National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for furnaces heat air

  1. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  2. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes ... PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 5 PDF icon Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) ...

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  4. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  5. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and ... BestPractices Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace ...

  8. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: * The furnace firing rate * The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area * The ...

  9. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  10. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and ...

  11. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

  12. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. ...

  13. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  15. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat

  16. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  17. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  19. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 PDF icon Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using Waste

  20. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam

  1. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This negative pressure causes ambient air to leak into the furnace. Figure 1 shows rates of air infiltration resulting from furnace draft. This air has to be heated to the flue gas ...

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  3. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  4. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  5. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  6. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  7. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  8. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  9. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  10. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in ...

  12. Measure Guideline: High-Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 5 Figure 2. Combustion air and vent terminal ... 10 Figure 5. Heat tape on a condensate trap ... Some furnaces are designed with multiple internal and ...

  13. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Functions of HVAC Systems The purpose of a Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ... energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. ...

  14. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  15. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  16. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  17. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia's Radial Flow ir Bearing Heat Exchanger 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Sandia's TRL 5 Air Bearing Heat exchanger technology (a. k. a. The Sandia Cooler) ...

  18. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  19. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  20. Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Locate a Qualified Specialist in your area who can help optimize plant efficiency. Process Heating Tip Sheets Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Check Heat Transfer Surfaces Furnace ...

  1. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon DOE Reg Burden RFI 7-18-14 More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI from AHRI Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute ...

  2. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  3. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps April 23, 2015 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat...

  4. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  5. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  6. Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat

  7. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts offers rebates of up to $2,500 for the installation of high-efficiency, cold-climate air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) in residential buildings of one to four units. 

  8. Condensing heat-exchanger systems for oil-fired residential/commercial furnaces and boilers Phase I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D.A.; White, E.L.; Lux, J.J. Jr.; Locklin, D.W.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of the program reported was to provide supporting research to aid in the development and demonstration of oil-fired residential and commercial heating equipment that will operate in a condensing mode. Materials for heat exchangers are screened through coupon testing in a furnace simulator test rig and in an alternate immersion test rig. Condensate from oil-fired systems is characterized. Some general issues related to field application are treated, including heat exchanger fouling, venting of combustion gases, disposal of flue gas condensate, other means of condensate disposal, and evaluation of codes and standards. A heat transfer analysis is presented for general heat exchangers. (LEW)

  9. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Heat Pump Systems » Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps An air-source heat pump can provide efficient heating and cooling for your home. When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. This is possible because a heat pump moves heat rather than converting it from a fuel like combustion heating systems do. Air-source heat pumps have been used for many years in

  10. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers ...

  11. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document ...

  12. 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Winter Conference 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

  13. Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests ...

  14. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is developing a miniaturized air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger that is more compact and more energy efficient than current market designs. The heat exchanger will feature at least 20% less volume, material volume, and approach temperature compared to current multiport flat tube designs, and it will be in production within five years. The heat exchanger, which acts as both an evaporator and a condenser, can be applied to commercial and residential air-conditioning or heat pump systems with various capacity scales. Prototype 1-kilowatt (kW) and 10 kW designs will be tested and then improved as necessary for final tests and demonstration in a 3-ton heat pump.

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile … High-Performance Furnace Blowers

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL's work led to the creation of a standard for rating blowers, credits for the use of good blowers in Federal tax credit programs and energy codes, and consideration in current Federal rulemaking procedures. More than 60% of U.S. households currently use central forced-air heating and cooling systems and a large percentage of new homes built today are equipped with a central forced-air furnace and air conditioner. Although furnaces, air conditioners, and heat pumps have become significantly

  16. Furnace Litigation Settled | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Furnace Litigation Settled Furnace Litigation Settled May 2, 2014 - 11:07am Addthis On June 27, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register a direct final rule (DFR) under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 6291-6309, which set forth amended energy conservation standards for residential furnaces, central air conditioners, and heat pumps, including regional standards for different product types in indicated States. 76 FR 37408. The

  17. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  18. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality ...

  19. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer ... for increased feedback * Tested in ambient air Next steps: * Testing in operational ...

  20. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Prof. Reinhard Radermacher, raderm@umd.edu University of Maryland College Park Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 03/01/2013 Planned end date: 02/29/2016 Key Milestones 1. Heat exchanger designs/process: 6/30/14 2. Fabrication/testing of 1 kW: 9/30/14 3. Fabrication/testing of 10 kW: 9/30/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $561K Total future DOE $: $489K Target Market/Audience: Residential and

  1. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) - CRADA Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge ... Project Name: Advanced Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Complete design analysis and ...

  2. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak ...

  3. The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review ... Paul Schwartz, CEO pschwartz@tm-lift.com DE-FOA-0000823 The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air ...

  4. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  5. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  6. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    Work continued on life-cycle testing, optimization, and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly as well as the auxiliary subsystems. Emphasis of combustor testing was to determine optimum size and location of air inlets in primary combustion chambers; it was found that using a single air inlet about 70 degrees upsteam from the agglomeration site produces a combustion efficiency of 99.0% while producing no agglomeration. The test of the fouling effect on heat exchanger performance showed a steady decrease in time of the overall heat transfer coefficient. Particle size distribution of fly ash in the baghouse showed 50% of the particles smaller than 11.2 microns.

  7. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Reinhard Radermacher raderm@umd.edu 20%+ Better University of Maryland College Park Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 3/1/2013 Planned end date: 2/29/2016 Key Milestones 1. Design optimization, 3/30/14 2. Fabrication/testing, 1kW prototype, 1/30/2015 3. Fabrication/testing, 10kW prototype, 9/30/2015 Budget: Total Budget: $1500K Total UMD: $1050K Total DOE $ to date for UMD: $881K Total future DOE $

  8. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burden RFI | Department of Energy Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its

  9. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Air Source Heat Pumps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Air Source Heat Pumps Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Air Source Heat Pumps The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air source heat pumps, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions

  10. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of...

  11. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: Paul Schwartz, Thermolift Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air ...

  12. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR qualified product category.

  13. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in ...

  14. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR qualified product category.

  15. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab ...

  16. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI ... PDF icon DOE Com Reg Burden RFI 9-7-12.pdf More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden ...

  17. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  18. Contaminant and heat removal effectiveness and air-to-air heat/energy recovery for a contaminated air space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, D.R.; Simonson, C.J.; Saw, K.Y.; Besant, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    Measured contaminant and heat removal effectiveness data are presented and compared for a 3:1 scale model room, which represents a smoking room, lounge, or bar with a two-dimensional airflow pattern. In the experiments, heat and tracer gases were introduced simultaneously from a source to simulate a prototype smoking room. High-side-wall and displacement ventilation schemes were investigated, and the latter employed two different types of ceiling diffuser,low-velocity slot and low-velocity grille. Results show that thermal energy removal effectiveness closely follows contaminant removal effectiveness for each of the ventilation schemes throughout a wide range of operating conditions. The average mean thermal and contaminant removal effectiveness agreed within {+-}20%. Local contaminant removal effectiveness ranged from a low of 80% for a high-wall slot diffuser to more than 200% for a low-velocity ceiling diffuser with displacement ventilation. Temperature differences between the supply and the indoor air were between 0.2 C (0.36 F) and 41.0 C (73.8 V) and ventilation airflow rates ranged from 9.2 to 36.8 air changes per hour at inlet conditions. For small temperature differences between supply and exhaust air, all three ventilation schemes showed increased contaminant removal effectiveness near the supply diffuser inlet with decreasing values toward the exhaust outlet. For the high-side-wall slot diffuser, effectiveness was up to 140% near the inlet and 100% near the exhaust, but for the second displacement scheme (low-velocity grille) the effectiveness was more than 200% near the inlet and 110% near the exhaust. This paper also shows a potential significant reduction in cooling load for a 50-person-capacity smoking lounge that utilizes an air-to-air heat/energy exchanger to recover heat/energy from the exhaust air.

  19. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  20. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference | Department of Energy American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference June 25, 2016 9:00AM EDT to June 29

  1. Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat for External Processes Using Waste Heat for External Processes This tip sheet describes the potential savings resulting from using waste heat from high-temperature process heating for lower temperature processes, like oven-drying. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #10 PDF icon Using Waste Heat for External Processes (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions

  2. Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commercial package air conditioners, heat pumps, and commercial warm air furnaces is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Lead Performer: Mechanical Solutions Inc. - Whippany, NJ Partners: Lennox International Inc. - Richardson, Membrane Based Air Conditioning Lead Performer: Dais Analytic Corporation ...

  4. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump with Lennox

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ultimate goal of this project is to collaborate with Lennox under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop efficiency-doubling residential space conditioning and water heating technology based on the air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept developed by ORNL for the Department of Energy (DOE)/Building Technologies Office (BTO). The CRADA collaboration with Lennox has resulted in a two-compressor (or two box) prototype design; a VS air-source heat pump coupled with a separate water heating-dehumidification (WH/DH) module.

  5. Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, E.G.; Bradley, L.C. ); Chant, R.E. ); Fisher, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the energy performance of defrost and frost control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators (HRV) has been carried out by using computer simulations for various climatic conditions. This paper discusses the results and conclusions from the comparisons and their implications for the heat recovery ventilator manufacturers and system designers.

  6. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... References: Westphalen, D., Roth, K. W. and Brodrick, J. (2006) 'Heat transfer enhancement', ASHRAE Journal, 48(4), 68-71. Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: ...

  7. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MI -- Optimized Thermal Systems - College Park, MD Purdue prototype system Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Lead Performer: Unico Systems - St....

  8. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications.

  9. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  10. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted behind-the-scenes without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  11. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  12. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump AS-IHP System Concept Sketch. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory AS-IHP System Concept Sketch. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Field Evaluation Site - Knoxville, TN. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Field Evaluation Site - Knoxville, TN. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory WH/DH Module Process Diagrams; US Patent #8,689,574 B2. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory WH/DH Module Process

  13. Heating System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or

  14. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  15. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  16. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, R.L.

    1993-12-28

    A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

  17. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  18. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a circular-shaped blower fan for furnaces and air conditioners. As homeowners switch on their forced-air furnaces in preparation for cold weather, they may be unaware of how furnace blowers can impact HVAC efficiency. In fact, studies show that the most common blowers have efficiencies of only 10%-15%.

  19. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios This tip sheet discusses when to check and reset burner air to fuel ratios as well as why it's a simply way to maximize the efficiency of process heating equipment. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #2 PDF icon Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (November 2007) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief

  20. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  1. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  2. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  3. Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) 2014 Building ... variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) - CRADA Start date: 01-Oct-2011 ...

  4. Glass Furnace Model Version 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-05-06

    GFM2.0 is a derivative of the GFM code with substantially altered and enhanced capabilities. Like its predecessor, it is a fully three-dimensional, furnace simulation model that provides a more accurate representation of the entire furnace, and specifically, the glass melting process, by coupling the combustion space directly to the glass batch and glass melt via rigorous radiation heat transport models for both the combustion space and the glass melt. No assumptions are made with regardmore » to interfacial parameters of heat, flux, temperature distribution, and batch coverage as must be done using other applicable codes available. These critical parameters are calculated. GFM2.0 contains a processor structured to facilitate use of the code, including the entry of teh furnace geometry and operating conditions, the execution of the program, and display of the computational results. Furnace simulations can therefore be created in a straightforward manner.« less

  5. Department of Energy Opens Appliance Standards Investigation for Certain Air Con International Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it has opened an investigation to determine whether certain air conditioners and heat pump products manufactured by Air Con...

  6. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-05-09

    The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

  7. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Systems Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space to a warm space,

  8. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  10. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  11. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  12. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  13. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

  15. Field air injection tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field air injection tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Field air injection tests to ...

  16. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Air-injection field tests to ...

  17. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  18. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the ...

  19. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has ...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s):

  1. DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication Philadelphia Gas Works (POW), the largest ... have on POW, its customers, the City of Philadelphia and the air quality of this region. ...

  2. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  3. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  4. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  5. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  6. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  7. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

  10. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Main Residential Heating Equipment as of 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, and 2005 (Percent of Total Households) Equipment Type 1987 1993 1997 2001 2005 Natural Gas 55% 53% 53% 55% 52% Central Warm-Air Furnace 35% 36% 38% 42% 40% Steam or Hot-Water System 10% 9% 7% 7% 7% Floor/Wall/Pipeless Furnace 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% Room Heater/Other 4% 3% 4% 3% 3% Electricity 20% 26% 29% 29% 30% Central Warm-Air Furnace 8% 10% 11% 12% 14% Heat Pump 5% 8% 10% 10% 8% Built-In Electric Units 6% 7% 7% 6% 5% Other 1% 1% 2% 2%

  12. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon Advanced Variable Speed Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Presentation More Documents & Publications Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced Variable Speed

  13. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  14. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  15. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more...

  16. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  17. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Violating Minimum Appliance Standards | Department of Energy Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must

  18. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Friday, February 13, 2015, AHRI staff met telephonically with the Department of Energy to discuss issues pertaining to the ongoing efficiency standards rulemaking for single package vertical air...

  19. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  20. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The pressure changes caused by the compressor and the expansion valve allow the gas to evaporate at a low temperature outside and condense at a higher temperature indoors. A heat ...

  1. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  2. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  3. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

  4. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  5. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  6. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  7. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  8. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  9. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E.

    1983-12-06

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  10. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  11. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  12. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  13. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  14. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming; Baxter, Van D; Iu, Ipseng

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  15. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1994-10-18

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace is described having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits. 7 figs.

  16. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1994-01-01

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

  17. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  18. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  19. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  20. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Blast Furnaces and Coke Ovens The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further signifcant ...

  1. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  2. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coln, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, tila M.; Balthazar, Jos M.; Rosa, Sulia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14%

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  5. Effect of residential air-to-air heat and moisture exchangers on indoor humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barringer, C.G.; McGugan, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    A project was undertaken to develop guidelines for the selection of residential heat and moisture recovery ventilation systems (HRVs) in order to maintain an acceptable indoor humidity for various climatic conditions. These guidelines were developed from reviews on ventilation requirements, HRV performance specifications, and from computer modeling. Space conditions within three house/occupancy models for several types of HRV were simulated for three climatic conditions (Lake Charles, LA; Seattle, WA; and Winnipeg, MB) in order to determine the impact of the HRVs on indoor relative humidity and space-conditioning loads. Results show that when reduction of cooling cost is the main consideration, exchangers with moisture recovery are preferable to sensible HRVs. For reduction of heating costs, moisture recovery should be done for ventilation rates greater than about 15 L/s and average winter temperatures less than about (minus) 10{degrees}C if internal moisture generation rates are low. For houses with higher ventilation rates and colder average winter temperatures, exchangers with moisture recovery should be used.

  6. Performance of a small underfed wood chip-fired stoker in a hot air-heated home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide space heat for a home using forest biomass presently not in demand by industry, and by using a convenient, automatic, low-emission heating system. A stoker firing wood chips was installed in a home, and chips were prepared for it from the residues of a softwood clearcut. Residues from 1 and a quarter acre provided enough fuel to heat the house for the heating season. The chip-fired heating system was convenient, maintained the house at whatever temperature was set on the room thermostat, and generated little creosote or wood smoke. It was better at converting fuel to heat than the previous combustion heating systems in the house, with steady-state combustion efficiency of approximately 75% and longer-term appliance efficiency of 69%. Electric energy required for heating hot water was reduced approximately 27% as a result of a preheating coil located in the chip-fired furnace. The major cause of heat interruptions was jamming of the stoker which occurred on the average of every 18 and a half days. Clearing such jams was simple. The system operated safely throughout the test period.

  7. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-06-30: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Final Rule

  9. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  10. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  11. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces. PROCESS HEATING TIP ...

  12. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  13. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  14. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  15. Cotton gin trash incinerator-air heat project. Consultant report (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The California Energy Commission has funded the final phase of a four year project resulting in development of a successful system for burning cotton gin trash as a fuel providing the heat for ginning. The incinerator - air heater system installed in Corcoran, California operates continuously throughout the ginning season. Trash feeding and burning rate is automatically controlled from the combustion temperature, hot air temperature is controlled by the drying needs, and ashes are automatically removed from the system and pneumatically conveyed to the disposal site. The system complies with state and county air pollution codes by means of baghouse collectors. Savings in fossil fuel and trash disposal costs have demonstrated the equipment system is feasible for a four year payback at large, well utilized gins.

  16. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    icon DOE Furnace Rule011415 Reponse Email PDF icon Response to APGA Counsel William Miller.1-14-15 More Documents & Publications AGAAPGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace ...

  17. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  18. Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger for High-Temperature Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S. K.; Lustbader, J.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2015-05-06

    This work demonstrates a direct air-cooled heat exchanger strategy for high-temperature power electronic devices with an application specific to automotive traction drive inverters. We present experimental heat dissipation and system pressure curves versus flow rate for baseline and optimized sub-module assemblies containing two ceramic resistance heaters that provide device heat fluxes. The maximum allowable junction temperature was set to 175 deg.C. Results were extrapolated to the inverter scale and combined with balance-of-inverter components to estimate inverter power density and specific power. The results exceeded the goal of 12 kW/L and 12 kW/kg for power density and specific power, respectively.

  19. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  20. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  1. 2014-10-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, Request for Information

  2. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a ...

  3. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  4. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  5. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

  6. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  7. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  8. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  9. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  10. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries,...

  11. Tips: Sealing Air Leaks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seal air leaks around fireplace chimneys, furnaces, and gas-fired water heater vents with fire-resistant materials such as sheet metal or sheetrock and furnace cement caulk. ...

  12. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  13. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  14. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  15. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  16. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section of a multi-section cathode air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saito, Kazuo; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-17

    The multi-section cathode air heat exchanger (102) includes at least a first heat exchanger section (104), and a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section (126) secured adjacent each other in a stack association. Cool cathode inlet air flows through cool air channels (110) of the at least first (104) and oxidation catalyzed sections (126). Hot anode exhaust flows through hot air channels (124) of the oxidation catalyzed section (126) and is combusted therein. The combusted anode exhaust then flows through hot air channels (112) of the first section (104) of the cathode air heat exchanger (102). The cool and hot air channels (110, 112) are secured in direct heat exchange relationship with each other so that temperatures of the heat exchanger (102) do not exceed 800.degree. C. to minimize requirements for using expensive, high-temperature alloys.

  18. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency ...

  19. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  20. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  1. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  2. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  3. Monitoring and evaluating ground-source heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltz, S.V.; Cade, D.; Mason, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the measured performance of four advanced residential ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. The GSHP systems were developed by WaterFurnace International to minimize the need for electric resistance backup heating and featured multiple speed compressors, supplemental water heating, and at most sites, multiple-speed fans. Detailed data collected for a complete year starting in June 1994 shows that the advanced design is capable of maintaining comfort without the use of electric resistance backup heating. In comparison with a conventional air-source heat pump, the advanced-design GSHP reduced peak heating demand by more than 12 kilowatts (kW) per residence and provided energy savings. The report describes the cooling and heating season operation of the systems, including estimated seasonal efficiency, hours of operation, and load profiles for average days and peak days. The electrical energy input, cooling output, and efficiency are presented as a function of return air temperature and ground loop temperature.

  4. Cost efficiency of flame-guniting the lining of open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, M.V.; Kozenko, N.I.; Moiseenko, V.D.; Bondarenko, A.G.

    1988-05-01

    The use of flame-guniting for lining repair to the open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces of a number of Soviet plants is reviewed. Equipment and technology for flame-guniting the lining of furnaces, which provide for both local and general repairs to the walls, roofs, and bottoms of furnaces, are discussed. Methods are given for calculating expenditures for repair work and determining the cost efficiency of flame guniting relative to the increased number of heats per lining life. Results are given from calculations of the projected cost-efficiency of using flame-guniting for furnace lining repair at the metallurgical plants of the Ukranian Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy.

  5. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  6. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    2004-03-02

    Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation, reduction of the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, and lessened tendency to corrosion at the tube wall, in a multi-burner furnace are obtained by reducing the flow rate of combustion air to the burners and selectively individually feeding oxidant to only some of the burners.

  7. Preheated Combustion Air (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #1c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  8. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  9. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  10. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-12-01

    Objective is to develop an economically viable coal-water slurry fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During this period, which is the first quarter of Phase II, testing and evaluation of the second-generation furnace assembly continued. Emphasis was placed on integrated system performance and value engineering. Work also began on design and fabrication of a third-generation prototype furnace. A preliminary cost evaluation was accomplished.

  11. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  12. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  13. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  14. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  15. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  16. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 Major Commercial HVAC Equipment Lifetimes and Ages Median Equipment Type Lifetime Air Conditioners Through-the-Wall 15 Water-CooledPackage 24 (1) Roof-Top 15 Chillers Reciprocating 20 Centrifugal 25 (1) Absorption 23 Heat Pumps Air-to-Air 15 Water-to-Air 24 (1) Furnaces (gas or oil) 18 Boilers (gas or oil) Hot-Water 24 - 35 Steam 25 - 30 Unit Heaters Gas-Fired or Electric 13 Hot-Water or Steam 20 Cooling Towers (metal or wood) Metal 22 (1) Wood 20 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Data from 2005. All

  19. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  20. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  1. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  2. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  3. Design Report for the Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  4. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-05-12

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

  5. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. If you plan to buy a new heating system,...

  6. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  8. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  9. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump...

  10. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  11. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  12. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  13. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  14. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  15. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  17. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation While HVAC installers have improved their air sealing practices to reduce the amount of air leaking at ducts and duct boots, testing showed that distribution systems still leaked at air handlers and furnace HVAC Air Leakage Fig 1 Air handler furnace cabinet with pressure taps.jpg cabinets. This has hampered the ability of HVAC

  18. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  20. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  1. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  2. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  3. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  4. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  5. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  6. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  7. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  8. Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities - Energy Innovation Portal Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device processing capabilities Award winning solar manufacturing process National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <p> <em>The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor manufacturers with energy efficient methods to process devices in a high throughput capacity. &nbsp;</em></p> The highly versatile optical furnace provides semiconductor

  9. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  10. Residential Condensing Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Condensing Gas Furnaces Residential Condensing Gas Furnaces The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. File Residential Condensing Gas Furnaces -- v1.0 More Documents

  11. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  12. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  13. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  14. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  15. Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contact on Furnaces Ex Parte Contact on Furnaces PDF icon Ex Parte Email3-28-2015 More Documents & Publications Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGAAPGA Questions re...

  16. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  17. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Cooling Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Cooled Buildings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Residential-Type Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air Conditioning Units","Swamp Coolers","Other" "All

  18. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Cooled Buildings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Residential-Type Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air Conditioning Units","Swamp Coolers","Other" "All

  19. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  20. Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Furnace Creek...

  1. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs PDF icon cfdblastfurnace.pdf More ...

  2. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  3. Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule PDF icon DOE Furnace Rule More Documents & Publications Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In the City of Brotherly Love, Sharing ...

  4. Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-12-31

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  5. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air source heat pump for commercial and industrial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) applications. By using air as the working fluid, the heat pump eliminates all ...

  6. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G.; Jelenich, L.; Ward, R.F.

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  7. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  8. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  9. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  10. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  11. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  12. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Improved System Increases Steelmaking Furnace Efficiency, Safety, and Productivity Hoods, roofs, and sidewall systems in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs) enable effluent gases in excess of 3000°F to be properly captured, cooled, and processed prior to delivery to the environmental control equipment. Traditionally, these carbon steel components

  17. Furnace Standard Analysis Discussion Document

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    heating systems could have on overall energy usage, cost, and carbon emissions outcomes. ... Tons 4.5 Metric Tons 3.5 Metric Tons Annual Cost 1,119 1,029 1,806 714 544 ...

  18. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  19. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H.; Grisse, H.J.; Speranza, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  20. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  1. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  2. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  3. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  4. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  5. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. Install a new ...

  6. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  7. Radiation Heat Transfer in 3 Dimensions for Semi-Transparent Materials....

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    The RAD3D software solves the critical heat transfer mechanisms that occur in production glass furnaces. The code includes state-of-the-art solution algorithms for efficient radiant interaction of the heating elements, furnace walls and internal furnace components. The code specifically solves the coupled radiative and conductive heating of semi-transparent materials such as glass to calculate the temperature distribution in the glass during processing.

  8. Preliminary Market Assessment for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen; Khowailed, Gannate; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-09-01

    Cold climate heat pump (HP) technology is relevant to a substantial portion of the U.S. population, especially with more than one-third of U.S. housing stock concentrated in colder regions of the country and another 31% in the mixed-humid climate region. Specifically, it is estimated that in 2010 almost 1.37 million heating equipment units were shipped to the cold/very cold climate regions and that 1.41 million were shipped to the nation s mixed-humid region. On a national level, the trend in the last decade has indicated that shipments of gas furnaces have grown at a slower rate than HPs. This indicates a potential opportunity for the cold climate HP, a technology that may be initially slow to penetrate its potential market because of the less expensive operating and first costs of gas furnaces. Anticipated implementation of regional standards could also negatively affect gas furnace shipments, especially with the higher initial cost for more efficient gas furnaces. However, as of 2011, the fact that there are more than 500 gas furnace product models that already achieve the expected efficiency standard indicates that satisfying the regional standard will be a challenge but not an obstacle. A look at the heating fuel and equipment currently being used in the housing stock provides an insight into the competing equipment that cold climate HPs hope to replace. The primary target market for the cold climate HP is the 2.6 million U.S. homes using electric furnaces and HPs in the cold/very cold region. It is estimated that 4.75% of these homeowners either replace or buy new heating equipment in a given year. Accordingly, the project team could infer that the cold climate HP primary market is composed of 123,500 replacements of electric furnaces and conventional air-to-air HPs annually. A secondary housing market for the cold climate HP comprises homes in the mixed-humid region of the country that are using electric furnaces. Homes using gas furnaces across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions represent another secondary market for the cold climate HP. The cold climate HP could also target as a secondary market homes across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions that use propane and fuel oil as their primary heating fuel. The combined total of homes in these three secondary markets is 46 million, and we can also infer that about 2.2 million of these systems are replaced annually. When comparing heating equipment stock in 2001, 2005, and 2009 in the cold/very cold region of the country, it appears that gas furnaces are slowly losing market share and that electric furnaces and HPs are making gains. The fact that electricity-dependent heating equipment is rising in preference among homeowners in the colder regions of the country shows that future penetration of the cold climate HP holds promise. Accordingly, cold climate HP technology could achieve an attractive position, given certain favorable market conditions such as reaching a competitive cost point, strong federal incentives, a consistent level of reliable performance, and a product rollout by a credible market leader. The project team relied on payback analysis to estimate the potential market penetration for the cold climate HP in each of its primary and secondary markets. In this analysis, we assumed a $250 price premium for the cold climate HP over the baseline HP. Electricity and gas prices and emissions were based on the 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book. The average heating load was calculated as 25.2 MMBTU per year in the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions of the United States. Typical installed costs were obtained from the technical document supporting the U.S. Department of Energy rulemaking. The analysis showed that the cold climate HP will have a 2.2 year payback period when replacing an existing electric HP in the colder regions of the nation. The cold climate HP will have a 6 year payback period when replacing gas furnaces in the same climate regions. Accordingly, we estimated that the cold climate HP will have a penetration ratio ranging between 5% and 35% in its potential primary and secondary markets, resulting in a total annual estimated shipment of 298,000 units to both targeted regions of the nation. Once the cold climate HP technology meets its potential market penetration, it would contribute to annual site energy savings of 3,664,405 MMBTU and a CO2 emission reduction of 470,000 Ton.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  10. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  11. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The combustion fuel half of the system could be propane, natural gas, oil, or even coal and wood. In comparison with a combustion fuel-fired furnace or standard heat pump...

  12. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O.; Hallin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  13. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  14. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  15. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  16. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  17. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  18. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  19. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace-Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the batch furnace from the batch furnace y Demonstration ... GoNo Go Decision Manufacturing of Green Ball Pellets ... Task 5.0 Auxiliary Systems y Task 6.0 Verification Studies ...

  20. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure January 3, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Department of Energy ...

  1. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans.

  2. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  3. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential furnaces, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  5. Preheated Combustion Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preheated Combustion Air This tip sheet describes how to improve process heating efficiency by preheating combustion air for burners. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 1 PDF icon ...

  6. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  7. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  8. Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc Furnaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummaryA tougher and more resilient graphite electrode was developed at ORNL to melt steel, titanium, and other scrap metal in industrial electric arc ...

  9. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  10. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  11. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  13. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. No abstract prepared.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8 Major Residential HVAC Equipment Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Equipment Type Central Air Conditioners 8 - 14 11 8 5,354 Heat Pumps 9 - 15 12 8 1,260 Furnaces Electric 10 - 20 15 11 N.A. Gas-Fired 12 - 17 15 11 2,601 Oil-Fired 15 - 19 17 N.A. 149 Gas-Fired Boilers (1) 17 - 24 20 17 204 Note(s): Source(s): Lifetimes based on use by the first owner of the product, and do not necessarily indicate that the product stops working after this period. A replaced unit may be discarded or used

  15. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

  17. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  18. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  19. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  20. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C.; Steiger, R.; Jeschar, R.

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  1. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

  2. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  3. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  4. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  5. Experimental Observations and Numerical Prediction of Induction Heating in a Graphite Test Article

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Todd A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Debra P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jurney, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freer, Jerry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dougherty, Lisa M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stout, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The induction heating coils used in the plutonium casting furnaces at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are studied here. A cylindrical graphite test article has been built, instrumented with thermocouples, and heated in the induction coil that is normally used to preheat the molds during casting operations. Preliminary results of experiments aimed at understanding the induction heating process in the mold portion of the furnaces are reported. The experiments have been modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics and the numerical and experimental results are compared to one another. These comparisons provide insight into the heating process and provide a benchmark for COMSOL calculations of induction heating in the mold portion of the plutonium casting furnaces.

  6. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  7. Final report on process modeling of cupola furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the first phase of the AFS/DOE program on mathematical modeling of cupola behavior, covering the period May 19, 1989 to July 19, 1990. The objective of the program is to develop a comprehensive mathematical model of the cupola furnace for on-line and off-line process control and optimization. The work is being carried out by five organizations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology with responsibility for heat transfer and fluid flow modeling, and incorporation of the chemical models being developed by the University of Michigan team. Modern Equipment Company has the responsibility of compiling information on needed sensors for monitoring operation and providing materials data to be used for cupola input. General Motors, Central Foundry Division, is investigating the potential to augment the mathematical models with artificial intelligence programs. Lastly, General Motors Research laboratories are charged with providing accurate cupola operational data to test the models being developed. To date, a one-dimensional steady state model has been developed which considers heat transfer, fluid flow and important chemical processes: combustion, iron composition development, limestone calcination and iron oxidation. The model is based on established physico-chemical principles and data available in the literature. Model predictions compare favorably with data obtained in a production sale cupola, operating under carefully controlled, but realistic, conditions. At the present time, the chemical sub-models are being incorporated into the master program, and a complete working cupola model is expected by September 1990. 43 refs.

  8. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  9. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  10. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  11. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    separately, many homes use the following approaches: Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental heat source. Electric...

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  13. Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Systems Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps ... Learn More Heat pump systems Air-source heat pumps Geothermal heat pumps Absorption heat ...

  14. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills | Department of Energy for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills June 25, 2014 - 9:56am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department today announced a new energy efficiency standard for furnace fans, the latest of

  15. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boilers | Department of Energy Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the Department's commitment to meet its aggressive, five-year appliance standard rulemaking schedule,

  16. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  17. Cavity based furnace for wafer screening - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Cavity based furnace for wafer screening National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. Technology Marketing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

  18. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the following sections discuss radiant floor heat and radiant panels separately. ... pumping air through the floors at night outweighs the benefits of using solar heat during the day. ...

  19. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ALKALI METALS; EVAPORATION; FURNACES; ...

  20. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steelmaking (September 2007) More Documents & Publications Steel Success Story - Ironmaking: Quality and Supply Critical to Steel Industry Paired Straight Hearth Furnace...

  1. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  2. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

  3. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    However, it can be readily modeled by high fdelity computa- tional fuid dynamics (CFD) ... The development of advanced CFD models for blast furnaces will thus represent a signifcant ...

  4. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more about energy-efficient furnaces and boilers. Addthis Related Articles Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Energy Saver Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home...

  5. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Field testing of air-to-water heat pump Location: Tucson, AZ and Chico, CA Partners: La Mirada Homes www.lamiradahomes.net Chico Green Builders Daikin www.daikinac.com ARBI http://arbi.davisenergy.com/ Building Component: HVAC, domestic hot water Application: New, single family Year Tested: 2011-2012 Applicable Climate Zones: Hot-dry, cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost

  6. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  7. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Ferber, Mattison K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  8. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  9. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  10. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  11. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, Stephan T.; Battleson, Daniel M.; Rademacher, Jr., Edward L.; Cashell, Patrick V.; Filius, Krag D.; Flannery, Philip A.; Whitworth, Clarence G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  12. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This ...

  13. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ceiling Fan, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools, Institutional Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government, Institutional Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Government, Tribal Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Water Heaters, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  1. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  2. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  3. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  4. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  5. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  6. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E.; Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  7. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  8. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  10. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  11. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  12. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Furnaces | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Column Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE): Ratio of useful energy output to energy input, expressed as a percentage (%), over the entire heating season. Output ...

  13. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    chemicals as needed to control deposits and corrosion Clean the heat exchanger See also steam radiators. Maintaining Proper Ventilation for Combustion Systems Anytime you...

  14. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Surfaces Check Heat Transfer Surfaces This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems. PROCESS HEAT TIP SHEET #4 PDF icon Check Heat Transfer Surfaces (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  16. Otter Tail Power Company - Dollar Smart Financing Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps RefrigeratorsFreezers Water Heaters Lighting Furnaces Heat Pumps Air conditioners Heat recovery DuctAir sealing Motors Motor...

  17. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-15

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

  18. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  19. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  20. Buildings","All Heated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Heated Buildings","Heating Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Heat Pumps","Furnaces","Individual Space Heaters","District Heat","Boilers","Packaged Heating Units","Other" "All Buildings ................",4657,4016,492,1460,894,96,581,1347,185 "Building

  1. Buildings","All Heated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Heating Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Heated Buildings","Heating Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Heat Pumps","Furnaces","Individual Space Heaters","District Heat","Boilers","Packaged Heating Units","Other" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,8923,14449,17349,5534,19522,25743,4073

  2. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  3. American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thank you for the opportunity to brief your staff in recent weeks on an impact analysis of a national condensing furnace standard, which was conducted jointly by the American Gas Association (AGA),...

  4. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. . Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  5. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  6. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  7. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  8. AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-publication Furnace NOPR AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR PDF icon AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email PDF icon Questions for DOE Furnace NOPR - 030615-c (2) PDF icon DOE Reponse to AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email.pdf PDF icon Follow-Up Email from APGA More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031

  9. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs PDF icon cfd_blastfurnace.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

  10. Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryEthylene production is one of the most energy intensive processes in the chemical industry, due to the decoking necessary to maintain ethylene furnace tubes. DescriptionOak Ridge National Laboratory and its industrial partners are developing

  11. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  12. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  13. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K.; Stephens, Albert E.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  14. Measured heating system efficiency retrofits in eight manufactured (HUD-code) homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.; Davis, B.; Francisco, P.; Palmiter, L.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on eight all-electric manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest with forced-air distribution systems. These homes, like more than four million existing manufactured homes in the US, were constructed to thermal specifications that were mandated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1976. The test protocol compares real-time measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during periods when zonal heaters heat the homes to the same internal temperature. By alternating between the furnace and zonal heaters on 2 hour cycles, a short-term coheat test is performed. Additional measurements, including blower door and duct tightness tests, are conducted to measure and characterize the home's tightness and duct leakage so that coheat test results might be linked to other measures of building performance. The testing was done at each home before and after an extensive duct sealing retrofit was performed. The average pre-retrofit system efficiency for these homes was 69%. After the retrofit, the average system efficiency increased to 83%. The average simple payback period for the retrofits ranges from 1 to 5 years in Western Oregon and 1 to 3 years in colder Eastern Oregon.

  15. Dehumidifying Heat Pipes | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    claims that your thermostat can be set higher with the low humidity air, allowing a net energy savings. Related Information Home Cooling Systems Air Conditioning Heat Pump Systems...

  16. Incorporate Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and water heating products into tables that mirror American Society of Heating, ...

  17. Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As air temperature falls, however, heat pump performance falls off, essentially limiting their year round usefulness to warmer climates. In colder climates heat pump-equipped ...

  18. Technology assessment of external heat systems for Stirling heat pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.

    1993-12-01

    A technology assessment and design improvement effort was undertaken for the Stirling engine heat pump external heat system (EHS) in order to reduce costs. It was found that only two applicable EHS design approaches have been developed to any extent: a relatively undeveloped design featuring a premixed fuel and air transpiration burner, and a turbulent diffusion type burner system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc. To evaluate and optimize the design concepts, an analytical model was developed that examined design and performance variables. The model calculated key temperatures, allowing the specification of materials requirements. Adherence to American National Standards Institute appliance furnace code material specifications was assumed. Concepts for EHS control systems were evaluated, and a cost-effective control system design was developed for the turbulent diffusion burner EHS. The study reveals that optimizing the diffusion burner EHS design can result in significant cost savings. No clear choice between the diffusion burner and transpiration burner systems could be determined from this study, but the designs of both were further developed and improved. Estimates show the EHS based on a transpiration burner to have a manufactured cost that is roughly 70% of the turbulent diffusion burner EHS cost, but fuel efficiency is lower by about 18%.

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Solar Pool Heating, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Solar Pool Heating, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing, Other EE,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt....

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system...

  7. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  8. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  9. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  10. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  11. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoLordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air...

  12. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  13. Heat recovery anti-icing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, J.R.

    1982-05-11

    A heat recovery anti-icing system is disclosed. The heat recovery system includes a blower which removes air from the air flow path of a combustion turbine power generating system and circulates the air through a heat exchanger located in the exhaust stack of the combustion turbine. The heated air circulating through the heat exchanger is returned to an inlet filter compartment in the air flow path so as to maintain the temperature of the air in the inlet filter compartment at an elevated level.

  14. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  15. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H.

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  16. Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

    2006-09-06

    The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

  17. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  19. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  20. Development of a Zirconia-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen in Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E; Mukundan, R; Lujan, R; Garzon, F; Woo, L; Worsley, M; Glass, B

    2008-07-16

    Mixed potential sensors utilizing a machined, dense indium-tin oxide working electrode (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:SnO{sub 2}; 90%:10%), a Pt wire counter electrode, and porous YSZ electrolyte were prepared using ceramic tape casting methods. The response of these devices to hydrogen concentrations up to 2% in air were studied from 600 to 740 C. The sensor response exhibited a reversible behavior and a fast response time with sensitivity increasing with decreasing temperature. GC analysis confirmed significant heterogeneous oxidation of the H{sub 2} on heated furnace tube wall surfaces thus driving sensor response at H{sub 2} concentrations greater than a few hundred ppm. The transition to a cold wall, miniature platform heater significantly reduced hydrogen oxidation although some flow rate dependence remains.

  1. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H.

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  2. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of

  3. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  4. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  5. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  6. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  7. Development and Validation of a Coupled Combustion Space/Glass Bath Furnace Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Glass Furnace Simulation Model will Improve Energy Use and Efficiency While Reducing Emissions. Competitive and regulatory pressures are motivating glass manufacturers to seek new ways to improve productivity while reducing furnace enery use and emission.

  8. NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Energy...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing, Motors, Motor VFDs, Agricultural Equipment, Food Service Equipment Dakota Electric Association-...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors, Insulation CaliforniaFIRST...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt....

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    include efficient central air conditioners, central air-source heat pumps, electric heat pump water heaters, furnace blower fans, programmable thermostats, refrigerator...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, DuctAir sealing, Windows, Custom...

  2. Missouri River Energy Services (23 Member Cooperatives) - Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps Water Heaters Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Chillers Furnaces Boilers Heat Pumps Air conditioners Compressed air Programmable...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping,...

  4. Xcel Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps RefrigeratorsFreezers Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Furnaces Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats DuctAir...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. Systems...

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Replacement of Variable-Speed Motors for Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated the Concept 3 replacement motors for residential furnaces in eight homes in Syracuse, NY. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh, with average cost savings of $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load.

  8. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans.

  9. Dehumidifying Heat Pipes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dehumidifying Heat Pipes Dehumidifying Heat Pipes In order to make a room comfortable in hot, humid climates, an air conditioner must lower the indoor humidity level as well as the air temperature. If an air conditioner fails to lower the humidity adequately, the air will be cool, but will feel uncomfortably damp. Inappropriately sized air conditioners are prone to this problem; large units quickly cool the air, but cycle off before they can properly dehumidify it. In extremely humid climates,

  10. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  11. Focus group discussions among owners and non-owners of ground source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technology. Federal dollars have supported research on the development of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for several years. Though several companies currently sell GSHP's for residential use, their share of the total heating and air conditioning business remains less than one percent. Large manufacturing companies with national distribution have not yet added GSHP equipment to their product line. GSHP's use only about one half (Braud 1987) to one third (Bose 1987) of the energy needed to operate conventional furnaces and air conditioners. Consequently, a high level of market penetration by the GSHP offers direct benefits to both utility companies and individual users of the systems. Widespread use of these highly efficient systems will reduce both total energy consupmtion, and problems associated with high levels of energy use during peak periods. This will allow utility companies to delay capital expenditures for new facilities to meet the growing energy demand during peak periods. The cost effective use of electricity also reduces the likelihood of homeowners switching to a different fuel source for heating. 5 refs.

  12. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless

  13. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  14. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  15. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  16. Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Enebakk, NO); Brinch, Jon Christian (Oslo, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2005-12-27

    The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

  17. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  18. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Local Government, Nonprofit, Schools, State Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  20. EA-1892: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps (June 2011)

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    home... Eligibility: Construction, Residential, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Government Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial Savings Category: Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Processing and Manufacturing Equipment, CustomOthers pending...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Biomass, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other EE Community Energy Education Management...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    are offered... Eligibility: Construction, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  12. Georgia Environmental Finance Authority - Residential Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas furnaces, tankless water heaters, building envelope improvements, diagnostic testing, duct sealing, insulation and controls improvements Estes Heating and Air:...

  13. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  14. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  15. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Siding, Roofs,...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces (RIN 1904-AC95 and 1904-...

  18. Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-03-01

    Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities, Second Edition, technology for reducing heating and air-conditioning costs.

  19. HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SALTSTONE MIXES-MEASUREMENT BY ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T

    2007-07-02

    This report provides initial results on the measurement of heat of hydration of Saltstone mixes using isothermal calorimetry. The results were obtained using a recently purchased TAM Air Model 3116 Isothermal Conduction Calorimeter. Heat of hydration is an important property of Saltstone mixes. Greater amounts of heat will increase the temperature of the curing mix in the vaults and limit the processing rate. The heat of hydration also reflects the extent of the hydraulic reactions that turn the fluid mixture into a ''stone like'' solid and consequently impacts performance properties such as permeability. Determining which factors control these reactions, as monitored by the heat of hydration, is an important goal of the variability study. Experiments with mixes of portland cement in water demonstrated that the heats measured by this technique over a seven day period match very well with the literature values of (1) seven day heats of hydration using the standard test method for heat of hydration of hydraulic cement, ASTM C 186-05 and (2) heats of hydration measured using isothermal calorimetry. The heats of hydration of portland cement or blast furnace slag in a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) simulant revealed that if the cure temperature is maintained at 25 C, the amount of heat released over a seven day period is roughly 62% less than the heat released by portland cement in water. Furthermore, both the blast furnace slag and the portland cement were found to be equivalent in heat production over the seven day period in MCU. This equivalency is due to the activation of the slag by the greater than 1 Molar free hydroxide ion concentration in the simulant. Results using premix (a blend of 10% cement, 45% blast furnace slag, and 45% fly ash) in MCU, Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants reveal that the fly ash had not significantly reacted (undergone hydration reactions) after seven days (most likely less than 5%). There were clear differences in the amount of heat released and the peak times of heat release for the three different simulants. It turns out that SWPF simulant mixes give off greater heat than does MCU and DDA simulant mixes. The temperature dependence of the heat of hydration was measured by carrying out these measurements at 25, 40 and 55 C. In general, the peak times shifted to shorter times as the isothermal temperature increased and the amount of heat released was independent of temperature for DDA and MCU but slightly higher at higher temperatures for SWPF. The goal of this study is to apply this technique to the measurement of the heat of hydration of mixes that will be made as part of the variability study. It is important to understand which variables will impact (and to what extent) the amount of heat generated and the peak times for the heat release. Those variables that can be controlled can then be tuned to adjust the heat of hydration as long as the other properties are still acceptable. The first application of heat of hydration measurements to the variability study was completed and the results presented in this report. These measurements were made using Phase VI mixes (SWPF simulants) following a statistical design that included variation in the compositional and operational variables. Variation in both the amount of heat released and the peak times for the heat release were observed. The measured ranges were 23 Joules per gram of premix for the heat release and 23 hours for the peak time of heat release at 25 C. Linear models with high R{sup 2} values and no statistical evidence for lack of fit were developed that relate the amount of heat release and the peak time for heat release for the Phase VI mixes to certain variables. The amount of heat released was a function of the aluminate and portland cement concentrations as well as the temperature of mixing. The peak time for heat release was a function of aluminate, portland cement and total nitrate plus nitrite concentrations. A comparison was made of the measured values of heat release by isothermal calorimetry to a previous study of the measurement of the heat of hydration using adiabatic calorimetry by Steimke and Fowler. After 80 hours of reaction time, the two techniques provided heat release results that were roughly in the same range. However, additional experiments at higher isothermal temperatures will be required to see how well the two measurements agree for longer times. This is due to the higher temperatures that are experienced in adiabatic calorimetry ({approx}105 C).

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    affordable, low-interest loans with... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Duct...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  5. List of Motors Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DuctAir sealing Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Motors Refrigerators Water Heaters Windows Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes Burbank Water & Power -...

  6. Otter Tail Power Company - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agricultural Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps Water Heaters Lighting Furnaces Heat Pumps Air conditioners Heat recovery Building Insulation Motors Motor VFDs CustomOthers...

  7. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That leaves

  8. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems.

  9. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  10. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and stored in a reservoir, then when electricity is needed, air is heated with natural gas and expanded through a turbine. Adiabatic Adiabatic compressed air energy storage...

  11. Critical Question #5: What are Recent Innovations in Air Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: What are Recent Innovations in Air Distribution Systems? Critical Question 5: What are Recent Innovations in Air Distribution Systems? The majority of heating systems are ...

  12. Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Advanced HeatMass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems Air-cooled Condensers in ...

  13. Fusion Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Heating Systems » Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via

  14. Air compliance falls short without CEMs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G.H. II

    1994-06-01

    Four titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 refer to or require the use of continuous emission moniotrs (CEMs). The code of Federal regulations, Title 40, part 60, Appendix B lists the Performance Specifications for the design, installation and initial performance evaluation of CEMs. Emission monitors are required by 40 CFR 503 for sewage sludge incinerators and by 40 CFR 264/266 foir boilers and industrial furnaces. Technology advances of CEMs are discussed.

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces; Comment Period Reopening

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces; Comment Period Reopening

  16. Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is

  17. Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

  18. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  19. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  20. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. March 17, 2015 Real-time data monitoring ...