

  18. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Li Junqing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-10-15

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus, and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  19. Joint Working Group for Fusion Safety | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Diversity and Inclusion Environment, Safety & Health Environmental Management System Joint Working Group for Fusion Safety Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Diversity and Inclusion Environment, Safety & Health Environmental Management System Joint Working Group for Fusion Safety Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab

  20. Ab initio calculations of light-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupin, G.; Quaglioni, S.; Navratil, P.

    2012-10-20

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model/Resonating-Group Method (NCSM/RGM) complements a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. Recent applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions relevant to energy production in stars and Earth based fusion facilities, such as the deuterium-{sup 3}He fusion, are presented. Progress toward the inclusion of the three nucleon force into the formalism is outlined.

  1. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Does Fusion Energy Work? By Raphael Rosen August 25, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars. (Photo by U.S. Department of Energy) Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars. Click here to view a cool infographic about fusion energy from the U.S. Department of Energy. Contact Info PPPL Office of Communications Email: PPPL_OOC@pppl.gov Phone: 609-243-2755 Download Select and View High Resolution Images to Download Learn More

  2. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? July 29, 2016 - 1:27pm Addthis How Does Fusion Energy Work? Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer A plain building in Plainsboro, New Jersey houses a machine that can produce plasma -- superheated, charged gas -- hotter than the center of the sun. We're talking 100 million degrees Fahrenheit...in a building...in New Jersey. It's the NSTX-U, the National

  3. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? July 29, 2016 - 1:27pm Addthis How Does Fusion Energy Work? Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer A plain building in Plainsboro, New Jersey houses a machine that can produce plasma -- superheated, charged gas -- hotter than the center of the sun. We're talking 100 million degrees Fahrenheit...in a building...in New Jersey. It's the NSTX-U, the National

  4. Fusion reactions of Ni 58 , 64 + Sn 124 (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fusion reactions of Ni 58 , 64 + Sn 124 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fusion reactions of Ni 58 , 64 + Sn 124 Authors: Jiang, C. L. ; Stefanini, A. M. ; Esbensen, H. ; ...

  5. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  6. Angular momentum effects in fusion-fission and fusion-evaporation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plasil, F.

    1980-01-01

    The study of heavy-ion fusion reactions is complicated by the possible contributions of several mechanisms. The various types of heavy-ion-induced fission are discussed. Then compound-nucleus fission is considered with reference to fission barriers deduced from heavy-ion-induced fission. Next, the problems associated with measured values of evaporation-residue cross sections and the angular momentum dependence of incomplete fusion are examined. Finally, the de-excitation of compound nuclei is again taken up, this time with reference to the greatly enhanced ..cap alpha.. emission predicted on the basis of the rotating liquid drop model. 24 figures. (RWR)

  7. Reproducible cold fusion reaction using a complex cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arata, Y.; Zhang, Y.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses a new complex cathode which was developed, consisting of a nickel (or palladium) rod with a palladium layer applied by plasma spraying. High reproducibility of a cold fusion reaction is confirmed by using this cathode. The palladium layer activates the surface functions of the deuterated cathode, and reliable evidence is obtained that a new type of heat generation occurred in the complex cathode.

  8. Formation of superheavy elements in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the formation cross sections of transactinides (superheavy elements), as well as heavy actinides (No and Lr), which have been or might be obtained in fusion reactions with the evaporation of only one neutron. We use both more realistic fusion barrier and survival probability of the compound nucleus in comparison with the original phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)] that prompted the Berkeley experiment on the synthesis of a new superheavy element 118 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1104 (1999)]. Calculations are performed for asymmetric and symmetric target-projectile combinations and for reactions with stable and radioactive-ion beams. The formation cross sections measured at GSI-Darmstadt for transactinides and heavy actinides, as well as that for superheavy element 118 reported by the LBNL-Berkeley group, are reproduced within a factor of 2.4, on average. Based on the obtained relatively large cross sections, we predict that optimal reactions with stable beams for the synthesis of so far unobserved superheavy elements 119, 120, and 121 are {sup 209}Bi({sup 86}Kr, 1n){sup 294}119, {sup 208}Pb({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 295}120, and {sup 209}Bi({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 296}121, respectively. This is because of the magic of both the target and the projectile that leads to larger Q value and, consequently, lower effective fusion barrier with larger transmission probability. The same effect is responsible for relatively large cross sections predicted for the symmetric reactions {sup 136}Xe({sup 124}Sn, 1n){sup 259}Rf, {sup 136}Xe({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 271}Hs,{sup 138}Ba({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 273}110, and {sup 140}Ce({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 275}112. Although shell effects in the magic nuclei {sup 124}Sn, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 138}Ba, and {sup 140}Ce are not as strong as in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi, they act on both the target and the projectile and lead to the prediction of measurable cross sections.

  9. Progress on Light-Ion Fusion Reactions with Three-Nucleon Forces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Progress on Light-Ion Fusion Reactions with Three-Nucleon Forces Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  10. Fusion by diffusion. II. Synthesis of transfermium elements in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiatecki, W.J.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a method of estimating cross sections for the synthesis of very heavy nuclei by the fusion of two lighter ones. The cross section is considered to be the product of three factors: the cross section for the projectile to overcome the Coulomb barrier, the probability that the resulting composite nucleus reaches the compound nucleus configuration by a shape fluctuation treated as a diffusion of probability in one dimension, and the probability that the excited compound nucleus survives fission. Semi-empirical formulas for the mean Coulomb barrier height and its distribution around the mean are constructed. After overcoming the Coulomb barrier the system is assumed to be injected into an 'asymmetric fission valley' by a rapid growth of the neck between the target and projectile at approximately frozen asymmetry and elongation. Diffusion in the elongation coordinate in this valley can occasionally bring the system over the saddle separating the injection point from the compound nucleus configuration. This is the stage that accounts for the hindrance to fusion observed for very heavy reacting systems. The competition between deexcitation of the compound nucleus by neutron emission and fission is treated by standard methods, but an interesting insight allows one to predict in an elementary way the location of the maximum in the resulting excitation function. Adjusting one parameter in the theory causes the calculated peak cross sections to agree within about a factor of 2 or so with 12 measured or estimated values for 'cold' one-neutron-out reactions where targets of {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi are bombarded with projectiles ranging from {sup 48}Ca to {sup 70}Zn. The centroids of the excitation functions agree with theory to within 1 or 2 MeV for the six cases where they have been determined, and their widths are reproduced. 'Hot' fusion reactions, where several neutrons are emitted, are not treated, except that a comparison is made between the hindrance

  11. Using Nuclear Fusion Reactions to Peer Inside the Core of a Dense Hot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Using Nuclear Fusion Reactions to Peer Inside the Core of a Dense Hot Plasma Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email

  12. Study of Complete Fusion Reactions Leading to the Production of Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman N. Sagaidak

    1999-12-31

    Cross section values for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in complete fusion reactions induced by heavy ions on spherical and deformed target nuclei are analyzed in the framework of barrier penetration and statistical model approximations. For the reactions leading to Rn-Pa nuclei, a strong influence of the entrance channel on the measured cross section values is observed for nearly symmetric projectile-target combinations. In order to reproduce the observed excitation functions in such combinations we had to introduce the quantity of fusion probability. Considering the asymmetric reactions leading to the heaviest nuclei we also had to use the fusion probability to reproduce the cross section values obtained for cold fusion reactions induced by {sup 50}Ti and heavier projectiles on the Pb and Bi target nuclei, and also the values obtained for hot fusion reactions induced by {sup 34}S on actinide target nuclei. The scaling of fusion probabilities derived for both the reactions allowed us to predict the values of cross sections for superheavy elements (SHE) produced in the {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on actinide target nuclei and in the cold fusion reactions induced by the Zn and heavier projectiles.

  13. Study of complete fusion reactions leading to the production of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagaidak, Roman N.

    1999-11-16

    Cross section values for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in complete fusion reactions induced by heavy ions on spherical and deformed target nuclei are analyzed in the framework of barrier penetration and statistical model approximations. For the reactions leading to Rn-Pa nuclei, a strong influence of the entrance channel on the measured cross section values is observed for nearly symmetric projectile-target combinations. In order to reproduce the observed excitation functions in such combinations we had to introduce the quantity of fusion probability. Considering the asymmetric reactions leading to the heaviest nuclei we also had to use the fusion probability to reproduce the cross section values obtained for cold fusion reactions induced by {sup 50}Ti and heavier projectiles on the Pb and Bi target nuclei, and also the values obtained for hot fusion reactions induced by {sup 34}S on actinide target nuclei. The scaling of fusion probabilities derived for both the reactions allowed us to predict the values of cross sections for superheavy elements (SHE) produced in the {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on actinide target nuclei and in the cold fusion reactions induced by the Zn and heavier projectiles.

  14. Competition between complete fusion and quasifission in reactions with heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.; Adamian, G. G.; Volkov, V. V.

    1998-02-15

    A model based on the dinuclear system concept is suggested for the calculation of the competition between complete fusion and quasifission in reactions with heavy nuclei. The fusion rate through the inner fusion barrier in mass asymmetry is found by using the Kramers-type expression. The calculated cross sections for the heaviest nuclei are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The experimentally observed rapid fall-off of the cross section of the cold fusion with increasing charge number Z of the compound nucleus is explained.

  15. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2010-06-15

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because in most of the cases intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, reactions with the greatest radioactive-beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland [Phys. Rev. C 76, 014612 (2007)], who investigated the same nuclei.

  16. Cross sections calculated for cold fusion reactions for producing superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2008-08-15

    We propose a handy formula for calculating the formation cross sections for optimal bombarding energies for transactinides (superheavy elements). By means of the proposed formula the cross sections for asymmetric and symmetric cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) are calculated. The fusion barrier and its position are calculated by using the folding heavy-ion potential that for spherical reaction partners has the form of a seventh-order polynomial of the radial coordinate with built-in dependence on the thickness of the nuclear surface, as well as on the separation energy of the least bound nucleon. Possibilities of further experimental exploitation of cold fusion in producing the superheavy nuclei are briefly discussed.

  17. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  18. COLLOQUIUM: Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work in Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab December 4, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work in Fusion Energy Dr. Greg Hammett Princeton University Professor Russell Kulsrud Princeton University Abstract: PDF icon COLL.12.04.13B.pdf Lyman Spitzer, Jr. made major contributions in several fields of astrophysics, plasma physics, and fusion energy. He invented the novel stellarator concept for confining plasmas for fusion, and

  19. Investigation of cold fusion phenomena in deuterated metals. Final report, Volume 1. Overview, executive summary, chemistry, physics, gas reactions, metallurgy. Technical information series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.; Barrowes, S.C.; Bergeson, H.E.; Bourgeois, F.; Cedzynska, K.

    1991-06-01

    The March 1989 announcement by Pons and Fleischmann stimulated worldwide interest in the cold fusion phenomenon. In Utah the legislature appropriated $5 million to support cold fusion research and development. As cold fusion inquiries continue worldwide, this interim report has been written to document the scientific and legal work that has been funded by the Utah legislature. Partial contents include these titles of papers: Cold Fusion Studies in a High-Pressure Sealed Cell; Tritium and Neutron Generation in Palladium Cathodes with High Deuterium Loading; Deuterium-Gas Phase Reactions on Palladium; Excess Heat Estimation with the Kalman Filter; Ultrasonic Energy Effects on Palladium Electrodes in Cold Fusion Cells; Nuclear Measurements on Deuterium-Loaded Palladium and Titanium.

  20. Fusion reactions in nuclear astrophysics: The MUSIC approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactions in nuclear astrophysics: The MUSIC approach The MUSIC approach Sergio Almaraz-Calderon Sergio Almaraz-Calderon Physics Division Argonne National Laboratory 2014 ATLAS USER'S MEETING 05/15/2014 Carbon burning reactions in the stars Carbon burning in massive stars Ignition phase of Type Ia supernovae X-ray binaries NASA/CXC/PSU/L University of Chicago Flash Center S. Almaraz-Calderon ATLAS user's meeting 05/15/2014 H. Schatz X-Ray Bursts and Superbursts ● H and He burning (rp-process)

  1. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  2. Nuclear reaction products that would appear if substantial cold fusion occurred

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.R. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports on recent claims of net energy production by cold fusion that have prompted an examination of all the positive Q value, two-body nuclear reactions that might result from the fusion of any of the isotopes in the apparatus used by Fleischmann and Pons. Any energy production that may result from cold fusion would be accompanied by copious production of nuclear reaction products (on the order of 10{sup 13}/s). Furthermore, the elementary properties of the alpha particle at the deuteron + deuteron threshold are discussed. An important property of the alpha at this high excitation is its nearly prompt (10{sup {minus}20} s) decay by particle emission to {sup 3}He + n or triton + proton.

  3. Department-wide Quick Reaction Work Order System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-03-12

    To describe the new Department Wide Quick Reaction Work Order System, to establish the criteria and procedures for its use, and to identify responsibilities for managing and operating the system.

  4. Influence of projectile neutron number on cross section in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragojevic, Irena; Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Elements 107-112 [1,2] have been discovered in reactions between {sup 208}Pb or {sup 209}Bi targets and projectiles ranging from {sup 54}Cr through {sup 70}Zn. In such reactions, the compound nucleus can be formed at excitation energies as low as {approx}12 MeV, thus this type of reaction has been referred to as 'cold fusion'. The study of cold fusion reactions is an indispensable approach to gaining a better understanding of heavy element formation and decay. A theoretical model that successfully predicts not only the magnitudes of cold fusion cross sections, but also the shapes of excitation functions and the cross section ratios between various reaction pairs was recently developed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski [3,4]. This theoretical model, also referred to as Fusion by Diffusion, has been the guide in all of our cold fusion studies. One particularly interesting aspect of this model is the large predicted difference in cross sections between projectiles differing by two neutrons. The projectile pair where this difference is predicted to be largest is {sup 48}Ti and {sup 50}Ti. To test and extend this model, {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ti,n){sup 255}Rf and {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 257}Rf excitation functions were recently measured at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) 88-Inch Cyclotron utilizing the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). The {sup 50}Ti reaction was carried out with thin lead targets ({approx}100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}), and the {sup 48}Ti reaction with both thin and thick targets ({approx}470 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}). In addition to this reaction pair, reactions with projectile pairs {sup 52}Cr and {sup 54}Cr [5], {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Fe [6], and {sup 62}Ni [7] and {sup 64}Ni [8] will be discussed and compared to the Fusion by Diffusion predictions. The model predictions show a very good agreement with the data.

  5. SU-D-304-07: Application of Proton Boron Fusion Reaction to Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, M; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: we present the introduction of a therapy method using the proton boron fusion reaction. The purpose of this study is to verify the theoretical validity of proton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton’s maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton’s maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton’s maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region (BUR). In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. Conclusion: This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  6. Systematics of calculated cold-fusion barriers for reactions leading to compound systems from Z=104 to Z=126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Armbruster, P.; Hofmann, S.; Muenzenberg, G.

    1998-12-21

    We have previously shown that just as the decay properties of nuclei in the heavy region depend strongly on shell structure, shell structure also dramatically affects the fusion entrance channel. The six most recently discovered new elements were all formed in cold-fusion reactions. We discuss here the effect of the doubly-magic structure of the target in cold-fusion reactions on the fusion barrier and present a systematic study of cold-fusion heavy-ion reaction barriers for elements from Rf to Z=126. We find that the systematics of the optimum reaction energy may change near Z=112, because here the highest point on the interaction barrier shifts in location from near the touching distance at r/R{sub 0}{approx_equal}1.5 to r/R{sub 0}{approx_equal}1.0, which is a shape configuration just slightly more deformed than the ground state.

  7. Systematics of calculated cold-fusion barriers for reactions leading to compound systems from Z=104 to Z=126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, P.; Hofmann, S.; Munzenberg, G.

    1998-12-01

    We have previously shown that just as the decay properties of nuclei in the heavy region depend strongly on shell structure, shell structure also dramatically affects the fusion entrance channel. The six most recently discovered new elements were all formed in cold-fusion reactions. We discuss here the effect of the doubly-magic structure of the target in cold-fusion reactions on the fusion barrier and present a systematic study of cold-fusion heavy-ion reaction barriers for elements from Rf to Z=126. We find that the systematics of the optimum reaction energy may change near Z=112, because here the highest point on the interaction barrier shifts in location from near the touching distance at r/R{sub 0}{approx}1.5 to r/R{sub 0}{approx}1.0, which is a shape configuration just slightly more deformed than the ground state. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams A. Wakhle National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA The predicted shell closures forming the 'island of stability' [1-2] are beyond the reach of stable beams [3]. This dictates that future efforts towards the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) [4] must utilize neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The low intensities of RIBs puts this goal beyond the

  9. Effect of charge polarization on the Coulomb barrier for cold-fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira

    2005-06-01

    We estimate the decrease of the Coulomb-barrier height between colliding partners due to charge polarizations in the entrance channel for cold-fusion reactions. The resulting charge displacements between protons and neutrons are the sum of the surface- and volume-charge components. We show the difference between the charge polarization of light and heavy nuclei and the decrease of the Coulomb barrier height for synthesizing superheavy elements.

  10. A reassessment of surface friction model for maximum cold fusion reactions in superheavy mass region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukushima, A.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Nasirov, A.; Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-26

    We have made a study on the capture process of 40,48Ca+ 208Pb systems with a dynamical approach based on the surface friction model. The deformation of the nuclei due to the mutual excitation is taken into account. We have calculated the capture cross sections for several values of the friction coefficients. It was shown that, in the cold fusion reactions, the friction parameters of the surface friction model needs to be reexamined.

  11. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  12. Calculation of complete fusion cross sections of heavy ion reactions using the Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Mahmoodi, M.; Ariai, J.

    2007-03-15

    The nucleus-nucleus potential for the fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 48}Ca, {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca has been calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The results obtained indicate that the technique employed for the calculation of the nucleus-nucleus potential is an efficient one. The effects of the spin and the isospin terms have also been studied using the same technique. The analysis of the results obtained for the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca reaction reveal that the isospin-dependent term in the nucleon-nucleon potential causes the nuclear potential to drop by an amount of 0.5 MeV. The analytical calculations of the fusion cross section, particularly those at energies less than the fusion barrier, are in good agreement with the experimental data. In these calculations the effective nucleon-nucleon potential chosen is of the M3Y-Paris potential form and no adjustable parameter has been used.

  13. Quantum description of coupling to neutron-rearrangement channels in fusion reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samarin, V. V.

    2015-10-15

    The fusion cross sections for the {sup 17,18}O+{sup 27}Al, {sup 18}O+{sup 58}Ni, and {sup 6}He+{sup 197}Au reactions were calculated by the coupled-channel method. The radial dependence of matrices that describe coupling to valence-neutron-rearrangement channels was determined with the aid of two-center wave functions. The coupling-strength parameters were evaluated on the basis of numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Satisfactory agreement with experimental data was obtained.

  14. Studies of Neutron-Deficient Nuclei Near the Z = 82 Shell Closure via Cold Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Seweryniak, D.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Camera, F.; Bracco, A.; Million, B.; Leoni, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Wadsworth, R.

    2009-03-04

    Over the last decade, we have performed in-beam experiments using Gammasphere+FMA to measure excited states in proton-rich Au, Hg, Tl and Pb isotopes. In these studies, the use of the FMA is essential in order to differentiate evaporation residues from the large fission background which dominates the reaction cross-section. In addition, we have found that using near-symmetric reactions at bombarding energies near the Coloumb barrier is beneficial in performing these studies. By keeping the bombarding energy low, fission is minimized and the reaction products are concentrated in only a few channels. New results have recently been obtained using the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 92}Mo reaction to study shape co-existence in {sup 181}Tl via the lp evaporation channel. In addition, we have measured the total {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity associated with the surviving compound system, {sup 179}Au, following the fusion reaction, {sup 90}Zr+{sup 89}Y.

  15. Dynamical Dipole Mode in Heavy-Ion Fusion-Evaporation and Fission Reactions in the {sup 192}Pb Mass Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, R.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Baran, V.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Rizzo, C.

    2011-10-28

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission related with the dynamical dipole mode decay was investigated in the {sup 192}Pb mass region by means of the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 152}Sm and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm fusion-evaporation and fission reactions at E{sub lab} = 11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The two reactions populate, through entrance channel having different charge asymmetries, the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus at an excitation energy of 236 MeV with identical spin distribution. Preliminary results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole {gamma} radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ''hot'' fusion reactions.

  16. Charge-exchange reaction by Reggeon exchange and W{sup +}W{sup −}-fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schicker, R.

    2015-04-10

    Charge-exchange reactions at high energies are examined. The existing cross section data on the Reggeon induced reaction pp → n + Δ{sup ++} taken at the ZGS and ISR accelerators are extrapolated to the energies of the RHIC and LHC colliders. The interest in the charge-exchange reaction induced by W{sup ±}-fusion is presented, and the corresponding QCD-background is examined.

  17. Fusion cross sections for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 124}Sn reaction at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkar, V. V.; Palit, R.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Naidu, B. S.; Santra, S.; Mahata, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Joshi, P. K.; Rath, P. K.; Trivedi, T.; Raghav, A.

    2010-11-15

    The complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for {sup 9}Be+{sup 124}Sn reaction have been deduced using the online {gamma}-ray measurement technique. Complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier was found to be suppressed by {approx}28% compared to the coupled-channels calculations and is in agreement with the systematics of L. R. Gasques et al. [Phys. Rev. C 79, 034605 (2009)]. Study of the projectile dependence for fusion on a {sup 124}Sn target shows that, for {sup 9}Be nuclei, the enhancement at below-barrier energies is substantial compared to that of tightly bound nuclei.

  18. Fusion-fission and quasifission in the reactions with heavy ions leading to the formation of Hs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2012-10-20

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm,{sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to Hs isotopes have been measured. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U the considerable part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the symmetric fragments originate mainly from fusion-fission process for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for the reactions studied.

  19. Compactness of the {sup 48}Ca induced hot fusion reactions and the magnitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raj K.; Manhas, Monika; Greiner, Walter

    2006-05-15

    Based on fragmentation theory extended to include the orientation degrees of freedom and higher multipole deformations up to hexadecapole deformations, the compactness of {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on various actinides is studied for Ds (Z=110) to 118 nuclei. It is shown that the reactions leading to Z{>=}114 nuclei are 'compact' hot fusion reactions at {theta}=90 deg. orientation angles (equatorial compact or ec; collisions that are in the direction of the minor axis of the deformed reaction partner), but the ones for Z<114 nuclei are compact at {theta}<90 deg. (not-equatorial compact or nec). The phenomenon of 'barrier distribution in orientation degrees of freedom' is observed for the first time to be related to the magnitudes of both the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the deformed reaction partner. The ec configurations are obtained for the cases of quadrupole deformation alone and with small (including negative values) hexadecapole deformations. The presence of large (positive) hexadecapole deformations result in the nec configurations. These results are found to be quite general, applicable also to other lighter targets such as W and Ra with the {sup 48}Ca beam and to Pb based reactions. Furthermore, for compact hot fusion reactions, in addition to the {sup 48}Ca reaction valley, a number of other new reaction valleys (target-projectile combinations) are obtained, the most important one (next to {sup 48}Ca) being the {sup 54}Ti nucleus used previously in Pb based cold fusion reaction studies but now proposed with deformed actinide nuclei such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and {sup 242}Pu.

  20. Fission-Fusion: A new reaction mechanism for nuclear astrophysics based on laser-ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Gross, M.; Allinger, K.; Bin, J.; Henig, A.; Kiefer, D.; Habs, D.; Ma, W.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-10-28

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r-process around the waiting point N = 126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a CH{sub 2} layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via the 'hole-boring' mode of laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of {sup 232}Th with solid-state density can be generated from a Th target and a deuterated CD{sub 2} foil, both forming the production target assembly. Laser-accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin CH{sub 2} layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil (both forming the reaction target) closely behind the production target and disintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition, light ions (d,C) from the CD{sub 2} layer of the production target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of {sup 232}Th also in the second Th layer. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid-state density, which are about 10{sup 14} times more dense than classically accelerated ion bunches, allow for a high probability that generated fission products can fuse again. The high ion beam density may lead to a strong collective modification of the stopping power, leading to significant range and thus yield enhancement. Using a high-intensity laser as envisaged for the ELI-Nuclear Physics project in Bucharest (ELI-NP), order-of-magnitude estimates promise a fusion yield of about 10{sup 3} ions per laser pulse in the mass range of A = 180-190, thus enabling to approach the r-process waiting point at N = 126.

  1. Statistics at work in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1982-07-01

    In the first part special aspects of the compound nucleus decay are considered. The evaporation of particles intermediate between nucleons and fission fragments is explored both theoretically and experimentally. The limitations of the fission decay width expression obtained with the transition state method are discussed, and a more general approach is proposed. In the second part the process of angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic reactions is considered. The limit of statistical equilibrium is studied and specifically applied to the estimation of the degree of alignment of the fragment spins. The magnitude and alignment of the transferred angular momentum is experimentally determined from sequentially emitted alpha, gamma, and fission fragments.

  2. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harca, I. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Vardaci, E.

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  3. Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G.

    2012-07-09

    In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

  4. Fusion reactions in collisions induced by Li isotopes on Sn targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisichella, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Lattuada, M.; Marchetta, C.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Ruiz, C.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Zadro, M.

    2012-10-20

    Fusion cross sections for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 120}Sn and {sup 7}Li+{sup 119}Sn systems have been measured. We aim to search for possible effects due to the different neutron transfer Q-values, by comparing the fusion cross sections for the two systems below the barrier. This experiment is the first step of a wider systematic aiming to study the above problems in collisions induced by stable and unstable Li isotopes on tin all forming the same compound nucleus.

  5. Theory of the compactness of the hot fusion reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raj K.; Manhas, Monika; Muenzenberg, G.; Greiner, Walter

    2005-07-01

    Within the fragmentation theory, extended to include the orientations degrees of freedom and hexadecupole deformations, for optimized orientations, the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114* reaction is shown to be a 'compact' hot fusion reaction. The barrier is highest (hot fusion) and interaction radius smallest (compact), which occur for the collisions in the direction of the minor axis of the deformed reaction partner (i.e. for 90 deg. orientation of {sup 244}Pu). In addition to the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu reaction valley, a number of other new reaction valleys (target-projectile combinations) are shown to arise for the 'optimally oriented hot' fusion process, the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu being the best (lowest barrier) and {sup 54}Ti+{sup 238}U as the next possible best reaction for forming the cold compound nucleus {sup 292}114*. A similar reaction valley for {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu is found absent in the 'optimally oriented cold' fusion process.

  6. Some thoughts on a simple mechanism for the [sup 2]H + [sup 2]H [yields] [sup 4]He cold fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, A.E.

    1993-11-01

    A speculative mechanism for the creation of [sup 4]He using cold fusion is proposed. The nuclear transformation can be made by the fusion of two excited rotating ground states of deuterium into a highly excited rotating ground state of [sup 4]He. Under compression and relatively stable conditions, the formation of such a bound, stretched-out pnnp state of [sup 4]He would be favored (with respect to Coulomb repulsion) over other nuclear ground states without as much angular momentum. The reaction likely occurs at the surface of palladium. A more descriptive name for this reaction is compressed-rotational-shielded (CRS) fusion. Potential experimental conditions for enhancing the initiation of CRS fusion are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Investigation of reports of fusion reactions occurring at the cathode in glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, C.H.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent reports of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) neutrons resulting from nuclear reactions in or at the palladium cathode of a deuterium glow discharge were investigated. The equipment, techniques, and experimental procedures are discussed in detail, as well as various possible mechanisms to produce such reactions. The results of this investigation do not confirm the presence of d-d reactions. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Investigations of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction in cast, annealed, and cold-rolled palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilic, R.; Rant, J.; Sutej, T.; Dobersek, M.; Kristof, E.; Skvarc, J.; Kozelj, M. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on a search conducted for neutrons, protons, tritons, {sup 3}He ions, gamma rays, and ion-induced X-rays from deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion in cast (36-g), annealed (4-g), and cold-rolled (16-g) palladium specimens and a palladium hydrogen thermal valve (11 g) electrochemically charged with deuterium. The palladium cathodes were charged in an electrolytic cell (0.1 M LiOD (99.8% deuterium), platinum anode) at a current density of 25 mA/cm{sup 2} from 20 to 140 h.

  9. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  10. Excitation functions for the production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Excitation energy dependence of the cross sections of the reactions {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 50}Ti{sub 28},1n){sup 257}Rf{sub 153} and {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 58}Fe{sub 32},1n){sup 265}Hs{sub 157} is calculated and compared with the experimental data measured at GSI-Darmstadt. Such a dependence is also calculated for the reaction {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 86}Kr{sub 50},1n){sup 293}118{sub 175} reported recently by the Berkeley group, and for reactions which may lead to the synthesis of element 119 and production of its odd-Z descendants. Recommendations for future experiments based on the present study are presented. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  11. Sensitivity of fusion and quasi-elastic barrier distributions of {sub 16}O+{sub 144}Sm reaction on the coupling radius parameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamrun, Muhammad; Usman, Ida; Variani, Viska Inda; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2014-03-05

    We study the heavy-ion collision at sub-barrier energies of {sub 16}O+{sub 144}Sm system using full order coupled-channels formalism. We especially investigate the sensitivity of fusion and quasi-elastic barrier distributions for this system on the coupling radius parameter. We found that the coupled-channels calculations of the fusion and the quasi-elastic barrier distributions are sensitive to the coupling radius for this reaction in contrast to the fusion and quasi-elastic cross section. Our study indicates that the larger coupling radius, i.e., r{sub coup}=1.20, is required by the experimental quasi-elastic barrier distribution. However, the experimental fusion barrier distribution compulsory the small value, i.e., r{sub coup}=1.06.

  12. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions at 16 MeV/nucleon and beam energy dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Commara, M. La; Parascandolo, C.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Cardella, G.; Filippo, E. De

    2009-08-15

    High-energy {gamma} rays and light charged particles from the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 96}Zr and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr reactions at E{sub lab}=16 and 15.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively, were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the prompt {gamma} radiation, emitted in the decay of the dynamical dipole mode, in the {approx}16 MeV/nucleon energy range and to map its beam energy dependence, comparing the present results with our previous ones obtained at lower energies. The studied reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the region of Ce under the same conditions of excitation energy and spin. Light charged particle energy spectra were used to pin down the average excitation energy and the average mass of the system. By studying the {gamma}-ray spectra of the charge symmetric reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr, the statistical giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters and angular distribution were extracted, and a comparison of the linearized 90 deg. {gamma}-ray spectra of the two reactions revealed a 12% extra yield in the GDR energy region for the more charge asymmetric system. The center-of-mass angular distribution data of this extra {gamma} yield, compatible with a dipole oscillating along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system, support its dynamical nature. The experimental findings are compared with theoretical predictions performed within a Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport model and based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the entrance channel reaction dynamics. An interesting sensitivity to the symmetry term of the equation of state and to in-medium effects on nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross sections is finally discussed.

  13. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Rahbar; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  14. Entrance channel dynamics of hot and cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the entrance channel dynamics for the reactions {sup 70}Zn+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U by using the fully microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. We calculate excitation energies and capture cross sections relevant for the study of superheavy formations. We discuss the deformation dependence of the ion-ion potential for the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U system and perform an alignment angle averaging for the calculation of the capture cross section. The results show that this approach can generate results in good agreement with experiments and other theories.

  15. Historical collection of preprints, reprints, working papers, correspondence, and other documents related to the "cold fusion" experiments conducted by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    This historical collection consists of various letters, correspondence, working papers, reprints, preprints, workshop reports, and news clippings related to the "cold fusion" experiments conducted by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann. Binders and contents. 1. Laboratory Reprints/Preprints (Laboratory Documents from 9 national Labs. Some original documents); 2. Summary Report by Dr. Duane L. Barney (Articles, Letters, and Reports through 1994 on Cold Fusion. Original Documents); 3. Conference Workshops (Official Documents, schedules, and notes from 4 conferences); 4. HSS&T Hearings, SRI Incident Jan. 1992 (Summary of Cold Fusion Research and reports following SRI Incident. Original Documents); 5. Media 1989 to Present (circa 1995) (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, and Press Releases from 1989-1995. Some reprints, some original articles/magazines); 6. Science in Service of National Economy aka Manfred's Book (A comprehensive overview of various research being done at Laboratories across the country that could impact the economy); 7. ERAB Information (Comprehensive Report on Cold Fusion Research w/ recommendations on funding and continued research. Original documents); 8. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1989 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion in order of print from 1989. Original documents); 9. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1990-1992 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion including status reports and research in order of print from 1990-1992. Original documents); 10. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1993-1995 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion including status reports and research in order of print from 1993-1995. Original documents); 11. General: Preprints/Reprints Filed by Institution A-H (Reports of Research and Conclusion from various universities and institutions.); 12. General: Preprints/Reprints Filed by Institution I

  16. Results of an attempt to measure increased rates of the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n in a nonelectrochemical cold fusion experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fralick, G.C.; Decker, A.J.; Blue, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was performed to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n as well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

  17. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-02

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  18. Fusion energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-23

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  19. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  20. Review of the `cold fusion` effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storms, E.

    1996-09-01

    More than 190 studies reporting evidence for the `cold fusion` effect are evaluated. New work has answered criticisms by eliminating many of the suggested errors. Evidence for large and reproducible energy generation as well as various nuclear reactions, in addition to fusion, from a variety of environments and methods in accumulating. The field can no longer be dismissed by invoking obvious error or prosaic explanations. 192 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Exploring the influence of transfer channels on fusion reactions: The case of 40 Ca + 58,64 Ni

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Huiming, J.; Scarlassara, F.; et al

    2015-01-29

    Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at beam energies ranging from Elab = 104.75 MeV to 153.5 MeV using the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro electrostatic deflector. Distributions of barriers have been extracted from the experimental data. Preliminary coupled channel calculations were performed and hints of effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni are discussed.

  2. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

    2012-05-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  3. Nattoh model for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    A hypothetical model, the Nattoh model, is proposed to answer the questions that result from cold fusion experiments. This model proposes the formation of a small cluster of deuterons and examines the feasibility of many-body fusion reactions. The gamma-ray spectrum, heat production, neutron emissions, and fusion products are discussed.

  4. Cold fusion; Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitz, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several different nuclear reactions are taking place. Some of the experiments point to D-D fusion with a cominant tritium channel as one of the reactions. The article notes a similarity between Prometheus and the discoveries of cold fusion.

  5. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1994. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions, including the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in this report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base development, and thermalhydraulics code development and their application to fusion safety issues. Much of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and of the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A major activity this year has been work to develop a DOE Technical Standard for the safety of fusion test facilities.

  6. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  7. Electropionics and fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenny, J.P. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on the electropionic mass formula which does not differentiate between nuclei and elementary particles, but gives the deuteron a unique bifurcated space-time description. This hints at fusion products produced by anomalous intermediate mass states of 3026, 3194, and 3515 MeV/c{sup 2} that then decay to produce energy. Another unique possibility in electropionics is that no fusion of deuterons occurs, but the deuteron is changed by electron capture into a D-meson that then decays to produce observed cold fusion energies. All these cold fusion electropionic reactions violate baryon conservation but do produce energy yields consistent with reported cold fusion decay products and energy levels.

  8. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  9. Fusion reactor design | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactor design Subscribe to RSS - Fusion reactor design The design of devices that use powerful magnetic fields to control plasma so fusion can take place. The most widely used magnetic confinement device is the tokamak, followed by the stellarator. How Does Fusion Energy Work? Click here to view a cool infographic about fusion energy from the U.S. Department of Energy. Read more about How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars.

  10. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  11. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Closing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-05

    Closing remarks are provided in honor of the scientists whom worked diligently on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment.

  12. Exploring the influence of transfer channels on fusion reactions: The case of 40 Ca + 58,64 Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Huiming, J.; Scarlassara, F.; Fioretto, E.; Simenel, C.; Rowley, N.; Jiang, C. L.; Szilner, S.; Mijatović, T.

    2015-01-29

    Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at beam energies ranging from Elab = 104.75 MeV to 153.5 MeV using the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro electrostatic deflector. Distributions of barriers have been extracted from the experimental data. Preliminary coupled channel calculations were performed and hints of effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni are discussed.

  13. Rajesh Maingi adds a new strategic dimension to fusion and plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rajesh Maingi adds a new strategic dimension to fusion and plasma physics research By John ... gas that fuels fusion reactions in donut-shaped magnetic facilities called tokamaks. ...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  15. The reality of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, L.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Despite the unreproducibility, doubt, and controversy involved in the question of the cold fusion of deuterium, enough good data have been published to clearly indicate the reality of some sort of nuclear fusion. Yamaguchi and Niushioka reported a thrice-repeated event in which large amounts of heat and definite bursts of neutrons evolved simultaneously with considerable out-gassing of absorbed deuterium. These results are consistent with nuclear fusion and not with a chemical reaction. In this paper a detailed mechanism is proposed that is consistent with these events and that also generally explains many of the scattered indications of cold fusion that have been reported. There must be an adventitiously large enough presence of tritium to initiate the nuclear reaction. The results of previously successful experiments cannot now be reproduced because currently available D{sub 2}O (and D{sub 2}) is so low in adventitious tritium as to preclude initiation of the nuclear reaction.

  16. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the

  17. Observation of stars produced during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    It has been indicated tht multiple-neutron nuclei such as quad-neutrons can be emitted during cold fusion. These multiple-neutrons might bombard the nuclei of materials outside a cold fusion cell to cause nuclear reactions. In this paper, observations of nuclear emulsions that were irradiated during a cold fusion experiment with heavy water and palladium foil are described. Various traces, like stars, showing nuclear reactions caused by the multiple-neutrons have been clearly observed.

  18. Report of working group on Single.pages

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Among the reactions of interest are hot- and cold-fusion reactions to probe fusion and survival probabilities. There is renewed interest in multi-nucleon transfer reactions to make ...

  19. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  20. Observation of heavy elements produced during explosive cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kurokawa, K. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on many-body fusion reactions that may take place during cold fusion. Heavy elements are observed that might have been produced by such reactions during electrolysis of heavy water. Elements such as sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and zinc are observed inside grain-shaped defects in a palladium rod used in a cold fusion experiment.

  1. Nuclear Reactions Induced by a Pyroelectric Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geuther, Jeffrey; Danon, Yaron; Saglime, Frank

    2006-02-10

    This work demonstrates the use of pyroelectric crystals to induce nuclear reactions. A system based on a pair of pyroelectric crystals is used to ionize gas and accelerate the ions to energies of up to 200 keV. The system operates above room temperature by simply heating or cooling the pyroelectric crystals. A D-D fusion reaction was achieved with this technique, and 2.5 MeV neutrons were detected. The measured neutron yield is in good agreement with the calculated yield. This work also verifies the results published by Naranjo, Gimzewski, and Putterman [Nature (London) 434, 1115 (2005)].

  2. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  3. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  4. Cold nuclear fusion and muon-catalyzed fusion. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a nuclear fusion process which occurs at lower temperatures and pressures than conventional fusion reactions. The references describe theoretical and experimental results for a proposed muon-catalyzed fusion reactor, and for studies on muon sticking and reactivation. The temperature dependence of fusion rates, and resolution of some engineering challenges are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. EPRI News; Update on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that from instant sensation to virtual pariah, cold fusion has had a stormy history since two University of Utah researchers first announced its discovery in March 1989. Research into this mysterious phenomenon has been plagued both by technical difficulties in replicating experimental results and by sometimes bitter controversy over scientific standards and personal credibility. Now, in a somewhat calmer atmosphere, significant progress is being made through experiments that are reproducible over long periods of time and under a variety of conditions. These experiments indicate that nuclear reactions may indeed occur at room temperature in a crystal lattice in ways not understood before. It's time we stopped calling these reactions cold fusion, says David Worledge, EPRI coordinator of research in this area. There is now good evidence that cold nuclear reaction of some sort are taking place, but also growing indications that they aren't conventional deuterium-deuterium fusion, as first assumed. Also, the cold nuclear reactions inferred from the neutrons that have been detected are not numerous enough to be responsible for the excess heat production still being reported in some experiments. In their original work, University of Utah scientist Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons used a simple laboratory apparatus consisting of a palladium rod surrounded by a platinum coil and immersed in heavy water. They reported that when a small electric current was applied to the cells, deuterium nuclei from the heavy water were driven into the palladium rod, where they were held in the metal lattice and apparently fused, producing 4 watts of heat for each watt of electric power supplied.

  6. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  7. Experimental Fusion Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Fusion Research PPPL fusion research centers on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which is undergoing a $94 million upgrade that will make it the most powerful experimental fusion facility, or tokamak, of its type in the world when work is completed in 2014. Experiments will test the ability of the upgraded spherical facility to maintain a high-performance plasma under conditions of extreme heat and power. Results could strongly influence the design of future fusion

  8. Photons & Fusion Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photons fusion 2012 Photons & Fusion Newsletter August 2012 Photons & Fusion is a monthly review of science and technology at the National Ignition Facility & Photon Science ...

  9. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1987-02-20

    A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

  10. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, George P.

    1988-01-01

    A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

  11. Cold fusion observed with ordinary water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes a cold fusion electrolysis experiment using ordinary water. A Ge(Li) detector is used to observe signals up to {approx}130 keV; these signals show the occurrence of fusion reactions in ordinary water. The mechanism for the emission of radiation is discussed by the Nattoh model.

  12. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ppplab Find us on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/PPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab Access our RSS feed @PPPLab Deuterium Electron Proton Hydrogen Tritium Neutron For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man. During the twentieth century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc 2 , Albert Einstein's familiar

  13. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  14. On a weak flavor for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-11-01

    In this paper the possibility of recent reports of cold fusion in deuterated metals being manifestations of primal nucleoweak reactions catalyzed by the host environment is investigated. Resulting experimental signatures are predicted.

  15. Deuterium concentration and cold fusion; Rate distributions in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Nielson, K.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Cold fusion reactions and excess heat production have been reported in the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium metal cathode. Solution of the standard diffusion equation for deuterium without fusion indicates that the deuterium concentration distribution rapidly becomes constant in the palladium lattice. Solution of the nonlinear diffusion equation for deuterium undergoing fusion also gives constant deuterium concentrations, suggesting that any fusion occurs uniformly throughout the palladium lattice. The hypothesis that fusion reactions occur predominantly at the palladium surface is shown to be inconsistent with experimental data.

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  17. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  18. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By ... Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion reactor are readying experiments ...

  19. Modifications Made to the MELCOR Code for Analyzing Lithium Fires in Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Brad Johnson

    2000-04-01

    This report documents initial modifications made to the MELCOR code that allows MELCOR to predict the consequences of lithium spill accidents for evolving fusion reactor designs. These modifications include thermodynamic and transport properties for lithium, and physical models for predicting the rate of reaction of and energy production from the lithium-air reaction. A benchmarking study was performed with this new MELCOR capability. Two lithium-air reaction tests conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) were selected for this benchmark study. Excellent agreement was achieved between MELCOR predictions and measured data. Recommendations for modeling lithium fires with MELCOR and for future work in this area are included in this report.

  20. Modifications made to the MELCOR Code for Analyzing Lithium Fires in Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. J. Merrill

    2000-04-01

    This report documents initial modifications made to the MELCOR code that allows MELCOR to predict the consequences of lithium spill accidents for evolving fusion reactor designs. These modifications include thermodynamic and transport properties for lithium, and physical models for predicting the rate of reaction of and energy production from the lithium-air reaction. A benchmarking study was performed with this new MELCOR capability. Two lithium-air reaction tests conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) were selected for this benchmark study. Excellent agreement was achieved between MELCOR predictions and measured data. Recommendations for modeling lithium fires with MELCOR and for future work in this area are included in this report.

  1. Cold fusion in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schommers, W.; Politis, C. )

    1989-01-01

    A model for cold fusion in condensed matter is proposed (cold fusion of deuterons in palladium). It is assumed that the palladium-deuterium system forms an alloy, i.e., it is assumed that Pd ions as well as d/sup +/ ions are embedded in an uniform background of negative charge (conduction electrons). The model is based on an interaction potential for deuterons in solid palladium which has been estimated by means of a theoretical picture well known in the physics of liquids. In particular, the following effects are possible: 1. Cold fusion in condensed matter can take place. 2. The observed energy should be larger than that given by the fusion reactions. 3. Hitherto unknown nuclear processes must not be postulated as reported by Fleischmann and Pons. 4. The deuterons are mobile. 5. The deuterons can form close-packed clusters, and in principle a fusion reaction can take place within such a cluster. 6. Not only /sup 3/He should be produced in Pd but possible /sup 4/He too. From their theoretical picture, it can be concluded that experimental results will be strongly dependent on the condition of the materials used in the experiments. This can possible explain that only a part of experiments could show up cold fusion. A well defined condition (lattice defects, different phases, impurities, etc.) of the materials is probably the most critical point in connection with the observation of cold fusion in condensed matter. The effect should also be influenced by lattice dilatations. Experiments with other materials instead of palladium (e.g. vanadium, titanium, lanthanide metals, and different alloys) should be probably more informative.

  2. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  3. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  4. US ITER | Why Fusion?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Fusion? US Fusion Research Educational Resources Why Fusion? Home > Why Fusion? What is Fusion? Fusion is a key element in long-term US energy plans. ITER will allow scientists to explore the physics of a burning plasma at energy densities close to that of a commercial power plant. This is a critical step towards producing and delivering electricity from fusion to the grid. Nuclear fusion occurs naturally in stars, like our sun. When hydrogen gets hot enough, the process of fusion

  5. Senate targets fusion, backs NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, A.

    1995-08-01

    This article discusses a budget approved by the Senate Appropriations Committee which funds the fusion program even lower than the drastically reduced level the House approved in July. Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) would continue but the Tokamak Physics Experiment would be halted. At the same time, the Senate bill allots money to start work on the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  6. How Carbon Capture Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As part of How Energy Works, we'll cover everything from fuel sources to plasma...

  7. How Solar Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As part of How Energy Works, we'll cover everything from fuel sources to plasma...

  8. Inertial fusion energy: A clearer view of the environmental and safety perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1996-11-01

    If fusion energy is to achieve its full potential for safety and environmental (S&E) advantages, the S&E characteristics of fusion power plant designs must be quantified and understood, and the resulting insights must be embodied in the ongoing process of development of fusion energy. As part of this task, the present work compares S&E characteristics of five inertial and two magnetic fusion power plant designs. For each design, a set of radiological hazard indices has been calculated with a system of computer codes and data libraries assembled for this purpose. These indices quantify the radiological hazards associated with the operation of fusion power plants with respect to three classes of hazard: accidents, occupational exposure, and waste disposal. The three classes of hazard have been qualitatively integrated to rank the best and worst fusion power plant designs with respect to S&E characteristics. From these rankings, the specific designs, and other S&E trends, design features that result in S&E advantages have been identified. Additionally, key areas for future fusion research have been identified. Specific experiments needed include the investigation of elemental release rates (expanded to include many more materials) and the verification of sequential charged-particle reactions. Improvements to the calculational methodology are recommended to enable future comparative analyses to represent more accurately the radiological hazards presented by fusion power plants. Finally, future work must consider economic effects. Trade-offs among design features will be decided not by S&E characteristics alone, but also by cost-benefit analyses. 118 refs., 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions.

  10. Fusion Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Energy Sciences Fusion Energy Sciences Expanding the fundamental understanding of matter at very high temperatures and densities and to build the scientific foundation ...

  11. Deuteron-induced fusion in various environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, G.M.; Talley, T.L.

    1994-04-01

    The theory of deuteron-induced fusion will be discussed, first in free space, then in muonic molecules where the Coulomb repulsion is highly screened. It will be shown how a consistent description of the d + t reactions can be obtained in these environments using R-matrix theory. We compare fusion rates obtained from the time-dependent scattering theory with those implied by the partial widths of the resonance associated with muon-catalyzed d-t fusion. Finally, some speculative comments are made about how the d + d reactions might proceed in other media, such as metallic lattices. The unusual properties of states associated with ``shadow`` poles might account for some of the strange results seen in cold fusion experiments. We emphasize that the same methods can, and should, be used to describe this situation as well as the other two well-established phenomena.

  12. Heavy Element Synthesis Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University Production of Heavy Elements in Complete Fusion Reactions * We need to know three spin-dependent quantities: (a) the capture cross section, (b) the fusion probability and (c) the survival probability, and their isospin dependence where Examples of cold fusion predictions The problem Hot fusion examples "How good are the model predictions of cross sections" * Very controversial Zagrebaev and Greiner (2015) Zagrebaev et al. (2001)

  13. Fusion pumped light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  14. Fusion Power Associates Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fpa awards Fusion Power Associates Awards Fusion Power Associates is "a non-profit, tax-exempt research and educational foundation, providing information on the status of fusion development and other applications of plasma science and fusion research". The Association makes awards in four categories: Distinguished Career Awards, Leadership Awards, Excellence in Fusion Engineering, and Special Awards. Since 1987, Distinguished Career Awards have been presented "to individuals who

  15. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    panels turn sunlight into energy? We'll answer that question and more Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the...

  16. How Solar Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cover everything you need to know about this clean energy technology. Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the...

  17. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution. Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the...

  18. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sort by: Random | Alphabetical | Rating (High to Low) | Rating (Low to High) How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As ...

  19. Learn More about Fusion & Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    education Learn More about Fusion & Lasers How Lasers Work Learn how lasers were developed and how they work. Outreach NIF & Photon Science researchers take learning opportunities on the road. Glossary Don't know what something means? Find definitions of terms related to NIF, fusion, and photon science in our glossary. For Teachers LLNL's Science Education Program provides professional development instruction to in-service and pre-service teachers. For Kids See how we make giant crystals

  20. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  1. Lab Breakthrough: Neutron Science for the Fusion Mission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An accelerator team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory is working with an international consortium to make fusion power technology commercially viable by 2050.

  2. Cold fusion: The scientific fiasco of the century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the cold fusion fiasco, its history, claims, experimental questions, are presented in this book. The author gives in some detail good reasons why cold fusion has been disregarded by mainstream science. Disturbing questions about the behavior of scientific investigators and reactions to such events are raised.

  3. Prediction of new particle emission on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper the energy distribution of cold fusion products is analyzed based on the Nattoh model. A new hydrogen-catalyzed fusion reaction is proposed to occur in a metal. From the differences in the Q value and other parameters, a new particles, the iton, is predicted to be emitted, with a rest mass 2 to 26 times that of an electron.

  4. Prospects for the future development of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikegami, H.

    1995-12-01

    Almost five years have passed since the first announcement of cold fusion in March of 1989. Over this period there have been, from time to time, a number of reports of the observation of excess heat and nuclear reactions. Concerning nuclear reactions, there still remains the controversial questions of fusion, which has given its name to the phenomena associated with cold fusion. In any event, so long as the reproducibility remains so poor, it is impossible to resolve such questions and the original controversy has not faded away. From the very beginning of cold fusion, it has been generally conceded among scientists that the claimed excess heat cannot be merely a result of the ordinary DD fusion. Neutron emissions ere extremely weak and sporadic, which made almost nothing of correlation measurements between excess heat and fusion reactions. Another peculiar feature of the nuclear reactions, associated with cold fusion, lies with the observation that the generation of tritium, which is concurrent with neutron emission, is none the less more than ten million times larger than that of the neutrons, and still it is not clear how this relates to the heat. Moreover there are claims that the excess heat production can be correlated to the production of helium-4 as nuclear ashes. These findings have promoted exotic theoretical models to explain cold fusion mechanisms.

  5. Microscopic observations of palladium used for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the microscopic structures of palladium metals used for cold fusion experiments. Tiny spot defects suggesting cold fusion have been observed in grain boundaries as the Nattoh model predicts. The relationship between these defects and a series of neutron busts and an indirect loop of hydrogen chain reactions are discussed.

  6. Cold nuclear fusion and muon-catalyzed fusion. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a nuclear fusion process which occurs at lower temperatures and pressures than conventional fusion reactions. The references describe theoretical and experimental results for a proposed muon-catalyzed fusion reactor, and for studies on muon sticking and reactivation. The temperature dependence of fusion rates, and resolution of some engineering challenges are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Photons & Fusion Newsletter - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    news Photons & Fusion Newsletter - 2014 May ARC Beamlet Profiles NIF Petawatt Laser Is on ... An article in the Feb. 12 online issue of the journal Nature reports that fusion fuel ...

  8. Fusion Forum 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1981-07-28

    This review covers the basics of the fusion process. Some research programs and their present status are mentioned. (MOW)

  9. Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes Supercomputer simulations move fusion energy closer to reality January 24, 2014 Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov SugiSnakes_2.jpg Researchers have been able to see and measure plasma snakes - corkscrew-shaped concentrations of plasma density in the center of a fusion plasma -- for years. 3D nonlinear plasma simulations conducted at NERSC are providing new insights into the formation and stability of these structures. Image

  10. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  11. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  12. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  13. Cold fusion coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wachtler, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, fusion of metals was accomplished through the use of heat. Cold fusion has become a reality with metal to metal fusion occurring at room temperature. The basics of this new technology which can be done in tank, brush or solid form is covered in this paper.

  14. Possible resonant mechanism of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakowicz, W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hypothesis of resonant deuteron-deuteron interaction under cold fusion conditions. The resonance may exist due to a combination of an attractive nuclear interaction at close distances and a repulsive Coulomb potential at large distances. The energy of such resonances may be very low. This effect may increase the reaction cross section and reaction rates in high-density deuteron hydrides.

  15. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  16. Vote For the Next How Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    We'll answer that question and more Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As part of How Energy Works, ...

  17. Individual Reactions of Permanganate and Various Reductants - Student Report to the DOE ERULF Program for Work Conducted May to July 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauger, Amber M.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2012-09-15

    Tank waste on the Hanford Site contains radioactive elements that need to be removed from solution prior to disposal. One effective way to do this is to precipitate the radioactive elements with manganese solids, produced by permanganate oxidation. When added to tank waste, the permanganate reacts quickly producing manganese (IV) dioxide precipitate. Because of the speed of the reaction it is difficult to tell what exactly is happening. Individual reactions using non-radioactive reductants found in the tanks were done to determine reaction kinetics, what permanganate was reduced to, and what oxidation products were formed. In this project sodium formate, sodium nitrite, glycolic acid, glycine, and sodium oxalate were studied using various concentrations of reductant in alkaline sodium hydroxide solutions. It was determined that formate reacted the quickest, followed by glycine and glycolic acid. Oxalate and nitrite did not appear to react with the permanganate solutions. The products of the oxidation reaction were examined. Formate was oxidized to carbonate and water. Glycolic acid was oxidized slower producing oxalate and water. Glycine reactions formed some ammonia in solution, oxalate, and water. The research reported by Amber Gauger in this report was part of a DOE ERULF student intern program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the direction of Richard Hallen in the summer of 2000.

  18. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  19. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  20. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, Edward L; Latkowski, Jeffrey F; Kramer, Kevin J

    2015-11-05

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  1. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  2. Fission-reactor experiments for fusion-materials research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.; Woods, J.W.; Vitek, J.M.; Thomas, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fusion Materials Program makes extensive use of fission reactors to study the effects of simulated fusion environments on materials and to develop improved alloys for fusion reactor service. The fast reactor, EBR-II, and the mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR and ORR, are all used in the fusion program. The HFIR and ORR produce helium from transmutations of nickel in a two-step thermal neutron absorption reaction beginning with /sup 58/Ni, and the fast neutrons in these reactors produce atomic displacements. The simultaneous effects of these phenomena produce damage similar to the very high energy neutrons of a fusion reactor. This paper describes irradiation capsules for mechanical property specimens used in the HFIR and the ORR. A neutron spectral tailoring experiment to achieve the fusion reactor He:dpa ratio will be discussed.

  3. Cold fusion studies in the USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsarev, V.A. ); Worledge, D.H. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper work presented at the first Soviet National Conference on Cold Nuclear Fusion, which took place in March 1991 in Dubna and Moscow, is reviewed. In addition to an integrated view of the experimental and theoretical work, a description is given of some additional contributions that had appeared in the Soviet literature before the conference.

  4. Fusion Communication Summit cover

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COMMUNICATIONS SUMMIT for U.S. Magnetic Fusion September 12-13, 2012 Princeton University - Frist Campus Center Princeton, New Jersey, USA Mission Statement Announcements...

  5. Glossary of fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    This glossary gives brief descriptions of approximately 400 terms used by the fusion community. Schematic diagrams and photographs of the major US experiments are also included. (MOW)

  6. Photons & Fusion Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Photons & Fusion Newsletter May 2012 Reducing the Time to Grow Good Cryogenic Layers One of the most demanding aspects of preparing targets for NIF ignition experiments is...

  7. Photons & Fusion Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 2013 Photons & Fusion is a monthly review of science and technology at the National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Directorate. For more information, submit a question....

  8. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  9. Fusion and Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ignition Fusion and Ignition What is Fusion? Fusion is the process that powers the sun and the stars. Fusion describes what happens when the nuclei of light atoms overcome the electrical resistance that keeps them apart and get close enough to activate the strong nuclear force that holds them together, or "fuse." When fused, they form a bigger nucleus; two elements combine to create a different element at the level of the nucleus. Making elements fuse requires an enormous amount of

  10. Photons & Fusion Newsletter - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Science on NIF: Exploring the Physics of Star Formation Article on MOIRE Optics on Cover of Applied Optics Mode 1 Drive Asymmetry in NIF Inertial Confinement Fusion...

  11. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Vay, J. L.

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  12. Palladium metallurgy and cold fusion; Some remarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murr, L.E. )

    1990-04-01

    In this paper the recent confusion surrounding claims for the observation of cold fusion involving palladium electrodes in electrochemical cells containing deuterium might be clarified to some extent if the palladium metallurgy, particularly in the context of fundamental microstructures, are accurately defined. Both the palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium systems have been extensively investigated, and it is asserted more than two decades ago that the palladium/hydrogen system was perhaps the most extensively, experimentally investigated metal/gas system. Ordinary hydrogen absorbed in palladium fused to form helium, while in the 1940's Wilner actually observed the fusion reaction at the center of the current cold fusion controversy: d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n (where d = {sup 2}H represents a deuteron, and n is a neutron). In the experiment by Wilner, a deuterium-saturated palladium sheet was bombarded with accelerated deuterons. The product neutrons (n) were slowed by paraffin wax and detected by the activation of silver.

  13. Science DMZ Fuels Fusion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Science DMZ Fuels Fusion Research General Atomics remote controls fusion experiments, bridges...

  14. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  15. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; et al

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  16. Virtual-state internal nuclear fusion in metal lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussard, R.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A model of deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion in metal lattices is presented based on two phenomena: reactions between virtual-state pairs of deuterons bound by electrons of high effective mass m and deuterium energy upscattering by fast ions from fusion or tritium reactions with virtual-state nuclear structure groups in palladium nuclei. Since m is a decreasing function of deuterium ion bulk density n/sub 0/ the exponential barrier tunneling factor decreases rapidly with m. As a result, the fusion rate reaches a maximum at a loading density above zero but less than saturation. This can explain observations of transient neutron output from the (/sup 3/He,n) branch, of D-D fusion.

  17. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  18. Vote For the Next How Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    panels turn sunlight into energy? We'll answer that question and more Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the...

  19. Vote For the Next How Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cover everything you need to know about this clean energy technology. Learn More How Fusion Energy Works 33 likes Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the...

  20. On nuclear reactions in defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienes, J.K. )

    1991-05-01

    The variability of results concerning cold fusion, together with the difficulty of explaining the observations, suggests that some nonstandard processes may be occurring. One such possibility is that nuclear reactions occur in defects of a deuterated lattice as a result of transient motions that momentarily bring deuterium atoms into close proximity. In this paper a mechanism involving shear of a one-dimensional lattice is described that illustrates this possibility. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the expected fusion rate is not inconsistent with some experiments.

  1. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  2. Apparatus for an Inertial Fusion Reactor Inventor Abraham Massry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Apparatus for an Inertial Fusion Reactor Inventor Abraham Massry This invention is comprised of a very large vacuum chamber capable of withstanding a very high neutron flux generated by a fusion-fission reaction at the center. A blanket module on the outside of the vacuum chamber captures the neutrons and converts the energy into heat for further conversion into electrical energy. No.: M-820

  3. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  4. US ITER - Why Fusion?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL FusEdWeb Educational Outreach: US ITER staff members are available for presentations on fusion energy and the ITER project to technical, civic, community, and student groups. ...

  5. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  6. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  7. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  8. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-08-10

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere.

  9. Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion is presented. The experimental activity associated with the tokamak ISTTOK as well as the work carried out in the frame of international collaboration are summarized. The main technological features of ISTTOK are described along with studies on microwave reflectometry. Future plans are briefly described.

  10. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  11. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2005-05-15

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  12. Sandia non-fusion R&D supported by FES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nygren, Richard E.

    2015-06-03

    Until 2012, Sandia participated regularly in non-fusion R&D that was supported primarily through our collaborations with companies in the DOE program for Small Business Innovative Research but also in some work-for-others contracts. In this work, funds were recovered from collaborating institutions for the staff time and materials used, but FES had supported the facility itself and in doing so enabled the contributions to the non-fusion R&D below.

  13. Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Authors: Kramer, K J ; Latkowski, J F ; Abbott, R P ; Anklam, T P ; Dunne, A M ; El-Dasher, B S ; Flowers, D L ; ...

  14. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  15. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  16. On impact fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-04-15

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities.

  17. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  18. Highlights of papers presented at the workshop on cold fusion phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This report contains highlights of formal oral papers presented at the Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena, hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and held May 23--25, 1989, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. General topics covered are: physics of fusion reactions; neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy; colorimetry; and applicable condensed-matter physics, electrochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

  19. Fusion welding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  20. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  1. Laser-driven fusion etching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Brannon, P.J.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1987-08-25

    The surfaces of solids are etched by a radiation-driven chemical reaction. The process involves exposing a substrate coated with a layer of a reactant material on its surface to radiation, e.g., a laser, to induce localized melting of the substrate which results in the occurrence of a fusion reaction between the substrate and coating material. The resultant reaction product and excess reactant salt are then removed from the surface of the substrate with a solvent which is relatively inert towards the substrate. The laser-driven chemical etching process is especially suitable for etching ionic substrates, e.g., LiNbO/sub 3/, such as used in electro-optical/acousto-optic devices. It is also suitable for applications wherein the etching process is required to produce an etched ionic substrate having a smooth surface morphology or when a very rapid etching rate is desired.

  2. Laser-driven fusion etching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.; Gerardo, James B.

    1989-01-01

    The surfaces of solid ionic substrates are etched by a radiation-driven chemical reaction. The process involves exposing an ionic substrate coated with a layer of a reactant material on its surface to radiation, e.g. a laser, to induce localized melting of the substrate which results in the occurrance of a fusion reaction between the substrate and coating material. The resultant reaction product and excess reactant salt are then removed from the surface of the substrate with a solvent which is relatively inert towards the substrate. The laser-driven chemical etching process is especially suitable for etching ionic salt substrates, e.g., a solid inorganic salt such as LiNbO.sub.3, such as used in electro-optical/acousto-optic devices. It is also suitable for applications wherein the etching process is required to produce an etched ionic substrate having a smooth surface morphology or when a very rapid etching rate is desired.

  3. Coupling of transit time instabilities in electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruenwald, J. Fröhlich, M.

    2015-07-15

    A model of the behavior of transit time instabilities in an electrostatic confinement fusion reactor is presented in this letter. It is demonstrated that different modes are excited within the spherical cathode of a Farnsworth fusor. Each of these modes is dependent on the fusion products as well as the acceleration voltage applied between the two electrodes and they couple to a resulting oscillation showing non-linear beat phenomena. This type of instability is similar to the transit time instability of electrons between two resonant surfaces but the presence of ions and the occurring fusion reactions alter the physics of this instability considerably. The physics of this plasma instability is examined in detail for typical physical parameter ranges of electrostatic confinement fusion devices.

  4. Fission-suppressed fusion breeder on the thorium cycle and nonprolifer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Each fusion reaction can produce typically 0.6 fissile atoms and release about 1.6 times the 14 MeV neutron's energy in the blanket in the fission-suppressed design. This ...

  5. Comments on the model for coherent deuteron-deuteron fusion in crystalline Pd-D lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidya, S.N. )

    1993-08-01

    The enhancement of the deuteron-deuteron fusion rate is estimated for a coherent interaction mechanism under realistic experimental conditions. The extension of this mechanism to (n,[gamma]) reactions is outlined. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Physics (selected articles). [Nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiyao, Z.; Zesheng, C.; Xiaolung, X.; Qiang, H.

    1982-09-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion as a new energy source was investigated. It will be possible in the 1980's to obtain thermal nuclear ignition, and in the early 2000's nuclear fusion may be used to supplement the energy shortage. It is predicted that in the 2000's nuclear fusion will occupy an important position as a global source of energy.

  7. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  8. Review of experimental observations about the cold fusion effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storms, E. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper the experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann and independently by Jones.

  9. Fusion Energy Greg Hammett & Russell Kulsred Princeton University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work in Fusion Energy Greg Hammett & Russell Kulsred Princeton University Wednesday, Dec 4, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Lyman Spitzer, Jr. made major contributions in several fields of astrophysics, plasma physics, and fusion energy. He invented the novel stellarator concept for confining plasmas for fusion, and was an early proponent of

  10. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  11. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  12. Heavy Element Synthesis Reactions W. Loveland Oregon State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions W. Loveland Oregon State University The role of ATLAS in helping us understand heavy element synthesis reactions and heavy element properties * Hot (E*=35-60 MeV) and Cold (E*=15 MeV) fusion reactions * Multi-nucleon transfer reactions * Fission * Atomic physics and chemistry of the heaviest elements * Structure of the heaviest nuclei The challenge of studying the heaviest elements at ATLAS * ATLAS beam time is oversubscribed * Low cross section studies - High luminosity - ATLAS has

  13. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  14. Fusion pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  16. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  17. Photons & Fusion Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 / december Photons & Fusion Newsletter December 2011 MIT Plasma Science Lab Develops NIF Diagnostics A typical NIF experiment is over in a few billionths of a second. Obtaining meaningful information about what occurs during this extremely brief time period, in and around a tiny target, has required the design and development of a new breed of detectors, cameras, and other diagnostic instruments, many of which have been created through partnerships with universities and national

  18. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  19. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  20. Shell effects in fusion of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous-fission properties of Fm isotopes undergo dramatic changes between {sup 256}Fm and {sup 258} Fm. The fission fragments of the former isotope are mass asymmetric with kinetic energies of about 200 MeV, whereas the fission fragments of the latter isotope are symmetric with kinetic energies of about 235 MeV. This rapid change occurs because the division into nearly doubly magic fragments near {sup 132}Sn becomes possible and opens up new valleys in the fission potential-energy surface. In the cold-fusion reactions leading to the heaviest elements, the nearly doubly magic targets and/or projectiles may give rise to important features associated with this magicity. Cold fusion is thought to favor heavy-element formation because it leads to low excitation energies of the compound nuclei. We investigate how near-magic targets and projectiles may lead to persistent survivability of the shells in the fusion valley as the ions merge, in addition to their effect on the compound-nucleus excitation energy.

  1. Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash

  2. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  3. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory1st Quarter FY08 Milestone Report: Report Initial Work on Developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX ExperimentsReport Initial work on developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-12-10

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has developed and implemented an initial beam-in-plasma implicit modeling capability in Warp; has carried out tests validating the behavior of the models employed; has compared the results of electrostatic and electromagnetic models when applied to beam expansion in an NDCX-I relevant regime; has compared Warp and LSP results on a problem relevant to NDCX-I; has modeled wave excitation by a rigid beam propagating through plasma; and has implemented and begun testing a more advanced implicit method that correctly captures electron drift motion even when timesteps too large to resolve the electron gyro-period are employed. The HIFS-VNL is well on its way toward having a state-of-the-art source-to-target simulation capability that will enable more effective support of ongoing experiments in the NDCX series and allow more confident planning for future ones.

  4. Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 7th International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Bordeaux, France, Sep 12 - Sep 16, 2011 Research Org: ...

  5. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjan, Ram Rout, R. K. Srivastava, R. Gupta, Satish C.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Patel, N. N.; Alex, P.

    2014-04-24

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  6. Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki )

    1993-11-01

    Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foils are described. The temperature variation and the surface condition of the foils are examined. It has been proven that ordinary water can produce excess heat. Furthermore, reaction products are recorded on nuclear emulsions. Charged particles, electrons, protons, and deuterons, are observed. Micro-explosions caused by gravity decay of neutron nuclei are also recorded. Many traces indicating tiny black holes and white holes are clearly observed. The mechanisms of cold fusion with ordinary water are discussed in terms of the Nattoh model. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Ab Initio Calculations of Light-Ion Fusion Reactions (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Hupin, G ; ...

  8. Incomplete and complete fusion in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleklett, K.; Loveland, W.; Sugihara, T.T.; Morrissey, D.J.; Wenxin, L.; Kot, W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1984-03-01

    The yields, angular distributions and differential range spectra have been measured for individual target residues from the interaction of 8.5 MeV/A /sup 16/O, 19 MeV/A /sup 16/O, 35 MeV/A /sup 12/C and 86 MeV/A /sup 12/C with /sup 154/Sm. From the measured data, fragment isobaric yields and velocity spectra were deduced. The results are compared to the sum rule model of Wilczyski et al. and the nuclear firestreak model. 18 references.

  9. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  10. Peregrinations on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Fusion Science to Prepare

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIII-D Explorations of Fusion Science to Prepare for ITER and FNSF Dr. Richard Buttery General Atomics Tuesday, Dec 10, 2013 - 11:00AM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 10:45AM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Recent DIII-D research has provided significant new in- formation for the physics basis of key scientific issues for successful operation of ITER and future steady state fu- sion tokamaks, including control of edge localized modes (ELMs), plasma

  12. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  13. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiffen, F. W.; Katoh, Yutai; Melton, Stephanie G.

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Slough

    2012-04-18

    Nuclear fusion has the potential to satisfy the prodigious power that the world will demand in the future, but it has yet to be harnessed as a practical energy source. The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. It is the contention here that a simpler path to fusion can be achieved by creating fusion conditions in a different regime at small scale (~ a few cm). One such program now under study, referred to as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), is directed at obtaining fusion in this high energy density regime by rapidly compressing a compact toroidal plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). To make fusion practical at this smaller scale, an efficient method for compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. In one variant of MTF a conducting metal shell is imploded electrically. This radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. The undertaking described in this report was to provide a suitable target FRC, as well as a simple and robust method for inserting and stopping the FRC within the imploding liner. The FRC must also survive during the time it takes for the metal liner to compress the FRC target. The initial work at the UW was focused on developing adequate preionization and flux trapping that were found to be essential in past experiments for obtaining the density, flux and most critically, FRC lifetime required for MTF. The timescale for testing and development of such a source can be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of a new facility funded by the Department of Energy. At this facility, two inductive plasma accelerators (IPA) were constructed and tested. Recent experiments with

  15. The possible hot nature of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehne, R.W. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model of micro hot fusion, the neutron emission rate of cold fusion is determined without the need for fine-tuning parameters. Moreover, the experimental conditions that are essential to reproduce fusion are determined. 84 refs.

  16. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  18. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  19. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque,...

  20. American Fusion News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Fusion News General Atomics (GA) December 4, 2012 The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" December 4, 2012 Frozen Bullets Tame Unruly Edge Plasmas in Fusion Experiment ...

  1. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Journal Article: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED...

  2. Complete Fusion and Break-up Fusion Reactions in Light Ion Interactions at Low Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Foertsch, S. V.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Fujita, H.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Dlamini, J.; Cowley, A. A.; Connell, S. H.

    2007-10-26

    Experimental spectra of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) produced in the interaction of two {sup 12}C ions at incident energy of 200 MeV and their reproduction by a binary fragmentation model and the Boltzmann Master Equation theory as implemented into the Monte Carlo transport and interaction code FLUKA are shown.

  3. Prospects for practical fusion power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    The prospects for practical fusion power received a substantial shot in the arm recently when the President signed into law the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. This new law directs the Secretary of Energy to ''initiate at the earliest practical time each activity which he deems necessary to achieve the national goal for operation of a commercial demonstration plant at the turn of the twenty-first century''. The new law is in consonance with the conclusions of two panels which reviewed the status of magnetic fusion energy research during 1980. A Fusion Advisory Panel to the House Science and Technology Committee, chaired by Dr. Robert L. Hirsch of EXXON, concluded that ''fusion can be made commercial before 2000 if a national commitment is made soon''. And, the Department of Energy's Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB), chaired by Dr. Solomon J. Buchsbaum of Bell Laboratories, concluded that ''recent progress in plasma confinement has been impressive'' and that ''as a result of this progress, the U.S. is now ready to embark on the next step toward the goal of achieving economic fusion power: the exploration of the engineering feasibility of fusion''. The basis for optimism that fusion will become a practical energy source around the turn of the century is three-fold: (1) dramatic scientific progress has occurred on a broad front during the past few years; (2) key fusion technologies have been developed for several large fusion facilities now under construction; and (3) a growing cadre of engineers have been identifying the engineering development tasks required for practical systems.

  4. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H.; Fimognari, Peter J.

    2006-01-20

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  5. Polyneutron Chain Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Fisher

    2000-11-12

    tunnel to an adjacent nucleus, and if the adjacent nucleus is {sup 18}O, a chain reaction can begin. The circumstances under which it can develop to produce macroscopic consequences depend on the mix of reactants and upon the appropriate removal of poisons and addition of fresh reactants to the reaction volume. With the proper conditions, there can be generation of sensible excess energy, helium, and other reaction products associated with the various cold fusion reactions.

  6. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  7. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  8. Fusion pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  9. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  10. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  11. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  12. Fusion welding of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robino, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The refractory metals of Groups 5B and 6B and their alloys display a variety of unique physical and mechanical characteristics in addition to their high melting points. In turn, these characteristics make these materials strong candidates for severe service and specialized applications. However, these materials also present a variety of challenges with respect to both fabrication weldability and the in-service behavior of weldments, many of which are related to the dominant effects of interstitial impurities. This work reviews current understanding of the physical and joining metallurgy of these metals and their alloys with emphasis on fusion welding. Of specific interest are the role of impurities and alloy chemistry in fabrication and service weldability, the material processing route, eg. vacuum melting vs. powder metallurgy, the importance of welding process procedures and variables, weldment mechanical properties, and fracture behavior. Specific examples from the various alloy systems are used to illustrate general metallurgical and joining characteristics of this class of materials. 34 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. One-dimensional particle simulations of Knudsen-layer effects on D-T fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Dimits, Andris M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Wilks, Scott C.

    2014-12-15

    Particle simulations are used to solve the fully nonlinear, collisional kinetic equation describing the interaction of a high-temperature, high-density, deuterium-tritium plasma with absorbing boundaries, a plasma source, and the influence of kinetic effects on fusion reaction rates. Both hydrodynamic and kinetic effects influence the end losses, and the simulations show departures of the ion velocity distributions from Maxwellian due to the reduction of the population of the highest energy ions (Knudsen-layer effects). The particle simulations show that the interplay between sources, plasma dynamics, and end losses results in temperature anisotropy, plasma cooling, and concomitant reductions in the fusion reaction rates. However, for the model problems and parameters considered, particle simulations show that Knudsen-layer modifications do not significantly affect the velocity distribution function for velocities most important in determining the fusion reaction rates, i.e., the thermal fusion reaction rates using the local densities and bulk temperatures give good estimates of the kinetic fusion reaction rates.

  14. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  15. Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) Tour

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 th Meeting of the Joint Working Group of the U.S.-Japan Coordinating Committee of Fusion Energy on Safety in Inter-Institutional Collaborations (U.S.-Japan Safety Monitoring Program) Meeting in Japan, July 29-August 2, 2013 Submitted: October 16, 2013 Respectfully submitted to: Barry Sullivan Program Manager - ES&H U.S. DOE - Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Professor Kiyohiko Nishimura Head of Division for Health and Safety Management National Institute for Fusion Science Prepared by: Lee

  16. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  17. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  18. Deuterium fusion through nonequilibrium induction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, P.H. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a deuterium fusion system that is based on the induction of fusion through a nonequilibrium thermodynamical configuration. Mechanical excitation using ultrasound is applied to a palladium electrode with deuterium-containing liquid, a mixture of palladium powder and deuterium-containing liquid, and a system of palladium and a highly compressed deuterium gas that approximates a deuterium solid. The ultrasound, when coupled with the medium of these systems, instantaneously creates a high temperature and pressure that would induce fusion between deuterons.

  19. Fusion of {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca Far Below the Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarlassara, F.; Montagnoli, G.; Mason, P.; Stefanini, A. M.; Silvestri, R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Guiot, B.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Szilner, S.

    2009-08-26

    In recent years, a puzzling pattern has been observed in fusion cross sections well below the Coulomb barrier, characterized as a departure from the exponential-like behavior predicted by standard coupled-channels models, known as fusion hindrance. We report on recent fusion measurements performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in particular the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca reaction down to the level of 0.6 {mu}b. Unlike most recent results in this field, we do not observe the typical divergent behavior of the logarithmic derivative; but rather a sort of saturation, albeit at a larger value than predicted with a standard nucleus-nucleus potential.

  20. Fusion Cross Section in the {sup 4,6}He+{sup 64}Zn Collisions Around the Coulomb Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisichella, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Marchetta, C.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Milin, M.; Skukan, N.; Zadro, M.

    2011-10-28

    New fusion data for the {sup 4}He+{sup 64}Zn system at sub-barrier energies are measured to cover the same energy region of previous measurements for {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn. Aim of the experiment was to compare the fusion excitation functions for the two system to investigate on the effects of the {sup 6}He neutron-halo structure on the fusion reaction mechanism at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The fusion cross section was measured by using an activation technique. Comparing the two systems, we observe an enhancement of the fusion cross section in the reaction induced by {sup 6}He, at and below the Coulomb barrier.

  1. U. S. Fusion Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Schmidt; Dan Jassby; Scott Larson; Maria Pueyo; Paul H. Rutherford

    2000-10-12

    Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems.

  2. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  3. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  4. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  5. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of net tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  6. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  7. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  8. Fusion of neutron-rich oxygen isotopes in the crust of accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Dussan, H.; Berry, D. K.

    2008-04-15

    Fusion reactions in the crust of an accreting neutron star are an important source of heat, and the depth at which these reactions occur is important for determining the temperature profile of the star. Fusion reactions depend strongly on the nuclear charge Z. Nuclei with Z{<=}6 can fuse at low densities in a liquid ocean. However, nuclei with Z=8 or 10 may not burn until higher densities where the crust is solid and electron capture has made the nuclei neutron rich. We calculate the S factor for fusion reactions of neutron rich nuclei including {sup 24}O+{sup 24}O and {sup 28}Ne+{sup 28}Ne. We use a simple barrier penetration model. The S factor could be further enhanced by dynamical effects involving the neutron rich skin. This possible enhancement in S should be studied in the laboratory with neutron rich radioactive beams. We model the structure of the crust with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the crust of accreting neutron stars may contain micro-crystals or regions of phase separation. Nevertheless, the screening factors that we determine for the enhancement of the rate of thermonuclear reactions are insensitive to these features. Finally, we calculate the rate of thermonuclear {sup 24}O+{sup 24}O fusion and find that {sup 24}O should burn at densities near 10{sup 11} g/cm{sup 3}. The energy released from this and similar reactions may be important for the temperature profile of the star.

  9. Critical factors in transitioning from fuel cell to cold fusion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgraw, T.F.; Davis, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The fuel cell industry possesses much of the required manufacturing equipment and knowledge-base (e.g., proton conduction and hydrogen safety) necessary to develop cold fusion systems. Key factors in making a transition to cold fusion technology are discussed. Loading of reaction material can be provided by electrolytic charging and high gas over-pressure. Effective pressures over 10,000 atmospheres are required in cold fusion systems, giving a loading of H/M = 1; and a combination of loading methods is highly desirable. Systems must be designed to provide continuous flow of hydrogen ions ({much{underscore}gt}10{sup 17}/sec for ten kilowatts), with an input power source of 50 watts (est.). Cold fusion experiments have shown that helium is formed during the reaction, and physical changes occur in the reaction material. These revelations impact design and operation of cold fusion systems, as the reaction material must be replaced periodically, while the systems must maintain integrity during operation. Safety and cost are also highly important considerations.

  10. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  11. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  12. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  13. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  14. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid ...

  15. Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science American Fusion News Category: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Link: Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science

  16. Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter ... Blog Home Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion ...

  17. Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density Simulations Run at NERSC Support Fusion Experiments at MIT, General Atomics ...

  18. Placing Fusion Power on a Pedestal | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Placing Fusion Power on a Pedestal American Fusion News Category: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Link: Placing Fusion Power on a Pedestal

  19. Frozen Bullets Tame Unruly Edge Plasmas in Fusion Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frozen Bullets Tame Unruly Edge Plasmas in Fusion Experiment American Fusion News Category: General Atomics (GA) Link: Frozen Bullets Tame Unruly Edge Plasmas in Fusion Experiment...

  20. Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned Carbon Walls American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium ...

  1. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion ...

  2. Work Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work Plan NSSAB Members Vote on Work Plan Tasks; The Nevada Site Specific Advisory Board operates on a fiscal year basis and conducts work according to a NSSAB generated and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved work plan. FY 2016 Work Plan Work plan items focus on providing recommendations to the DOE regarding the following subjects: soil contamination from historic atmospheric nuclear testing, remediation of contaminated facilities used to support historic testing, groundwater studies

  3. Barrier for cold-fusion production of superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2005-04-01

    We estimate the fusion-barrier height B{sub fu}{sup (two-body)} for approaching ions in cold-fusion reactions in a model where the projectile deformation and quadrupole zero-point vibrational energy are taken into account. This barrier height is defined as the barrier energy at the target and projectile separation distance where an original oblate deformation of projectile and/or target caused by a repulsive Coulomb force turns into a large prolate deformation caused by the attractive nuclear force as the target and projectile come closer. The instability develops before touching because the attractive short-range nuclear force overcomes the repulsive Coulomb force and the shape-stabilizing effect of shell structure. The shell structure of the doubly magic {sup 208}Pb target is sufficiently strong that its shape remains very close to spherical in all cases studied here. The fusion potential for approaching ions in the two-body channel is calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic model with the quadrupole vibrational zero-point energy obtained in the WKB approximation. We compare our results with data from 10 experimental cold-fusion reactions and with the Bass barriers. Differences and similarities between the Yukawa-plus-exponential model and the Bass model are discussed. We also calculate five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces for the single compound system and show that well-established fission and fusion valleys are both present. For heavy systems, B{sub fu}{sup (two-body)} becomes lower than the fission barrier just beyond the ground state of the compound system. In the vicinity of this transition, the optimum collision energy for formation of evaporation residues can be expected to depend in a delicate fashion on the interplay among B{sub fu}{sup (two-body)}, the fusion valley, the fission barrier of the compound system, and the one- and two-neutron separation energies S{sub 1n} and S{sub 2n}. We discuss these issues in detail and calculate fission

  4. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-01-23

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  5. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  6. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  7. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet describes an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, is working to develop and demonstrate a high-performance solar thermochemical reaction system in an end-to-end demonstration that produces electricity. A highly efficient solar thermochemical reaction system would allow for 24-hour operation without the need for storage technology, and reductions in total system costs while providing a relatively low-risk deployment option for CSP systems.

  8. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  9. Engineering the fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen; Scott, Willms

    2008-01-01

    Recently the National Academy of Engineering published a set of Grand Challenges in Engineering in which the second item listed was entitled 'Provide energy from fusion'. Clearly a key component of this challenge is the science and technology associated with creating and maintaining burning plasmas. This is being vigorously addressed with both magnetic and inertial approaches with various experiments such as ITER and NIF. Considerably less attention is being given to another key component of this challenge, namely engineering the first wall that will contain the burning plasma. This is a daunting problem requiring technologies and materials that can not only survive, but also perform multiple essential functions in this extreme environment. These functions are (1) shield the remainder of the device from radiation. (2) convert of neutron energy to useful heat and (3) breed and extract tritium to maintain the reactor fuel supply. The first wall must not contaminate the plasma with impurities. It must be infused with cooling to maintain acceptable temperatures on plasma facing and structural components. It must not degrade. It must avoid excessive build-up of tritium on surfaces, and, if surface deposits do form, must be receptive to cleaning techniques. All these functions and constraints must be met while being subjected to nuclear and thermal radiation, particle bombardment, high magnetic fields, thermal cycling and occasional impingement of plasma on the surface. And, operating in a nuclear environment, the first wall must be fully maintainable by remotely-operated manipulators. Elements of the first wall challenge have been studied since the 1970' s both in the US and internationally. Considerable foundational work has been performed on plasma facing materials and breeding blanket/shield modules. Work has included neutronics, materials fabrication and joining, fluid flow, tritium breeding, tritium recovery and containment, energy conversion, materials damage and

  10. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    1984-01-01

    A generic D-T burning magnetic fusion reactor model shows that within the constraints set by generic limitations it is possible for magnetic fusion to be a competitive source of electricity in the 21st century.

  11. Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prelas, M.A. )

    1989-09-01

    If cold fusion is verified, then the next important question deals with how it can be used to produce energy. Several direct energy conversion concepts for use with cold fusion are discussed.

  12. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  13. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ?R, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ? 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG cm, a ~ 14 increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  14. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  15. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; et al

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used tomore » infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.« less

  16. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  17. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  18. Production of unknown transactinides in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers 104-108 in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions are studied for the first time. The optimal conditions for the synthesis are suggested in this type of reaction. The products of suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  19. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-05-20

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or /sup 233/U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of /sup 238/U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical.

  20. Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed t + t fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, A. M.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchagin, S. V.; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N. Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Kuryakin, A. V.; Medved', S. V.; Musyaev, R. K.; Rudenko, A. I.; Tumkin, D. P.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Zinov, V. G.

    2009-02-15

    The muon-catalyzed fusion ({mu}CF) process in tritium was studied by the {mu}CF collaboration on the muon beam of the JINR Phasotron. The measurements were carried out with a liquid tritium target at the temperature 22 K and density approximately 1.25 of the liquid hydrogen density (LHD). Parameters of the {mu}CF cycle were determined: the tt{mu} muonic molecule formation rate {lambda}{sub tt{mu}} = 2.84(0.32) {mu}s{sup -1}, the tt{mu} fusion reaction rate {lambda}{sub f} = 15.6(2.0) {mu}s{sup -1}, and the probability of muon sticking to helium {omega}{sub tt}= 13.9(1.5)%. The results agree with those obtained earlier by other groups, but better accuracy was achieved due to our unique experimental method.

  1. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-05

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides an overview of the purpose, mission, and progress of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experiment.

  2. 1994 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the abstracts of the paper presented at the 1994 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference.

  3. Breakthrough: Neutron Science for the Fusion Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Robert

    2012-04-24

    How Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping to solve the world's energy problems through fusion energy research.

  4. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Benjamin S.; Larenas, Edmund A.; Mitchinson, Colin

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  5. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) First Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-05

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) First Plasma experiment was implemented at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  6. Theoretical Fusion Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSTX-U Education Organization Contact Us Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U Theoretical Fusion Research About Theory Department The fusion energy sciences mission of the Theory Department at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is to help provide the scientific foundations for establishing magnetic confinement as an attractive, technically

  7. Possible natural cold fusion in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, N. )

    1991-07-01

    Nongeological natural cold fusion effects in meteoroelectrical disequilibria are possible, and various laboratory simulations of these effects are being studied.

  8. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarasaki, Y.

    1996-05-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; (1) so-called cold fusion (CF), (2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and (3) accelerator-based D-T (D) neutron source. Through the comparison of the characteristics among ICF, LCF, and MCF, the feasibility of the LCFs is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Breakthrough: Neutron Science for the Fusion Mission

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Robert

    2014-06-03

    How Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping to solve the world's energy problems through fusion energy research.

  10. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shijia Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-15

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ∼30%, with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by  60%, with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  11. COLLOQUIUM: Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 4, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work in Fusion Energy Dr. Greg Hammett Princeton University ...

  12. Cold fusion anomalies more perplexing than ever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagani, R

    1989-11-01

    This article addresses the debate over research on cold fusion. Analysis is made of the research efforts that have taken place since cold fusion was first thought to have been discovered in Utah. Research in the Soviet Union on the cold fusion phenomenon is also discussed.

  13. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  14. How NIF Works

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is the world's largest laser system... 192 huge laser beams in a massive building, all focused down at the last moment at a 2 millimeter ball containing frozen hydrogen gas. The goal is to achieve fusion... getting more energy out than was used to create it. It's never been done before under controlled conditions, just in nuclear weapons and in stars. We expect to do it within the next 2-3 years. The purpose is threefold: to create an almost limitless supply of safe, carbon-free, proliferation-free electricity; examine new regimes of astrophysics as well as basic science; and study the inner-workings of the U.S. stockpile of nuclear weapons to ensure they remain safe, secure and reliable without the need for underground testing. More information about NIF can be found at:

  15. Working Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At DOE Working At DOE Working At DOE Only Here...Will you Define the Future of Energy The people of DOE are engaged in a wide range of challenging and innovative work - from participating in groundbreaking international initiatives like the Global Nuclear Partnership, to solar power demonstration projects, to projects that convert captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into fuel, plastics, and fertilizers. Only here can the diversity of activities throughout our

  16. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folden III, Charles Marvin

    2004-11-04

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile energies in the latter reaction were too high for optimum production of the 1n product. At the highest projectile energy of 268.0 MeV in the target center, two decay

  17. Transmutation of [sup 90]Sr by inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Konashi, Kenji )

    1993-11-01

    Transmutation of [sup 90]Sr by inertial confinement fusion is discussed. A pellet composed of deuterium-tritium fuel surrounded by [sup 90]Sr is compressed by a laser or a particle beam. It is shown that a high transmutation rate and a small transmutation energy are obtained because of the highly compressed [sup 90]Sr, which has a large probability of a transmutation reaction. The number of cycles, including recovering and refabrication of the target, is also discussed. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By Kitta MacPherson March 30, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion machine are readying experiments that will investigate a host of scientific puzzles, including how heat escapes as hot magnetized plasma, and what materials are best for handling intense plasma powers. Scientists conducting research on the National

  19. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By Kitta MacPherson March 28, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion reactor are readying experiments that will investigate a host of scientific puzzles, including how heat escapes as hot magnetized plasma, and what materials are best for handling intense plasma powers. Scientists conducting research on the National

  20. FUSION WELDING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, W.L.; Steinkamp, W.I.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus for the fusion welding of metal pieces at a joint is described. The apparatus comprises a highvacuum chamber enclosing the metal pieces and a thermionic filament emitter. Sufficient power is applied to the emitter so that when the electron emission therefrom is focused on the joint it has sufficient energy to melt the metal pieces, ionize the metallic vapor abcve the molten metal, and establish an arc discharge between the joint and the emitter.

  1. Fusion Institutions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Institutions Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Fusion Institutions Fusion Links International Activities Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information » Research Fusion

  2. Fusion Links | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Links Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Fusion Institutions Fusion Links International Activities Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information » Research Fusion Links Print

  3. A Virtualized Computing Platform For Fusion Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, T; Adams, P; Fisher, J; Talbot, A

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. 2,500 servers, 400 network devices and 700 terabytes of networked attached storage provide the foundation for NIF's Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and Experimental Data Archive. This talk discusses the rationale & benefits for server virtualization in the context of an operational experimental facility, the requirements discovery process used by the NIF teams to establish evaluation criteria for virtualization alternatives, the processes and procedures defined to enable virtualization of servers in a timeframe that did not delay the execution of experimental campaigns and the lessons the NIF teams learned along the way. The virtualization architecture ultimately selected for ICCS is based on the Open Source Xen computing platform and 802.1Q open networking standards. The specific server and network configurations needed to ensure performance and high availability of the control system infrastructure will be discussed.

  4. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M. Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50?cm{sup 2}), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (?100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  5. RF heating for fusion product studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellsten, T. Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Rimini, F.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-10

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with {sup 3}He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-{sup 3}He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of {sup 3}He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and {sup 3}He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  6. Multifunctional cellulase catalysis targeted by fusion to different carbohydrate-binding modules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deng, Kai; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Udell, Hannah S.; Prom, Ben M.; Kim, Hyunkee; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-12-21

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) bind polysaccharides and help target glycoside hydrolases catalytic domains to their appropriate carbohydrate substrates. To better understand how CBMs can improve cellulolytic enzyme reactivity, representatives from each of the 18 families of CBM found in Ruminoclostridium thermocellum were fused to the multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain of CelE (Cthe_0797, CelEcc), which can hydrolyze numerous types of polysaccharides including cellulose, mannan, and xylan. Since CelE is a cellulosomal enzyme, none of these fusions to a CBM previously existed. CelEcc_CBM fusions were assayed for their ability to hydrolyze cellulose, lichenan, xylan, and mannan. Several CelEcc_CBM fusions showed enhanced hydrolyticmore » activity with different substrates relative to the fusion to CBM3a from the cellulosome scaffoldin, which has high affinity for binding to crystalline cellulose. Additional binding studies and quantitative catalysis studies using nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) were carried out with the CBM3a, CBM6, CBM30, and CBM44 fusion enzymes. In general, and consistent with observations of others, enhanced enzyme reactivity was correlated with moderate binding affinity of the CBM. Numerical analysis of reaction time courses showed that CelEcc_CBM44, a combination of a multifunctional enzyme domain with a CBM having broad binding specificity, gave the fastest rates for hydrolysis of both the hexose and pentose fractions of ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass. In conclusion, we have shown that fusions of different CBMs to a single multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain can increase its rate of reaction with different pure polysaccharides and with pretreated biomass. This fusion approach, incorporating domains with broad specificity for binding and catalysis, provides a new avenue to improve reactivity of simple combinations of enzymes within the complexity of plant biomass.« less

  7. Multifunctional cellulase catalysis targeted by fusion to different carbohydrate-binding modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deng, Kai; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Udell, Hannah S.; Prom, Ben M.; Kim, Hyunkee; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-12-21

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) bind polysaccharides and help target glycoside hydrolases catalytic domains to their appropriate carbohydrate substrates. To better understand how CBMs can improve cellulolytic enzyme reactivity, representatives from each of the 18 families of CBM found in Ruminoclostridium thermocellum were fused to the multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain of CelE (Cthe_0797, CelEcc), which can hydrolyze numerous types of polysaccharides including cellulose, mannan, and xylan. Since CelE is a cellulosomal enzyme, none of these fusions to a CBM previously existed. CelEcc_CBM fusions were assayed for their ability to hydrolyze cellulose, lichenan, xylan, and mannan. Several CelEcc_CBM fusions showed enhanced hydrolytic activity with different substrates relative to the fusion to CBM3a from the cellulosome scaffoldin, which has high affinity for binding to crystalline cellulose. Additional binding studies and quantitative catalysis studies using nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) were carried out with the CBM3a, CBM6, CBM30, and CBM44 fusion enzymes. In general, and consistent with observations of others, enhanced enzyme reactivity was correlated with moderate binding affinity of the CBM. Numerical analysis of reaction time courses showed that CelEcc_CBM44, a combination of a multifunctional enzyme domain with a CBM having broad binding specificity, gave the fastest rates for hydrolysis of both the hexose and pentose fractions of ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass. In conclusion, we have shown that fusions of different CBMs to a single multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain can increase its rate of reaction with different pure polysaccharides and with pretreated biomass. This fusion approach, incorporating domains with broad specificity for binding and catalysis, provides a new avenue to improve reactivity of simple combinations of enzymes within the complexity of plant biomass.

  8. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  9. Dynamical approach to heavy-ion induced fusion using actinide target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritomo, Y.; Hagino, K.; Chiba, S.; Nishio, K.

    2012-10-20

    To treat heavy-ion reactions using actinide target nucleus, we propose a model which takes into account the coupling to the collective states of interacting nuclei in the penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the dynamical evolution of nuclear shape from the contact configuration. A fluctuation-dissipation model (Langevin equation) was applied in the dynamical calculation, where effect of nuclear orientation at the initial impact on the prolately deformed target nucleus was considered. Using this model, we analyzed the experimental data for the mass distribution of fission fragments (MDFF) in the reaction of {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at several incident energies. Fusion-fission, quasifission and deep-quasi-fission are separated as different trajectories on the potential energy surface. We estimated the fusion cross section of the reaction.

  10. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The Fusion Program carries out work in a number of areas: (1) experimental and theoretical research on two magnetic confinement concepts - the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) and the tokamak, (2) theoretical and engineering studies on a third concept - the stellarator, (3) engineering and physics of present-generation fusion devices, (4) development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques, (5) development and testing of materials for fusion devices, (6) development and testing of the essential technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, (7) development and testing of the superconducting magnets that will be needed to confine these plasmas, (8) design of future devices, (9) assessment of the environmental impact of fusion energy, and (10) assembly and distribution to the fusion community of data bases on atomic physics and radiation effects. The interactions between these activities and their integration into a unified program are major factors in the success of the individual activities, and the ORNL Fusion Program strives to maintain a balance among these activities that will lead to continued growth.

  11. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Huang, C. -K.; McDevitt, C. J.

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT at the National Ignition Facility.

  12. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  13. Fusion On Earth | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weekly Highlights Brochures Fact Sheets Newsletters PPPL News Quest Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Events Research Education Organization Contact Us News Room News Archive American Fusion News Press Releases Publications Weekly Highlights Brochures Fact Sheets Newsletters PPPL News Quest Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Fusion On Earth Publication File: PDF icon Fusion On Earth Publication Type: Brochures

  14. PPPL Races Ahead with Fusion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Power... PPPL Races Ahead with Fusion Research RESEARCH NEWS FROM PPPL uest Summer 2013, Issue 1 Contents 02 New Paths to Fusion Energy 09 ADVANCING FUSION THEORY 12 ADVANCING PLASMA SCIENCE 15 PARTNERSHIPS & COLLABORATIONS 19 EDUCATION & OUTREACH AWARDS Inside back cover Letter from the Director W elcome to the premiere issue of Quest, the annual magazine of the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). We are pleased to provide this news of our strides

  15. Hydrogen Fusion An Opportunity for Global Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process of Hydrogen Fusion Hydrogen fusion, the process that powers our sun and the stars, is the most fundamental energy source in the visible universe. Directly, it provides sunlight, while indirectly it is the driver behind all "renewable" energies (solar-thermal and photovoltaic, wind, biomass and ocean- thermal). Even the fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), which were derived over long periods of time from ancient biomass, are by-products of hydrogen fusion. The energy released

  16. Review of alternative concepts for magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although the Tokamak represents the mainstay of the world's quest for magnetic fusion power, with the tandem mirror serving as a primary backup concept in the US fusion program, a wide range of alternative fusion concepts (AFC's) have been and are being pursued. This review presents a summary of past and present reactor projections of a majority of AFC's. Whenever possible, quantitative results are given.

  17. Tritium Gas Processing for Magnetic Fusion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Processing for Magnetic Fusion SRNL-STI-2014-00168 Bernice Rogers Clean Energy - Savannah River National Laboratory April 24, 2014 The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of any international organization, the US Government SRNL-STI-2014-00168 Presentation Outline * Background Information * Simplified Fusion Fuel Cycle * Select Requirements Fuel Cycle * Confinement * Process * Summary 2 3 What is Fusion? Small Atom Small Atom Large Atom ENERGY + 4 deuterium

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) Centered on magnetically driven implosions Alt text Fusion: The ultimate energy source Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2, tells us that a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy. This powerful equation is at the center of fusion energy - the idea that light nuclei, e.g. deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) can be smashed together to form particles, e.g. a neutron and a helium nuclei, of

  19. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) needs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) needs a credible demonstration of the key physics principles ... Such an achievement, modeled and understood, would be a clear demonstration of the ...

  20. Fusion materials science and technology research opportunities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the ITER era Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fusion materials science and technology research opportunities now and during the ITER era Several high-priority...

  1. Cluster expression in fission and fusion in high-dimensional macroscopic-microscopic calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwamoto, A.; Ichikawa, T.; Moller, P.; Sierk, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces of very heavy nuclei and the formation process of these nuclei in cold-fusion reactions. In the potential-energy surfaces, we find a pronounced valley structure, with one valley corresponding to the cold-fusion reaction, the other to fission. As the touching point is approached in the cold-fusion entrance channel, an instability towards dynamical deformation of the projectile occurs, which enhances the fusion cross section. These two 'cluster effects' enhance the production of superheavy nuclei in cold-fusion reactions, in addition to the effect of the low compound-system excitation energy in these reactions. Heavy-ion fusion reactions have been used extensively to synthesize heavy elements beyond actinide nuclei. In order to proceed further in this direction, we need to understand the formation process more precisely, not just the decay process. The dynamics of the formation process are considerably more complex than the dynamics necessary to interpret the spontaneous-fission decay of heavy elements. However, before implementing a full dynamical description it is useful to understand the basic properties of the potential-energy landscape encountered in the initial stages of the collision. The collision process and entrance-channel landscape can conveniently be separated into two parts, namely the early-stage separated system before touching and the late-stage composite system after touching. The transition between these two stages is particularly important, but not very well understood until now. To understand better the transition between the two stages we analyze here in detail the potential energy landscape or 'collision surface' of the system both outside and inside the touching configuration of the target and projectile. In Sec. 2, we discuss calculated five-dimensional potential-energy landscapes inside touching and identify major features. In Sec. 3, we present calculated

  2. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  3. Fusion Rockets for Planetary Defense

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED Fusion Rockets for Planetary Defense Glen Wurden Los Alamos National Laboratory PPPL Colloquium March 16, 2016 LA-UR-15-xxxx LA-UR-16-21396 | Los Alamos National Laboratory | Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED My collaborators on this topic: T. E. Weber 1 , P. J. Turchi 2 , P. B. Parks 3 , T. E. Evans 3 , S. A. Cohen 4 , J. T.

  4. Fusion reactor materials. Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee`, S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  5. Mirror fusion. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-11

    The information in each Quarterly is presented in the same sequence as in the Field Work Package Proposal and Authorization System (WPAS) submissions prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy; the main sections are Applied Plasma Physics, Confinement Systems, Development and Technology, and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (Planning and Projects). On occasion, we shall include information pertaining to the LLNL role as Lead Laboratory for the Open Systems Mirror Fusion Program. Each of these sections is introduced by an overall statement of the goals and purposes of the groups reporting in it. As appropriate within each section, statements of the goals of individual programs and projects are followed by articles containing summaries of significant recent activity and descriptive text.

  6. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  7. fusion

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in size from a pinhead to a small pea, is filled with a mixture of two isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium (D) and tritium (T)) and is subjected to a sudden application of...

  8. fusion

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in size from a pinhead to a small pea, is filled with a mixture of two isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium (D) and tritium (T)) and is subjected to a sudden application of intense...

  9. Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Fusion Welding (Book) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Fusion Welding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Fusion Welding In fusion welding, parts...

  10. Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy

  11. Working Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Effective Date: 02/03/14 WP 12-IS.01-6 Revision 11 Industrial Safety Program - Visitor, Vendor, User, Tenant, and Subcontractor Safety Controls Cognizant Section: Industrial Safety/Industrial Hygiene Approved By: Tom Ferguson Working Copy Industrial Safety Program - Visitor, Vendor, User, Tenant, and Subcontractor Safety Controls WP 12-IS.01-6, Rev. 11 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHANGE HISTORY SUMMARY ..................................................................................... 7 ACRONYMS AND

  12. Working Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE/WIPP-99-2286 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Notification or Reporting Implementation Plan Revision 7 U.S. Department of Energy December 2013 This document supersedes DOE/WIPP-99-2286, Rev. 6. Working Copy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Notification or Reporting Implementation Plan DOE/WIPP-99-2286, Rev. 7 2 TABLE OF CONTENTSCHANGE HISTORY SUMMARY .............................................. 3 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

  13. Fokker–Planck kinetic modeling of suprathermal α-particles in a fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peigney, B.E.

    2014-12-01

    We present an ion kinetic model describing the transport of suprathermal α-particles in inertial fusion targets. The analysis of the underlying physical model enables us to develop efficient numerical methods to simulate the creation, transport and collisional relaxation of fusion reaction products (α-particles) at a kinetic level. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A two-energy-scale approach leads to a self-consistent modeling of the coupling between suprathermal α-particles and the thermal bulk of the imploding plasma. This method provides an accurate numerical treatment of energy deposition and transport processes involving suprathermal particles. The numerical tools presented here are then validated against known analytical results. This enables us to investigate the potential role of ion kinetic effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes.

  14. A diamond based neutron spectrometer for diagnostics of deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Giacomelli, L. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-ISM, Research Area Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015-Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) (Italy); Griesmayer, E. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Single crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are being increasingly exploited for neutron diagnostics in high power fusion devices, given their significant radiation hardness and high energy resolution capabilities. The geometrical efficiency of SDDs is limited by the size of commercially available crystals, which is often smaller than the dimension of neutron beams along collimated lines of sight in tokamak devices. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer consisting of 12 diamond pixels arranged in a matrix, so to achieve an improved geometrical efficiency. Each pixel is equipped with an independent high voltage supply and read-out electronics optimized to combine high energy resolution and fast signals (<30 ns), which are essential to enable high counting rate (>1 MHz) spectroscopy. The response function of a prototype SDD to 14 MeV neutrons has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator by observation of the 8.3 MeV peak from the {sup 12}C(n, ?){sup 9}Be reaction occurring between neutrons and {sup 12}C nuclei in the detector. The measured energy resolution (2.5% FWHM) meets the requirements for neutron spectroscopy applications in deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  15. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  16. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  17. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  18. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-03

    Here, the quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related tomore » the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion.« less

  19. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.

  20. COLLOQUIUM: DIII-D Explorations of Fusion Science to Prepare...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COLLOQUIUM: DIII-D Explorations of Fusion Science to Prepare for ITER and FNSF Dr. Richard ... issues for successful operation of ITER and future steady state fusion tokamaks, ...

  1. Controlled Nuclear Fusion (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Controlled Nuclear Fusion The objective of controlled nuclear fusion research is to develop a major economic source of energy that should be readily available to all ...

  2. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant Title: Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant A laser inertial-confinement ...

  3. A Small, Clean, Stable Fusion Power Plant ---- Inventor Samuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small, Clean, Stable Fusion Power Plant ---- Inventor Samuel A. Cohen This invention ... The small, clean stable fusion power plant, based on the Field Reverse Configuration, ...

  4. Better Fusion Plasma Operating Scenarios are Being Explored and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Fusion Plasma Operating Scenarios are Being Explored and Extended on the Alcator ... Better Fusion Plasma Operating Scenarios are Being Explored and Extended on the Alcator ...

  5. Physicist Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future Physicist Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future From revealing radiation hydrodynamics to creating energy, physics student pursues ...

  6. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Python in a Parallel Environment Dave Grote - LLNL & LBNL NUG2013 User Day Wednesday, February 15, 2013 Slide 2 The Heavy Ion Fusion ...

  7. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy ...

  8. Controlled Nuclear Fusion (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Controlled Nuclear Fusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Nuclear Fusion You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  9. Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities and Diagnostic Necessities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion ...

  10. COLLOQUIUM: The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COLLOQUIUM: The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor Dr. Thomas McGuire Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Skunkworks is developing a compact fusion reactor concept, CFR. The novel ...

  11. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production ...

  12. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick ...

  13. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid Authors: Moir, R ...

  14. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  15. Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasaiah, Jayendran C.; Zhu Jianjun

    2008-12-07

    The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

  16. Antibody-independent Targeted Quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Protein Products in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jintang; Sun, Xuefei; Shi, Tujin; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Rui; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Yang, Feng; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Chae, Sung Suk; Rubin, Mark; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.

    2014-10-01

    Fusions between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and ETS related gene (ERG) represent one of the most specific biomarkers that define a distinct molecular subtype of prostate cancer. The studies on TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have seldom been performed at the protein level, primarily due to the lack of high-quality antibodies or an antibody-independent method that is sufficiently sensitive for detecting the truncated ERG protein products resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and alternative splicing. Herein, we applied a recently developed PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) strategy for quantifying ERG protein in prostate cancer cell lines and tumors. The highly sensitive PRISM-SRM assays led to confident detection of 6 unique ERG peptides in either the TMPRSS2-ERG positive cell lines or tissues but not in the negative controls, indicating that ERG protein expression is highly correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangements. Significantly, our results demonstrated for the first time that at least two groups of ERG protein isoforms were simultaneously expressed at variable levels in TMPRSS2-ERG positive samples as evidenced by concomitant detection of two mutually exclusive peptides. Three peptides shared across almost all fusion protein products were determined to be the most abundant peptides, and hence can be used as signature peptides for detecting ERG overexpression resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These PRISM-SRM assays provide valuable tools for studying TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein products, thus improving our understanding of the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in the biology of prostate cancer.

  17. Fusion neutron generation computations in a stellarator-mirror hybrid with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    In the paper [Moiseenko V.E., Noack K., Agren O. 'Stellarator-mirror based fusion driven fission reactor' J Fusion Energy 29 (2010) 65.], a version of a fusion driven system (FDS), i.e. a sub-critical fast fission assembly with a fusion plasma neutron source, is proposed. The plasma part of the reactor is based on a stellarator with a small mirror part. Hot ions with high perpendicular energy are assumed to be trapped in the magnetic mirror part. The stellarator part which connects to the mirror part and provides confinement for the bulk (deuterium) plasma. In the magnetic well of the mirror part, fusion reactions occur from collisions between a of hot ion component (tritium) with cold background plasma ions. RF heating is one option to heat the tritium. A more conventional method to sustain the hot ions is neutral beam injection (NBI), which is here studied numerically for the above-mentioned hybrid scheme. For these studies, a new kinetic code, KNBIM, has been developed. The code takes into account Coulomb collisions between the hot ions and the background plasma. The geometry of the confining magnetic field is arbitrary for the code. It is accounted for via a numerical bounce averaging procedure. Along with the kinetic calculations the neutron generation intensity and its spatial distribution are computed.

  18. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  19. Laser-driven fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    A laser-driven fusion reactor consisting of concentric spherical vessels in which the thermonuclear energy is derived from a deuterium-tritium (D + T) burn within a pellet'', located at the center of the vessels and initiated by a laser pulse. The resulting alpha -particle energy and a small fraction of the neutron energy are deposited within the pellet; this pellet energy is eventually transformed into sensible heat of lithium in a condenser outside the vessels. The remaining neutron energy is dissipated in a lithium blanket, located within the concentric vessels, where the fuel ingredient, tritium, is also produced. The heat content of the blanket and of the condenser lithium is eventually transferred to a conventional thermodynamic plant where the thermal energy is converted to electrical energy in a steam Rankine cycle. (Official Gazette)

  20. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a

  2. Expectations for {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced fusion cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R.V.F; Physics

    2007-01-12

    The extrapolations of cross sections for fusion reactions involving {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei down to energies relevant for explosive stellar burning have been reexamined. Based on a systematic study of fusion in heavier systems, it is expected that a suppression of the fusion process will also be present in these light heavy-ion systems at extreme sub-barrier energies due to the saturation properties of nuclear matter. Previous phenomenological extrapolations of the S factor for light heavy-ion fusion based on optical model calculations may therefore have overestimated the corresponding reaction rates. A new 'recipe' is proposed to extrapolate S factors for light heavy-ion reactions to low energies taking the hindrance behavior into account. It is based on a fit to the logarithmic derivative of the experimental cross section which is much less sensitive to overall normalization discrepancies between different data sets than other approaches. This method, therefore, represents a significant improvement over other extrapolations. The impact on the astrophysical reaction rates is discussed.

  3. Expectations for {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced fusion cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R. V. F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The extrapolations of cross sections for fusion reactions involving {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei down to energies relevant for explosive stellar burning have been reexamined. Based on a systematic study of fusion in heavier systems, it is expected that a suppression of the fusion process will also be present in these light heavy-ion systems at extreme sub-barrier energies due to the saturation properties of nuclear matter. Previous phenomenological extrapolations of the S factor for light heavy-ion fusion based on optical model calculations may therefore have overestimated the corresponding reaction rates. A new ''recipe'' is proposed to extrapolate S factors for light heavy-ion reactions to low energies taking the hindrance behavior into account. It is based on a fit to the logarithmic derivative of the experimental cross section which is much less sensitive to overall normalization discrepancies between different data sets than other approaches. This method, therefore, represents a significant improvement over other extrapolations. The impact on the astrophysical reaction rates is discussed.

  4. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A search for super heavy elements using a catcher foil M. Barbui, K. Schmidt, J.B. Natowitz, H. Zheng, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera and M. Barbino Probing clusterization in 40Ca + 40Ca reactions K. Schmidt, M. Barbui, J. B. Natowitz, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera, G. Giuliani, M. Rodrigues, R. Wada, M. Huang, C. Botosso, G. Liu, G. Viesti, S. Moretto, G. Prete, S. Pesente, D. Fabris, Y. El Masri, T. Keutgen, S. Kowalski, and A. Kumar Yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of

  5. 2013-2014 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent results of 45Sc-induced fusion evaporation reactions on 158,160Gd T. A. Werke, D. A. Mayorov, M. C. Alfonso, M. M. Frey, and C. M. Folden III Production cross sections of residues in 50Ti-induced reactions D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. C. Alfonso, M. M. Frey, E. E. Tereshatov, and C. M. Folden III Development of nuclear forensics program at Texas A&M University T. K. Bhardwaj, J. R. Allred, K. F. Jones, P. M. Mendoza, R. L. Du, C. M. Folden III, and S. S. Chirayath Exploring the

  6. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-09-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  7. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  8. Fusion roadmapping | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion roadmapping Subscribe to RSS - Fusion roadmapping The process of mapping a path to a commercial fusion reactor by planning a sequence of future machines. Stewart Prager Stewart Prager is the sixth director of PPPL. He joined the Laboratory in 2009 after a long career at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. At Wisconsin, he led research on the "Madison Symmetric Torus" (MST) experiment and headed a center that studied plasmas in both the laboratory and the cosmos. He also

  9. Quantifying the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C sub-Coulomb fusion with the time-dependent wave-packet method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis; Wiescher, Michael

    2012-10-20

    This contribution provides a preliminary study of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C sub-Coulomb fusion reaction using the time-dependent wave-packet method within a nuclear molecular picture. The theoretical sub-Coulomb fusion resonances seem to correspond well with observations. The present method might be a more suitable tool for expanding the cross-section predictions towards lower energies than the commonly used potential-model approximation.

  10. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  11. Fusion energy development: Breakeven and beyond: Keynote address

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-02-01

    The scientific feasibility, technological inevitability, and economic necessity of fusion as an energy source are discussed.

  12. A REALISTIC EXAMINATION OF COLD FUSION CLAIMS 24 YEARS LATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2012-10-22

    On March 29, 1989, chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had discovered an effect whose explanation was required to lie in the realm of nuclear reactions. Their claim, and those subsequent to it of roughly similar nature, became known as ‘cold fusion’. Research continues to this day on this effect, but what has become clear is that whatever it is, it is not a conventional fusion process. Thus the ‘cold fusion’ moniker is somewhat inappropriate and many current researchers in the field prefer the term “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)”, although other terms have been coined for it as well. the results developed out of the LENR research do in fact show something is happening to produce signals which might be interpreted as supporting nuclear reactions (which is what encourages and sustains LENR researchers), but which can also be interpreted via a set of unique and interesting conventional processes. The focus of this document is to describe and address recent objections to such processes so that subsequent LENR research can be guided to develop information that will determine whether either set of explanations has merit. It is hoped that criteria delineated herein will aid the USDOE and other agencies in determining if LENR proposals are meritorious and worthy of support or not.

  13. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  14. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Berwald, D.H.; Garner, J.K.; Whitley, R.H.; Ghoniem, N.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m/sup 2/ and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of /sup 233/U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management.

  15. A survey of current international ``cold fusion`` research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bailey, P.

    1995-12-31

    A new energy producing technology has been found in several so-called ``cold fusion`` experiments. In years past, these effects have been difficult to reproduce, but are now being replicated internationally. Energy production has been achieved in reactors using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) and palladium cathodes. Excess energy has also been produced using light water (H{sub 2}O) and nickel cathodes. Significant results have been reported by SRI, International at the 1994 IECEC. In several types of experimental reactors, more thermal energy is produced than input by electrical energy. This ``excess heat`` has now been replicated in 30 countries and significant amounts of nuclear by-products have also been measured. Whether all of the observed excess thermal heat is the result of nuclear reactions is still being investigated. A key to the process is the purity and quality of the cathode metals used. In addition, some of the reactors are strongly sensitive to hydrogen or deuterium loading. Many papers have now been published reporting on excess thermal heat and on some nuclear by-products. This paper summarizes the results of six years of collecting and reviewing over 2,000 technical papers on cold fusion. Successful experimental papers are tabulated by country and year. Continuing experimental efforts are cited and the various types of experimental evidence are reviewed.

  16. COLLOQUIUM: Fusion Rockets for Planetary Defense | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Fusion Rockets for Planetary Defense Dr. Glen Wurden Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms....

  17. PPPL Races Ahead with Fusion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the mysteri- ous density limit, they can spiral apart into a flash of light. "The big ... Coordinating Key Research | Summer 2013 8 uest New Paths to Fusion Energy Wonder Weld: ...

  18. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule.

  19. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willm, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst. Reactions which will be studied include the water gas shift reaction, steam reforming and methane cracking. Extended operation will be performed to detect performance degradation if it exists. The use of methane in these tests may lead to the formation of coke on the catalyst. Methods of removing the coke such as treatment with carbon dioxide or diluted oxygen will be examined.

  20. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willms, R.S.; Wilhelm, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PNM) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water-gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst over a range of temperatures, feed compositions and flowrates. Reactions which were studied are the water-gas shift reaction and steam reforming.

  1. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  2. Fusion Power | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weekly Highlights Brochures Fact Sheets Newsletters PPPL News Quest Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Events Research Education Organization Contact Us News Room News Archive American Fusion News Press Releases Publications Weekly Highlights Brochures Fact Sheets Newsletters PPPL News Quest Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Fusion Power For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man.

  3. Possible ways to achieve cold fusion. III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tisenko, Yu.A.

    1994-12-01

    It is suggested that a deuteron {open_quotes}microaccelerator{close_quotes} be constructed in order to achieve cold fusion. This accelerator would operate on the basis of a glow discharge near a charged Pd-D powder grain in low-density gaseous D{sub 2}. Possible parameters of such an accelerator are calculated. The heat released as a result of fusion is estimated, as is the intensity of the deuteron flux.

  4. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  5. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrup, M. Allen; Beeman, Barton V.; Benett, William J.; Hadley, Dean R.; Landre, Phoebe; Lehew, Stacy L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  6. Fission-suppressed fusion breeder on the thorium cycle and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R. W.

    2012-06-19

    Fusion reactors could be designed to breed fissile material while suppressing fissioning thereby enhancing safety. The produced fuel could be used to startup and makeup fuel for fission reactors. Each fusion reaction can produce typically 0.6 fissile atoms and release about 1.6 times the 14 MeV neutron's energy in the blanket in the fission-suppressed design. This production rate is 2660 kg/1000 MW of fusion power for a year. The revenues would be doubled from such a plant by selling fuel at a price of 60/g and electricity at $0.05/kWh for Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub input}=4. Fusion reactors could be designed to destroy fission wastes by transmutation and fissioning but this is not a natural use of fusion whereas it is a designed use of fission reactors. Fusion could supply makeup fuel to fission reactors that were dedicated to fissioning wastes with some of their neutrons. The design for safety and heat removal and other items is already accomplished with fission reactors. Whereas fusion reactors have geometry that compromises safety with a complex and thin wall separating the fusion zone from the blanket zone where wastes could be destroyed. Nonproliferation can be enhanced by mixing {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U. Also nonproliferation is enhanced in typical fission-suppressed designs by generating up to 0.05 {sup 232}U atoms for each {sup 233}U atom produced from thorium, about twice the IAEA standards of 'reduced protection' or 'self protection.' With 2.4%{sup 232}U, high explosive material is predicted to degrade owing to ionizing radiation after a little over 1/2 year and the heat rate is 77 W just after separation and climbs to over 600 W ten years later. The fissile material can be used to fuel most any fission reactor but is especially appropriate for molten salt reactors (MSR) also called liquid fluoride thorium reactors (LFTR) because of the molten fuel does not need hands on fabrication and handling.

  7. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  8. Examining the role of transfer coupling in sub-barrier fusion of Ti46,50+Sn124

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, J. Felix; Allmond, J. M.; Gross, C. J.; Mueller, Paul E.; Shapira, Dan; Varner, R. L.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, David J.; Simenel, C.; Williams, E.; et al

    2016-08-24

    In this study, the presence of neutron transfer channels with positive Q values can enhance sub-barrier fusion cross sections. Recent measurements of the fusion excitation functions for 58Ni+132,124Sn found that the fusion enhancement due to the influence of neutron transfer is smaller than that in 40Ca +132,124Sn although the Q values for multineutron transfer are comparable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences observed between the fusion of Sn + Ni and Sn + Ca. Methods: Fusion excitation functions for 46,50Ti +124Sn have been measured at energies near the Coulomb barrier. As a result, a comparison ofmore » the barrier distributions for 46Ti+124Sn and 40Ca+124Sn shows that the 40Ca+124Sn system has a barrier strength resulting from the coupling to the very collective octupole state in 40Ca at an energy significantly lower than the uncoupled barrier. In conclusion, the large sub-barrier fusion enhancement in 40Ca induced reactions is attributed to both couplings to neutron transfer and inelastic excitation, with the octupole vibration of 40Ca playing a major role.« less

  9. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the {sup 231}Pa-{sup 232}U-{sup

  10. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  11. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-05-16

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  12. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritz, A.; Keyes, D.

    2007-05-18

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  13. Construction completed, PPPL is set to resume world-class fusion research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    later this fall | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Construction completed, PPPL is set to resume world-class fusion research later this fall By John Greenwald October 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Staffers who worked on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Staffers who worked on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. Gallery: Technicians inspect the new center stack that forms the heart of the

  14. Construction completed, PPPL is set to resume world-class fusion research |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Construction completed, PPPL is set to resume world-class fusion research By John Greenwald September 25, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Staffers who worked on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Staffers who worked on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. Gallery: Technicians inspect the new center stack that forms the heart of the NSTX-U. (Photo by PPPL) Technicians

  15. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report for the period September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1993-09-06

    This is a progress report on activities of the Washington University group in nuclear reaction studies for the period Sept 1, 1992 to Aug 31, 1993. This group has a research program which touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin; studies at the interface between structure and reactions; production and study of hot nuclei; reaction mechanism studies; development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. Specific activities of the group include in part: superdeformation in {sup 82}Sr; structure of and identical bands in {sup 182}Hg and {sup 178}Pt; a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm; particle decay of the {sup 164}Yb compound nucleus; fusion reactions; proton evaporation; two-proton decay of {sup 12}O; modeling and theoretical studies; excited {sup 16}O disassembly into four alpha particles; {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at 28.2 MeV/amu; and development work on 4{pi} solid angle gamma detectors, and x-ray detectors.

  16. Enhancing chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  17. Conference report on the 3rd international symposium on lithium application for fusion devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-01-14

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9–11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy),more » T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma–Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.« less

  18. Conference report on the 3rd international symposium on lithium application for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-01-14

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9–11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma–Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  19. Near- and sub-barrier fusion of {sup 6}He+{sup 40}Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnefeld, J.D.; Kolata, J.J.; Belbot, M.; Lamkin, K.; Zahar, M.; Santi, P.; Kugi, J.

    1993-10-01

    A measurement of the fusion cross section for {sup 6}He + {sup 40}Ar near and below the Coulomb barrier has been performed using a {sup 6}He beam from the UND/Um radioactive beam facility. The {sup 6}He nucleus is thought to have a neutron skin surrounding a {sup 6}He core. If this is the case, then Coulomb polarization of the core relative to the halo might result in neutron flow along a neck, and therefore to a large enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross section. {sup 6}He nuclei, of incident energy 10.05 {+-} 0.44 MeV, were directed into a segmented ionization counter (MUSIC) filled with P10 at 40 torr. The {sup 40}Ar in the detector gas served also as the target nuclei. {sup 6}He energies in the 50-cm active length of the detector varied from 7.75 MeV down to 3.05 MeV. Calculations indicate that fusion events should be distinguishable from most non-fusion events on the basis of energy deposition patterns in the ten MUSIC detector segments. For some large-angle scattering events a more elaborate analysis involving detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the various reactions is necessary.

  20. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen A.

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  1. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

  2. Questions and answers about ITER and fusion energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QA & What is fusion? Fusion, the energy source of the sun and stars, is the most efficient process for converting mass into energy (E = mc 2 ). The fusion process is environmentally benign and does not emit gases that contribute to global warming or acid rain. Abundant fuel supplies for fusion are available that could meet the needs of the world's population for more than 10,000 years if the fusion process is harnessed successfully. When will fusion successfully produce useable energy? The

  3. DOE and Fusion Links | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE and Fusion Links United States Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. D.O.E. Princeton Site Office Map showing U.S. Fusion Program Participants U.S. D.O.E. Science Laboratories U.S. D.O.E. User Facilities U.S. D.O.E. Funding Opportunities Other Fusion Research Sites United States Sites General Atomics (GA) MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center U.S. ITER National Ignition Facility (NIF) American Fusion News International Sites

  4. Nature and evolution of the fusion boundary in ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld metals. Part 1 -- Nucleation and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.W.; Lippold, J.C.; Mills, M.J.

    1999-10-01

    A fundamental investigation of fusion boundary microstructure evolution in dissimilar-metal welds (DMWs) between ferritic base metals and a face-centered-cubic (FCC) filler metal was conducted. The objective of the work presented here was to characterize the nature and character of the elevated-temperature fusion boundary to determine the nucleation and growth characteristics of DMWs. Type 409 ferritic stainless steel and 1080 pearlitic steel were utilized as base metal substrates, and Monel (70Ni-30Cu) was used as the filler metal. The Type 409 base metal provided a fully ferritic or body-centered-cubic (BCC) substrate at elevated temperatures and exhibited no on-cooling phase transformations to mask or disguise the original character of the fusion boundary. The 1080 pearlitic steel was selected because it is austenitic at the solidus temperature, providing an austenite substrate at the fusion boundary. The weld microstructure generated with each of the base metals in combination with Monel was fully austenitic. In the Type 409/Monel system, there was no evidence of epitaxial nucleation and growth as normally observed in homogeneous weld metal combinations. The fusion boundary in this system exhibited random grain boundary misorientations between the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal grains. In the 1080/Monel system, evidence of normal epitaxial growth was observed at the fusion boundary, where solidification and HAZ grain boundaries converged. The fusion boundary morphologies are a result of the crystal structure present along the fusion boundary during the initial stages of solidification. Based on the results of this investigation, a model for heterogeneous nucleation along the fusion boundary is proposed when the base and weld metals exhibit ferritic (BCC) and FCC crystal structures, respectively.

  5. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  6. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  7. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, K. Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in sandwiches of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The sandwiches were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  8. The international fusion materials irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, T.E.; Cozzani, F.; Crandall, D.H.; Wiffen, F.W.; Ehrlich, K.; Katsuta, H.; Kondo, T.; Teplyakov, V.; Zavialsky, L.

    1994-12-31

    It is widely agreed that the development of materials for fusion systems requires a high flux, 14 MeV neutron source. The European Union, Japan, Russia and the US have initiated the conceptual design of such a facility. This activity, under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Fusion Materials Agreement, will develop the design for an accelerator-based D-Li system. The first organizational meeting was held in June 1994. This paper describes the system to be studied and the approach to be followed to complete the conceptual design by early 1997.

  9. Radiological Dose Calculations for Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Lee C. Cadwallader; David A. Petti

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes the results and rationale for radiological dose calculations for the maximally exposed individual during fusion accident conditions. Early doses per unit activity (Sieverts per TeraBecquerel) are given for 535 magnetic fusion isotopes of interest for several release scenarios. These data can be used for accident assessment calculations to determine if the accident consequences exceed Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy evaluation guides. A generalized yearly dose estimate for routine releases, based on 1 Terabecquerel unit releases per radionuclide, has also been performed using averaged site parameters and assumed populations. These routine release data are useful for assessing designs against US Environmental Protection Agency yearly release limits.

  10. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  11. Driven reconnection in magnetic fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1995-11-01

    Error fields (i.e. small non-axisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field due to coil misalignments, etc.) are a fact of life in magnetic fusion experiments. What effects do error fields have on plasma confinement? How can any detrimental effects be alleviated? These, and other, questions are explored in detail in this lecture using simple resistive magnetohydrodynamic (resistance MHD) arguments. Although the lecture concentrates on one particular type of magnetic fusion device, namely, the tokamak, the analysis is fairly general and could also be used to examine the effects of error fields on other types of device (e.g. Reversed Field Pinches, Stellerators, etc.).

  12. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  13. Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [1] is an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) scheme using cylindrical compression of magnetized, preheated DT gas. A 10 - 30 T axial magnetic field reduces electron thermal conductivity allowing near-adiabatic compression at implosion velocities of order 100 km/s, much lower than the 300 km/s or more required for conventional ICF. Preheating to at least 100 eV ensures that keV temperatures are reached with a convergence ratio no greater than 30. The

  14. Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) Tour

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Fusion Safety AnalystAdvisor, Idaho National Laboratory Martin King, Fusion Safety ... Japan in 2013. Overall impressions of the labs and universities were very good. ...

  15. Helium-cooled solid breeder blanket design for a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggenberger, M.; Schultz, K.R.

    1983-11-01

    A preliminary design for a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor has been developed, and its performance looks quite good. The design is capable of bearing a 4 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall load, and the ideal pumping power required for the whole primary helium loop including the steam generators is only 2.5% of the total thermal power. The maximum blanket thickness including the helium duct work is only 860 mm, the minimum thickness is only 730 mm. The design work was focused on the thermalhydraulic aspects, which represent the key problems associated with using helium as a coolant. The present work demonstrates that the potential disadvantages helium has, due to its limited heat transfer capabilities, can be avoided or minimized by an appropriate thermal-hydraulic design. As a result, helium with its many advantages remains a promising fusion blanket coolant.

  16. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is

  17. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-11-12

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley et al. of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li et al. from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li et al. were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping.

  18. Computer experiments concerning palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices - implications to phenomenon of low-energy nuclear reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K.R.; Chaplot, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    Short-lived large energy fluctuations (SLEFs) in solids, proposed by Khait, are known to be responsible for several anomalous properties in a variety of materials. The study of SLEFs in palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices via computer experiments is reported. The relevance of these large energy fluctuations in penetrating coulombic barriers in these systems is discussed. Such dynamical effects arising from the phonon bath in solids may enhance nuclear reaction probabilities leading to cold fusion. Expected cold fusion reaction rates are reported taking into account the effective charges of the deuterium atoms in the solid and SLEF frequencies. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  20. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  1. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  2. What Causes Electron Heat Loss in Fusion Plasma?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Causes Heat Loss in Fusion Plasmas? What Causes Electron Heat Loss in Fusion Plasma? 3D ... but one of the most basic is heating plasma-hot gas composed of electrons and charged ...

  3. PPPL engineer named winner of the 2013 Fusion Technology Award...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    engineer named winner of the 2013 Fusion Technology Award By John Greenwald May 1, 2013 ... advice is sought by engineers around the world, has won the 2013 Fusion Technology Award. ...

  4. Fusion diagnostic developed at PPPL sheds light on plasma behavior...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion diagnostic developed at PPPL sheds light on plasma behavior at EAST By Kitta ... (PPPL) has enabled a research team at a fusion energy experiment in China to observe--in ...

  5. Vintage DOE: What is Fusion | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Vintage DOE: What is Fusion Vintage DOE: What is Fusion January 10, 2011 - 12:45pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public ...

  6. 10 Facts You Should Know About Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Facts You Should Know About Fusion Energy By Larry Bernard January 25, 2016 Tweet ... Stars - and there are billions and billions of them - produce energy by fusion of light ...

  7. COLLOQUIUM: Progress towards fusion on NIF and Z requires new...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    towards fusion on NIF and Z requires new plasma measurement capabilities Dr. Joe Kilkenny LLNLGA Dr. Greg Rochau SNL There is significant progress towards fusion on NIF and Z ...

  8. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  9. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-11-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for base-load electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  10. MIT's Plasma Science Fusion Center: Tokamak Experiments Come Clean about

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impurity Transport | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Tokamak Experiments Come Clean about Impurity Transport American Fusion News Category: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Link: MIT's Plasma Science Fusion Center: Tokamak Experiments Come Clean about Impurity Transport

  11. Preliminary design studies for a (D-D) or (D-T) driven cold fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor with metallic uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, S. ); Baltacioglu, E.; Yapici, H. )

    1991-01-01

    Based on the possibility of (D,D) fusion at room temperature in a heavy metal (palladium) matrix, a cold fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor design has been evaluated in this paper. The reactor is composed of a number of modular and uniform fuel lattices. The cold fusion neutrons induce fission reactions in the natural metallic uranium fuel, imbedded in the lattice. The neutron spectrum, and consequently the fission power density are nearly constant in the reactor core so that the rector performance becomes almost independent on the reactor size. The energy multiplication for each fusion neutron production in the (D,T) and (D,D) reactors are about 3.3 and 7.0, respectively. The (D,T) reactor mode is self-sufficient in respect to tritium breeding ratio (TBR = 1.2).

  12. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  13. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  14. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  15. Observation of d-d fusion neutrons during degassing of deuterium-loaded palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bittner, M.; Meister, A.; Seeliger, D.; Schwierz, R.; Wuestner, P. )

    1993-05-01

    Experiments with two massive deuterium-loaded palladium samples designed to search for deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion during thermal degassing are described. In the heavier of the two samples, which has a total mass of [approximately] 0.5 kg, during deuterium expulsion from the metal, a significant neutron excess count rate was detected by two independent NE-213 scintillation neutron detectors. The maximum time-dependent excess count rate corresponds to a d-d reaction rate of (3 [+-] 1) [times] 10[sup [minus]25] per deuteron pair per second. From detector pulse height spectra, the energy of the neutrons is determined to be [approximately] 2.5 MeV, as expected for d-d fusion neutrons. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Huang, C. -K.; McDevitt, C. J.

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT atmore » the National Ignition Facility.« less

  17. The surfdyn concept: An attempt to solve (or rename) the puzzles of cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glueck, P. )

    1993-08-01

    The lack of reproducibility of the cold fusion experiments, aggravated by the great diversity and inconsistency of the positive results, implies that these nuclear phenomena are hypersensitive, i.e., correlated to a [open quotes]chaotic[close quotes] factor. All the factors considered so far, such as structure, transformations, or defects of the crystal lattice; bubbles of deuterium; dendrites, etc., are insufficiently chaotic to explain the known facts. Experimental data suggest that nuclear reactions take place in active sites on the surface of the lattice, that they are stimulated by dynamics factors, and that they represent an extreme form of heterogeneous catalysis. Consequently, according to modern ideas concerning catalysis, the desired chaotic factor is the surface dynamics of some metallic deuterides (hydrides). This hypothesis, called the surfdyn concept, is compatible with all published data, explains the peculiarities of cold fusion, and must be supported by an adequate theory describing the nature and mechanisms of the different nuclear processes. 44 refs.

  18. Fusion Machines of the World | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Machines of the World NSTX-U IS ONE OF AN ELITE GROUP of magnetic fusion facilities scattered across the globe. These powerful and complex machines are advancing mankind's quest to harness fusion as a safe, clean and abundant source of energy for producing electricity. Here is a selection of major facilities. Publication File: PDF icon NSTX-U_presskit_print_FusionMachines-World

  19. MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center: research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Program Information Publications & News Meetings & Seminars Contact Information Physics Research Fusion Technology & Engineering Plasma Technology Waves & Beams Useful...

  20. Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy By Argonne ... Davis; Stephane Ethier, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Simulation of ...

  1. Status of inertial fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, L.

    1991-10-01

    This report briefly discusses the concept, progress, and direction of inertial confinement fusion in the United States. (LSP)

  2. Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At The Highest Microscopic Level. Annual Continuation And Progress Report, August 15, 2014 -- August 14, 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, Sofia

    2015-03-19

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive framework that will lead to a fundamental description of both structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. This project will provide the research community with the theoretical and computational tools what will enable: an accurate prediction for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; an improved description of the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and, a fundamental understanding of the three-nucleon force in nuclear reaction and nuclei at the drip line.

  3. Plasma Blobs and Filaments: Fusion Scientists Discover Secrets of Turbulent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edge Transport | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Plasma Blobs and Filaments: Fusion Scientists Discover Secrets of Turbulent Edge Transport American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Plasma Blobs and Filaments: Fusion Scientists Discover Secrets of Turbulent Edge Transport

  4. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  5. Dynamic microscopic theory of fusion using DC-TDHF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Keser, R.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2012-10-20

    The density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) theory is a fully microscopic approach for calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross sections below and above the fusion barrier. We discuss recent applications of DC-TDHF method to fusion of light and heavy systems.

  6. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  7. Background: Energy's holy grail. [The quest for controlled fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues.

  8. Maximal design basis accident of fusion neutron source DEMO-TIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2015-12-15

    When analyzing the safety of nuclear (including fusion) facilities, the maximal design basis accident at which the largest release of activity is expected must certainly be considered. Such an accident is usually the failure of cooling systems of the most thermally stressed components of a reactor (for a fusion facility, it is the divertor or the first wall). The analysis of safety of the ITER reactor and fusion power facilities (including hybrid fission–fusion facilities) shows that the initial event of such a design basis accident is a large-scale break of a pipe in the cooling system of divertor or the first wall outside the vacuum vessel of the facility. The greatest concern is caused by the possibility of hydrogen formation and the inrush of air into the vacuum chamber (VC) with the formation of a detonating mixture and a subsequent detonation explosion. To prevent such an explosion, the emergency forced termination of the fusion reaction, the mounting of shutoff valves in the cooling systems of the divertor and the first wall or blanket for reducing to a minimum the amount of water and air rushing into the VC, the injection of nitrogen or inert gas into the VC for decreasing the hydrogen and oxygen concentration, and other measures are recommended. Owing to a continuous feed-out of the molten-salt fuel mixture from the DEMO-TIN blanket with the removal period of 10 days, the radioactivity release at the accident will mainly be determined by tritium (up to 360 PBq). The activity of fission products in the facility will be up to 50 PBq.

  9. Model-independent determination of the astrophysical S factor in laser-induced fusion plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lattuada, D.; Barbarino, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Warren, M.; Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Kimura, S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new and general method for measuring the astrophysical S factor of nuclear reactions in laser-induced plasmas and we apply it to 2H(d,n)3He. The experiment was performed with the Texas Petawatt Laser, which delivered 150–270 fs pulses of energy ranging from 90 to 180 J to D2 or CD4 molecular clusters (where D denotes 2H). After removing the background noise, we used the measured time-of-flight data of energetic deuterium ions to obtain their energy distribution. We derive the S factor using the measured energy distribution of the ions, the measured volume of the fusion plasma,more » and the measured fusion yields. This method is model independent in the sense that no assumption on the state of the system is required, but it requires an accurate measurement of the ion energy distribution, especially at high energies, and of the relevant fusion yields. In the 2H(d,n)3He and 3He(d,p)4He cases discussed here, it is very important to apply the background subtraction for the energetic ions and to measure the fusion yields with high precision. While the available data on both ion distribution and fusion yields allow us to determine with good precision the S factor in the d+d case (lower Gamow energies), for the d+3He case the data are not precise enough to obtain the S factor using this method. Our results agree with other experiments within the experimental error, even though smaller values of the S factor were obtained. This might be due to the plasma environment differing from the beam target conditions in a conventional accelerator experiment.« less

  10. Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion Connections to Fusion Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion ... Due to the iconic status of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula, this research will bring ...

  11. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cary, John R.

    2012-09-05

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents.

  12. Fusion proteins useful for producing pinene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous pinene synthase (PS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, and optionally a geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, or a fusion protein comprising: (a) a PS and (b) a GPPS linked by a linker.

  13. Safeguard Requirements for Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston and Alexander Glaser

    2012-08-10

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to fissile materials can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production and diversion of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state openly produces fissile material in violation of international agreements. The degree of risk in each of these categories is assessed, taking into account both state and non-state actors, and it is found that safeguards are required for fusion energy to be highly attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. Specific safeguard requirements and R&D needs are outlined for each category of risk, and the technical capability of the ITER experiment, under construction, to contribute to this R&D is noted. A preliminary analysis indicates a potential legal pathway for fusion power systems to be brought under the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. "Vertical" proliferation risks associated with tritium and with the knowledge that can be gained from inertial fusion energy R&D are outlined.

  14. Target fabrication for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieg, K.W.; Chang, J.

    1980-01-01

    Near-term exploding pusher targets for electron or light ion beam driven fusion are typically several mm in diameter and have relatively thick shells (rho r approx. 0.001 to 0.03 gm/cm/sup 2/). Current fabrication techniques utilize parylene polymer coatings on leachable mandrels.

  15. Interference phenomena observed during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper the interference phenomena of waves observed during a cold fusion experiment are described. Nuclear emissions have successfully recorded two different interference phenomena of waves from an electrolyzing cell. It is inferred that the waves might be gravitational and antigravitational waves, which can be expected to be radiated from gravity decays of quad-neutrons.

  16. Cold fusion; The story behind the headlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ault, M.R.

    1991-06-01

    This article looks at the cold fusion issue which got a lot of attention in 1989. It provides interesting background information, a brief explanation of the experimental methods and problems encountered, and the basis for some of the controversy. The current state of the research effort is also outlined.

  17. Neutron measurements in search of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Goulding, C.A.; Johnson, M.W.; Butterfield, K.B.; Gottesfeld, S.; Baker, D.A.; Springer, T.E.; Garzon, F.H.; Bolton, R.D.; Leonard, E.M.; Chancellor, T. )

    1991-05-10

    We have conducted a search for neutron emission from cold fusion systems of the electrochemical type and, to a lesser extent, the high-pressure gas cell type. Using a high-efficiency well counter and an NE 213 scintillator, the experiments were conducted on the earth's surface and in a shielded cave approximately 50 ft underground. After approximately 6500 h of counting time, we have obtained no evidence for cold fusion processes leading to neutron production. However, we have observed all three types of neutron data that have been presented as evidence for cold fusion: large positive fluctuations in the neutron counting rate, weak peaks near 2.5 MeV in the neutron energy spectrum, and bursts of up to 140 neutrons in 500-{mu}s intervals. The data were obtained under circumstances that clearly show our results to be data encountered as a part of the naturally occurring neutron background, which is due primarily to cosmic rays. Thus, observing these types of data does not, of itself, provide evidence for the existence of cold fusion processes. Artifacts in the data that were due to counter misbehavior were also observed to lead to long-term neutron bursts'' whose time duration varied from several hours to several days. We conclude that any experiments which attempt to observed neutron emission must include strong steps to ensure that the experiments deal adequately with both cosmic-ray processes and counter misbehavior.

  18. Could spectator electrons legalize cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper the possibility of spectator electrons driving cold d-d fusion in condensed matter to an observation threshold is considered, along with the consequences on the branching ratio of the exit channels. The intrinsic dominance of the t-p channel due to the increased phase space is demonstrated.

  19. nuclear fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fusion Los Alamos plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators The team in front of Los Alamos' Trident Laser Target Chamber. Back, from left: Tom Shimada, Sha-Marie Reid, Adam Sefkow, Miguel Santiago, and Chris Hamilton. Front, from left: Russ Mortensen, Chengkun Huang, Sasi Palaniyappan, Juan Fernandez, Cort Gautier and Randy Johnson. A

  20. COMMENTS ON "A NEW LOOK AT LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION RESEARCH"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-12-30

    Cold fusion researchers have accumulated a large body of anomalous results over the last 20 years that they claim proves a new, mysterious nuclear reaction is active in systems they study. Krivit and Marwan give a brief and wholly positive view of this body of research. Unfortunately, cold fusion researchers routinely ignore conventional explanations of their observations, and claim much greater than real accuracy and precision for their techniques. This paper attempts to equally briefly address those aspects of the field with the intent of providing a balanced view of the field, and to establish some criteria for subsequent publications in this arena.

  1. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  4. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1993-04-27

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations.

  5. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the 'ABC' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Morosov, B.

    2009-02-06

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the {pi}{pi} invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a ({pi}{pi}){sub I=L=0} channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a {delta}{delta} system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data.

  6. Optimization of tritium breeding and shielding analysis to plasma in ITER fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indah Rosidah, M. Suud, Zaki; Yazid, Putranto Ilham

    2015-09-30

    The development of fusion energy is one of the important International energy strategies with the important milestone is ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project, initiated by many countries, such as: America, Europe, and Japan who agreed to set up TOKAMAK type fusion reactor in France. In ideal fusion reactor the fuel is purely deuterium, but it need higher temperature of reactor. In ITER project the fuels are deuterium and tritium which need lower temperature of the reactor. In this study tritium for fusion reactor can be produced by using reaction of lithium with neutron in the blanket region. With the tritium breeding blanket which react between Li-6 in the blanket with neutron resulted from the plasma region. In this research the material used in each layer surrounding the plasma in the reactor is optimized. Moreover, achieving self-sufficiency condition in the reactor in order tritium has enough availability to be consumed for a long time. In order to optimize Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) value in the fusion reactor, there are several strategies considered here. The first requirement is making variation in Li-6 enrichment to be 60%, 70%, and 90%. But, the result of that condition can not reach TBR value better than with no enrichment. Because there is reduction of Li-7 percent when increasing Li-6 percent. The other way is converting neutron multiplier material with Pb. From this, we get TBR value better with the Be as neutron multiplier. Beside of TBR value, fusion reactor can analyze the distribution of neutron flux and dose rate of neutron to know the change of neutron concentration for each layer in reactor. From the simulation in this study, 97% neutron concentration can be absorbed by material in reactor, so it is good enough. In addition, it is required to analyze spectrum neutron energy in many layers in the fusion reactor such as in blanket, coolant, and divertor. Actually material in that layer can resist in high temperature

  7. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rule, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  8. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rule, K.; King, M.; Takase, Y.; Oshima, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Sukegawa, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  9. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  10. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  11. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  12. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  13. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-11-12

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250{percent} of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10{sup -22} s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding

  14. Overview of US Fusion Energy Programs: January 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The US Fusion Program is in {open_quotes}Transition.{close_quotes} This happens so infrequently that no one knows exactly what to expect; it makes everyone a little skittish. Program leadership does make a difference; Secretary Watkins was a positive force for fusion. Energy Research Director Happer remains in his position and is a positive force for scientific quality. Secretary O`Leary has stated that {open_quotes}Fusion energy holds great promise as an element of the nation`s long-term energy supply.{close_quotes} While new leaders may seek new directions with important implications for fusion, it seems reasonable to expect that, for fusion, such changes are likely to emerge slowly. Thus the assumption now is that the fusion priorities remain unchanged. In the spirit of optimism surrounding the new administration, the Fusion Energy Program`s intention is to make as much progress as possible on the course presently established.

  15. Progress on Light-Ion Fusion Reactions with Three-Nucleon Forces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: The 22nd European Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics, cracow, Poland, Sep 09 - Sep 13, 2013

  16. Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution with a nickel electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notoya, Reiko )

    1993-09-01

    The evolution of a large amount of heat, unexplainable by ordinary chemical reactions, was observed in an electrolytic cell with a nickel cathode and a platinum anode in a potassium carbonate-light water solution. The nickel cathode had a specially designed porous structure, based on fundamental knowledge concerning the active hydrogen electrode in alkaline solutions. An increase in the concentration of calcium ions was observed in the electrolyte, which seems to be the result of potassium-hydrogen cold fusion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  18. Fusion Reactor Materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This is the twelfth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  19. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This is the ninth in series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development of Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  20. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: {sm_bullet} Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance. {sm_bullet} Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies. {sm_bullet} Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. This report has been compiled and edited under the guidance of A.F. Rowcliffe by Gabrielle Burn, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their efforts, and the efforts of the many persons who made technical contributions, are gratefully acknowledged.