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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

SciTech Connect

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

NONE

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Co-gasification of biomass with coal and oil sands coke in a drop tube furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chars were obtained from individual fuels and blends with different blend ratios of coal, coke and biomass in Drop Tube Furnace at different temperatures. Based… (more)

Gao, Chen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dale Coke Photo by Benjamin J. Myers.2009. Coke FarmDale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Definition: Coke | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coke A solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal; used as a fuel and a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from...

16

Spatial variation of coke quality in the non-recovery beehive coke ovens.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??More than 50% of hot metal production worldwide takes place in blast furnaces. Coke is the most expensive raw material in the blast furnace. It… (more)

Segers, Magrieta

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

United States crude slate is becoming heavier and generally higher in sulfur. At the same time demand of distillate products is increasing. Refiners are reworking their plans to include resid conversion via coking and approximately 230,000 BPD of new coking capacity is either under construction or announced. Even if 50 percent of the coke produced is exported, there will be an excess capacity of coke selling at less than $30/ton depending upon the sulfur content. This coke can be gasified effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per million Btu in 1990. The paper will discuss three gasifiers - Gesellschaft fur Kohle-Technologie Gmbh (GKT), Texaco and Westinghouse which may be used for the production of medium-Btu gas from coke. The design parameters, which for coke gasification may be different from coal gasification because of the difference in physical and chemical characteristics of coke and coal, will be evaluated. Conceptual design will be performed based upon normal fuel requirements of about 20 billion Btu per day for a typical 50,000 BPD refinery. Adaptability of coke derived gas to refinery fuel systems will be discussed in terms of flame temperatures, flue gas volumes, derating and required furnace modifications. Estimates of capital and operating costs will be obtained to calculate the gas cost using the new tax laws. Finally, the GKT gasifier will be compared to the developing Texaco and Westinghouse gasifiers to assess the effect of second generation gasifiers on the economics of coke gasification.

Patel, S. S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Coke | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

18 18 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278418 Varnish cache server Coke Dataset Summary Description UK National coal (and solid fuels and gases derived from processing coal) are published in Chapter 2 (Solid Fuels and Derived Gases) of the Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES). Included here are the datasets for commodity balances (1998 - 2009); supply and consumption (2005 - 2009) of coal and other fuels (e.g. coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, benzole and tars, etc). Chapter 2 of the report is available: http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/Statistics/publications/dukes/308-dukes-2010-ch2.pdf Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

19

Prediction of Coke Quality in Ironmaking Process: A Data Mining Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke is an indispensable material in Ironmaking process by blast furnace. To provide good and constant quality coke for stable and efficient blast furance operation… (more)

Hsieh, Hsu-huang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Study of ways of reducing coke use at non-integrated metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the costs of blast-furnace smelting, the Svobodnyi Sokol plant has devised a comprehensive program of organizational-technical measures that include study of ways of reducing coke consumption. To do this, the plant began operating its blast furnaces with schungite when making foundry and conversion pig irons. Using schungite in the charge employed to make foundry iron makes it possible to save a significant (10-15%) amount of coke. The value of the coefficient that characterizes the replacement of coke by schungite varies broadly and can reach 1.0 or more, depending on the grade of iron being made and the furnace operating regime. The same coefficient has a value of 0.57 kg coke/kg schungite when 12-15 kg schungite/ton pig is used to make conversion pig iron.

S.A. Feshchenko; V.I. Pleshkov; I.N. Shishchuk; A.V. Buev [Svobodnyi Sokol (Russian Federation). Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coke briquettes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a briquette suitable for use as an auxiliary fuel in a shaft furnace for melting of mineral in the manufacture of mineral wool which comprises: 30-75% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquettes, of particles of coke fines or coal fines or both, the fines consisting essentially of particles having a particle size of from 2 to 25 mm; at least 7% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquette, of a hydraulic binder; and at least 15% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquette, of a fine grain oxidic mineral component selected from the group consisting of sand, slag, stone powder, fly ash, limestone powder, dolomite powder, silicon dioxide, and waste material from mineral wool manufacturer, the fine grain oxidic mineral component having a particle size of less than 2 mm.

Anderson, D.B.; Juhlin, N.J.W.; Gillenium, C.I.; Kjell-Berger, O.; Brinck, O.R.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

Craig N. Eatough

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Maximum Rate of Pulverized Coal Injection into Blast Furnace with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulverized coal consumption efficiency is determined by means of microscopic and chemical analysis. The carbon structure of coke fines in the blast furnace ...

26

The Comparison between Vertical Shaft Furnace and Rotary Kiln for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Therefore, calcination of coke used for aluminum reduction by vertical shaft furnace is more competitive based on the existing quality of the green petroleum  ...

27

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Investigating factors that influence carbon dissolution from Coke into Molten iron.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for more efficient blast furnaces is even greater now that there are stricter environmental regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coke within the… (more)

Cham, S. Tsuey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies  

SciTech Connect

Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Co-combustion Character of Oil Shale and Its Semi-coke on CFB Bench  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-coke is by-product from oil shale retorts and it is important to burn it in CFB furnace. But limited to the inflammable combustion traits, co-combustion of semi-coke with raw oil shale would be meaningful. Experimental research on co-combustion ... Keywords: combustion, distribution, semi-coke, temperature

Sun Baizhong; Huang Zhirong

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Petroleum Coke VBD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production: Petroleum Coke VBD ... of Calcined Petroleum Coke: Jignesh Panchal1; Mark Wyborney1; ...

32

Energy saving furnace controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a forced air heating system including a furnace controlled by a household thermostat. The furnace includes a burner, burning valve, heat exchanger, plenum and fan for circulating air through the heat exchanger and plenum. An auxiliary controller comprises: relay means connectable between the household thermostat and the furnace burner valve; and timing means for controlling the duty cycle of the furnace burner valve by opening and closing the relay. The timing means includes means for timing alternating first and second intervals, the first interval at least substantially equal to the length of time the furnace delays between a cell for heat from the household thermostat and the start of the furnace fan when the furnace is started from a cool state. The second interval corresponds to a percentage of the first interval.

Johnson, H.R.; Lombardi, S.E.

1987-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2004-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

35

Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The co-gasification behavior of highly and lowly reactive coke for blast furnace is investigated. ... Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

36

Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Petroleum Coke  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Includes volumes uses as ...

39

The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron...

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

40

Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke ... " Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke Beyond 1600'C" by Christopher A. Paul of Great Lakes ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

Tube furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Enameling Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 13 Cycles for firing ground-coated and cover-coated sheet steel parts in a continuous furnace...Architectural panels 16-22 805 1480 2-4 Home laundry equipment 18-22 805 1480 4-5 Water heater tanks 7-16 870 1600 8-12 Range equipment 18-24 805 1480 3-5 Sanitary ware 14-18 815 1500 4-6 Signs 16-22 805 1480 3-5 (a) Temperature varies with composition of frit. (b) Time in hot zone of furnace...

46

Design and economics for low pressure delayed coking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current refining trend is to run heavier crudes with a growing emphasis on bottom of the barrel resid upgrading. In general, a reduction in light crude availability and a corresponding increase in the price differential between light and heavy crudes makes the processing of heavier crudes highly attractive. US Department of Energy data indicate that between 1985 and 1989 the average API gravity of crude being processed in the US dropped from 32.46 to 32.14 degrees while the average sulfur content increased 0.15 wt%. As crudes get heavier and the demand for light, clean fuels increases, expanded resid upgrading capacity is rapidly becoming a necessity for most refiners. The coking process has existed since the early 1900's, and delayed coking is still favored as a relatively low cost resid upgrading option. Consistent with the objective of maximizing resid conversion, recent trends in delayed coking include maximizing liquid yields and reducing the production of petroleum coke by operating coke drums at lower pressures. Typically, the incremental liquid gained at lower pressures is worth significantly more than coke and can be further upgraded to lighter products. In addition, the driving force to minimize coke make has been accelerated by the worsening quality of crude oils. As vacuum resid feedstocks become heavier, contaminants in coke such as sulfur and metals are increased, making the coke less marketable. In the case of an existing coker which is capacity limited by coke make, a reduction in coke yield can be quite valuable. This paper discusses the design features and presents the economics associated with building a low pressure delayed coker with a 15 psig coke drum operating pressure versus a more conventional 25 psig design.

Bansal, B.B.; Moretta, J.C.; Gentry, A.R. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Furnace assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Met coke world summit 2005  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: I: Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: Session I: Petroleum Coke. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Jean-Claude Thomas , Aluminium ...

50

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

51

Coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (IR) thermography testing of several furnaces, identified extremely hot surfaces on the outside of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace, the energy efficiency improved by approximately 11%. The total savings are approximately 14,000 Million Btu/yr on one furnace. Insulation will be applied to several other furnaces at the site.

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Influence of Coke Calcining Parameters on Petroleum Coke ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 1, 1985 ... TMS Student Member price: 0.00. Product In Stock. Description All physical and chemical properties of petroleum coke are determined by three ...

57

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Factors influencing coke gasification with carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Of all coke properties the influence of the catalytic mineral matter on reactivity of metallurgical cokes is least understood. There is limited information about the… (more)

Grigore, Mihaela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant  

SciTech Connect

ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

Trevino, O. (Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coke from coal and petroleum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Definition: Petroleum coke | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coke coke Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Petroleum coke A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking (breaking of carbon-carbon bonds). This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke.Coke from petroleum has a heating value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Petroleum coke (often abbreviated Pet coke or petcoke) is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. Other coke has traditionally been derived from coal. This coke can either be fuel grade (high in sulphur and metals) or anode grade (low in sulphur and metals). The raw coke directly out of the coker is often

62

Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in oil refining technology and economics are driving refiners to utilize thermal processes to maximize the conversion of heavy crude oil components to clean products. Since the primary unit operation to accomplish this objective is the coking unit, more cokers are being built, and existing cokers are being operated to maximum capacity utilization. SRI recently completed an assignment for a refiner interested in converting the by-product fluid coke from his unit to electricity. This paper presents the operating history of US based plants converting petroleum coke to electricity, and presents generic economics for the conversion process utilizing three primary technologies available: conventional pulverized coke combustion, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, and coke gasification combined cycle power production.

Pavone, A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Tritium extraction furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

Goldin, I.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Georgia Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Georgia Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

66

Minnesota Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Minnesota Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

67

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Coping with the Decline in Coke Quality – Using Onsite Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... coke (CPC), the blending of non-traditional cokes (NTAC's) has increased. ... Prebaked Anode from Coal - Utilization of Coal Extract as a Coke Feedstock-.

69

New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Experimental study of elastoplastic mechanical properties of coke drum materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes the… (more)

Chen, Jie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategy Distributions for Coke (First Quarter 1977) a)Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE ADVERTISINGEconomics July, 1998 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and

Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Prediction of Calcined Coke Bulk Density - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to changing green coke quality, a reliable forecast of the calcined coke VBD from small green coke samples is required. The VBD can be predicted from ...

73

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces Furnaces are the most common heating systems used in homes in the United States. They can be all electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. Boilers Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while other buildings have steam or hot water piped in from a central plant. Commercial boilers are manufactured for high- or low-pressure applications.

74

Furnaces and Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production: Furnaces and Energy ... Computational Analysis of Thermal Process of a Regenerative Aluminum Melting Furnace: Jimin ... and the appearance of innovative and competing stirrer systems in the market.

75

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Furnace Design and Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...S. Lampman, Energy-Efficient Heat-Treating Furnace Design and Operation, Heat Treating, Vol 4, ASM Handbook, ASM International,

78

Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The course is directed toward plant managers, anode area managers, process engineers, technical managers, and baking furnace ... ENERGY MANAGEMENT.

79

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants.

Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F. [Texaco, Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

U.S. Imports of Petroleum Coke Marketable (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Marketable Petroleum Coke Supply and Disposition; Petroleum Coke Imports from All Countries; U.S. Imports from All Countries ...

84

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Advanced Green Petroleum Coke Calcination In Electrothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Fluidization Technologies for the Mineral, Materials, and Energy Industries. Presentation Title, Advanced Green Petroleum Coke Calcination In ...

86

Trends in the automation of coke production  

SciTech Connect

Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Furnaces and Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating.

88

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fundamental factors influencing coke strength.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) In an ironmaking blast furnace solid-gas reactions are important and the rate of iron production is strongly dependent… (more)

Curran, Joel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Furnace Black Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher #12 of Crystallographic Studies #12;005F7 Methodologies #12;005F8 Summary · For all furnace carbon black 12� Surface Unorganized Carbon Identified #12;005F11 SRCC's Model #12;005F12 Carbon Black Surface Activity

95

Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by the presence of not only coke but extensive inorganic deposits while the demands of efficient fuel utilization require superior results from decoking procedures. Union Carbide Industrial Services Co., (UCISCO), is continuing the development of its proprietary 'SANDJET' system that removes coke as well as other inorganic deposits efficiently and rapidly. The procedure features computerized job planning and control in order to assure accurate estimates of cost and the proper selection of cleaning parameters and materials. Energy saving benefits of the process have recently become obvious and case studies summarizing these results are discussed. A description of the newly developed job controls and a brief summary of recent experiences in the field will be described in this paper.

Pollock, C. B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Study of Modified Semi-Coke on the Advanced Treatment of Coking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass of absorbent and absorption time had put much on the removal rate of oil in coke wastewater. The removal rate of oil in coke wastewater could be above ...

97

Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence  

SciTech Connect

The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov [ZAO Trest Koksokhimmontazh (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Plasma as a Blast Furnace Supplement: An Evaluation of Thermal Plasma Energy to Heat Blast Air for Iron Productiion, CMP Report No. 89-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the use of thermal plasma heat for blast superheating in iron blast furnace operation. The basic research for this technology was carried out in the 1970's, primarily by the Centre des Recherches Metallurgiques (CRM) in Belgium. The main impetus for development was to increase productivity and efficiency and to decrease coke consumption. This was achieved by replacing some coke fuel by alternative injectant fuels (CH4, oil, coal, etc.) and compensating for these injectants by increas...

1990-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Entrained Flow Gasification of Oil Sand Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of blending woody biomass material with fluid coke and coal on the co-pyrolysis process was investigated in an entrained flow gasifier. The SEM… (more)

Vejahati, Farshid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Characterization of Packing Ability of Coke Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VBD is conventionally used in anode industry to determine the required amount of pitch and fine coke. VBD may be achieved by dense particles while they do ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Estimating Coke and Pepsi's price and advertising strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI’ PRICE S ANDand Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan,Revised, March 1999 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and

Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Furnace Black Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Black Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher 005F 2 Definitions Particle Aggregate = 20nm to 100nm "Diameter" = 200nm to 1,000nm "Length" = Set of Percolated Aggregates Particle (?) Aggregate Agglomerate Constituents Size = Tech/Scientific Challenge 005F 3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock Oil Air Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench 005F 4 Specific Surface Area 005F 5 Structure 3-D Morphology Key Characteristic Summary of Crystallographic Studies 005F 7 Methodologies 005F 8 Summary * For all furnace carbon black 12Å < L C < 17Å * Crystallite L a ≈ 25Å * Amorphous Carbon * No micropores * Very few surface groups (hetero atoms) { 005F 9 Effect of Heat Treatment on Amorphous Carbon

103

Furnace Systems Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Networking and Online Tools, X ... TMS Social Network and Site Tools .... furnace technology, fundamentals of fans and blowers, reduction of melt loss, refractory ... Sutton - Harbison-Walker Refractories; Jon Gillespie - Gillespie & Powers ...

104

Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

R.A. Kishore Nadkarni (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

High temperature furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Evolution of Anode Grade Calcined Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term "anode grade coke" has been used as a broad definition to describe delayed coke with a sponge structure containing relatively low levels of trace ...

107

Strength of the coke fillers of carbon materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between the ultimate compression strengths of coke fillers for carbon materials determined by various techniques and structures, final coke treatment temperatures, etc., are considered.

V.S. Ostrovskii [Research Institute of Structural Graphite Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

109

Improving the Precision and Productivity of Green Coke VCM Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green cokes with high VCM (>12%) are more difficult to calcine and result in a higher porosity and lower bulk density in calcined coke. The paper will review ...

110

Observations on the Coke Air Reactivity Test - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke air reactivities are strongly dependent on coke calcination levels and it is possible to drive air reactivities lower by increasing calcining temperatures.

111

Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking Carbon Intensity ... simple Rist-style blast furnace mass and energy balance, assuming furnace ...

112

Argonne Software Licensing: Glass Furnace Model (GFM)  

The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) Version 4.0, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) glass furnace simulation code was developed at Argonne ...

113

Furnace | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Furnace Furnace Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

114

Colorado Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

115

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Pace forecasts that by the year 2000 petroleum coke production will increase from 36 million to 47 million short tons/year. Because the crude pool will continue to become more sour and refiners treat the coker as the "garbage can" the quality of the petroleum cokes will generally degrade- contain higher sulfur and trace metal levels. The U.S. produces nearly 70% of the total and is expected to maintain this share. Domestic markets consumed less than half of the U.S. production; 80% of the high sulfur fuel grade production from the Gulf coast is exported to Japan or Europe. Increasing environmental concerns could disrupt historic markets and threaten coker operations. This would create opportunities for alternate end-uses such as cogeneration projects. The Pace Consultants Inc. continuously monitors and reports on the petroleum coke industry-production and markets-in its multi-client publication The Pace Petroleum Coke Ouarterly. The information presented in this paper is based on this involvement and Pace's experience in single and multi client consulting activities related to the petroleum refining and petroleum coke industries. The purpose is to provide a review of the existing world petroleum coke industry with particular emphasis on the U.S. production and markets. Forecasted production levels and critical factors which could alter the historic market disposition of petroleum coke are addressed.

Dymond, R. E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Method for the wet quenching of coke  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for the wet quenching of coke is disclosed wherein hot coke is sprayed from above with quenching water, the steam generated by the heat of the coke is condensed by a spray of condensation water from the top of the quenching tower, and the hot condensate-water mixture is collected at the bottom of the quenching tower and recirculated to the top of the tower where it is sprayed between quenching operations to be cooled by a counterflowing stream of air. The cooled condensate water mixture is suitable for reuse as the condensation spray water.

Blase, M.; Flockenhaus, C.; Wagener, D.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel from a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products, removing at least some coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. The process provides a useful method of mass producing these products from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands. 1 fig.

Shang, Jer Yu.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?  

SciTech Connect

In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

Ruffini, A.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

New and revised standards for coke production  

SciTech Connect

The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method for processing coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

127

Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several aspects of the technology employed have been patented in the U.S. and elsewhere. This paper discusses the use of process heat and gas turbine exhaust for air preheat to provide plant fuel savings of about 8% over and above a modern, fuel efficient alternative furnace without air preheat.

Kenney, W. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement January 6, 2010 - 8:26am Addthis Chris Stewart Senior Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory For the past few weeks, my forced-air gas furnace has been on the fritz. I blame this on the fact that I haven't been as diligent as I should have been with regular furnace maintenance, which includes: Checking the condition of the vent connection pipe and chimney Checking the physical integrity of the heat exchanger Adjusting the controls to provide optimum water and air temperature settings for both efficiency and comfort Having a technician perform a combustion-efficiency test Checking the combustion chamber for cracks. Testing for carbon monoxide

132

HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

Olson, D.M.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Characterization of Petroleum Coke and Butts Used in Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Particulate Composites. Presentation Title, Characterization of Petroleum Coke ...

136

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

137

U.S. Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

138

Effect of Coke particle size on sinter quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, EMPMD Technical Division Student Poster Contest. Presentation Title, Effect of Coke particle size ...

139

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effect of Trace Elements on Anaerobic Digestion of Coking Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pretreatment of coking wastewater using ASBR was conducted at 35? in this paper. The addition of trace elements to the anaerobic reactor has positive effect on the anaerobic treatment of coking wastewater, but too much or too little of it will ... Keywords: trace elements, anaerobic digestion, coking wastewater

Yu-ying Li; Bing Li

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Financial Analysis for Developing CDM Project in the Coke Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the coke plant, the traditional coke wet quenching method is to be used to cool down the red hot coke and waste heat is released to the atmosphere in China. There are a lot of smog, particles, cyanide, sulphide and etc. mixtures within the waste heat. ... Keywords: CDQ technology, CO2 emission reductions, financial analysis, potential calculation, recycle sustainable development

Ma Xiuqin; Huang Chao; Wu Guoning

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

Rhodes, A.K.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparison of the Potential Impacts of Petroleum Coke and Anthracite Culm Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary feedstock for the proposed Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project would be low-cost anthracite culm, which is a locally abundant, previously discarded resource that could accommodate fuel requirements during the demonstration period. Culm reserves controlled by WMPI are estimated to be sufficient to supply the proposed facilities for about 15 years, or to supply both the proposed facilities and the existing Gilberton Power Plant for about 11 years. Based on the applicant’s proposal, the facilities would also be capable of using a blend of feedstock containing up to 25% petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a high-sulfur, high-energy product having the appearance of coal. Oil refineries produce petroleum coke by heating and removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the residue remaining after the refining process. This appendix compares some of the potential impacts of 100 % anthracite culm use with the potential impacts from using a blended feedstock of 75 % anthracite culm and 25 % petroleum coke. Topics considered include carbon dioxide emissions, air emissions of sulfur compounds and toxic substances, solid wastes and byproduct production, and increased truck traffic. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Published values for potential CO2 emissions from anthracite and petroleum coke are very similar.

Gilberton Coal-to-clean Fuels

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Regenerative Burners Assessment in Holding Reverberatory Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life.

145

Water protection in coke-plant design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Design, construction and start-up of a modern coke plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The planning and design of a 60-oven, 6m replacement coke battery and associated by-products plant for Republic Steel Corp, Chicago, are described together with the constructional methods used and problems experienced through start-up of the facility. Pushing emission control is achieved with a Mitsubishi-type land-based system and changing emission control with a Nippon Steel combination car and land-based system. A Takahax-Hirohax coke-oven gas desulphurization unit is included in the by-product plant. Construction began in March 1979 with the first push in December 1981.

Williams, A.E.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

149

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash collection efficiency.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI)) Place Indiana Zip 46809 Sector Geothermal energy Product WaterFurnace develops and manufactures geothermal heating and cooling systems. References WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI))[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI)) is a company located in Indiana . References ↑ "WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI))"

151

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces October 7, 2013 - 10:39am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

154

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace April 1, 2010 - 7:16pm Addthis Joshua DeLung For the last 56 years, Beulah Sisk has lived in the same house in Princeton, W.Va. Beulah, who worked for 25 years at Lloyd's Pastry Shop, is well known in Princeton. People still see her on the streets today and recognize her as an icon in the community. After a wind storm damaged Beulah's home last year, it came as no surprise when a senior center employee, concerned for Beulah's safety, told her about the weatherization assistance program. "A tree fell on my house and damaged a lot of things, including my furnace," Beulah says. "I tried to have it repaired, but it still

155

Price of dwindling supply of better-quality coke will trend upward during this decade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the markets for petroleum coke with particular emphasis on the USA. The factors affecting the price of Green Coke are examined. It is considered that the price of any coke is set by the mix of markets available to the market based on demand. However, refiners producing similar quality cokes, will not necessarily receive the same netback price even if their cokes are sold to the same mix of markets. Calcined coke is used almost exclusively by the Aluminium industry thus green coke prices are indirectly tied to those of Aluminium as green coke is the primary carbon source for the calcined coke market.

Fasullo, P.; Tarrillion, T.; Matson, J.

1982-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

SciTech Connect

A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method for reducing coke oven carbonization pressure  

SciTech Connect

A method of reducing the carbonization pressure in the coking of coal is provided which comprises randomly dispersing flakes through the coal, said flakes formed of a material that does not pass through a plastic phase such as pressed sawdust wherein the flakes have a thickness of between about 1/8 '' and about 3/4 '' and a length and width of between about 1'' and about 5''.

Perch, M.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Exports U.S. Coke Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 162,796 79,217 201,795 242,013 340,944 -29.0 Canada* 73,859 17,837 112,348 91,696 161,596 -43.3 Mexico 88,535 60,517 86,721 149,052 176,163 -15.4 Other** 402 863 2,726 1,265 3,185 -60.3 South America Total 223 217 591 440 1,158 -62.0 Other** 223 217 591 440 1,158 -62.0 Europe Total 48,972 59,197 - 108,169 6 NM Other** 347 11,743 - 12,090 - - United Kingdom 48,625 47,454 - 96,079 6 NM Asia Total 317 553 633 870 4,778

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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161

Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Imports U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 10,284 2,293 159,462 12,577 183,712 -93.2 Canada 3,009 2,293 159,462 5,302 183,712 -97.1 Panama 7,275 - - 7,275 - - South America Total 25,267 13,030 88,424 38,297 106,612 -64.1 Brazil - - 78,595 - 78,595 - Colombia 25,267 13,030 9,829 38,297 28,017 36.7 Europe Total 6,044 40,281 165,027 46,325 485,791 -90.5 Czech Republic - 170 - 170 - - Spain 363 - - 363 - - Ukraine 5,681 40,111 5,047 45,792 53,543 -14.5 United Kingdom

162

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Reducing Power Production Costs by Utilizing Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke. It is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance, and is generally less reactive than coal. Therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the comb...

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Vibrated bulk density (VBD) is a quantitative measurement used in the aluminum industry to evaluate the density of calcined petroleum coke.

166

Impurity Removal from Petroleum Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Impurity Removal from Petroleum Coke. Author(s), Alexandre Gagnon, Hans Darmstadt, Nigel Backhouse, Esme Ryan, Laurence Dyer, David ...

167

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and Implications of Changes in the ASTM Method D4292. Author(s), Bill Spencer, ...

168

Coking is a refinery process that produces 19% of finished ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Financial market analysis and financial data ... hydraulically cutting the coke using water. ... to a heater as a fluidized solid where some of it is ...

169

Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1993 ... Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium Sensitivity of Carbon Anodes by S.M. Hume ... TMS Student Member price: 0.00.

170

Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level – Application and Reproducibility of Lc Based Methods. Author(s), Stein ...

171

Use of Coal Tar Pitch Coke for Producing Prebaked Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study was conducted in order to (1) find an alternative material to petroleum coke due to its high cost and deteriorating properties, and (2) determine the ...

172

Modélisation thermomécanique d'un piédroit de four à coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Inscrite dans le cadre du projet européen Coke Oven Operating Limits, cette thèse porte sur la modélisation thermomécanique d'un piédroit de cokerie. Le piédroit est… (more)

Landreau, Matthieu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Discrete Element Method Applied to the Vibration Process of Coke ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, effects of particle shape and size distribution on vibrated bulk density (VBD) of dry coke samples have been investigated. Discrete Element ...

174

Increasing Coke Impurities – Is this Really a Problem for Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Increases in the Vanadium and Nickel content of anode grade coke in recent years have predictably affected smelter metal quality. This has now ...

175

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inc. Pigg, Scott. 2003. Electricity Use by New Furnaces: Astage furnaces offer national electricity savings, but withABORATORY Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces andcalculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces.residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Adsorptive removal of nitrogen from coal-based needle coke feedstocks using activated carbon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A low percentage of nitrogen in needle coke feedstocks is desired for the reduction of puffing during the process of graphitization of needle coke. The… (more)

Madala, Sreeja.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. What does this mean for me? To maintain your heating system's efficiency and ensure healthy indoor air quality, it's critical to maintain the unit and its venting mechanism. Proper maintenance extends the life of your furnace or boiler and saves you money. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via pipes to steam radiators, and hot water can be distributed

180

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cut out of a piece of plywood that is attached to the inlet.the size of the furnace outlet cut in the plywood. ESLtaped the furnace to the plywood and strapped it in place.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Furnace Systems Technology Workshop Brochure (PDF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To register, visit the furnace systems technology ... transfer, atmospheres and purging requirements, effective control systems, and fuel efficiency, production ...

182

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

U.S. Exports to Saudi Arabia of Petroleum Coke (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination; Saudi Arabia Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination ...

184

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination; South Africa Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination ...

185

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the coke profile with respect to time on stream and the change of product distribution due to catalyst deactivation. A fixed bed reactor was used to conduct this investigation. A series of runs were conducted using the Engelhard catalyst with fixed operating conditions. The only variable was the time on stream of each run. Six experiments were conducted starting with one hour time on stream up to six hours with an increment of one hour. In each experiment data on product flow rate, reactor temperature, and product distribution were collected. And at the end of each run, the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst was measured. Hydrogen concentration in the product distribution decreased as a function of time on stream. On the other hand, low and high end hydrocarbons increased with time on stream. The coke deposition kinetics for the catalyst at the process operating conditions can be estimated using Voorhies' empirical formula. The coke profile inside the reactor showed that the coke reaction follows a parallel mechanism to the main reaction. Ethylene was found to be the main coke precursor; however, the participation of methane in the coke reaction could not be neglected.

Al-Solami, Bandar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Forced air fireplace furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of heating system for buildings including a fireplace with an open front hearth for burning firewood, a chimney extending from the upper portion of the hearth, a metal firebox being open in the front and closed on the sides and back, a plenum chamber within and surrounding the sides and back of the metal firebox and the chimney lower portion, a horizontal heat distribution chamber positioned in the building attic and communicating at one end with the plenum chamber is described. An air distribution duct connects to the other end of the air distributing chamber, the duct extending to discharge heated air to a place in the building remote from the fireplace. A fan is placed in the horizontal air distributing chamber, and a return air duct extends from selected place in the building and communicates with the plenum chamber lower portion so that the fan draws air through the return air duct, through the plenum chamber around the firebox where the air is heated, through the horizontal distribution chamber, and out through the distribution duct for circulation of the heated air within the building.

Bruce, R.W.; Gorman, R.E.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

188

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

190

Comprehensive Effect of Coke Breeze and Limestone Particle Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

191

Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Census Division June 30, 2013 March 31, 2013 June 30, 2012 Percent Change (June 30) 2013 versus 2012 Middle Atlantic w w w w East North Central 1,313 1,177 1,326 -1.0 South Atlantic w w w w East South Central w w w w U.S. Total 2,500 2,207 2,295 8.9 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants.'

192

U.S. Ending Stocks of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Ending Stocks of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 4,502: ...

193

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 50,292: ...

194

U.S. Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: ...

195

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 2,754: 4,394: 3,722: 3,995: 5,211: ...

196

U.S. Petroleum Coke Stocks at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Petroleum Coke Stocks at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 10,747: 11,072: 11,444: ...

197

Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV Jump to: navigation, search Name Nippon Coke and Engineering & Sumitomo Corp JV Place Tokyo, Japan Zip 135-6007 Product Japan-based natural...

198

Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

202

List of Furnaces Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Furnaces Incentives Furnaces Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 688 Furnaces Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-688) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit

203

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880,...

204

Energy Control in Primary Aluminium Casthouse Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to effectively run a furnace with low energy consumption the burner's fuel ... Oxidation of Commercial Purity Aluminium Melts: An Experimental Study.

205

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Dataplot Commands for Furnace Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... variable label run Run Number variable label zone Furnace Location variable label wafer Wafer Number variable label filmthic Film Thickness (ang ...

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

High Performance Sealing for Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

208

Energy Efficiency Improvement in Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the high energy consumption facilities in a smelter is the Anode Baking ... Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode Baking Furnace ...

209

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

210

Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental technical and managerial support to Thermal Stabilization activities during the initial use of the HA-211 Furnaces until the commencement of full five furnace, unrestricted operations. (3) Ensure that operations can be conducted in a manner that meets PFP and DOE expectations associated with the principles of integrated safety management. (4) To ensure that all interfacing activities needed to meet Thermal Stabilization mission objectives are completed.

WILLIS, H.T.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

213

The effects of improved residential furnace filtration on airborne particles  

SciTech Connect

Forced air furnaces with distributed ducting systems have always had an air filter, but traditionally the filter quality was only adequate to protect the furnace fan and heat exchanger from debris. In the past several years, there has been an increasing number of more effective particulate filters that are being marketed to reduce airborne particulate or dust. These include upgraded panel filters, passive electrostatic, active electrostatic, and HEPA or near-HEPA variants. Consumers are bewildered by the lack of standardized and comprehensible performance results and need better advice on whether it would be useful for them to upgrade their current furnace filter. In order to help them make these decisions, the whole range of available furnace filters were tested in six occupied houses. The filter efficiency was determined by particulate measurement in the ducting system before and after the filter. Indoor particulates were measured in a bedroom and living room, and outdoor levels were monitored simultaneously. Testing encompassed several weeks in each house, and the results are available in the whole range of particle sizes. The project also looked at the air-cleaning effectiveness of a stand-alone air cleaner and at the ozone production of electrostatic precipitators installed in 20 houses. Test results will be helpful in specifying suitable filtration for houses.

Fugler, D.; Bowser, D.; Kwan, W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling for 12 hours. Pressurized argon and process water are used to expedite cooling. The proposed modifications aim to minimize cycling by reducing cooling time; they are grouped into three fundamental mechanisms. The first is a recommendation to modify current operating procedures. This entails opening the furnace doors at higher than normal temperatures. A furnace temperature model based on current parameters is used to show the reduction in cooling time in response to opening the furnace doors at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat from the furnace envelope. Heat transfer models based on convective Nusselt correlations are used to determine the increase in heat transfer rate. The last mechanism considers a modification to the current heat exchanger. By decreasing the temperature of the water jacket and increasing heat exchanger efficiency, heat transfer from the furnace is increased and cooling time is shortened. This analysis is done using the Effectiveness-NTU method.

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Precision control of high temperature furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the present invention to provide precision control of high temperature furnaces. It is another object of the present invention to combine the power of two power supplies of greatly differing output capacities in a single furnace. This invention combines two power supplies to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. Further, this invention comprises a means for high speed measurement of temperature of the process by the method of measuring the amount of current flow in a deliberately induced charged particle current.

Pollock, G.G.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking  

SciTech Connect

1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Furnaces Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

219

Hydrodesulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Decant Oils for the Production of Low-sulfur Needle Coke Feedstocks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Needle coke, produced by the delayed coking of fluid catalytic cracking decant oils, is the primary filler used in the production of graphite electrodes. The… (more)

Wincek, Ronald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in nonsmokers: a biomarker for coke smoke exposure and general urban PAH exposure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation research examined the validity of urinary 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAH for coke production workers and non-coke oven workers in Anshan City,… (more)

Han, In-Kyu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Infrared Imaging of Temperature Distribution in a High Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Temperature X-ray Diffraction (HTXRD) is a very powerful tool for studies of reaction kinetics, phase transformations, and lattice thermal expansion of advanced materials. Accurate temperature measurement is a critical part of the technique. Traditionally, thermocouples, thermistors, and optical pyrometers have been used for temperature control and measurement and temperature could only be measured at a single point. Infrared imaging was utilized in this study to characterize the thermal gradients resulting from various sample and furnace configurations in a commercial strip heater furnace. Furnace configurations include a metallic strip heater, with and without a secondary surround heater, or a surround heater alone. Sample configurations include low and high thermal conductivity powders and solids. The IR imaging results have been used to calibrate sample temperatures in the HTXRD furnace.

Payzant, E.A.; Wang, H.

1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

222

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Ladle Refining Furnaces for the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a tremendous interest in the use of ladle refining furnaces in the last few years. Several units have been or are being constructed in the United States and most steel companies are seriously considering installing them. The purpose of this report is to inform the member companies of EPRI of the development and operations of ladle furnaces and to assist steel companies in determining if ladle furnaces fit their goals and which particular unit would be best for their operation. In this repo...

1990-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence by Vaclav Smil September share of their primary energies from renewable sources. Steel & Coal-Derived Coke Here is another important: steel's fundamental dependence on coal-derived coke with no practical substitutes on any rational

Smil, Vaclav

225

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device ...  

This means that the furnace is almost immune to the contamination from hot walls of ... NREL 94-26 US 5,897,331 High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film ...

227

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency...

228

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Table 33. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 33. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Census Division April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Middle Atlantic w w w w w w East North Central 3,051 2,997 3,092 6,048 6,156 -1.8 South Atlantic w w w w w w East South Central w w w w w w U.S. Total 5,471 5,280 5,296 10,751 10,579 1.6 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants

230

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Census Division April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Middle Atlantic w w w w w w East North Central 3,189 2,679 3,225 5,867 5,993 -2.1 South Atlantic w w w w w w East South Central w w w w w w U.S. Total 5,770 4,962 5,370 10,732 10,440 2.8 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants

232

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's: 4.3: 4.3: 4.3: ...

233

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 4.4: 4.6: 4.5: 4.3: 4.1: 4.2: 4.4: 4.3: ...

234

file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3.Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those based mainly on electric, natural gas, residual fuel oil, coal...

235

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

237

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified to recover this heat and convert it to power. The system will then reduce the amount of purchased power by approximately 25% without any additional use of fuel. The cost of this power is virtually unchanged over the life of the project because of the use of capital to displace fuel consumed from the purchased power source.

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 31.8277663°, -100.5296115° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.8277663,"lon":-100.5296115,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

239

Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process  

SciTech Connect

The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

Knight, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Control of energy use in a furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes, in a residential furnace of the type which is responsive to a thermostat and has an electronic ignitor, and a circulating air blower that May be operated on a continuous basis, an improved process of controlling the thermostat, electrical ignitor and blower in an ignition sequence of the furnace. It comprises: upon receiving a call for heat from a thermostat, checking to determine if the circulating air blower is on; if the blower is on, turning it off; and only after the blower is turned off, turning on the ignitor to initiate the combustion process.

Ballard, G.W.; Dempsey, D.J.

1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Development of Load Tap Changer Monitoring Technique: Mechanism of Coking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load tap changers (LTCs) play a major role in the reliable delivery of electric power. They are the single biggest contributors to transformer outages. To improve reliability and extend their service interval, utilities are adopting proactive maintenance practices using monitoring devices and seeking new diagnostic techniques. As part of an ongoing EPRI project, EPRI and cosponsor Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. engaged in a study of contact coking, one of the biggest problems in LTCs. This EPR...

2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

244

New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 240.59 241.38 218.40 240.85 225.80 6.7 Canada* 147.49 330.47 243.04 183.08 286.56 -36.1 Mexico 316.57 211.63 189.12 273.97 171.71 59.6 Other** 612.42 485.63 134.48 525.92 135.04 289.5 South America Total 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Other** 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Europe Total 259.26 255.24 - 257.06 427.83 -39.9 Other**

246

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 263.21 252.66 353.05 261.29 356.01 -26.6 Canada 263.51 252.66 353.05 258.82 356.01 -27.3 Panama 263.09 - - 263.09 - - South America Total 196.86 194.14 175.88 195.94 181.01 8.2 Brazil - - 157.60 - 157.60 - Colombia 196.86 194.14 322.06 195.94 246.68 -20.6 Europe Total 181.55 232.13 385.65 225.53 384.96 -41.4 Czech Republic - 475.91 - 475.91 - - Spain 360.51

247

Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Title Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Publication Type Report...

248

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ducts Total Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) ity ni x FrDucts Total Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) nt a ni x Fryear. Furnace blowers account for about 80% of the total furnace electricity consumption

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Grate Furnace Combustion: A Submodel for the Solid Fuel Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reduction of NOx-formation in biomass fired grate furnaces requires the development of numerical models. To represent the variety in scales and physical processes playing a role in the conversion, newly developed ... Keywords: Grate furnace, biomass, reverse combustion

H. A. Kuijk; R. J. Bastiaans; J. A. Oijen; L. P. Goey

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond, S.M. (Raymond A.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput. Sponsorship, The Minerals ...

252

The information furnace: consolidated home control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

?The Information Furnace is a basement-installed PC-type device that integrates existing consumer home-control, infotainment, security and communication technologies to transparently provide accessible and value-added services. A modern home contains ... Keywords: Automation, Consumer electronics, Home-control, Multi-modal interfaces

Diomidis D. Spinellis

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The Vertical Ball Mill for the Grinding of Calcined Petroleum Coke to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new vertical ball ring mill concept has been developed based on the results of research on the grinding of calcined petroleum coke. Industrial vertical mills are ...

255

Development Of Reclamation Substrates For Alberta Oil Sands Using Mature Fine Tailings And Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mature fine tailings and coke are waste products of the oil sands industry with potential for reclamation. A greenhouse study assessed whether substrates of various… (more)

Luna-Wolter, Gabriela L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Preparation of Activated Carbon from Oil Sands Coke by Chemical and Physical Activation Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil sands coke is a by-product resulting from the upgrading of heavy crude bitumen to light synthetic oil. This research investigates the preparation of activated… (more)

Morshed, Golam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal-flow Inside a Petroleum Coke Rotary Calcining Kiln.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Calcined coke is the best material for making carbon anodes for smelting of alumina to aluminum. Calcining is an energy intensive industry and a significant… (more)

Zhang, Zexuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Coke yield and transport processes in agglomerates of bitumen and solids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agglomerate formation is a common phenomenon that can cause operating problems in the fluid coking reactor. When agglomerates form they provide longer diffusion paths of… (more)

Ali, Mohamed Ali Hassan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Effect of Coke Particle Size on Thermal Profile of Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baking process and sinter production was performed for different ranges of coke particle size while other parameter like, iron ore, lime and sintering mixture ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF NEEDLE COKE FEEDSTOCKS AND MESOPHASE DEVELOPMENT DURING CARBONIZATION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates the molecular composition of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) decant oil and its derivatives that are used as feedstocks for delayed coking to… (more)

Wang, Guohua

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

U.S. Exports to Belarus of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to Belarus of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2004: 17

263

Effect of Blending HDPE with Coke on the Reduction Behavior of a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This has led to the exploration of the possibility of using polymer/coke blends in the production of ferro-alloys, particularly High Carbon Ferromanganese (HC ...

264

The effect of diabietic acid on the coking of oxidised solvent-extracted coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Refcoal is a refined carbon source obtained by extraction of coal with dimethylformamide (DMF). During the coking process, Refcoal goes through a mesophase (fluid) stage… (more)

Ludere, Margaret Tshimangadzo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Field Demonstration of the Thermostone III Electric Thermal Storage Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat storage furnaces use low-cost, off-peak electricity to satisfy all of a customer's heating needs. This field demonstration showed that prototype heat storage furnaces maintained comfort under diverse climate conditions, usage patterns, and lengths of off-peak periods. In addition, these furnaces effectively shifted the load to off-peak hours.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coke produced i n industrial coke ovens. "Antique" coke isboilers Industrial boilers Kilns Producer ovens Motorovens Coke ovens and metallurgical furnaces Industrial kilns

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Developing indicators for the assessment and proper management of the different levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s generally associated with coke-oven workers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke ovens may occur in the aluminium, steel, graphite, electrical, and construction industries. In the work area coke-oven workers may be exposed to various chemical… (more)

Wang, Tianyuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The effects of petroleum coke amendments on macrophytes and aquatic invertebrates in northern Alberta, Canada constructed wetlands.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil-sands operators of Fort McMurray, Alberta produce six million t/y of petroleum coke. The use of coke to stabilize clay-dominated mine tailings in constructed wetlands… (more)

Baker, Leanne F.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

Zemblevskii, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Short Survey: Intelligent switching expert system for delayed coking unit based on iterative learning strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Delayed coking is the most effective process to decarbonize and demetallize heavy petroleum residues. However, it relies much on the field engineers' experiences and expertise in practice for operating the controllers effectively and compatibly in delayed ... Keywords: Delayed coking, Expert system, Intelligent control, Iterative learning

Xiaodong Yu; Yujie Wei; Dexian Huang; Yongheng Jiang; Bo Liu; Yihui Jin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Study on Further Treatment of Coal Coking Wastewater by Ultrasound Wave, Fenton's Reagent and Coagulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study on further treatment of coal coking wastewater by ultrasound wave, Fenton's reagent and coagulation was carried out in this paper at the first time, Furthermore, this paper discussed the optimum cooperative reaction condition of their combined ... Keywords: ultrasound wave, coke plant wastewater, Fenton reagent, coagulation

Jun Shi; Liangbo Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Organic Sulphur Transfers in Coke Oven Gas via Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic sulfur transformation was studied during coke oven gas to produce syngas via noncatalytic partial oxidation. The concentration of CS2 and thiophene was examined in syngas by sulfide detector. For comparison, the sulfur transfer was also studied ... Keywords: Organic sulfur transfer, Coke oven gas, CS2, thiophene

Guojie Zhang; Yongfa Zhang; Xianglan Li; Hongcheng Cao

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors; Analytical I/O and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal… (more)

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

Freeman, C.J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fundamental investigation of slag/carbon interactions in electric arc furnace steelmaking process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work investigates the interactions of carbonaceous materials (metallurgical coke, natural graphite and HDPE/coke blends) with three EAF slags [FeO: 24% to 32%]. Experiments were… (more)

Rahman, Muhammad Mahfuzur

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

285

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

286

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

288

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity...

289

Recovering Zinc and Lead from Electric Arc Furnace Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price: 10.00. Product In Stock. Description Increasing amounts of electric arc furnace dust ...

290

Induction Furnace Quench & Temper of Oil Field Tubular Goods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the unique operating features of an induction furnace, each pipe is individually heat treated, producing more uniform properties than possible with ...

291

140th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Furnace Efficiency – Energy and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

140th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. February 27 to March 3, 2011. San Diego Convention Center • San Diego, California USA. Furnace Efficiency – Energy and  ...

292

Effect Of Batch Charging Equipment On Glass Furnace Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effects of batch pattern in the melt space caused by charging equipment on the energy efficiency of the furnace focusing on the ...

293

The Limitations of CFD Modeling for Furnace Atmosphere ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2002 ... The Limitations of CFD Modeling for Furnace Atmosphere Troubleshooting by P.F. Stratton, N. Saxena and M. Huggahalli ...

294

Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces by P.E. King, J.J. Hatem, and B.M. Golchert ...

295

Improved Furnace Efficiency through the Use of Refractory Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment ...

296

Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since throughput and energy efficiency are very closely tied together, this symposium looks to optimize furnace operations in both areas. Specific methods to ...

297

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

298

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this...

299

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

300

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air-Handler Efficiency. ASHRAE Transactions, V. 110, Pt.1,Air Heating System Performance. ASHRAE Transactions, V. 104,Furnace Air Handlers Save? , ASHRAE Transactions, V. 110,

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NREL’s Optical Furnace Technology Sparks Solar Industry Interest  

NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. Credit: Ray David, NREL

302

Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling operation or standby, which account for a largethe cooling season, and standby. Furnace electricity use isElectricity Use during Standby PE standby Burner Operating

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development of Reverberatory Furnace Using in Copper Scrape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Furnace Using in Copper Scrape Smelting by Reformed Natural Gas ... Oxidation Kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-V liquid Alloys under Controlled Oxygen Pressures.

305

Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces - Energy Innovation Portal  

Ethylene production is one of the most energy intensive processes in the chemical industry, due to the decoking necessary to maintain ethylene furnace ...

306

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

307

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Comparison of Furnace Flue Gas Temperature Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a temperature monitor comparison study performed at Ameren Sioux Station, in Missouri. The study compared the accuracy and ease of use of two radiation-based monitors, an Infra-View and SpectraTemp, and a newer tunable-diode laser (TDL) absorption-based device, the LTS-100. The instruments, installed in the upper furnace and allowed to run continuously for approximately 8 weeks, monitored and recorded exit gas temperatures during normal boiler operation and one brief...

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

310

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSE Inc. recently completed the design, construction and start-up of a cogeneration plant in which waste heat in the high temperature flue gases of three existing coke calcining kilns is recovered to produce process steam and electrical energy. The heat previously exhausted to the atmosphere is now converted to steam by waste heat recovery boilers. Eighty percent of the steam produced is metered for sale to a major oil refinery, while the remainder passes through a steam turbine generator and is used for deaeration and feedwater heating. The electricity produced is used for the plant auxiliaries and sold to the local utility. Many design concepts were incorporated into the plant which provided for high plant availability, reliability and energy efficiency. This paper will show how these concepts were implemented and incorporated into the detailed design of the plant while making cogeneration a cost effective way to save conventional fuels. Operating data since plant start-up will also be presented.

Coles, R. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Application of Regenerative Combustion Technology on Reheating Furnace in PISCO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key features of the regenerative combustion technology were introduced and its application in the reheating furnace of Rail & Beam plant of PISCO£¨Panzhihua Iron & Steel Co.£©was discussed£®Comparedwith the traditional combustion technology£¬the ... Keywords: Regenerative Style, Combustion Technology, Reheating Furnace, Energy Conservation

Chen Yong; Pan Hong; Xue Nianfu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

316

U.S. Exports to Cameroon of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to Cameroon of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1995: 0: 0: 0: 35: 0: 0: 0: 36: ...

317

Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft  

SciTech Connect

The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu [University of Science & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement On January 11, 2013, the Department of Justice, on behalf of DOE, and the American Public Gas Association (APGA) filed a joint motion asking the court to enter an agreement to settle APGA's challenge to DOE's June 27, 2011 Direct Final Rule. The settlement agreement would, among other things, vacate the energy conservation standards applicable to non-weatherized gas furnaces established in the DFR. In an exercise of its enforcement discretion, DOE will, during the pendency of the litigation, act in a manner consistent with the terms of the settlement agreement with regard to the enforcement of the standards. Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement - April 5, 2013

319

ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces Dataset Summary Description Gas Furnaces that have earned the ENERGY STAR are more efficient than standard models. ENERGY STAR is the trusted symbol for energy efficiency helping consumers save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. More information on ENERGY STAR is available at www.energystar.gov. Tags {Furnaces,"Energy Star",products,"energy efficiency",efficient,"greenhouse gas emissions",climate,utility,utilities,household,savings,labels,partners,certification} Dataset Ratings Overall 0 No votes yet Data Utility

320

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Evaluation of fly ash from co-combustion of coal and petroleum coke for use in concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation of fly ash (FA) produced from various blends of coal and petroleum coke (pet coke) fired at Belledune Generating Station, New Brunswick, Canada, was conducted to establish its performance relative to FA derived from coal-only combustion and its compliance with CSA A3000. The FA samples were beneficiated by an electrostatic separation process to produce samples for testing with a range of loss-on-ignition (LOI) values. The results of these studies indicate that the combustion of pet coke results in very little inorganic residue (for example, typically less than 0.5% ash) and the main impact on FA resulting from the co-combustion of coal and up to 25% pet coke is an increase in the unburned carbon content and LOI values. The testing of FA after beneficiation indicates that FA produced from fuels with up to 25% pet coke performs as good as FA produced from the same coal without pet coke.

Scott, A.N.; Thomas, M.D.A.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Development of an impedance-based sensor for the detection of catalyst coking in fuel-reforming systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel sensor for detecting the early stages of catalyst coking in fuel reforming systems has been developed. The sensor was manufactured by inkjet printing… (more)

Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors for production of coal products -- patent fuel, cokeoven coke,coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and briquettes (BKB) --

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Strategic evaluation of investments in coal-dust fuel for blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the evaluation of venture investment projects in pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces.

S.V. Bogdanov; S.M. Kornilaev [State University of Management, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the Department's commitment to meet its aggressive, five-year appliance standard rulemaking schedule, as established in its January 31, 2006, Report to Congress. The Department estimates that these amended standards, which become effective in 2015, will save the equivalent of the total amount of energy consumed by 2.5 million American households in one year, or approximately 0.25 quadrillion (10x15) British thermal

329

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

330

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

331

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the Department's commitment to meet its aggressive, five-year appliance standard rulemaking schedule, as established in its January 31, 2006, Report to Congress. The Department estimates that these amended standards, which become effective in 2015, will save the equivalent of the total amount of energy consumed by 2.5 million American households in one year, or approximately 0.25 quadrillion (10x15) British thermal

332

EOI, Electric Tube Conversion Furnaces | Y-12 National Security...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tube ... EOI, Electric Tube Conversion Furnaces B&W Y-12, LLC (hereafter known as "Y-12"; for additional company information, see the website), acting under its Prime Contract No....

333

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE and 2006 ASHRAE Test Procedures Furnace Controls Household Heating Requirementsprocedure (DOE 2004; Habart 2005) Heating Requirements areIn the DOE test procedure, the heating requirements of the

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

System for generating power with top pressure of blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A system for generating power with the top pressure of a plurality of blast furnaces by leading a gas from the top of the furnaces into turbines, corresponding in number to the furnaces, to convert the pressure of the gas into rotational energy and generate power by a generator coupled to the turbines. The turbines connected to the furnaces by main gas channels individually are aligned with their rotor shafts connected together into a single shaft which is connected to the generator. Preferably each pair of the adjacent turbines are arranged with their intake ends positioned in the center of the arrangement so that the gas flows toward the exhaust ends at both sides, or with their intake ends positioned at both sides to cause the gas to flow toward the exhaust ends in the center. The single shaft connecting the pair of turbines together has no intermediate bearing between these turbines.

Kihara, H.; Mizota, T.; Ohmachi, M.; Takao, K.; Toki, K.; Tomita, Y.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

335

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

336

Furnace characterization for horizontal shipping container thermal testing  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform regulatory thermal tests required by 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) on the newly designed Horizontal Shipping Container (HSC), it was necessary to find a company involved in the business of heat treating who was willing to allow their furnace to be used for these tests. Of the companies responding to a request for interest, Lindberg Heat Treating Company`s Solon, Ohio, facility was found to be the best available vendor for this activity. Their furnace was instrumented and characterized such that these tests could be performed in a manner that would conform to the specifications contained in 10 CFR 71. It was found that Lindberg`s furnace was usable for this task, and recommendations concerning the use of this furnace for the above stated purpose are made herein.

Feldman, M.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Effect of Batch Initial Velocity on the Glass Furnace Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a direct coloration between the batch distribution techniques and the furnace ... A Review: Solar Thermal Reactors for Materials Production ... Cellulose Acetate Membranes for CO2 Separation from Water-gas-shift Reaction Products.

338

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser ...  

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz ...

339

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler...

340

Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile Â… High-Performance Furnace Blowers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual Fuel Utilization Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency [AFUE] and Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio [SEER] and at real installed conditions. A testing program was undertaken at two laboratories to compare the performance of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points and measured field test pressures. Three different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested. The laboratory test results for blower power and airflow were combined with DOE2 models of building loads, models of air conditioner performance, standby power, and igniter, and combustion air blower power to determine potential energy and peak demand impacts. BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Recognizing Top Innovations in Building Science - The U.S. Department of Energy's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

O' Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)

2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

O' Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

343

Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile Â… High-Performance Furnace Blowers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

annual fuel utilization annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) and seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) and at real installed conditions. A testing program was undertaken at two laboratories to compare the performance of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points and measured field test pressures. Three different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested. The laboratory test results for blower power and airflow were combined with DOE2 models of building loads, models of air conditioner performance, standby power, and igniter and combustion air blower power to determine potential energy and peak demand impacts. BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Recognizing Top Innovations in Building Science - The U.S. Department of Energy's

344

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Field Performance the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: Chicago, IL Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Natural Gas Furnaces Application: New and/or retrofit; Single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2012/2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All or specify which ones PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $250 for adjustments Projected Energy Savings: 6.4% heating savings Projected Energy Cost Savings: $100/year climate-dependent Gas furnaces can successfully operate in the field for 20 years or longer with

348

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

SciTech Connect

Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

349

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Alice Waters’ Chez Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, andlater other high-end restaurants across the country. Cokemostly geared toward the restaurant trade, because that’s

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

What's Happening to Our Body after Drinking Coke? The Characteristic of the Blood Pressure Wave in Radial Artery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous literature has suggested that psychological state may be changed via drinking coke, however, studies empirically documenting the link between coke and blood pressure wave (BPW) are scant. Therefore, the current article attempts to explore how ... Keywords: Blood pressure wave (BPW), spectrum analysis, Sphygmogram, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)

Sheng-Chieh Huang; Yung-Pin Lee; Min-Hua Hsieh; Hui-Min Wang; Mark C. Hou; Shih-Chun Chao; Cheng-Lung Tseng; Wei-Ta Hsiao; Chung-Hung Hong; Kai-Yu Shao; Shi-Han Luo; Wei-Chun Chiu; Wei-Yu Chen

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Method for providing variable output gas-fired furnace with a constant temperature rise and efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for providing a variable output gas-fired furnace means with a constant temperature rise and efficiency where the furnace means includes burners, a blower, a thermostat and a delay timer, the method comprising the steps of: sensing the temperature in an area to be conditioned; comparing the sensed temperature to a predetermined set point; if the sensed temperature deviates from the predetermined set point by more than a predetermined amount, gas is supplied to the burners and the blower is started; determining the reference revolution per minute of the blower; determining the reference cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower; determining the manifold pressure; determining whether the furnace is in a high heat or a low heat mode of operation; determining the desired cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower for the current mode of operation; reading the actual revolution per minute of the blower; adjusting the speed of the blower motor if the actual and desired revolution per minute of the blower are not the same; determining whether the thermostat is satisfied; if the thermostat is not satisfied, returning to the step of determining the manifold pressure; and if the thermostat is satisfied, shutting off the gas and starting the delay timer.

Ballard, G.W.; Thompson, K.D.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue  

SciTech Connect

Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," " " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)"

360

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","RSE" " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Row"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

362

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

363

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

364

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," ","RSE" " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)","Row"

365

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

366

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," " " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)"

367

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Title Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-417E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Franco, Victor H., James D. Lutz, Alexander B. Lekov, and Lixing Gu Document Number LBNL-417E Pagination 14 Date Published August 1 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80% of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressureused in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, whilewarm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

368

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

Not Available

1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

369

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States))

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Does EIA publish coking coal prices? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ. Frequently Asked Questions. Does EIA publish coking coal ...

372

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency/Company /Organization: CONEG Policy Research Center Inc. Partner: Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Rick Handley and Associates, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Other Website: www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/doer/renewables/biomass/DOER%20Biomass%20Emiss Country: United States

373

Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

374

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

375

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the single wall fired unit were presented in a technical paper entitled, ''CFD Investigation of the Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls,'' presented at the 28th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems in Clearwater, FL March 9-14, 2003. In addition to the work completed on the single wall fired unit, the project team made the selection of a 580 MW opposed wall fired unit to be the subject of evaluation in this program. Work is in progress to update the baseline model of this unit so that the parametric simulations can be initiated.

Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Blast furnaces make way for new steel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent environmental regulations, aging production units, and a competitive market are forcing iron and steelmakers to improve the environmental performance and cost efficiencies of their processes. The traditional integrated steel unit isn`t obsolete -- yet. Blast furnaces will be around for at least another 15 years. However, traditional technology is in for some changes, and stepped up rivalry from electric arc furnace minimills and ironmaking processes that use gas or coal. The paper discusses direct iron making processes, the DRI-minimill connection, the iron carbide process, and reclaiming iron from waste.

Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.; Moore, S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

SciTech Connect

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Gas furnace efficiency has large implications for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... ...

380

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

Not Available

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The data furnace: heating up with cloud computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we argue that servers can be sent to homes and office buildings and used as a primary heat source. We call this approach the Data Furnace or DF. Data Furances have three advantages over traditional data centers: 1) a smaller carbon footprint ...

Jie Liu; Michel Goraczko; Sean James; Christian Belady; Jiakang Lu; Kamin Whitehouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Lot sizing and furnace scheduling in small foundries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lot sizing and scheduling problem prevalent in small market-driven foundries is studied. There are two related decision levels: (1) the furnace scheduling of metal alloy production, and (2) moulding machine planning which specifies the type and size ... Keywords: Lot sizing and scheduling, Meta-heuristics, Mixed integer programming

Silvio A. de Araujo; Marcos N. Arenales; Alistair R. Clark

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electrochemical degradation characteristics of refractory organic pollutants in coking wastewater on multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multiwall carbon nanotube-mollified electrode (MWCNT-ME) was fabricated and its electrocatalytic activity of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater was investigated. The surface morphology, absorption properties, and the electrochemical ...

Yan Wang; Shujing Sun; Guifu Ding; Hong Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Spectroscopic studies on the formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking particles: the effect of poisoning metal compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles was studied using UV/Vis microspectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, with n-hexane cracking as… (more)

Goetze, J.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Influence of the batch's coke-ore ratio and distribution on the porosity of the melting zone  

SciTech Connect

The variation in gas permeability in the melting zone is considered as a function of the height and configuration of the coke packing and the ore component of the batch.

V.P. Tarasov; L.V. Bykov; P.V. Tarasov [Priazovsk State Technical University, Mariupol (Ukraine)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Furnace combustion and radiation characteristics of methanol and a methanol/coal slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one meter long, with a firing rate of 60 kW. The measurements taken throughout the furnace include temperature and concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen, methanol and particulates. Spectral radiation intensity measurements are taken along the axis of the furnace burning methanol and the methanol/coal slurry. The effect of the fuel on flame structure is reported. The temperatures in the pure methanol flame are, in general, higher than in the methanol/coal flame. The levels of the oxides of nitrogen are low in the pure methanol flame (less than 20 ppM NO). Addition of 5% coal to the methanol causes NO concentration to increase to 100 ppM. This represents a conversion of 40% of the coal bound nitrogen to NO. Particulate levels increase from less than .001 g/m/sup 3/ for the pure methanol to over .25 g/m/sup 3/ when pulverized coal is added. The low levels of soot and particulates in the methanol flame have an effect on the spectral intensity. No continuous radiation is measured in the methanol flame, but small amounts of particulate radiation can be seen from the spectra of the methanol/coal flame. The total emittance of the flame is increased from about .10 to .135 with the addition of 5% pulverized coal, but the radiation intensity is reduced because of the lower flame temperatures. A numerical program has been written to calculate the spectral intensity from an inhomogeneous mixture of combustion products. Comparisons are made between the calculated intensity and the measured intensity for both fuel systems. The numerical results are about 25% lower than the measured results. Reasons for this are discussed.

Grosshandler, W.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

392

Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology  

SciTech Connect

Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

Lynch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

Coking is a refinery process that produces 19% of finished ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

395

petroleum coke - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

396

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of… (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Dynamic Behaviour of Coke Drums PSVs During Blocked Outlet Condition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The maximum yield taken in an oil refinery can not exceed 70% without including Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) as part of unit operations in the… (more)

Vakilalroayaei, Hessam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

399

Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900–1973  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

iron works, attempts at coke-?red blast furnace operationrst time enabled Japanese coke to fuel blast furnaces. NoroAt U7.0 per ton, the cost of coke for Yawata also compared

Bernard Elbaum

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Addition of Electric Arc Furnace Dust in Hot Metal at a Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

404

Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation  

SciTech Connect

A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

Polcyn, Adam D.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

408

Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the blast furnace means less coke is needed, so maintenancecontrol Foamy slag practices Coke making Oxy-fuel burners/Variable speed drive on coke oven gas compressors Coke dry

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_FurnaceBlower_Paper413_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings? BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings? James Lutz, Victor Franco, Alex Lekov, and Gabrielle Wong-Parodi Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized

412

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

413

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

Not Available

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

offsets the sizable electricity savings. References TitleElectricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forfueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A 3D Mathematical Model of a Horizontal Anode Baking Furnace as ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... phenomena occurring in the furnace and was validated using plant data. ... of the Composite Parts by Arranging Ply Lay-up for Even Resin Distribution and ...

422

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Form EIA-5 Users Manual Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality - Coke Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Users Manual Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality - Coke Plants Document Number: 001 Version: 2.0 June 2011 i June 2011 Document History Number Date Section Description 1 2 June 2011 June 2011 Document initiation Revised screen shots and remove external user references. Primary POC: Tejasvi Raghuveer Phone: (202) 586-8926 Email: Tejasvi.Raghuveer@eia.gov Document Changes/Maintenance POC: Primary POC: Tejasvi Raghuveer Phone: (202) 586-8926 Email: Tejasvi.Raghuveer@eia.gov Project References: Coal Internet Data Collection (CIDC) User's Manual, September 2007 ii June 2011 Content 1. General System Overview ................................................................................. 1

425

Development of a Filter Using Absorbent Technologies for the Removal of Coking Precursors: Laboratory Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-load tap changers (LTC) are the single biggest contributor to transformer problems. Their failure modes may be mechanical, electrical, or related to the quality of the oil and contacts. Utilities are seeking new strategies for LTC maintenance to minimize these problems and, at the same time, reduce maintenance costs. EPRI has initiated several projects with a goal of producing a maintenance-free LTC. One major LTC problem is contact fouling, which can lead to the buildup of coke deposits on contacts a...

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

Rezunenko, Y.I.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

Dosaj, V.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

Duncan, A.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the regulation of combustion in woodstoves, small furnaces and the like, so as to produce efficient combustion, while maximizing the possible heat output and minimizing air pollution. More specifically, the invention relates to controllers for automatically regulating and the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves, small furnaces or the like. 9 figs.

Siemer, D.D.

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

What Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? What Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? January 7, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis This week, Chris told you about his plans to maintain his furnace to keep it running efficiently. Proper maintenance is key to ensuring your heating and cooling systems are in working order. No one wants to wake up on the coldest day of the year to find that they have no heat! What steps do you take to maintain your furnace? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! Saving Energy and Money Starts at Home 31,000 Homes Weatherized in June

434

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Adaptation to space applications of a 2000 c furnace with oxidizing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using a low weight low power consumption furnace with oxidizing atmosphere at 2000 C for space applications is discussed. The main heating element is made of zirconium oxide with a platinum preheating system. The structure and stabilization of zirconium oxide are detailed together with its application to the space situation. The static and dynamic regimes are discussed with regard to measurement of the resistivity as a function of temperature and dynamic model. The temperature distribution in the furnace and in a main heating element were studied in relation to thermal insulation and weight budget. A model is proposed for optimal control and thermostat using analog simulation. The final concept requires 350 W for an isothermal furnace of 20 mm diameter weighing 3 kg. The cases of temperature gradient furnaces and of universal furnaces are reviewed. (GRA)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Delayed Coking  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

437

Petroleum Coke  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

88,015 81,811 82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190 1986-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 11,973 12,198 10,887 9,316 9,766 9,003 1986-2012 Midwest (PADD 2) 15,701 15,005 15,507 16,480 16,834 17,611...

438

SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES  

SciTech Connect

Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype sootblowing control system employing automated deposit imaging.

Dr. Peter Ariessohn

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

Arvind Atreya

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Exergy-based analysis and efficiency evaluation for an aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of a natural gas-fired aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant is examined using energy and exergy methods, to improve understanding of the burner system in the furnace and so that potential improvements can be identified. Such ... Keywords: aluminum, die-casting, efficiency, energy, exergy, melting furnace

Marc A. Rosen; Dennis L. Lee

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for energy efficiency improvements through utilization of measurement and automatic control; this includes both direct fuel savings and indirect savings due to product quality improvements. Focus is on energy use in steel reheating furnaces for rolling mills. The demands on the reheating process and the operational conditions that are essential for its control are described. An analysis is made of possible reductions in energy use as a result of improved control. A survey is included of furnace control systems in steel plants; such equipment has been designed and implemented in order to optimize the reheating process. Reports of achieved savings are presented, and demands on measurement and control systems for successful implementation are discussed. Economic analyses, in terms of life cycle costs and estimated savings, are made for three levels of measurement and control systems. Reductions in energy use of up to 20 percent can be expected for the type of process studied, as a result of investments in information technology; it is also concluded that such investments are cost-effective.

Martensson, A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Recycling of waste polymers in electric arc furnace steelmaking: slag/carbon and steel/carbon interactions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This project is focused on utilizing polymer/coke blends as carbon resource in EAF steelmaking process. In-depth investigations were carried out on slag/carbon and steel/carbon interactions… (more)

Kongkarat, Somyote

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equipment = furnace Heating fuel = oil Home type = single orequipment = boiler Heating fuel = oil Home type = single orHOME HEATING FUEL CON 3 NATURAL GAS FROM UNDERGROUND PIPES = 1 BOTTLED GAS (LPG OR PROPANE) = 2 FUEL OIL

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States New Construction Market Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Gabrielle Wong-Parodi James McMahon Victor Franco Date: May 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In the new single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this study, the authors use a life-cycle cost analysis approach that accounts for uncertainty and variability of inputs to assess the economic benefits of installing different gas furnace and water heater combinations. Among other factors, it assesses the economic feasibility of eliminating the traditional metal vents and replacing them with vents made of plastic materials used in condensing and power vent

447

Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas furnaces are rated for efficiency using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) test standard under controlled laboratory test conditions. In the home, these furnaces are then installed under conditions that can vary significantly from the standard, require adjustment by the installing contractor to adapt to field conditions, may or may not be inspected over their useful lifetimes, and can operate with little maintenance over a 30-year period or longer. At issue is whether the installation practices, field conditions, and wear over the life of the furnace reduce the efficiency significantly from the rated efficiency. In this project, nine furnaces, with 15-24 years of field service, were removed from Iowa homes and tested in the lab under four conditions to determine the effects of installation practices, field operating conditions, and age on efficiency.

Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented.

Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is standard in HVAC design and fan selection books 6 . Theof modulating design options. The cooling fan curve passesfan curve and the duct system curve. We calculated the furnace fuel consumption for each design

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of separate costs for natural gas or oil, and electricity.receives oil-fired boilers INPUTS First Cost Inputs The flowfurnaces, and oil-fired furnaces, we scaled the cost for

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_FurnaceBlower_Paper413_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We...

452

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_ModulatingFurnaces_Paper236_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the...

453

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $6,000 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (FY 2013) Start Date 04/14/2010 Expiration Date When progr State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum rebate is $6,000. To qualify, systems must (1) become operational on or after May 1,

454

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

SciTech Connect

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to process plutonium-containing feeds. The electrical parameters of the induction coil and tank circuit necessary for design were determined by two different methods; one is based solely on calculated impedance values, and the other used high-frequency impedance measurements on a mock-up of the induction coil/susceptor arrangement. During the design state, the two methods of determining electrical parameters gave similar results. With the as-built system, the impedance meter did detect some efficiency loss to the metal bell jar and coil support that the calculational method did not predict. These losses were not significant enough to cause operating problems, and thus, both methods were shown to be adequate for the intended purpose. Zinc and magnesium were distilled, and uranium was melted in a successful series of shake-down runs.

Vest, M.A.; Lewandowski, E.F.; Pierce, R.D.; Smith, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

Brand, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

460

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bingham, C.E.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Mathematical model of a tube furnace for catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tube furnace is a complex unit in which there are hundreds of reaction tubes and coils for heating the reaction mixture, gas, air, steam and water. Optimum design of such a unit can be done only with a mathematical model of it. A number of physicochemical processes occur in the reaction furnace: conversions of natural gas with heat supplied through the wall of the tube, combustion of fuel in the firebox, transfer of heat from the radiating walls or flame to the reaction tubes, heating of the vapor-gas mixture and other flows in the convective zone of the furnace. These processes are interrelated and there are some difficulties in writing a mathematical model for the furnace. We have adopted the following principle for construction of a model: individual processes are being modeled and the starting data for calculation of these are the results of modeling of other processes. Calculation is made by sequential approximations until material and thermal balances are observed for all processes, as is indicated on the calculation flowsheet. Thermal calculations were made by methods discussed in (2). Modeling the tube furnace on a computer makes it possible to determine its working characteristics and range of safe operation. Computer calculations permit the time required for design of furnaces to be reduced substantially and the quality of the design to be improved. Higher demands are beingmade on tube furnaces for catalytic conversion of natural gas both with regard to operating reliability and economy because of the sharp increase of the unit capacities of ammonia and methanol synthesis plants.

Stepanov, A.V.; Sul'zhik, N.I.; Kadygrob, L.A.; Gorlov, V.F.; Mishin, V.P.; Dugach, V.V.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

468

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process

469

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487 32 345 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 206 * 1 32 * * -- Machine Drive

470

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- -- 62 6 838 1 417 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487

471

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

472

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process

473

CSER 99-007 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for PFP Glovebox HA-21I Muffle Furnace Operation for Plutonium Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for operation of PFP Glovebox HA-21I muffle furnace for plutonium stabilization. Glovebox limits are specified for processing metal and oxide fissile materials.

DOBBIN, K.D.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

474

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

475

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

476

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

477

Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal powder injections for coke i n blast furnaces Theof coal powder injections for coke in ironmaking is a commonenergy use medium plants, coke & coal use medium plants,

Zhiping, L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the heavy fractions and coke to produce synthesis gas canMarano, 2003). Based on the 1999 coke production total powerlevels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensity by Fuel MJ per US$ Diesel Coal Electricity Coke67 Figure 57: Coke Energy Intensity Trends, 2000 -enterprises tend to use coke-based blast furnaces more than

Aden, Nathaniel T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnaces including coke" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility Loads Speaker(s): Bert Phillips Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: James Lutz Bert Phillips will talk about the impact of forced air system blower performance on furnace or heating performance and on utility loads, and what can be done to reduce blower power requirements. He will also briefly discuss a ground source heat pump monitoring study that he just finished. Mr. Phillips is a registered Professional Engineer in three Canadian provinces and part owner of UNIES Ltd., an engineering firm in Winnipeg, Manitoba (60 miles straight north of the North Dakota/Minnesota border). He does research and HVAC system design and investigates

482

HEU Holdup Measurements in 321-M B and Spare U-Al Casting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facilities Decontamination Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. This report covers holdup measurements in two uranium aluminum alloy (U-Al) casting furnaces. Our results indicate an upper limit of 235U content for the B and Spare furnaces of 51 and 67 g respectively. This report discusses the methodology, non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements, and results of the uranium holdup on the two furnaces.

Salaymeh, S.R.

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between th