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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Blast furnaces make way for new steel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent environmental regulations, aging production units, and a competitive market are forcing iron and steelmakers to improve the environmental performance and cost efficiencies of their processes. The traditional integrated steel unit isn`t obsolete -- yet. Blast furnaces will be around for at least another 15 years. However, traditional technology is in for some changes, and stepped up rivalry from electric arc furnace minimills and ironmaking processes that use gas or coal. The paper discusses direct iron making processes, the DRI-minimill connection, the iron carbide process, and reclaiming iron from waste.

Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.; Moore, S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ladle Refining Furnaces for the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a tremendous interest in the use of ladle refining furnaces in the last few years. Several units have been or are being constructed in the United States and most steel companies are seriously considering installing them. The purpose of this report is to inform the member companies of EPRI of the development and operations of ladle furnaces and to assist steel companies in determining if ladle furnaces fit their goals and which particular unit would be best for their operation. In this repo...

1990-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for energy efficiency improvements through utilization of measurement and automatic control; this includes both direct fuel savings and indirect savings due to product quality improvements. Focus is on energy use in steel reheating furnaces for rolling mills. The demands on the reheating process and the operational conditions that are essential for its control are described. An analysis is made of possible reductions in energy use as a result of improved control. A survey is included of furnace control systems in steel plants; such equipment has been designed and implemented in order to optimize the reheating process. Reports of achieved savings are presented, and demands on measurement and control systems for successful implementation are discussed. Economic analyses, in terms of life cycle costs and estimated savings, are made for three levels of measurement and control systems. Reductions in energy use of up to 20 percent can be expected for the type of process studied, as a result of investments in information technology; it is also concluded that such investments are cost-effective.

Martensson, A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Tube furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Enameling Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 13 Cycles for firing ground-coated and cover-coated sheet steel parts in a continuous furnace...Architectural panels 16-22 805 1480 2-4 Home laundry equipment 18-22 805 1480 4-5 Water heater tanks 7-16 870 1600 8-12 Range equipment 18-24 805 1480 3-5 Sanitary ware 14-18 815 1500 4-6 Signs 16-22 805 1480 3-5 (a) Temperature varies with composition of frit. (b) Time in hot zone of furnace...

7

A model for temperature prediction of melted steel in the electric arc furnace (EAF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A constant aspiration to optimize electric arc steelmaking process causes an increase of the use of advanced analytical methods for the process support. The goal of the paper is to present the way to predict temperature of melted steel in the electric ...

Marcin Blachnik; Krystian M?czka; Tadeusz Wieczorek

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential and commercial buildings. Steel framing has many advantages over wood framing; strength, low weight, dimensional stability, resistance to termite damage, almost 100% recycleability, etc .. However because of several reasons an application of steel as a framing material in US residential building market is relatively low. Steel industry has noticed much more success on commercial building market which is not as rigorous regarding thermal efficiency and energy conservation. Steel framing has one significant disadvantage over wood; Steel members conduct heat extremely well. This effect is known as thermal bridging, and it can sharply reduce a wall's effective Rvalue. The simplest and most common way to overcome this problem is to block the path of heat flow with rigid foam insulation. Adding rigid foam insulation not only increases the whole wall's R-value, but it also reduces the temperature difference between the center of the cavity and the stud area, which cuts down on the possibility of black stains forming from dirt getting asymmetrically attracted to cold spots on a wall's surface. However, rigid foam insulation is an expensive solution. Several material configurations were developed in the past to increase thermal effectiveness of steel-framed structures. This paper is focused on most common options of thermal improvements of steels framed walls. They were as follow: 1) diminishing the contact area between the studs and exterior sheathing materials, 2) reducing the steel stud web area, 3) replacing the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim to optimize thermal design of steel stud walls.. While examining several material options, ORNL's BTC was also striving to develop energy-efficient steel stud wall technologies that would enable steel-stud walls to beat the performance of traditional 2 x 6 wood stud walls. Several, most current, ORNL developments in steel framing are presented below.

Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Method of making high strength, tough alloy steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high strength, tough alloy steel, particularly suitable for the mining industry, is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other subsitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Rao, Bangaru V. N. (Albany, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Operational simulation model of the raw material handling in an integrated steel making plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is focused on the design and implementation of an operational simulation model (OSM) of the handling of raw material in an integrated steel making plant, considering operations of receiving, unloading, stocking, handling and supplying the ...

Robson Jacinto Coelho; Paula Fernandes Lana; Adriano César Silva; Takeo Fugiwara Santos; ArcelorMittal Tubarão; Marcelo Moretti Fioroni; Luiz Augusto G. Franzese; Daniel de Oliveira Mota; Paragon Tecnologia; Luiz Bueno da Silva

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Joint TVA EPRI Evaluation of Steel Arc Furnace Regulation Impacts and Potential Innovative Mitigation Solutions: Phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is considering the costs and benefits of serving arc furnace loads. One potential adverse power system impact of arc furnaces is that their electric power consumption is extremely volatile and can significantly impact the short-term frequency regulation requirements of the TVA power system, increasing the regulating reserve requirements needed to meet North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) reliability criteria. A one-month analysis of TVA regulation ...

2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Nakagawa, Alvin H. (Campbell, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Recycling of waste polymers in electric arc furnace steelmaking: slag/carbon and steel/carbon interactions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This project is focused on utilizing polymer/coke blends as carbon resource in EAF steelmaking process. In-depth investigations were carried out on slag/carbon and steel/carbon interactions… (more)

Kongkarat, Somyote

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Selected Iron and Steel Industries, 1994. Besides steel mills and blast furnaces, the primary metals industry also ...

15

Conditions for making direct reduced iron, transition direct reduced iron and pig iron nuggets in a laboratory furnace - Temperature-time transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pig iron nugget process is gaining in importance as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace. Throughout the process, self-reducing-fluxing dried greenballs composed of iron ore concentrate, reducing-carburizing agent (coal), flux (limestone) and binder (bentonite) are heat-treated. During the heat treatment, dried greenballs are first transformed into direct reduced iron (DRI), then to transition direct reduced iron (TDRI) and finally to pig iron nuggets. The furnace temperature and/or residence time and the corresponding levels of carburization, reduction and metallization dictate these transformations. This study involved the determination of threshold furnace temperatures and residence times for completion of all of the transformation reactions and pig iron nugget production. The experiments involved the heat treatment of self-reducing-fluxing dried greenballs at various furnace temperatures and residence times. The products of these heat treatments were identified by utilizing optical microscopy, apparent density and microhardness measurements.

Anameric, B.; Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Furnace assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Application of Regenerative Combustion Technology on Reheating Furnace in PISCO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key features of the regenerative combustion technology were introduced and its application in the reheating furnace of Rail & Beam plant of PISCO£¨Panzhihua Iron & Steel Co.£©was discussed£®Comparedwith the traditional combustion technology£¬the ... Keywords: Regenerative Style, Combustion Technology, Reheating Furnace, Energy Conservation

Chen Yong; Pan Hong; Xue Nianfu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Furnaces and Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production: Furnaces and Energy ... Computational Analysis of Thermal Process of a Regenerative Aluminum Melting Furnace: Jimin ... and the appearance of innovative and competing stirrer systems in the market.

20

Furnace Design and Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...S. Lampman, Energy-Efficient Heat-Treating Furnace Design and Operation, Heat Treating, Vol 4, ASM Handbook, ASM International,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The course is directed toward plant managers, anode area managers, process engineers, technical managers, and baking furnace ... ENERGY MANAGEMENT.

22

Energy saving furnace controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a forced air heating system including a furnace controlled by a household thermostat. The furnace includes a burner, burning valve, heat exchanger, plenum and fan for circulating air through the heat exchanger and plenum. An auxiliary controller comprises: relay means connectable between the household thermostat and the furnace burner valve; and timing means for controlling the duty cycle of the furnace burner valve by opening and closing the relay. The timing means includes means for timing alternating first and second intervals, the first interval at least substantially equal to the length of time the furnace delays between a cell for heat from the household thermostat and the start of the furnace fan when the furnace is started from a cool state. The second interval corresponds to a percentage of the first interval.

Johnson, H.R.; Lombardi, S.E.

1987-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

Furnaces and Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating.

24

NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

Not Available

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Furnace Black Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher #12 of Crystallographic Studies #12;005F7 Methodologies #12;005F8 Summary · For all furnace carbon black 12� Surface Unorganized Carbon Identified #12;005F11 SRCC's Model #12;005F12 Carbon Black Surface Activity

26

Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (“Air Products”) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace “topgas” generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporation’s Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

Joyce, Jeffrey

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

Furnace Black Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Black Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher 005F 2 Definitions Particle Aggregate = 20nm to 100nm "Diameter" = 200nm to 1,000nm "Length" = Set of Percolated Aggregates Particle (?) Aggregate Agglomerate Constituents Size = Tech/Scientific Challenge 005F 3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock Oil Air Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench 005F 4 Specific Surface Area 005F 5 Structure 3-D Morphology Key Characteristic Summary of Crystallographic Studies 005F 7 Methodologies 005F 8 Summary * For all furnace carbon black 12Å < L C < 17Å * Crystallite L a ≈ 25Å * Amorphous Carbon * No micropores * Very few surface groups (hetero atoms) { 005F 9 Effect of Heat Treatment on Amorphous Carbon

28

Furnace Systems Technology Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Networking and Online Tools, X ... TMS Social Network and Site Tools .... furnace technology, fundamentals of fans and blowers, reduction of melt loss, refractory ... Sutton - Harbison-Walker Refractories; Jon Gillespie - Gillespie & Powers ...

29

iron and steel making  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-Solid Reaction Will Help Solid-Solid Reaction—Novel Iron Ore Agglomerate Bearing Semi-Coal-Char (Keynote) [pp. 97-104] T. Usui, H. Konishi, and N.

30

High temperature furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

31

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S Title A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2011 Authors Price, Lynn K., Ali Hasanbeigi, Nathaniel T. Aden, Zhang Chunxia, Li Xiuping, and Shangguan Fangqin Conference Name ACEEE Industrial Summer Study Date Published 07/2011 Publisher American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Conference Location New York Keywords china, energy intensity, iron and steel, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, united states Abstract The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity of steel production in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and industry structure. In addition to the base case analysis, six scenarios were developed to assess the effect of different factors such as the share of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production, conversion factors for the embodied energy of imported and exported intermediary and auxiliary products, and the differences in net calorific values of the fuels. The results of the analysis show that for the whole iron and steel production process, the final energy intensity in 2006 was equal to 14.90 GJ/tonne crude steel in the U.S. and 23.11 GJ/tonne crude steel in China in the base scenario. In another scenario that assumed the Chinese share of electric arc furnace production in 2006 (i.e. 10.5%) in the U.S., the energy intensity of steel production in the U.S. increased by 54% to 22.96GJ/tonne crude steel. Thus, when comparing the energy intensity of the U.S and Chinese steel industry,the structure of the industry should be taken into account.

32

Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking Carbon Intensity ... simple Rist-style blast furnace mass and energy balance, assuming furnace ...

33

Argonne Software Licensing: Glass Furnace Model (GFM)  

The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) Version 4.0, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) glass furnace simulation code was developed at Argonne ...

34

Furnace | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Furnace Furnace Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

35

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high strength, high toughness Cr-W-V ferritic steel composition suitable for fast induced-radioactivity (FIRD) decay after irradiation in a fusion reactor comprises 2.5-3.5 wt % Cr, 2. This invention was made with Government support under contract DE-AC05-840R21400 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and the Government has certain rights in this invention.

Klueh, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Tritium extraction furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel industry, and final steel product mix in both countries. The share of lower energy intensity electric arc furnace production in each country was a key determinant of total steel sector energy efficiency. Overall steel sector structure, in terms of average plant vintage and production capacity, is also an important variable though data were not available to quantify this in a scenario. The methodology developed in this report, along with the accompanying quantitative and qualitative analyses, provides a foundation for comparative international assessment of steel sector energy intensity.

Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

39
40

HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

Olson, D.M.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Regenerative Burners Assessment in Holding Reverberatory Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life.

43

DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Final Environmental Assessment for the Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

44

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc formerly WaterFurnace Industries Inc WFI Jump to: navigation, search Name WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI)) Place Indiana Zip 46809 Sector Geothermal energy Product WaterFurnace develops and manufactures geothermal heating and cooling systems. References WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI))[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI)) is a company located in Indiana . References ↑ "WaterFurnace Renewable Energy Inc (formerly: WaterFurnace Industries, Inc (WFI))"

50

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

53

Automatic control in the iron and steel industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basic iron and steel production processes, starting in the blast furnace and followed by steelmaking and rolling procedures, have not been altered greatly, although there have been modifying developments in individual processes, such as a basic oxygen ...

T. Isobe

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inc. Pigg, Scott. 2003. Electricity Use by New Furnaces: Astage furnaces offer national electricity savings, but withABORATORY Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces andcalculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces.residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing  

SciTech Connect

Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. What does this mean for me? To maintain your heating system's efficiency and ensure healthy indoor air quality, it's critical to maintain the unit and its venting mechanism. Proper maintenance extends the life of your furnace or boiler and saves you money. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via pipes to steam radiators, and hot water can be distributed

63

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cut out of a piece of plywood that is attached to the inlet.the size of the furnace outlet cut in the plywood. ESLtaped the furnace to the plywood and strapped it in place.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Furnace Systems Technology Workshop Brochure (PDF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To register, visit the furnace systems technology ... transfer, atmospheres and purging requirements, effective control systems, and fuel efficiency, production ...

65

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

66

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The effects of improved residential furnace filtration on airborne particles  

SciTech Connect

Forced air furnaces with distributed ducting systems have always had an air filter, but traditionally the filter quality was only adequate to protect the furnace fan and heat exchanger from debris. In the past several years, there has been an increasing number of more effective particulate filters that are being marketed to reduce airborne particulate or dust. These include upgraded panel filters, passive electrostatic, active electrostatic, and HEPA or near-HEPA variants. Consumers are bewildered by the lack of standardized and comprehensible performance results and need better advice on whether it would be useful for them to upgrade their current furnace filter. In order to help them make these decisions, the whole range of available furnace filters were tested in six occupied houses. The filter efficiency was determined by particulate measurement in the ducting system before and after the filter. Indoor particulates were measured in a bedroom and living room, and outdoor levels were monitored simultaneously. Testing encompassed several weeks in each house, and the results are available in the whole range of particle sizes. The project also looked at the air-cleaning effectiveness of a stand-alone air cleaner and at the ozone production of electrostatic precipitators installed in 20 houses. Test results will be helpful in specifying suitable filtration for houses.

Fugler, D.; Bowser, D.; Kwan, W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

69

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces Furnaces are the most common heating systems used in homes in the United States. They can be all electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. Boilers Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while other buildings have steam or hot water piped in from a central plant. Commercial boilers are manufactured for high- or low-pressure applications.

70

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

71

Processing factors contributing to growth and decline in the steel industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the second half of the twentieth century, a technological shift occurred in the steel industry. A different mix of refining and melting furnaces were used, with increasing use being made of basic oxygen and electric ...

Dufalla, Michele (Michele Helene)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

List of Furnaces Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Furnaces Incentives Furnaces Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 688 Furnaces Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-688) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit

73

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880,...

74

Energy Control in Primary Aluminium Casthouse Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to effectively run a furnace with low energy consumption the burner's fuel ... Oxidation of Commercial Purity Aluminium Melts: An Experimental Study.

75

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

77

Dataplot Commands for Furnace Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... variable label run Run Number variable label zone Furnace Location variable label wafer Wafer Number variable label filmthic Film Thickness (ang ...

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

High Performance Sealing for Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

79

Energy Efficiency Improvement in Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the high energy consumption facilities in a smelter is the Anode Baking ... Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode Baking Furnace ...

80

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

83

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling for 12 hours. Pressurized argon and process water are used to expedite cooling. The proposed modifications aim to minimize cycling by reducing cooling time; they are grouped into three fundamental mechanisms. The first is a recommendation to modify current operating procedures. This entails opening the furnace doors at higher than normal temperatures. A furnace temperature model based on current parameters is used to show the reduction in cooling time in response to opening the furnace doors at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat from the furnace envelope. Heat transfer models based on convective Nusselt correlations are used to determine the increase in heat transfer rate. The last mechanism considers a modification to the current heat exchanger. By decreasing the temperature of the water jacket and increasing heat exchanger efficiency, heat transfer from the furnace is increased and cooling time is shortened. This analysis is done using the Effectiveness-NTU method.

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

Precision control of high temperature furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the present invention to provide precision control of high temperature furnaces. It is another object of the present invention to combine the power of two power supplies of greatly differing output capacities in a single furnace. This invention combines two power supplies to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. Further, this invention comprises a means for high speed measurement of temperature of the process by the method of measuring the amount of current flow in a deliberately induced charged particle current.

Pollock, G.G.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

Effect of PCI blending on combustion characteristics for iron-making.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The PCI technology is well established for reducing the consumption of economic and environmentally expensive coke in blast furnace iron-making. Often, coal blends show unexpected… (more)

Gill, Trilochan Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Steel Cermets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cermets Steel Cermets The documents below provide information about depleted uranium use in steel cermets for spent nuclear fuel. PDF Melted and Granulated Depleted Uranium Dioxide...

89

Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Furnaces Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

90

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (IR) thermography testing of several furnaces, identified extremely hot surfaces on the outside of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace, the energy efficiency improved by approximately 11%. The total savings are approximately 14,000 Million Btu/yr on one furnace. Insulation will be applied to several other furnaces at the site.

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Optical Furnace offers improved semiconductor device ...  

This means that the furnace is almost immune to the contamination from hot walls of ... NREL 94-26 US 5,897,331 High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film ...

94

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency...

95

The Use of BIM in Construction for Decision Making: A Case of Irregular-Shaped Steel-Framed Building Construction Project in South Korea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the comprehensive process of developing a computer model of a building project in the phases of designing, analyzing, building, managing, refurbishing and even demolishing the building. Applying BIM to public construction has become an obligation in South Korea. According to the Public Procurement Service in South Korea, the use of BIM has been compulsory on all government projects over $44M since 2012. Moreover, from 2013, the application of BIM will be expanded to all public construction projects over $27.6M. Finally, beginning in 2016, all public construction projects will be required to use BIM. Most research on BIM in South Korea has been focused on developing regulations and policies, application of BIM, solving technical problems, and searching for the value of BIM. However, the use of BIM in Korea during construction for decision-making has not been thoroughly reported in Korea yet. One may be wondering then if BIM is indeed well utilized in Korea during construction for practical decision-making. The objective of this research centers on investigating how a construction company in South Korea is using BIM for its decision making process during ongoing construction phases. For this investigation, a case study method was used. The construction operations on a jobsite in South Korea were monitored June to August in 2012. Field notes were taken to document the decision-making process and information used during field coordination meetings. A total of 36 cases were monitored and recorded. The use of BIM on field was then compared to the industry expectations indicated in the literature. Specifically, the use of BIM for scheduling, estimating, coordination, review of drawings, and tracking for change orders were carefully monitored and compared with the industry expectations as they were addressed in the literature. The results of this research study were mixed. That is, there are not only similarities, but also differences between BIM’s role used for decision making at the construction site, and its expected role described in previous research. The similarities were regarded as minimizing reworking. This factor came to fruition at a construction site by minimizing error, omission in design phases, or congruence in design and construction tasks. These factors could have a positive effect on estimating and scheduling at a construction site. However, use of BIM at a construction site was still limited in reducing repetitive work when 2D drawings were not able to provide enough information to conduct construction. Additionally, even though this study was successful in revealing the connection between the decision making process and the application of BIM at a construction site, the results of the study may not be generalizable to the construction industry as a whole in South Korea. Therefore, further research is needed to ensure its applicability to other construction projects.

Yum, Sang Guk

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Criteria determining the selection of slags for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electroslag remelting is an excellent process choice for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated metals. ESR furnaces are easily enclosed and do not make use of refractories which could complicate thermochemical interactions between molten metal and slag. A variety of cleaning mechanisms are active during melting; radionuclides may be partitioned to the slag by means of thermochemical reaction, electrochemical reaction, or mechanical entrapment. At the completion of melting, the slag is removed from the furnace in solid form. The electroslag process as a whole is greatly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the slag used. When used as a melt decontamination scheme, the ESR process may be optimized by selection of the slag. In this research, stainless steel bars were coated with non-radioactive surrogate elements in order to simulate surface contamination. These bars were electroslag remelted using slags of various chemistries. The slags investigated were ternary mixtures of calcium fluoride, calcium oxide, and alumina. The final chemistries of the stainless steel ingots were compared with those predicted by the use of a Free Energy Minimization Modeling technique. Modeling also provided insight into the chemical mechanisms by which certain elements are captured by a slag. Slag selection was also shown to have an impact on the electrical efficiency of the process as well as the surface quality of the ingots produced.

Buckentin, J.M.R.; Damkroger, B.K.; Shelmidine, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Atteridge, D.G. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Mathematical model of a tube furnace for catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tube furnace is a complex unit in which there are hundreds of reaction tubes and coils for heating the reaction mixture, gas, air, steam and water. Optimum design of such a unit can be done only with a mathematical model of it. A number of physicochemical processes occur in the reaction furnace: conversions of natural gas with heat supplied through the wall of the tube, combustion of fuel in the firebox, transfer of heat from the radiating walls or flame to the reaction tubes, heating of the vapor-gas mixture and other flows in the convective zone of the furnace. These processes are interrelated and there are some difficulties in writing a mathematical model for the furnace. We have adopted the following principle for construction of a model: individual processes are being modeled and the starting data for calculation of these are the results of modeling of other processes. Calculation is made by sequential approximations until material and thermal balances are observed for all processes, as is indicated on the calculation flowsheet. Thermal calculations were made by methods discussed in (2). Modeling the tube furnace on a computer makes it possible to determine its working characteristics and range of safe operation. Computer calculations permit the time required for design of furnaces to be reduced substantially and the quality of the design to be improved. Higher demands are beingmade on tube furnaces for catalytic conversion of natural gas both with regard to operating reliability and economy because of the sharp increase of the unit capacities of ammonia and methanol synthesis plants.

Stepanov, A.V.; Sul'zhik, N.I.; Kadygrob, L.A.; Gorlov, V.F.; Mishin, V.P.; Dugach, V.V.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

100

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified to recover this heat and convert it to power. The system will then reduce the amount of purchased power by approximately 25% without any additional use of fuel. The cost of this power is virtually unchanged over the life of the project because of the use of capital to displace fuel consumed from the purchased power source.

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scrap steel, pig iron, or direct reduced iron (DRI) using anthe production of direct reduced iron (DRI). DRI is producedDirect current Direct reduced iron Electric arc furnace

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Control of energy use in a furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes, in a residential furnace of the type which is responsive to a thermostat and has an electronic ignitor, and a circulating air blower that May be operated on a continuous basis, an improved process of controlling the thermostat, electrical ignitor and blower in an ignition sequence of the furnace. It comprises: upon receiving a call for heat from a thermostat, checking to determine if the circulating air blower is on; if the blower is on, turning it off; and only after the blower is turned off, turning on the ignitor to initiate the combustion process.

Ballard, G.W.; Dempsey, D.J.

1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

103

Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several aspects of the technology employed have been patented in the U.S. and elsewhere. This paper discusses the use of process heat and gas turbine exhaust for air preheat to provide plant fuel savings of about 8% over and above a modern, fuel efficient alternative furnace without air preheat.

Kenney, W. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Title Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Publication Type Report...

107

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ducts Total Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) ity ni x FrDucts Total Electricity Consumption (kWh/year) nt a ni x Fryear. Furnace blowers account for about 80% of the total furnace electricity consumption

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Grate Furnace Combustion: A Submodel for the Solid Fuel Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reduction of NOx-formation in biomass fired grate furnaces requires the development of numerical models. To represent the variety in scales and physical processes playing a role in the conversion, newly developed ... Keywords: Grate furnace, biomass, reverse combustion

H. A. Kuijk; R. J. Bastiaans; J. A. Oijen; L. P. Goey

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond, S.M. (Raymond A.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput. Sponsorship, The Minerals ...

111

AFA Steels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AFA Steels Home AFA Steels Home Contacts Goal Advanced Research Material Projects Related Links CF8C-Plus Steels MSTD Corrosion Science & Technology Group Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL Fossil Energy Program ORNL Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program Distributed Energy Program Comments AFA: Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels AFA stainless steels boast an increased upper-temperature oxidation, or corrosion, limit that is 100 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit higher than that of conventional stainless steels. These new alloys deliver this superior oxidation resistance with high-temperature strengths approaching that of

112

Field Demonstration of the Thermostone III Electric Thermal Storage Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat storage furnaces use low-cost, off-peak electricity to satisfy all of a customer's heating needs. This field demonstration showed that prototype heat storage furnaces maintained comfort under diverse climate conditions, usage patterns, and lengths of off-peak periods. In addition, these furnaces effectively shifted the load to off-peak hours.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The information furnace: consolidated home control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

?The Information Furnace is a basement-installed PC-type device that integrates existing consumer home-control, infotainment, security and communication technologies to transparently provide accessible and value-added services. A modern home contains ... Keywords: Automation, Consumer electronics, Home-control, Multi-modal interfaces

Diomidis D. Spinellis

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Superior Steel  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

which contains Mississippian to Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) Formations exhibiting coal resources. Superior Steel likely is underlain by the Conemaugh andor the Monogahela...

115

Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... During service, Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels harden as a result of the ... Research supported by ORNL's Shared Research Equipment ...

116

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant comprising a gas cleaning unit for dust removal and a turbine for converting the recoverable thermal energy into mechanical and electrical energy. The adjustable annular gap scrubber for separating fine dust also serves as an element for regulating the gas pressure at the blast furnace top so that pressure control by the turbine and its control gear is no longer necessary. Moreover, in the event of a turbine outage the annular gap scrubber can be used as a low noise, pressure-throttling element. The economic use of a turbine for recovering energy from top gas depends on many parameters, such as top pressure, top gas rate, clean gas temperature, local cost of electric power, etc. A profitability analysis for a specific installation shows a remarkably short payback period. The process incorporates a new concept in blast air compression. Mechanical energy from the turbine is transferred directly to the axial flow compressor so that the prior conversion of energy via the power generating cycle is dispensed with. Coupled to the turbine is the compressor motor which, while rated to cover the full power requirement, uses about 40% less electrical power from the power supply system. Finally, as an example of the future potential of this process, a new continuous steelmaking process is presented which employs a closed top converter. The gas, held under pressure during refining, is subsequently cleaned and expanded as the blast furnace process described above. This gas is cleaned without any entrainment of air to furnish a gaseous fuel of high calorific value. Since the steelmaking process is continuous, the gas is constantly available and can be fed into the distribution system without any intermediate storage.

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking  

SciTech Connect

Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

2001-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

124

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

125

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

126

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity...

128

Recovering Zinc and Lead from Electric Arc Furnace Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price: 10.00. Product In Stock. Description Increasing amounts of electric arc furnace dust ...

129

Induction Furnace Quench & Temper of Oil Field Tubular Goods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the unique operating features of an induction furnace, each pipe is individually heat treated, producing more uniform properties than possible with ...

130

140th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Furnace Efficiency – Energy and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

140th Annual Meeting & Exhibition. February 27 to March 3, 2011. San Diego Convention Center • San Diego, California USA. Furnace Efficiency – Energy and  ...

131

Effect Of Batch Charging Equipment On Glass Furnace Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effects of batch pattern in the melt space caused by charging equipment on the energy efficiency of the furnace focusing on the ...

132

The Limitations of CFD Modeling for Furnace Atmosphere ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2002 ... The Limitations of CFD Modeling for Furnace Atmosphere Troubleshooting by P.F. Stratton, N. Saxena and M. Huggahalli ...

133

Maximum Rate of Pulverized Coal Injection into Blast Furnace with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulverized coal consumption efficiency is determined by means of microscopic and chemical analysis. The carbon structure of coke fines in the blast furnace ...

134

Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces by P.E. King, J.J. Hatem, and B.M. Golchert ...

135

The Comparison between Vertical Shaft Furnace and Rotary Kiln for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Therefore, calcination of coke used for aluminum reduction by vertical shaft furnace is more competitive based on the existing quality of the green petroleum  ...

136

Improved Furnace Efficiency through the Use of Refractory Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment ...

137

Furnace Efficiency – Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since throughput and energy efficiency are very closely tied together, this symposium looks to optimize furnace operations in both areas. Specific methods to ...

138

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this...

140

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air-Handler Efficiency. ASHRAE Transactions, V. 110, Pt.1,Air Heating System Performance. ASHRAE Transactions, V. 104,Furnace Air Handlers Save? , ASHRAE Transactions, V. 110,

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NREL’s Optical Furnace Technology Sparks Solar Industry Interest  

NREL Principal Engineer Bhushan Sopori has fired up an optical furnace he developed to efficiently fabricate solar cells. Credit: Ray David, NREL

143

Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling operation or standby, which account for a largethe cooling season, and standby. Furnace electricity use isElectricity Use during Standby PE standby Burner Operating

Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Development of Reverberatory Furnace Using in Copper Scrape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Furnace Using in Copper Scrape Smelting by Reformed Natural Gas ... Oxidation Kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-V liquid Alloys under Controlled Oxygen Pressures.

146

Alloys for Ethylene Production Furnaces - Energy Innovation Portal  

Ethylene production is one of the most energy intensive processes in the chemical industry, due to the decoking necessary to maintain ethylene furnace ...

147

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Analyzing and Characterizing the Steel Used at Frank Lloyd Wright's ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metals Handbook (Metals Park, OH: ASM, 1948), pp. 320–322. 4. Making, Shaping and Treating, 8th edition (Pittsburgh, PA: United States Steel Corp., 1964), p.

149

Factory Brings Solar Energy Jobs to Former Steel Town | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

although they're more likely these days to make pharmaceuticals or petrochemicals than steel. So when AE Polysilicon looked for a site suitable for its polycrystalline silicon...

150

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

151

Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Comparison of Furnace Flue Gas Temperature Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a temperature monitor comparison study performed at Ameren Sioux Station, in Missouri. The study compared the accuracy and ease of use of two radiation-based monitors, an Infra-View and SpectraTemp, and a newer tunable-diode laser (TDL) absorption-based device, the LTS-100. The instruments, installed in the upper furnace and allowed to run continuously for approximately 8 weeks, monitored and recorded exit gas temperatures during normal boiler operation and one brief...

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

153

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

157

Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

158

Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement On January 11, 2013, the Department of Justice, on behalf of DOE, and the American Public Gas Association (APGA) filed a joint motion asking the court to enter an agreement to settle APGA's challenge to DOE's June 27, 2011 Direct Final Rule. The settlement agreement would, among other things, vacate the energy conservation standards applicable to non-weatherized gas furnaces established in the DFR. In an exercise of its enforcement discretion, DOE will, during the pendency of the litigation, act in a manner consistent with the terms of the settlement agreement with regard to the enforcement of the standards. Furnace Standards Enforcement Policy Statement - April 5, 2013

159

Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement Simple Maintenance Saves Costly Furnace Repair/Replacement January 6, 2010 - 8:26am Addthis Chris Stewart Senior Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory For the past few weeks, my forced-air gas furnace has been on the fritz. I blame this on the fact that I haven't been as diligent as I should have been with regular furnace maintenance, which includes: Checking the condition of the vent connection pipe and chimney Checking the physical integrity of the heat exchanger Adjusting the controls to provide optimum water and air temperature settings for both efficiency and comfort Having a technician perform a combustion-efficiency test Checking the combustion chamber for cracks. Testing for carbon monoxide

160

ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces Dataset Summary Description Gas Furnaces that have earned the ENERGY STAR are more efficient than standard models. ENERGY STAR is the trusted symbol for energy efficiency helping consumers save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. More information on ENERGY STAR is available at www.energystar.gov. Tags {Furnaces,"Energy Star",products,"energy efficiency",efficient,"greenhouse gas emissions",climate,utility,utilities,household,savings,labels,partners,certification} Dataset Ratings Overall 0 No votes yet Data Utility

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

162

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Beth Steel for pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System Demonstration Project TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 15 NOVEMBER 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 15 A report on a project conducted jointly under a...

164

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

165

Make Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and public perceptions and preferences, help improve our understanding of risk, vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. How does USGCRP make observations? USGCRP...

166

Steel Manufacturer Proves Its "Mittal" by Doing More with Less Energy |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steel Manufacturer Proves Its "Mittal" by Doing More with Less Steel Manufacturer Proves Its "Mittal" by Doing More with Less Energy Steel Manufacturer Proves Its "Mittal" by Doing More with Less Energy November 2, 2010 - 12:15pm Addthis ArcelorMittal, Department of Energy and elected officials gather for the groundbreaking in front of North America’s largest blast furnace. ArcelorMittal, Department of Energy and elected officials gather for the groundbreaking in front of North America's largest blast furnace. Isaac Chan The industrial sector consumes about a third of all energy used in the United States. A large portion of this energy is lost through inefficiencies. The Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act is investing millions of dollars to help the United States

167

Strategic evaluation of investments in coal-dust fuel for blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the evaluation of venture investment projects in pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces.

S.V. Bogdanov; S.M. Kornilaev [State University of Management, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High- Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces Larry Brand Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) March 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade

169

Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli Jump to: navigation, search Name Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli Place Veseli nad Moravou, Czech Republic Zip 698 12 Sector Wind energy Product Czech Republic-based steel making firm. They are diversifying into wind plant and PV plant development. References Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli is a company located in Veseli nad Moravou, Czech Republic . References ↑ "Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Z_Group_Steel_Holding_Zelezarny_Veseli&oldid=353435"

170

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the Department's commitment to meet its aggressive, five-year appliance standard rulemaking schedule, as established in its January 31, 2006, Report to Congress. The Department estimates that these amended standards, which become effective in 2015, will save the equivalent of the total amount of energy consumed by 2.5 million American households in one year, or approximately 0.25 quadrillion (10x15) British thermal

171

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces October 7, 2013 - 10:39am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

172

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace April 1, 2010 - 7:16pm Addthis Joshua DeLung For the last 56 years, Beulah Sisk has lived in the same house in Princeton, W.Va. Beulah, who worked for 25 years at Lloyd's Pastry Shop, is well known in Princeton. People still see her on the streets today and recognize her as an icon in the community. After a wind storm damaged Beulah's home last year, it came as no surprise when a senior center employee, concerned for Beulah's safety, told her about the weatherization assistance program. "A tree fell on my house and damaged a lot of things, including my furnace," Beulah says. "I tried to have it repaired, but it still

173

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

174

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

175

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the Department's commitment to meet its aggressive, five-year appliance standard rulemaking schedule, as established in its January 31, 2006, Report to Congress. The Department estimates that these amended standards, which become effective in 2015, will save the equivalent of the total amount of energy consumed by 2.5 million American households in one year, or approximately 0.25 quadrillion (10x15) British thermal

176

EOI, Electric Tube Conversion Furnaces | Y-12 National Security...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tube ... EOI, Electric Tube Conversion Furnaces B&W Y-12, LLC (hereafter known as "Y-12"; for additional company information, see the website), acting under its Prime Contract No....

177

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE and 2006 ASHRAE Test Procedures Furnace Controls Household Heating Requirementsprocedure (DOE 2004; Habart 2005) Heating Requirements areIn the DOE test procedure, the heating requirements of the

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

System for generating power with top pressure of blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A system for generating power with the top pressure of a plurality of blast furnaces by leading a gas from the top of the furnaces into turbines, corresponding in number to the furnaces, to convert the pressure of the gas into rotational energy and generate power by a generator coupled to the turbines. The turbines connected to the furnaces by main gas channels individually are aligned with their rotor shafts connected together into a single shaft which is connected to the generator. Preferably each pair of the adjacent turbines are arranged with their intake ends positioned in the center of the arrangement so that the gas flows toward the exhaust ends at both sides, or with their intake ends positioned at both sides to cause the gas to flow toward the exhaust ends in the center. The single shaft connecting the pair of turbines together has no intermediate bearing between these turbines.

Kihara, H.; Mizota, T.; Ohmachi, M.; Takao, K.; Toki, K.; Tomita, Y.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

180

Furnace characterization for horizontal shipping container thermal testing  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform regulatory thermal tests required by 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) on the newly designed Horizontal Shipping Container (HSC), it was necessary to find a company involved in the business of heat treating who was willing to allow their furnace to be used for these tests. Of the companies responding to a request for interest, Lindberg Heat Treating Company`s Solon, Ohio, facility was found to be the best available vendor for this activity. Their furnace was instrumented and characterized such that these tests could be performed in a manner that would conform to the specifications contained in 10 CFR 71. It was found that Lindberg`s furnace was usable for this task, and recommendations concerning the use of this furnace for the above stated purpose are made herein.

Feldman, M.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effect of Batch Initial Velocity on the Glass Furnace Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a direct coloration between the batch distribution techniques and the furnace ... A Review: Solar Thermal Reactors for Materials Production ... Cellulose Acetate Membranes for CO2 Separation from Water-gas-shift Reaction Products.

182

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser ...  

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz ...

183

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler...

184

Method of making a modified ceramic-ceramic composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of making a shaped ceramic-ceramic composite articles, such as gas-fired radiant heat burner tubes, heat exchangers, flame dispersers, and other furnace elements, having a formed-on ceramic-ceramic composite thereon.

Weaver, Billy L. (Eagan, MN); McLaughlin, Jerry C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

SciTech Connect

Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

Carbon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations...Vancouver Island, BC, Canada Rural marine 13 0.5 Detroit, MI Industrial 14.5 0.57 Fort Amidor Pier, CZ Marine 14.5 0.57 Morenci, MI Urban 19.5 0.77 Potter County, PA Rural 20 0.8 Waterbury, CT Industrial 22.8 0.89 State College, PA Rural 23 0.9 Montreal, QC, Canada Urban 23 0.9 Durham, NH Rural 28 1.1...

187

Tool Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Examples of ion implantation in metalforming and cutting applications...tool steel Machining 4140 N 80 3� life Taps HSS Tapping 4140 N 80 3� life HSS Tapping 4130 N 80 5� life HSS Tapping 4140 N 50 10� life M35 Tapping � N 2 200 4� life M7 Tapping � N 100 2� life Cutting blade M2 Cutting 1050 N 100 2� life M2 Cutting SAE 950 N 100 4� life Dies D2 Forming 321 SS N 80...

188

Inventory management of steel plates at an oil rig construction company  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keppel Fels produces make-to-order oil exploration rigs for the global market. Each rig requires close to 6000 metric tons of steel in the course of its production. Optimal management of this steel is very critical in this ...

Tan, Chien Yung

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Title Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-417E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Franco, Victor H., James D. Lutz, Alexander B. Lekov, and Lixing Gu Document Number LBNL-417E Pagination 14 Date Published August 1 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80% of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressureused in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, whilewarm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

191

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency/Company /Organization: CONEG Policy Research Center Inc. Partner: Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Rick Handley and Associates, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Other Website: www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/doer/renewables/biomass/DOER%20Biomass%20Emiss Country: United States

192

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

SciTech Connect

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through each step is calibrated against Commerce Dept. data. Third, a detailed energy flow model is presented for coke ovens and blast furnaces, two very energy-intensive steps in our seven step model of steelmaking. This process-step model is calibrated against both our energy end use and material flow models. These models can serve as the base case for simulating changes in energy utilization and waste streams for steelmaking spurred by economic or regulatory conditions or technology innovations.

Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

196

Inclusions and Clean Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Behavior of MgO?Al2O3 Based Inclusions in High-Pressure Boiler Steel during Refining Process · Control of Inclusions in Bottom Filled Steel Ingots · Control of ...

197

Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Austenitic Stainless Steel Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Austenitic Stainless Steel Handbook is part of an ongoing series of metallurgical reports. It is devoted to iron-based alloys that are considered to be stainless steel but that will remain essentially austenitic at room temperatures and below (the definition of austenitic stainless steel). Because of its attractive cost, wide availability, and ease of fabrication and weldability, austenitic stainless steel is one of the most commonly used materials in the electric power generating, chemical processin...

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Seamless Steel Tubular Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...). The tank also contained the search units.Fig. 6 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubular products were

200

The data furnace: heating up with cloud computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we argue that servers can be sent to homes and office buildings and used as a primary heat source. We call this approach the Data Furnace or DF. Data Furances have three advantages over traditional data centers: 1) a smaller carbon footprint ...

Jie Liu; Michel Goraczko; Sean James; Christian Belady; Jiakang Lu; Kamin Whitehouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Lot sizing and furnace scheduling in small foundries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lot sizing and scheduling problem prevalent in small market-driven foundries is studied. There are two related decision levels: (1) the furnace scheduling of metal alloy production, and (2) moulding machine planning which specifies the type and size ... Keywords: Lot sizing and scheduling, Meta-heuristics, Mixed integer programming

Silvio A. de Araujo; Marcos N. Arenales; Alistair R. Clark

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Making Histograms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Histograms: Construction, Analysis and Understanding Histograms: Construction, Analysis and Understanding Conservation Laws - Data Analysis Using Graphs - Histograms - Units or Vectors in Particle Physics What is a Histogram? A histogram is "a representation of a frequency distribution by means of rectangles whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportional to the corresponding frequencies." Online Webster's Dictionary Sounds complicated . . . but the concept really is pretty simple. We graph groups of numbers according to how often they appear. Thus if we have the set {1,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,4,5,6}, we can graph them like this: This graph is pretty easy to make and gives us some useful data about the set. For example, the graph peaks at 3, which is also the median and the mode of the set. The mean of the set is 3.27— not far from the peak. The shape of the graph gives us an idea of how the numbers in the set are distributed about the mean: the distribution of this graph is wide compared to size of the peak, indicating that values in the set are only loosely bunched round the mean.

207

Versatile and Rapid Plasma Heating Device for Steel and Aluminum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of the research was to enhance steel and aluminum manufacturing with the development of a new plasma RPD device. During the project (1) plasma devices were manufactured (2) testing for the two metals were carried out and (3) market development strategies were explored. Bayzi Corporation has invented a Rapid Plasma Device (RPD) which produces plasma, comprising of a mixture of ionized gas and free electrons. The ions, when they hit a conducting surface, deposit heat in addition to the convective heat. Two generic models called the RPD-Al and RPD-S have been developed for the aluminum market and the steel market. Aluminum melting rates increased to as high as 12.7 g/s compared to 3 g/s of the current industrial practice. The RPD melting furnace operated at higher energy efficiency of 65% unlike most industrial processes operating in the range of 13 to 50%. The RPD aluminum melting furnace produced environment friendly cleaner melts with less than 1% dross. Dross is the residue in the furnace after the melt is poured out. Cast ingots were extremely clean and shining. Current practices produce dross in the range of 3 to 12%. The RPD furnace uses very low power ~0.2 kWh/Lb to melt aluminum. RPDs operate in one atmosphere using ambient air to produce plasma while the conventional systems use expensive gases like argon, or helium in air-tight chambers. RPDs are easy to operate and do not need intensive capital investment. Narrow beam, as well as wide area plasma have been developed for different applications. An RPD was developed for thermal treatments of steels. Two different applications have been pursued. Industrial air hardening steel knife edges were subjected to plasma beam hardening. Hardness, as measured, indicated uniform distribution without any distortion. The biggest advantage with this method is that the whole part need not be heated in a furnace which will lead to oxidation and distortion. No conventional process will offer localized hardening. The RPD has a great potential for heat treating surgical knives and tools. Unavailability of the full amount of the DOE award prevented further development of this exciting technology. Significant progress was made during the 5th quarter, specially the invention of the wider-area plasma and the resultant benefits in terms of rapid melting of aluminum and thermal treatments of larger size steel parts. Coating of nickel base superalloys was demonstrated (an additional task over that proposed). Directed low cost surface enhancement of steel and the directed clean low dross energy efficient melting of aluminum are industrial needs that require new technologies. These are large volume markets which can benefit from energy savings. Estimated energy savings are very large, in the order of 1015 J/year when the equipment is universally used. Compact and directed heating technology/product market in these two sectors could potentially reach over $1B in sales. The results of the research, presented at the DOE annual Review meeting on Aluminum held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the 4-5 October 2005, were very well received by the delegates and panel reviewers. Insufficient DOE funds to fully fund the project at the end of the 5th quarter necessitated some key tasks being only partially completed.

Reddy, G.S.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein

209

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

210

Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

Bridges, B. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carol, L. [AC Delco Systems World Headquarters, Flint, MI (United States). USCAR Low Emissions Technology Research and Development Partnership

1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

211

Geothermal System Saves Dollars, Makes Sense for Maryland Family |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Saves Dollars, Makes Sense for Maryland Family System Saves Dollars, Makes Sense for Maryland Family Geothermal System Saves Dollars, Makes Sense for Maryland Family April 16, 2010 - 5:15pm Addthis A 36-foot-tall drill was needed to install the geothermal system at the Gearon’s house in Derwood, MD. | Photo courtesy of Chris Gearon | A 36-foot-tall drill was needed to install the geothermal system at the Gearon's house in Derwood, MD. | Photo courtesy of Chris Gearon | Lindsay Gsell "At the end of the day, it cost us about the same as if we just replaced our furnace and AC with another furnace and AC, but the big difference is that we're not spending $3,000 on oil bills anymore." Chris Gearon, Derwood, MD resident who recently installed a geothermal system to heal and cool his home Chris Gearon's 24-year old oil furnace was tired. What happened if the

212

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

213

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Transformation Hardening of Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...relations for induction hardening and tempering Electrical and magnetic properties of steels Selection of induction frequency and power The effect of prior microstructure...

216

Types of Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 10   ASTM specifications for structural quality steel plate...bolted, or welded construction of bridges, buildings,

217

Ferrous Alloys: Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Microstructure and Properties of Low Manganese API X70 Pipeline Steel ... the mean residual relative length change (MRRLC) is 0.13×10-5.

218

Specifications for Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 28   ASTM specifications that incorporate AISI-SAE designations...A 29 Carbon and alloy steel bars, hot rolled and cold

219

Sheet Steels II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... The Effect of Carbon Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Fe-22Mn TWIP Steel: Eileen Yang1; Hatem Zurob1; Joseph ...

220

Steel Process Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2009 ... As the axel loads have been continuously increasing with time, so has the desire for premium rail steels with better wear, rolling contact fatigue ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Laser Welding of Steel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

welding is particularly suited to the high-production rate requirements in the automobile industry. Some automotive exhaust components use 409 stainless steel and are currently arc...

222

Nonoriented Silicon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2 Silicon contents, mass densities, and applications of electrical steel sheet and strip...generally used in distribution transformers. Energy savings improve with

223

Pack Cementation Aluminizing of Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Partial list of commercial applications of pack cementation aluminizing...Carbon and stainless steels Steam power and cogeneration Waterwall tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Fluidized bed combustor tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Waste heat boiler tubes Carbon steel Economizer and air preheater tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Superheater tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Aerospace (a) Turbine blades...

224

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Industry Carbon Emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 3312) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 39.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 10.7% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 22.2 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 1,649 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 7.6% Nonfuel Use of Energy: 886 trillion Btu (53.7%) -- Coal: 858 trillion Btu (used to make coke) Carbon Intensity: 24.19 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 39.9 Coal 22.7

225

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_FurnaceBlower_Paper413_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings? BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings? James Lutz, Victor Franco, Alex Lekov, and Gabrielle Wong-Parodi Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized

226

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

227

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For comparison, a control alloy of similar composition but without the microalloy additions exhibited a duplex prior austenite grain size with grains ranging from ASTM grain size 3 down to ASTM grain size 1 after similar processing and thermal exposure. These results confirm the potential for using microalloy additions of Ti, B, Nb, Al, rare earths and/or N for austenite grain size control in Cr-Mo (i.e. 4000-series) low alloy carburizing steels. They also demonstrate that these microalloy additions will not compromise the processability of the steel; all three materials produced under the program could be hot worked readily using normal steel processing protocols. To fully realize the technical and commercial potential of these steels, there is a need to continue development work using larger-scale heats. These larger-scale heats are needed to provide adequate material for fatigue testing of quenched and tempered alloys, to conduct more complete investigations of potential alloy chemistries and to provide additional material for processing studies. It will also be beneficial to carefully review intellectual property issues associated with this family of steels, since existing Japanese patent literature suggests that significant microstructural and/or process characterization work may be needed on new materials to confirm that these materials fall outside existing patent claims.

McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

Development of Synthetic Flux for Basic Oxygen Steel Making Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat Treatment of Black Dross for the Production of a Value Added Material ... Leaching Studies for Metals Recovery from Waste Printed Wiring Boards (PWBs).

230

Process Makes Al Strong as Steel - Materials Technology @ TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 21, 2010... a thin disk of metal to a cylindrical anvil and pressing it against another anvil with a force of about 60,000 kilograms per square centimeter.

231

Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

Not Available

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

offsets the sizable electricity savings. References TitleElectricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forfueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A 3D Mathematical Model of a Horizontal Anode Baking Furnace as ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... phenomena occurring in the furnace and was validated using plant data. ... of the Composite Parts by Arranging Ply Lay-up for Even Resin Distribution and ...

238

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Co-gasification of biomass with coal and oil sands coke in a drop tube furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chars were obtained from individual fuels and blends with different blend ratios of coal, coke and biomass in Drop Tube Furnace at different temperatures. Based… (more)

Gao, Chen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Search by Make  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

You are here: Find a Car - Home > Search by Make Search by Make Search by Make Go Browse New Cars by Make A-D Acura Acura Audi Audi BMW BMW Buick Buick Cadillac Cadillac Chevrolet...

245

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

Dosaj, V.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the regulation of combustion in woodstoves, small furnaces and the like, so as to produce efficient combustion, while maximizing the possible heat output and minimizing air pollution. More specifically, the invention relates to controllers for automatically regulating and the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves, small furnaces or the like. 9 figs.

Siemer, D.D.

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tonne CO2/MWh) Sintering Coke Making Iron Making – Blastadopted in China include: Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), Top-steel industry is coal and coke, the weighted average CO 2

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental technical and managerial support to Thermal Stabilization activities during the initial use of the HA-211 Furnaces until the commencement of full five furnace, unrestricted operations. (3) Ensure that operations can be conducted in a manner that meets PFP and DOE expectations associated with the principles of integrated safety management. (4) To ensure that all interfacing activities needed to meet Thermal Stabilization mission objectives are completed.

WILLIS, H.T.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

251

What Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? What Steps Do You Take to Maintain Your Furnace? January 7, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis This week, Chris told you about his plans to maintain his furnace to keep it running efficiently. Proper maintenance is key to ensuring your heating and cooling systems are in working order. No one wants to wake up on the coldest day of the year to find that they have no heat! What steps do you take to maintain your furnace? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! Saving Energy and Money Starts at Home 31,000 Homes Weatherized in June

252

Adaptation to space applications of a 2000 c furnace with oxidizing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using a low weight low power consumption furnace with oxidizing atmosphere at 2000 C for space applications is discussed. The main heating element is made of zirconium oxide with a platinum preheating system. The structure and stabilization of zirconium oxide are detailed together with its application to the space situation. The static and dynamic regimes are discussed with regard to measurement of the resistivity as a function of temperature and dynamic model. The temperature distribution in the furnace and in a main heating element were studied in relation to thermal insulation and weight budget. A model is proposed for optimal control and thermostat using analog simulation. The final concept requires 350 W for an isothermal furnace of 20 mm diameter weighing 3 kg. The cases of temperature gradient furnaces and of universal furnaces are reviewed. (GRA)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

Arvind Atreya

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

254

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

255

Exergy-based analysis and efficiency evaluation for an aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of a natural gas-fired aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant is examined using energy and exergy methods, to improve understanding of the burner system in the furnace and so that potential improvements can be identified. Such ... Keywords: aluminum, die-casting, efficiency, energy, exergy, melting furnace

Marc A. Rosen; Dennis L. Lee

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by the presence of not only coke but extensive inorganic deposits while the demands of efficient fuel utilization require superior results from decoking procedures. Union Carbide Industrial Services Co., (UCISCO), is continuing the development of its proprietary 'SANDJET' system that removes coke as well as other inorganic deposits efficiently and rapidly. The procedure features computerized job planning and control in order to assure accurate estimates of cost and the proper selection of cleaning parameters and materials. Energy saving benefits of the process have recently become obvious and case studies summarizing these results are discussed. A description of the newly developed job controls and a brief summary of recent experiences in the field will be described in this paper.

Pollock, C. B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Title A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Hasanbeigi, Ali, Lynn K. Price, Nathaniel T. Aden, Zhang Chunxia, Li Xiuping, and Shangguan Fangqin Date Published June/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Iron & Steel Research Institute, Iron and Steel Industry Keywords energy intensity, energy use, Low Emission & Efficient Industry Abstract Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steelproduced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order industry energy use to develop a common framework for comparing steel intensity energy use.

259

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

260

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

SciTech Connect

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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261

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equipment = furnace Heating fuel = oil Home type = single orequipment = boiler Heating fuel = oil Home type = single orHOME HEATING FUEL CON 3 NATURAL GAS FROM UNDERGROUND PIPES = 1 BOTTLED GAS (LPG OR PROPANE) = 2 FUEL OIL

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $6,000 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (FY 2013) Start Date 04/14/2010 Expiration Date When progr State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum rebate is $6,000. To qualify, systems must (1) become operational on or after May 1,

263

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States New Construction Market Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Gabrielle Wong-Parodi James McMahon Victor Franco Date: May 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In the new single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this study, the authors use a life-cycle cost analysis approach that accounts for uncertainty and variability of inputs to assess the economic benefits of installing different gas furnace and water heater combinations. Among other factors, it assesses the economic feasibility of eliminating the traditional metal vents and replacing them with vents made of plastic materials used in condensing and power vent

264

Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas furnaces are rated for efficiency using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) test standard under controlled laboratory test conditions. In the home, these furnaces are then installed under conditions that can vary significantly from the standard, require adjustment by the installing contractor to adapt to field conditions, may or may not be inspected over their useful lifetimes, and can operate with little maintenance over a 30-year period or longer. At issue is whether the installation practices, field conditions, and wear over the life of the furnace reduce the efficiency significantly from the rated efficiency. In this project, nine furnaces, with 15-24 years of field service, were removed from Iowa homes and tested in the lab under four conditions to determine the effects of installation practices, field operating conditions, and age on efficiency.

Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented.

Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is standard in HVAC design and fan selection books 6 . Theof modulating design options. The cooling fan curve passesfan curve and the duct system curve. We calculated the furnace fuel consumption for each design

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Infrared Imaging of Temperature Distribution in a High Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Temperature X-ray Diffraction (HTXRD) is a very powerful tool for studies of reaction kinetics, phase transformations, and lattice thermal expansion of advanced materials. Accurate temperature measurement is a critical part of the technique. Traditionally, thermocouples, thermistors, and optical pyrometers have been used for temperature control and measurement and temperature could only be measured at a single point. Infrared imaging was utilized in this study to characterize the thermal gradients resulting from various sample and furnace configurations in a commercial strip heater furnace. Furnace configurations include a metallic strip heater, with and without a secondary surround heater, or a surround heater alone. Sample configurations include low and high thermal conductivity powders and solids. The IR imaging results have been used to calibrate sample temperatures in the HTXRD furnace.

Payzant, E.A.; Wang, H.

1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of separate costs for natural gas or oil, and electricity.receives oil-fired boilers INPUTS First Cost Inputs The flowfurnaces, and oil-fired furnaces, we scaled the cost for

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_FurnaceBlower_Paper413_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We...

270

Microsoft Word - ACEEE_06_ModulatingFurnaces_Paper236_lbl.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the...

271

Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

Brand, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

273

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

SciTech Connect

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to process plutonium-containing feeds. The electrical parameters of the induction coil and tank circuit necessary for design were determined by two different methods; one is based solely on calculated impedance values, and the other used high-frequency impedance measurements on a mock-up of the induction coil/susceptor arrangement. During the design state, the two methods of determining electrical parameters gave similar results. With the as-built system, the impedance meter did detect some efficiency loss to the metal bell jar and coil support that the calculational method did not predict. These losses were not significant enough to cause operating problems, and thus, both methods were shown to be adequate for the intended purpose. Zinc and magnesium were distilled, and uranium was melted in a successful series of shake-down runs.

Vest, M.A.; Lewandowski, E.F.; Pierce, R.D.; Smith, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Geospatial Decision Making System  

The INL has developed a geospatial decision making process to assist agricultural producers in optimizing operating conditions of combine harvesters ...

278

Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bingham, C.E.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Making VRML Accessible  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Paper - Making VRML Accessible for People with Disabilities by Sandy Ressler and Qiming Wang to Appear in Proceeding of ASSETS 98. ...

280

CSER 99-007 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for PFP Glovebox HA-21I Muffle Furnace Operation for Plutonium Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for operation of PFP Glovebox HA-21I muffle furnace for plutonium stabilization. Glovebox limits are specified for processing metal and oxide fissile materials.

DOBBIN, K.D.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Recent Developments in Steel Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A New Technology of Shot Blasting and Pickling in S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate and GR2 Titanium Plate · Analysis of Scale Deformation and Fracture in ...

282

D. Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructures and Textures Comparison of Conventional and High Niobium API 5L X80 Line Pipe Steel Using EBSD · Molten Mold Flux Technology for ...

283

Steel Processing and Production I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 8, 2013 ... A Study on the Reheat Crack Mechanism of High Strength Hydroelectricity Steel: Xi Zhang1; 1Shougang Research Institute of Technology

284

Physical Metallurgy of Linepipe Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... 8:00 AM Introductory Comments Shale resources have been described as a game ... Production of API HIC Steels for Sour Service Oil and Gas ...

285

Steel Product Metallurgy and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Scale Investigation on Precipitates in High Carbon Bearing Steel 100Cr6 ... The Effects of Nb and V Microalloying on Hardenability and Age Hardening in ...

286

Process for dezincing galvanized steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

Morgan, William A. (Hamilton, CA); Dudek, Frederick J. (Arlington Heights, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Process for dezincing galvanized steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

288

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

289

Method for treating waste containing stainless steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (1819 Princeton, Butte, MT 59701); Battleson, Daniel M. (2606 Hancock, Butte, MT 59701); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (3321 Keokuk, Butte, MT 59701); Cashell, Patrick V. (730 West Park, Butte, MT 59701); Filius, Krag D. (1806 B St., Butte, MT 59701); Flannery, Philip A. (P.O. Box 128, Ramsey, MT 59478); Whitworth, Clarence G. (4646 Utah Ave., Butte, MT 59701)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Steel Recycling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... The Steel Recycling Institute is an industry association that promotes the recycling of steel products. The association website includes pages on ...

292

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Steel Recycling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... This video was created by the Steel Manufacturers Association to educate the public on the importance of recycling steel. Shredded cars ...

293

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Structural Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... This report is a series fo reprints covering steel's sustainability and how structural steel contributes towards obtaining a LEED rating.

294

Symposium A: Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 3, 2010 ... A37 Unconventional Method of Nitriding of 316l Austenitic Steel: ... low carbon bainitic steels (ULCB) which were developed for offshore oil ...

295

Stainless and High Alloy Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cr ferritic-martensitic steels in steam power and chemical plants to ... steels have shown promise for a number of applications in power generation plants.

296

About The Iron and Steel Society  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IRON & STEEL SOCIETY (ISS) is a professional and technical society that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals ...

297

The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility The Impact of Forced Air System Blowers on Furnace Performance and Utility Loads Speaker(s): Bert Phillips Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: James Lutz Bert Phillips will talk about the impact of forced air system blower performance on furnace or heating performance and on utility loads, and what can be done to reduce blower power requirements. He will also briefly discuss a ground source heat pump monitoring study that he just finished. Mr. Phillips is a registered Professional Engineer in three Canadian provinces and part owner of UNIES Ltd., an engineering firm in Winnipeg, Manitoba (60 miles straight north of the North Dakota/Minnesota border). He does research and HVAC system design and investigates

298

HEU Holdup Measurements in 321-M B and Spare U-Al Casting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facilities Decontamination Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. This report covers holdup measurements in two uranium aluminum alloy (U-Al) casting furnaces. Our results indicate an upper limit of 235U content for the B and Spare furnaces of 51 and 67 g respectively. This report discusses the methodology, non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements, and results of the uranium holdup on the two furnaces.

Salaymeh, S.R.

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Furnace Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Furnace Creek Ranch Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Death Valley, California Coordinates Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Caiti Steele  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Caiti Steele #12;REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Remote sensing of biomass al., 2010) Remote sensing for mapping Ecological States: Spatially-Explicit Representation of State and Steele, in preparation) #12;REMOTE SENSING OF BIOMASS Can reflectance indices derived from Landsat

302

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Title Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-55088 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Whitehead, Camilla Dunham, Victor H. Franco, Alexander B. Lekov, and James D. Lutz Document Number LBNL-55088 Pagination 22 Date Published May 31 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated.The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

303

Essays in decision making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the impact of individual decision making on the functioning of firms and markets. The first chapter examines how deviations from strict rationality by individuals impact the market for consumer goods. ...

Chang, Tom Y., 1976-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Search by Make  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search by Make Select Year... 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985...

305

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient July 18, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL This year at my house, we have been on a quest to make our attic more energy efficient. I think we realized just how much this unseen area contributes to our overall comfort -not to mention what we pay to heat and cool the house. The first thing we did was install more insulation this winter. In addition to the tax credits we'll be able to claim, there were several incentives available from our state and utility that made it a great time for us to make this improvement. Following the installation, we noticed an immediate improvement in the overall comfort of our home and the furnace seemed to

307

Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient Look Up to See Your Bills Go Down: Making Your Attic More Efficient July 18, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL This year at my house, we have been on a quest to make our attic more energy efficient. I think we realized just how much this unseen area contributes to our overall comfort -not to mention what we pay to heat and cool the house. The first thing we did was install more insulation this winter. In addition to the tax credits we'll be able to claim, there were several incentives available from our state and utility that made it a great time for us to make this improvement. Following the installation, we noticed an immediate improvement in the overall comfort of our home and the furnace seemed to

308

Mircoalloyed and Bar Forging Steel Symposium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosponsoring Societies: Advanced Steel Processing & Products Research Center, Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation, Forging Industry

309

Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Research on Stability Criterion of Furnace Flame Combustion Based on Image Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes and analyzes the stability criterion of furnace flame combustion based on image processing, which uses the maximum criterion of gray scale difference, the distance criterion of gravity center and mass center in the high temperature ... Keywords: image processing, stability, flame detection, boiler safety

Rongbao Chen, Wuting Fan, Jingci Bian, Fanhui Meng

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alternative furnaces used in each house required derivation of the heating and coolingalternative efficiency levels and design options to meet the same heating and coolingand cooling loads of each sample house are known, it is possible to estimate what the energy consumption of alternative (

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel usage. These savings are primarily the result of the sensible heat increase of the combustion air and, to some extent, improved combustion efficiency. The amount of fuel saved will depend on the exhaust gas temperature, amount of excess air used, the type of burner and the furnace control system. These fuel savings may be accurately measured by metering the energy consumption per unit of production before and after installation of the recuperator. In the design of a waste heat recuperation system, it is necessary to be able to estimate the fuel saved by use of such a system. Standard industrial practice refers to the method described in the North American Combustion Handbook with its curves and tables that directly predict the percentage fuel savings. This paper analyzes the standard estimation technique and suggests a more realistic approach to calculation of percent fuel savings. Mass and enthalpy balances are provided for both methods and a typical furnace recuperation example is detailed to illustrate the differences in the two methods of calculating the percent energy saved.

Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag. 1 fig.

Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

Damkroger, B.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

Freeman, C.J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Atomic-absorption analysis in a graphite furnace fitted with a metal ballast collector  

SciTech Connect

One reason for the deterioration in sensitivity in the electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy of petroleum products is the uncontrolled spread and diffusion of the liquid throughout the furnace. This paper describes a metal ballast collector whose wettability and sorptive properties contain the sample and allow for its uniform and controlled evaporation and atomization.

Katskov, D.A.; Vasil' eva, L.A.; Grinshtein, I.L.; Savel' eva, G.O.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

2169 steel waveform experiments.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe-phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

2169 steel waveform experiments.  

SciTech Connect

In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe-phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

WELDED TRANSITION JOINT BETWEEN 2-1/4% Cr 1% Mo STEEL AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL. SODIUM COMPONENTS DESIGN PROJECT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM-FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

A steam generator, wherein the boiler, steam drum, and superheater are integrated into one single unit, requires the welding of a transition joint between the 2 1/4% Cr-1% Mo steel of the steam drum and the type 316 stainless steel of the superheater. A practicable procedure was developed for the welding of this transition joint and the properties of the weld were evaluated by mechanical testing and metallurgical evaluation. After evaluating the technical aspects of the project and their relation to the fabrication of the generator, it was considered desirable to overlay the welding edge of the 2 1/4% Cr-1% Mo steel with a suitable austenitic weld metul which would subsequently be welded to the type 316 stainless steel of the superheater. Austenitic stainless steel and high-nickel alloy weld metals were evaluated for the overlay; whereas only austenitic stainless steel weld metals were evaluated for the final weld joining the components. It was concluded that type 309 stainless steel weld metal deposited automatically by the submergedarc process is completely satisfactory for cladding the 2 1/4% Cr-1% Mo base metal and for making the final transition weld joining the steam drum and superheater sections of the generator. Supplementary mechanical tests, metallographic examinations, and hardness surveys further attested to the adequacy of the quality of the transition joint resulting from the procedures developed by this program. A detailed fabrication and thermal treatment specification is included for the welding of a transition joint between

1960-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Energy in Iron and Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management: Energy in Iron and Steel ... today imposed by energy, raw materials supply and over supply in the market. ... Through the studies of CCT, TTT and X-ray analysis, it has been successfully ...

323

Session F: Iron and Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Precipitated Duplex Stainless Steel: Wee-Do Yoo1; Young Ju Oh1; Won Jon Yang1; Doo Hyun Kim1; Jong Hoon Lee1; 1Korea Institute of Materials Science

324

Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baotou Steel (Group) Corp. is one of the important production bases for steel rails in China. In order to meet the development of railway transportation, steel rails ...

325

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Associations American Iron and Steel Institute For over a century, North American steel producers have worked as partners and members of the American Iron and Steel...

326

Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric onImplementing the National Broadband Plan by...

327

Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

Somerday, Brian P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Welding tritium aged stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to He buildup within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for new weapon systems, and service life extensions of older systems, methods for welding/repair on tritium-exposed material will become important. Results are reported that indicate that both solid-state resistance welding and low-heat gas metal arc overlay welding are promising methods for repair or modification of tritium-aged stainless steel.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Grade 91 Steel Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed analysis of service experience with Grade 91 steels, as well as the results of long-term laboratory tests, has demonstrated that there are key issues associated with use of this tempered martensitic steel that require detailed consideration. These issues include:Review of composition effectsInfluence of fabrication variables on propertiesInfluence of heat treatment on propertiesWelding and post-weld heat treatment ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

331

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels [Corrosion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion PerformanceMetal...

333

Making IGCC slag valuable  

SciTech Connect

All indications are that integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology will play a major role in tomorrow's generation industry. But before it does, some by-products of the process must be dealt with, for example unburned carbon that can make IGCC slag worthless. Charah Inc.'s processing system, used at Tampa Electric's Polk Station for years, segregates the slag's constituents by size, producing fuel and building materials. 3 figs.

Wicker, K.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method for making nanomaterials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant  

SciTech Connect

ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

Trevino, O. (Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

337

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Make aromatics from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

Doolan, P.C. (BP Exploration Co. Ltd., London (GB)); Pujado, P.R. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

About The Associate for Iron and Steel Technology - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION FOR IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY ... that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals and ...

340

Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile Â… High-Performance Furnace Blowers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

annual fuel utilization annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) and seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) and at real installed conditions. A testing program was undertaken at two laboratories to compare the performance of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points and measured field test pressures. Three different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested. The laboratory test results for blower power and airflow were combined with DOE2 models of building loads, models of air conditioner performance, standby power, and igniter and combustion air blower power to determine potential energy and peak demand impacts. BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Recognizing Top Innovations in Building Science - The U.S. Department of Energy's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Furnace Creek Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Furnace Creek Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Furnace Creek Inn Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Death Valley, California Coordinates Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

342

Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

24 24 Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. Homes James Lutz, Camilla Dunham-Whitehead, Alex Lekov, and James McMahon Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 February 2004 This work was supported by the Office of Building Technologies and Community Systems of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. ABSTRACT In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an

343

Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile Â… High-Performance Furnace Blowers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual Fuel Utilization Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency [AFUE] and Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio [SEER] and at real installed conditions. A testing program was undertaken at two laboratories to compare the performance of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points and measured field test pressures. Three different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested. The laboratory test results for blower power and airflow were combined with DOE2 models of building loads, models of air conditioner performance, standby power, and igniter, and combustion air blower power to determine potential energy and peak demand impacts. BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Recognizing Top Innovations in Building Science - The U.S. Department of Energy's

344

Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

O' Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)

2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

O' Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

346

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Role of Steel in the US Economy: Decomposing the 1982-1997 Forward and Backward Linkages of the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper queries the benchmark input-output tables of the United States for 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997 to examine both the industries that provide goods and services to the steel industry and the destination of steel products to other industries and final goods. This study provides a sense of how the industry changed over the 1982-1997 period and will aid in evaluation of new technology adoption by linking steel products to final consumers. Input-output analysis incorporates the ideas of interdependency, feedbacks, and general equilibrium into a single format. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the Department of Commerce prepares the official input-output tables for the United States every five years. The most recent table currently available is the 1997 table, released in 2002. It provides a snapshot of all transactions in 1997 at a given point in time, including sales of products to each industry (intermediate demand) as well as sales of products to final users (final demand). Fully disaggregated, the US input-output table specifies nearly 500 industries, and shows the distributions of inputs purchased from each and outputs sold to each. This makes a robust database for viewing detailed snapshots of the forward and backward linkages affecting the steel industry. The steel industry is one of the major producers of raw materials for industry and construction. Value of shipments in 2000 for the steel industry totaled over $70 billion. This paper highlights the interdependency of the various steel-using industries of the economy. It shows the downstream use by industry of steel as a commodity. It shows the response in the use of steel to industry-specific shocks to national final demand. It also documents the steel intensity of other industry sectors in the economy. The paper builds on the benchmark input-output tables to develop economic impact models. These models permit the examination of impacts on industrial output, employment, income, and other measures resulting from changes in steel final demand. Additionally, the paper explores the impacts on the steel industry of demand changes in all other industries taken individually.

Anderson, Dave M.; Roop, Joseph M.

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As aggressive reductions in boiler emissions are mandated, the electric utility industry has been moving toward installation of improved methods of burner flow measurement and control to optimize combustion for reduced emissions. Development of cost effective controls requires an understanding of how variations in air and coal flows relate to emission rates. This project used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling to quantify the impacts of variations of burner air and fuel flows on furnace operating...

2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

349

Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

Cornie, James A. (North Chelmsford, MA); Kattamis, Theodoulos (Watertown, MA); Chambers, Brent V. (Cambridge, MA); Bond, Bruce E. (Bedford, MA); Varela, Raul H. (Canton, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Method for providing variable output gas-fired furnace with a constant temperature rise and efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for providing a variable output gas-fired furnace means with a constant temperature rise and efficiency where the furnace means includes burners, a blower, a thermostat and a delay timer, the method comprising the steps of: sensing the temperature in an area to be conditioned; comparing the sensed temperature to a predetermined set point; if the sensed temperature deviates from the predetermined set point by more than a predetermined amount, gas is supplied to the burners and the blower is started; determining the reference revolution per minute of the blower; determining the reference cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower; determining the manifold pressure; determining whether the furnace is in a high heat or a low heat mode of operation; determining the desired cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower for the current mode of operation; reading the actual revolution per minute of the blower; adjusting the speed of the blower motor if the actual and desired revolution per minute of the blower are not the same; determining whether the thermostat is satisfied; if the thermostat is not satisfied, returning to the step of determining the manifold pressure; and if the thermostat is satisfied, shutting off the gas and starting the delay timer.

Ballard, G.W.; Thompson, K.D.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

351

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developments over the past fifteen years have evolved new short flame, high intensity (1,000,000 BTU/HR/ft3 ) combustion systems for industrial uses. Such systems produce a more uniform and higher heat flux than conventional low intensity systems and should enable substantial capital cost savings in new furnace applications. Recent performance improvements established from tests of high intensity combustion systems are described along with advances made in the analytical prediction of design performance. High intensity combustion systems can operate at zero excess air conditions without generating undesirable constituents in the exhaust. A more uniform gas temperature and gas emissivity renders modeling and design of the furnace radiant heat transfer section more realistic. 'Over-design' to allow for the less determinate conditions typical of low intensity, turbulent diffusion oil flame systems should be avoidable. A model has been set up and results generated which indicate the potentialities of the above premise. The application of vortex stabilized high intensity burners for reformer furnaces in the petrochemical industry is then reviewed and emphasized.

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Steel Winds | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steel Winds Steel Winds Facility Steel Winds Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner UPC Wind/BQ Energy Developer UPC Wind/BQ Energy Location Near Lackawanna NY Coordinates 42.81724°, -78.867542° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.81724,"lon":-78.867542,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

356

ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

T. Misiak

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

CCUS Demonstrations Making Progress  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, First Quarter, 2013 9, First Quarter, 2013 www.fossil.energy.gov/news/energytoday.html HigHligHts inside 2 CCUS Demonstrations Making Progress A Column from the Director of Clean Energy Sys- tems, Office of Clean Coal 4 LNG Exports DOE Releases Third Party Study on Impact of Natural Gas Exports 5 Providing Emergency Relief Petroleum Reservers Helps Out with Hurricane Relief Efforts 7 Game-Changing Membranes FE-Funded Project Develops Novel Membranes for CCUS 8 Shale Gas Projects Selected 15 Projects Will Research Technical Challenges of Shale Gas Development A project important to demonstrat- ing the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of inject-

358

COMMENTARY Making sustainability work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today’s economic theory usually neglects the role of nature and environment. To make sustainability work it is, however, essential to (re-)integrate nature into the standard concepts of economics, especially by incorporating natural factors into the production function. It must be acknowledged that economic growth is not (only) the result of technical change but is mainly caused by rising energy-inputs into the economy, and that this is necessarily followed by resource exhaustion and pollution. Therefore, nature must not only be taken into account as a central factor of production but also in the form of environmental quality which is the basis for human quality of life. A numeric example shows that a small, but steady decrease of yearly resource consumption is already apt to redirect the economy on a path of sustainable development. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sustainable development; Economic theory of production; Economic growth; Technical change; Non-renewable resources

Hans Christoph Binswanger

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Industrial Decision Making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Domestic industrial investment has declined due to unfavorable energy prices, and external markets. Investment behavior has changed over the past few years, and will continue due to high labor costs, tight markets and an unstable U.S. economy although, freight costs, favorable exchange rates and high capacity utilization will encourage future industrial investment. Industry will eventually enter a new period of major investment. Future industrial investment will be an opportunity to influence the energy efficiency of these facilities for generations to come. Program managers must begin engaging industrial customers now, in order to exploit this unprecedented opportunity to change future energy use patterns. This paper reviews recent market trends and industrial investment decision-making. The paper will also address several important questions: • Why has industrial investment declined? • What is the outlook for industrial investment? • How can programs engage industry for future opportunities?

Elliott, R. N.; McKinney, V.; Shipley, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method for making glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is discussed for making better quality molten borosilicate glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Steel Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI report, one in a series of practical guides designed as reference aids for utility personnel working in the field, visually catalogs the various condition issues that commonly affect transmission line steel structures. The scope includes steel poles, lattice structures, connections, foundations, weathering steel, and coatings.ObjectiveStructural conditions commonly encountered by utility personnel in the field ...

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

362

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the single wall fired unit were presented in a technical paper entitled, ''CFD Investigation of the Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls,'' presented at the 28th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems in Clearwater, FL March 9-14, 2003. In addition to the work completed on the single wall fired unit, the project team made the selection of a 580 MW opposed wall fired unit to be the subject of evaluation in this program. Work is in progress to update the baseline model of this unit so that the parametric simulations can be initiated.

Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

363

OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program  

SciTech Connect

OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT) has led this SQA (Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar) program to solve the major surface quality problems plaguing the US special quality steel bars and rods industry and their customers, based on crosscutting sensors and controls technologies. Surface defects in steel formed in a hot rolling process are one of the most common quality issues faced by the American steel industry, accounting for roughly 50% of the rejects or 2.5% of the total shipment. Unlike other problems such as the mechanical properties of the steel product, most surface defects are sporadic and cannot be addressed based on sampling techniques. This issue hurts the rolling industry and their customers in their process efficiency and operational costs. The goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate an SQA prototype, with synergy of HotEye® and other innovations, that enables effective rolling process control and efficient quality control. HotEye®, OGT’s invention, delivers high definition images of workpieces at or exceeding 1,450?C while the workpieces travel at 100 m/s. The elimination of surface defect rejects will be achieved through the integration of imaging-based quality assessment, advanced signal processing, predictive process controls and the integration with other quality control tools. The SQA program team, composed of entities capable of and experienced in (1) research, (2) technology manufacturing, (3) technology sales and marketing, and (4) technology end users, is very strong. There were 5 core participants: OGT, Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), University of Wisconsin (UW), Charter Steel (Charter) and ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor (Inland). OGT served as the project coordinator. OGT participated in both research and commercialization. GIT and UW provided significant technical inputs to this SQA project. The steel mills provided access to their rolling lines for data collection, design of experiments, host of technology test and verification, and first-hand knowledge of the most advanced rolling line operation in the US. This project lasted 5 years with 5 major tasks. The team successfully worked through the tasks with deliverables in detection, data analysis and process control. Technologies developed in this project were commercialized as soon as they were ready. For instance, the advanced surface defect detection algorithms were integrated into OGT’s HotEye® RSB systems late 2005, resulting in a more matured product serving the steel industry. In addition to the commercialization results, the SQA team delivered 7 papers and 1 patent. OGT was also recognized by two prestigious awards, including the R&D100 Award in 2006. To date, this SQA project has started to make an impact in the special bar quality industry. The resulted product, HotEye® RSB systems have been accepted by quality steel mills worldwide. Over 16 installations were completed, including 1 in Argentina, 2 in Canada, 2 in China, 2 in Germany, 2 in Japan, and 7 in the U.S. Documented savings in reduced internal rejects, improved customer satisfaction and simplified processes were reported from various mills. In one case, the mill reported over 50% reduction in its scrap, reflecting a significant saving in energy and reduction in emission. There exist additional applications in the steel industry where the developed technologies can be used. OGT is working toward bringing the developed technologies to more applications. Examples are: in-line inspection and process control for continuous casting, steel rails, and seamless tube manufacturing.

Tzyy-Shuh Chang; Jianjun Shi; Shiyu Zhou

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Process for making ceramic insulation  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for producing insulation materials and insulation for high temperature applications using novel castable and powder-based ceramics. The ceramic components produced using the proposed process offers (i) a fine porosity (from nano-to micro scale); (ii) a superior strength-to-weight ratio; and (iii) flexibility in designing multilayered features offering multifunctionality which will increase the service lifetime of insulation and refractory components used in the solid oxide fuel cell, direct carbon fuel cell, furnace, metal melting, glass, chemical, paper/pulp, automobile, industrial heating, coal, and power generation industries. Further, the ceramic components made using this method may have net-shape and/or net-size advantages with minimum post machining requirements.

Akash, Akash (Salt Lake City, UT); Balakrishnan, G. Nair (Sandy, UT)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were defined in order to accommodate sensitivity analyses of the results. The sensitivity analyses provide a strategy for quantifying the rate of change of NOx or unburned carbon in the fly ash to a rate of change in secondary air or fuel or stoichiometric ratio for individual burners or groups of burners in order to assess the value associated with individual burner flow control. In addition, the sensitivity coefficients that were produced provide a basis for quantifying the differences in sensitivities for the different boiler types. In a ranking of the sensitivity of NOx emissions to variations in secondary air flow between the burners at a fixed lower furnace stoichiometric ratio in order of least sensitive to most sensitive, the results were: (1) 600 MW T-Fired Unit; (2) 500 MW Opposed Wall-Fired Unit; (3) 150 MW Wall-Fired Unit; (4) 100 MW T-Fired Unit; and (5) 330 MW Cyclone-Fired Unit.

Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Plan for the Wind Power Device to Make the Best of Earth Wind Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To make the best of wind energy resources on the earth surface, the plan for a new type of wind power device, named Multiple wind wheel Wind power Device, MWD in short, was put forward. MWD composes steel tower, trusses, generator, long axis, wind turbines ... Keywords: clean renewable sources, wind energy, wind power, wind turbine

Bingwen Zhang; Yingjin Zhang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D purposes.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Introduction to 'Make' NERSC Tutorial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

'Make' 'Make' Introduction to 'Make' Introduction The UNIX make utility facilitates the creation and maintenance of executable programs from source code. make keeps track of the commands needed to build the code and when changes are made to a source file, recompiles only the necessary files. make creates and updates programs with a minimum of effort. A small initial investment of time is needed to set up make for a given software project, but afterward, recompiling and linking is done consistently and quickly by typing one command: make, instead of issuing many complicated command lines that invoke the compiler and linker. This tutorial will introduce the simple usage of the make utility with the goal of building an executable program from a series of source code files.

370

Performance of steel-polymer and ceramic-polymer layered composites and concrete under high strain rate loadings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results. SP: steel plate, PU: polyurea, KE: Kineticsample configurations: (a) SP-PU-SP (steel - polyurea -steel) (b) SP-PU-SP-PU (steel - polyurea - steel -

Samiee, Ahsan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Evaluating the combustion reactivity of drop tube furnace and thermogravimetric analysis coal chars with a selection of metal additives  

SciTech Connect

Opportunities exist for effective coal combustion additives that can reduce the carbon content of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) to below 6%, thereby making it saleable for filler/building material applications without the need for postcombustion treatment. However, with only limited combustion data currently available for the multitude of potential additives, catalytic performance under pulverized fuel (PF) boiler conditions has received relatively little attention. This paper therefore compares the reactivity of catalyzed bituminous coal chars from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with those generated by devolatilization in a drop tube furnace (DTF). The principal aim was to explore the fundamental chemistry behind the chosen additives' relative reactivities. Accordingly, all eight of the investigated additives increased the TGA burnout rate of the TGA and DTF chars, with most of the catalysts demonstrating consistent reactivity levels across chars from both devolatilization methods. Copper(I) chloride, silver chloride, and copper nitrate were thus identified as the most successful additives tested, but it proved difficult to establish a definitive reactivity ranking. This was largely due to the use of physical mixtures for catalyst dispersion, the relatively narrow selection of additives examined, and the inherent variability of the DTF chars. Nevertheless, one crucial exception to normal additive behavior was discovered, with copper(I) chloride perceptibly deactivating during devolatilization in the DTF, even though it remained the most effective catalyst tested. As a prolonged burnout at over 1000{sup o}C was required to replicate this deactivation effect on the TGA, the phenomenon could not be detected by typical testing procedures. Subsequently, a comprehensive TGA study showed no obvious relationship between the catalyst-induced reductions in the reaction's apparent activation energy and the samples recorded burnout rates.

Katherine Le Manquais; Colin E. Snape; Ian McRobbie; Jim Barker [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

CF8C-Plus Steels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CF8C-Plus Steels Home CF8C-Plus Steels Home Contacts Goal Related Links AFA Steels Caterpillar MSTD Corrosion Science & Technology Group Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL Fossil Energy Program ORNL Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program Distributed Energy Program Comments CF8C-Plus cast austenitic steels Phil Maziasz with CF8C-Plus cast austenitic stainless steel Burner housing made of CF8C-Plus steel and designed for the pyrolytic breakdown of carbon particulates trapped in ceramic particulate filters downstream of the burner in a Caterpillar Regeneration System. CF8C-Plus cast austenitic steels are low-cost, high-performance

373

DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Solidification Structure Transformation of Silicon Steel under Electric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DRI Carburization in the Reduction and Transition Zones of a Shaft Furnace MIDREX Type · Effect of Casting Speed on Temperature Difference between ...

375

Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Tough Stuff: A Look Back at NOVA's "Making Stuff" Mini-Series | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tough Stuff: A Look Back at NOVA's "Making Stuff" Mini-Series Tough Stuff: A Look Back at NOVA's "Making Stuff" Mini-Series Tough Stuff: A Look Back at NOVA's "Making Stuff" Mini-Series January 21, 2011 - 12:12pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab imitated the structure of mother of pearl to create the toughest ceramic ever produced and recently helped to develop a new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass that's stronger and tougher than steel. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed a new 'super' stainless steel alloy that tolerates heat and resists rust far better than other metals -- and steel that can stand up to the blazing heat produced by stars. PBS' NOVA kicked off a four-part series, partially funded by the

377

Mr. Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Fred Steinkuehler Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation 20th and State Streets Granite City, Illinois 62040 Dear Mr. Steinkuehler: Enclosed please find your copy of the signed consent forms for the radiological survey of the South Plant Betatron Building. In your letter to me of July 21, 1988, you identified several issues regarding the survey and the consent. I would like to address these concerns below. As noted in the consent form, the purpose of our surveys are only to determine if there is any residual radioactive material on the site that is derived from Department of Energy (DOE) predecessor operations. All data collected during the designation survey is to determine the radiological condition of the portion of the site involved in the predecessor work. No

378

The Furnace combustion and radiation characteristics of methanol and a methanol/coal slurry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one meter long, with a firing rate of 60 kW. The measurements taken throughout the furnace include temperature and concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen, methanol and particulates. Spectral radiation intensity measurements are taken along the axis of the furnace burning methanol and the methanol/coal slurry. The effect of the fuel on flame structure is reported. The temperatures in the pure methanol flame are, in general, higher than in the methanol/coal flame. The levels of the oxides of nitrogen are low in the pure methanol flame (less than 20 ppM NO). Addition of 5% coal to the methanol causes NO concentration to increase to 100 ppM. This represents a conversion of 40% of the coal bound nitrogen to NO. Particulate levels increase from less than .001 g/m/sup 3/ for the pure methanol to over .25 g/m/sup 3/ when pulverized coal is added. The low levels of soot and particulates in the methanol flame have an effect on the spectral intensity. No continuous radiation is measured in the methanol flame, but small amounts of particulate radiation can be seen from the spectra of the methanol/coal flame. The total emittance of the flame is increased from about .10 to .135 with the addition of 5% pulverized coal, but the radiation intensity is reduced because of the lower flame temperatures. A numerical program has been written to calculate the spectral intensity from an inhomogeneous mixture of combustion products. Comparisons are made between the calculated intensity and the measured intensity for both fuel systems. The numerical results are about 25% lower than the measured results. Reasons for this are discussed.

Grosshandler, W.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Weirton Steel Corporation logistics and integrated scheduling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to remain competitive in the changing steel market, US steel producers restructured by taking on foreign and domestic partners, closing facilities and/or trimming work forces, and modernizing their steel making facilities. However, very little was done to develop production management technology to complement these changes. The Logistics and Integrated Scheduling program (LIS) was undertaken to address this issue. LIS is an information management system that delivers better customer service, better quality materials, and a just-in-time delivery system. It involves three major components: (1) material marking and sensing: advanced R&D applied to determining cost effective, feasible solutions to passive inventory; (2) material inventory and tracking: advanced technology applied to managing inventory movement; (3) planning and scheduling: beginning with annual production plans, order management, and operational constraints, the ability to build integrated schedules capable of pull through and push through scheduling for various plant capability levels and location configurations with rapid turnaround capability. LIS provides accurate, automated tracking of material flows throughout the mill, the collection and analysis of production data, and automated schedule optimization.

Guzzetta, M.B. [comp.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Furnace Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Inclusion levels in commercially available glass products...>0.05 >0.002 3000 500 >0.8 >0.031 20 3 Wool fiberglass >0.2 >0.008 10 4 2000 Textile fiber glass >0.007 >0.0003 0â??900 0â??160 Solid inclusions Float architectural â?¦ â?¦ 0.001 0.0002 Containers >0.03 >0.001 0.06 0.01 Glass-ceramic ovenware >0.5 >0.020 1 0.2 (a) dm, decimeter...

384

P/M Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Applications for P/M stainless steels...Seatback tray slides 316L Galley latches 316L Jet fuel refueling impellers 316L Foam generators 316L Agriculture Fungicide spray equipment 316L Appliances Automatic dishwasher components 304L Automatic washer components 304L Garbage disposal components 410L Pot handles 316L Coffee filters 316L-Si...

385

Plate, Bar, and Structural Steels II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... Kramer1; John Speer1; Kip Findley1; 1Colorado School of Mines ... to three heat treatments: low temperature gas carburizing at 899 °C, high ... i.e., furnace cooling and cooling in asbestos box whose cooling rate was ...

386

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09 Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SUTTON, STEELE & STEELE CO. (TX.09) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc. TX.09-1 Location: Dallas , Texas TX.09-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 TX.09-2 Site Operations: Conducted operations to separate Uranium shot by means of air float tables and conducted research to air classify C-Liner and C-Special materials. TX.09-1 TX.09-3 TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote TX.09-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Radiological Survey(s): Health and Safety Monitoring TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

387

Dynamic melt rate control on a Laboratory scale VAR furnace without load cell feedback  

SciTech Connect

Based on a linearized version of an accurate, low order, dynamic melt rate model, a feedback melt rate controller was designed and tested on a small VAR furnace at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Model based control was necessary because the furnace is not equipped with a working load cell transducer. The model was incorporated into a process filter that produces estimates of electrode thermal boundary layer, electrode gap, electrode position and electrode mass. Estimated values for the thermal boundary layer and electrode gap were used for feedback. The input commands were melting current and electrode drive speed. A test melt was performed wherein a 0.127 m diameter 304SS electrode was melted into 0.165 m diameter ingot at a nominal melt rate of 27 g/s. Toward the end of the test, a melt rate step up to 32 g/s was commanded. The controller initiated a nonlinear current ramp to produce the commanded step. Electrode position data were analyzed and the results used to determine that the actual melt rate profile followed the commanded profile relatively well.

Beaman, Joseph J.; Melgaard, d; Shelmidine, G. J. (Gregory J.); Tubesing, P. K. (Philip K.); Aikin, R. M. (Robert M.); Williamson, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case  

SciTech Connect

An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Nondestructive Evaluation: Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of a number of projects that were initiated to support the Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Roadmap. The majority of these projects fall within the purview of the Research Technical Advisory Committee. These multiyear and multifaceted projects address a number of important issues dealing with cast stainless steel and other emerging industry needs. The first objective of the project is to maintain the cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) roadmap that outlines an ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

390

Focus Transformer Steel - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Strain Gradient and Degradation in Magnetic Properties: Focus Transformer Steel. Author(s), Satish Kumar Shekhawat, Basavaraj V., Vijay

391

Project #3: Analysis of Structural Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... properties • Task 5 - Characterize thermal excursions of steel ... 100 105 Yawata "A 514 mod" (WEL-TEN 80C) ... Est. completion date % complete ...

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

Project #3: Analysis of Structural Steel Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 100 105 108 Yawata "A 514 mod" (WEL-TEN 80C) 56 Plate 1 ... Task 5 - Characterize thermal excursions of steel ... Analysis completion target date ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications  

NETL has developed a stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed 9 Cr-1 molybdenum alloy ...

394

The State of the Indian Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... domestic demand, their competitive position in respect of cost of production, ... In this paper a forecast of the Indian steel industry in the coming five years will ...

395

Plate, Bar, and Structural Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... Process to the Characteristics of SCM 440 Steel as Pin Component in Automobilie Chains: Myrna Ariati1; 1University of Indonesia

396

Multiscale Systems Design of Advanced Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and Production Practice of DR Material in Baosteel ... Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used for Passenger Special Line ...

397

Symposium A: Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and Production Practice of DR Material in Baosteel ... Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used for Passenger Special Line ...

398

Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Materials in the Oil and Gas Industry. Presentation Title, Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review.

399

Mechanical Behavior of Tempered Martensitic Steels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Mechanical Behavior of Tempered Martensitic Steels for Ultrasupercritical Steam Applications. Author(s), Jeffrey A. Hawk, Paul D. Jablonski, ...

400

and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory abstract p...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen in Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research. Presentation Title, Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen in Steels. Author(s) ...

402

Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Bainitic Wheel Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Bainitic Wheel Steel ... (SSRT) test and hydrogen-induced delayed cracking (HIDC) were investigated in a noval  ...

403

Methods of making textured catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method of making monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making particles of either spherical or cylindrical geometry with a characteristic diameter less than 50 nanometers by mixing at least one structure directing agent dissolved in a solvent with at least one amphiphilic block copolymer dissolved in a solvent to make a solution containing particles, where the particles can be subsequently separated and dispersed in a solvent of choice.

Fan, Hongyon; Sun, Zaicheng

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

MAKE Consulting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MAKE Consulting MAKE Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Logo: MAKE Consulting Name MAKE Consulting Address 117 N. Jefferson, Suite 400 Place Chicago, Illinois Zip 60661 Sector Wind energy Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 312-382-8440 Website http://www.make-consulting.com Coordinates 41.8838033°, -87.6426963° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8838033,"lon":-87.6426963,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

406

Corrosion Characterization of Drillpipe Steels Used in the Petroleum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this respect stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of two grades of drill pipe ... to Add Sulfur into Molten Steel to Produce Free Cutting Steel for Automobile.

407

Mechanical Properties of a Medium Carbon Low Alloy Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weld Simulation in X100 Pipeline Steel · Weldability of a 700MPa Grade Low Carbon Bainitic Steel Produced by CSP · Why and How Lath Martensite Was ...

408

Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels ... of the CALPHAD method on various questions concerning ferritic boiler steels ...

409

Method to Improve Steel Creep Strength by Alloy Design and ...  

steels in coal-fired boilers • Other high-temperature applications where creep-resistant martensitic steel is required Patent Details

410

Selective Corrosion of Stainless Steel at Low pH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and ferrite-austenite-based(22Cr-steel) stainless steel tube for oil & gas wells. ... materials for high CO2 environments, where accidizing resistance is needed.

411

HSLA Steels: Processing, Properties and Applications TABLE OF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Klaus Hulka and Friedrich Heisterkamp. Development of Niobium-Bearing HSLA and Microalloyed Steels at Anshan Iron and Steel Complex Long Chunman, Fu ...

412

Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties of TRIP Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... AHSS typically have improved fatigue strength over conventional steels and High Strength Steels (HSS) of similar tensile strength. Sample ...

413

Radiation induced corrosion of steel; Strålningsinducerad korrosion av stål.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to investigate the influence of aqueous radiation induced oxidants on stainless steel. This was done by exposing the steel… (more)

Nilsson, Oskar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols Principles for a Steel Industry Methodology for Reporting Carbon-Related Energy Sources and Raw Materials (PDF 48 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Steel Industry...

415

Project Announced for Clean Energy Manufacturing of Auto Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 30, 2013 ... Project Announced for Clean Energy Manufacturing of Auto Steel ... to develop a new class of advanced steel for the automotive industry.

416

High Strength Nano-Structured Steel - Energy Innovation Portal  

High Strength Nano-Structured Steel The NanoSteel Company Complex modern challenges are driving new ... sheet design breakthrough for the automotive industry.

417

Process Window Study for Heat Resistant Nanocoated Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently developed weldable nanocoated HPF steel has been tested for process window in this study. Performances of hot press formed steel are tested ...

418

NETL: News Release - DOE Transfers Steel Casting Technology to Rock Island  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

31, 2007 31, 2007 DOE Transfers Steel Casting Technology to Rock Island Arsenal Army Facility to Produce Improved Armor in War on Terrorism WASHINGTON, DC - A steel casting technology developed by the U.S. Department of Energy has been transferred to the U.S. Army's Rock Island Arsenal to manufacture improved armor for vehicles used in the global war on terrorism. MORE INFO Learn more about NETL's cooperative research with the Army The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) provided the Rock Island Arsenal with process guidelines, parameters, expertise, and patterns to set up and operate a facility for making steel castings using an NETL-developed process called loose-bonded sand, lost-foam technology. The facilities at the arsenal, in Rock Island, Ill.,

419

Substitution of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel for austentic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current program to develop a high-strength ferritic-martensitic steel. The alloy is essentially Fe-9% Cr-1% Mo with small additions of V and Nb and is known as modifed 9 Cr-1 Mo steel. Its elevated-temperature properties and design allowable stresses match those of type 304 stainless steel for temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C and exceed those of other ferritic steels by factors of 2 to 3. The improved strength of this alloy permits its use in place of stainless steels for many applications.

Sikka, V. K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of ASD Systems for Electric Arc Furnace and Argon Oxygen Decarburization Refiner Baghouse Fans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adjustable speed drive (ASD) offers opportunities to operate dust collection fans in a more energy efficient manner. This report focuses on the system requirements and provides a method for successfully applying ASDs to dust extraction baghouse systems in a steel melting and refining application in order to realize full energy savings and operational improvements.

1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

Duncan, A.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chromizing of 3Cr Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of corrosion-resistant oxide scales in these environments. The halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) process offers a promising low-cost and versatile alternative to CVD as a means of improving corrosion resistance via formation of a protective Cr-containing coating.

Ravi, Vilupanur [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Harrison, Bradley [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Koch, Jordan [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Ly, Alexander [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Schissler, Andrew [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels  

SciTech Connect

Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

Sikka, V.K.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

425

Round-Robin Study of Methods for Trace Metal Analysis: Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscop-Cadmium, Arsenic and Chromium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen utility laboratories evaluated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) methods for measuring cadmium, arsenic and chromium in a variety of utility aqueous streams. This EPRI Tailored Collaboration Project, part of the ongoing Analytical Methods Qualification (AMQ) program, will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits and effluent monitoring requirements.

1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

426

Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

NONE

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

429

Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation  

SciTech Connect

A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

Polcyn, Adam D.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

THERMAL TESTING OF PROTOTYPE GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGES USING A FURNACE  

SciTech Connect

The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed by SRNL to replace the DOT 6M Specification Package and ship Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. Urethane foam was used for the overpack to ensure the package would withstand the 10CFR71.73(c)(2) crush test, which is a severe test for drum-type packages. In addition, it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam configuration provided adequate thermal protection for the containment vessel during the subsequent 10CFR71.73(c)(4) thermal test. Development tests were performed on early prototype test specimens of different diameter overpacks and a range of urethane foam densities. The thermal test was performed using an industrial furnace. Test results were used to optimize the selection of package diameter and foam density, and provided the basis for design enhancements incorporated into the final package design.

Smith, A; Lawrence Gelder, L; Paul Blanton, P

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

431

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

Drying damaged K West fuel elements (Summary of whole element furnace runs 1 through 8)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

N Reactor fuel elements stored in the Hanford K Basins were subjected to high temperatures and vacuum conditions to remove water. Results of the first series of whole element furnace tests i.e., Runs 1 through 8 were collected in this summary report. The report focuses on the six tests with breached fuel from the K West Basin which ranged from a simple fracture at the approximate mid-point to severe damage with cladding breaches at the top and bottom ends with axial breaches and fuel loss. Results of the tests are summarized and compared for moisture released during cold vacuum drying, moisture remaining after drying, effects of drying on the fuel element condition, and hydrogen and fission product release.

LAWRENCE, L.A.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES  

SciTech Connect

Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype sootblowing control system employing automated deposit imaging.

Dr. Peter Ariessohn

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Recycling steel from grinding swarf  

SciTech Connect

Two cleaning processes have been investigated for removing contaminants (cutting oil with phosphorus ester) from high speed steel (HSS) griding swarf. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Both technical and preliminary financial analysis are performed to have a better evaluation of these two competing cleaning technologies. Bench scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from swarf during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. The cost of processing swarf using either aqueous surfactant washing or SCCO{sub 2} extraction in a 3,000,000 lbs per year plant is analyzed and the market forces impacting the feasibility of recycling on a commercial basis are reviewed. Commercial scale recycling is, in part, dependent upon resolution of regulatory uncertainty on the definition of swarf. States regulating swarf as hazardous provide a significant financial incentive to recycle. In states that regulate swarf as a solid waste, low disposal costs provide a disincentive that must be balanced with the possible hidden, future liabilities of landfill disposal.

Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.; Warner, L.S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Three essays in decision making  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is composed of three essays about consumer judgment and decision making. In Essay 1, I develop a novel explanation for the well-known endowment effect - the tendency for owners to value goods more than ...

Weaver, Ray, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Air pollutant emissions prediction by process modelling - Application in the iron and steel industry in the case of a re-heating furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring air pollutant emissions of large industrial installations is necessary to ensure compliance with environmental legislation. Most of the available measurement techniques are expensive, and measurement conditions such as high-temperature emissions, ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, CO2, Correlation method, Fume emissions, Multiple linear regression, NO2, Steelworks process modelling

Anda Ionescu; Yves Candau

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

High Performance Low-density High-Mn Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Advanced Steel Metallurgy: Design, Processing, and Technological ...

439

GNU MakeGNU Make A Program for Directing Recompilation GNU make Version 3.77.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GNU make conforms to section 6.2 of IEEE Standard 1003.2-1992 (POSIX.2). Our examples show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command. Indeed, make is not limited to programs. You can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change. To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your program and provides commands for updating each file. In a program, typically, the executable file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling source files. Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command: make suffices to perform all necessary recompilations. The make program uses the makefile data base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated. For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

unknown authors

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel, May 29, 2009 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steel, May 29, Steel, May 29, 2009 CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel, May 29, 2009 May 29, 2009 Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel (HSS CRAD 64-16, Rev. 0) Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel criteria, review, and approach document, observes construction activities and review records and design documentation to assess the quality of structural steel fabrication and erection and to determine if requirements specified by design basis documents, contracts, and applicable codes and standards have been met. CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel, May 29, 2009 More Documents & Publications CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Mechanical Equipment - June 26, 2012

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Hot-Work Tool Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Recommended heat-treating practices for hot-work tool steels...1600 â?¦ O, A 58â??59 6F6 Not rec 845 (pack) 1550 (peak) (p) (p) 196 650â??705 (1200â??1300) (q) 925â??955 (q) 1700â??1750 (q) â?¦ O (r) (s) 6F7 845â??870 (1550â??1600) 670 1240 22 40 260â??300 730 (1350) 915 1675 â?¦ A 54â??55 6H1 Not rec 845 1550 22 (t) 40 (t) 202â??235 760â??790 (1400â??1450) 900â??940 1650â??1725 â?¦ A 48â??49 6H2...

442

Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides.

Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Making Progress | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Making Progress Making Progress Making Progress September 17, 2010 - 10:56pm Addthis Former Under Secretary Koonin Former Under Secretary Koonin Director - NYU's Center for Urban Science & Progress and Former Under Secretary for Science I spoke yesterday to the newly reconstituted Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) -- a group of distinguished science and policy leaders who advise the Secretary and Department leadership. My remarks described efforts to better focus Department of Energy's technical talents on our energy challenges. Since we scientists work best by directly defining and dealing with the problems we tackle, SEAB's advice to us is much more valuable than its praise. I therefore offered a candid assessment of both the progress we've made and the obstacles we are facing. A lively

445

Making Progress | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Making Progress Making Progress Making Progress September 17, 2010 - 10:56pm Addthis Former Under Secretary Koonin Former Under Secretary Koonin Director - NYU's Center for Urban Science & Progress and Former Under Secretary for Science I spoke yesterday to the newly reconstituted Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) -- a group of distinguished science and policy leaders who advise the Secretary and Department leadership. My remarks described efforts to better focus Department of Energy's technical talents on our energy challenges. Since we scientists work best by directly defining and dealing with the problems we tackle, SEAB's advice to us is much more valuable than its praise. I therefore offered a candid assessment of both the progress we've made and the obstacles we are facing. A lively

446

Helping make the holidays happier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helping Make The Holidays Happier Helping Make The Holidays Happier Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Helping make the holidays happier This year's LANL food drive collected enough donations to provide 11,600 meals for those in need. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email The contributions by employees included 164 turkeys that added up to a total of 8,700 pounds of food. This year's LANL food drive collected enough donations to provide 11,600 meals for those in need. The contributions by Lab employees and contractors included 164 turkeys that added up to a total of 8,700 pounds of food. The Laboratory employees' and contractors' food donations were distributed

447

Making Global Illumination User Friendly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Making Global Illumination User Friendly Making Global Illumination User Friendly Title Making Global Illumination User Friendly Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-37860 Year of Publication 1995 Authors Ward, Gregory J. Conference Name 6th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Date Published 06/1995 Conference Location Dublin, Ireland Call Number LBL-37860 Abstract Global illumination researchers tend to think in terms of mesh density and sampling frequency, and their software reflects this in its user interface. Advanced rendering systems are rife with long command lines and parameters for tuning the sample densities, thresholds and other algorithm-specific variables, and the novice user is quickly lost in a sea of possibilities. This paper details a successful effort of making one such global illumination system usable by people who understand their problems, even if they do not understand the methods needed to solve them, through an assisted oracle approach. A single program is introduced to map a small set of intuitive control variables to the rendering commands and parameter settings needed to produce the desired output in a reasonable time. This new executive program then serves as the basis for a graphical user interface that is both friendly in its appearance and reliable in its performance. Finally, we conclude with some future directions for improving this interface.

448

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Selection of Electrodes Relative to Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 7   Composition of low-alloy steel solid electrodes (AWS A5.23-90)...is intended for welds in the core belt region of nuclear

450

Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco Jump to: navigation, search Name Kobe Steel Ltd (Kobelco) Place Kobe-shi, Hyogo, Japan Zip 651-8585 Sector Solar Product Japanese steel manufacturer; manufactures PV modules after forming a licensing agreeemnet with RWE Solar. Coordinates 34.757332°, 135.106766° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.757332,"lon":135.106766,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

451

PRESSURE VESSEL FABRICATION USING T-1 STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of pressure vessels using C-l steel is described. The welding, welding electrodes, explosionbulge test, and impact and fatigue properties for the pressure vessel are given. (W.L.H.)

Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

1957-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

452

High Manganese Steels - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Fe-22Mn-C TWIP/TRIP Steels as a Function of C Content: Eileen Yang1; Hatem Zurob1; ...

453

Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in duplex stainless steels by solution heat treatment at or above ferritisation tem- peratures, specimens were quenched into iced water after different holding times at 1300 QC. The results are discussed in the chapters that follow. In another series...

Sharafi, Shahriar

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Case hardenable nickel-cobalt steel  

SciTech Connect

An advanced secondary hardening carburized Ni--Co steel achieves an improved case hardness of about 68-69 Rc together with nominal core hardness of about 50 Rc.

Qian, Yana (Sunnyvale, CA); Olson, Gregory B. (Evanston, IL)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

455

Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Weld Simulation in X100 Pipeline Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of gas metal arc weld (GMAW) parameters on the coarse-grain heat-affect zone (CGHAZ) of X100 pipeline steel has been studied by ...

457

Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The tensile properties of x52, x65, x80 and x100 pipeline steels have been measured in a high pressure (13.6 MPa), high purity, hydrogen gas ...

458

Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Field Performance the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: Chicago, IL Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Natural Gas Furnaces Application: New and/or retrofit; Single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2012/2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All or specify which ones PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $250 for adjustments Projected Energy Savings: 6.4% heating savings Projected Energy Cost Savings: $100/year climate-dependent Gas furnaces can successfully operate in the field for 20 years or longer with

459

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2 Summary of characteristics and intended uses of HSLA steels described in ASTM specifications...le 485 MPa (70 ksi) High-pressure gas and oil transmission lines A 871 High-strength low-alloy steel with atmospheric corrosion resistance V, Nb, Ti, Cu, Mo, Cr As-rolled plate le 35 mm (1 [MathExpression] in.) in thickness Atmospheric-corrosion resistance four

460

Nondestructive Evaluation: Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of a project that was initiated in part to support the Change Initiative associated with PWR Stainless Steel NDE Capability and Performance Demonstration Initiative, but it also falls in line with a project funded through the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Technical Innovation program. This multiyear and multifaceted project addresses important issues dealing with cast stainless steel and other emerging industry needs. The first objective of the project is t...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "furnace steel making" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Nondestructive Evaluation: Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of a project that was initiated in part to support the Change Initiative associated with the PWR Stainless Steel Nondestructive Evaluation Capability and Performance Demonstration Initiative and also falls in line with a project currently funded through the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Program on Technology Innovation. This multiyear, multifaceted project addresses important issues dealing with cast stainless steel and other emerging industry needs. The first ob...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

462

Temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel neutron-irradiated up to 145 dpa  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to high doses was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. These specimens were from the ACO-3 fuel duct wall of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), in which irradiation doses were in the range of 3.2 144.8 dpa and irradiation temperatures in the range of 380.4 502.6 oC. A miniature specimen reuse technique has been established for this investigation: the specimens used were the tested halves of miniature Charpy impact specimens (~13 3 4 mm) with diamond-saw cut in the middle. The fatigue precracking for specimens and fracture resistance (J-R) tests were carried out in a MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine with a vacuum furnace following the standard procedure described in the ASTM Standard E 1820-09. For each of five irradiated and one archive conditions, 7 to 9 J-R tests were performed at selected temperatures ranging from 22 C to 600 C. The fracture toughness of the irradiated HT9 steel was strongly dependent on irradiation temperatures rather than irradiation dose. When the irradiation temperature was below about 430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa m at 350 450 C and then decreased with test temperature. When the irradiation temperature 430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged until about 450 C and decreased with test temperature in higher temperature range. Similar test temperature dependence was observed for the archive material although the highest toughness values are lower after irradiation. Ductile stable crack growth occurred except for a few cases where both the irradiation temperature and test temperature are relatively low.

Baek, Jong-Hyuk [KAERI] [KAERI; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL] [ORNL; Maloy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Toloczko, M [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

1989-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Utilization of scrap preheating and substitute slag conditioners for electric-arc-furnace steelmaking. Report of Investigations/1987  

SciTech Connect

The preheating of continuously fed, fragmented ferrous scrap charges by furnace offgases and the utilization of substitutes for imported fluorspar to condition electric steelmaking slags were investigated. Three types of continuous scrap-charging procedures were investigated to determine electrical energy consumption in a 1-st (short ton) electric arc furnace. Cold and preheated scrap charges were continuously fed at rates averaging 37.5 and 43.7 lb. min, respectively. The feed rate varied appreciably from test to test owing to hangup of the scrap in the charge bin. Approximately 7 pct less electrical energy was consumed in melting scrap preheated to 840 to 1,110 F by furnace offgases than in melting cold scrap. Overall energy consumptions were 888 kW per h/st for cold scrap, 829 kW per h/st for preheated scrap, and 637 kW per h/st for conventional backcharged scrap. Stack gases from scrap preheating averaged 120 F and a flow rate of 1,615 standard cubic feet per meter (scfm) compared with 220 F and 1,302 scfm for cold-charged scrap.

Elger, G.W.; Nafziger, R.H.; Tress, J.E.; Hartman, A.D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

RECYCLING GALVANIZED STEEL: OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND BENEFrI'S  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

RECYCLING RECYCLING GALVANIZED STEEL: OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND BENEFrI'S Frederick J. Dudek Edward J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA William A. Morgan 415 E. 151st Street Metal Recovery Industries U.S., Inc. East Chicago, Indiana 46312, USA DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi- bility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Refer- ence herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise

468

VIA EMAIL Ms. Mariah Steele ENERGY STAR Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 20, 2013 June 20, 2013 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Room 62023 Washington, DC 20460 Dear Ms. Steele: The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") selected a Summit-brand refrigerator-freezer, model Fl 112BL, manufactured by SANYO E&E (now Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America ("P APRSA")) and sold by Felix Storch, Inc. ("Storch"), for testing as part ofDOE's ENERGY STAR® Verification Testing Program. On March 18, 2013, DOE notified Storch that the model did not meet the ENERGY STAR specification for maximum permitted annual energy use. PAPRSA replied to DOE on April 1, 2013, making two claims. First, PAPRSA argued that DOE's test laboratory, an Intertek laboratory located in Plano, Texas ("Intertek"), did not test in

469

Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders-2001 Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

64 64 Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders-2001 Report Rick Schmoyer and B. F. Lyon This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from 615-576-8401, FTS 626-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

470

Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders-2002 Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

43 43 Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders-2002 Report Rick Schmoyer and B. F. Lyon This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from 615-576-8401, FTS 626-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

471

Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) as a furnace byproduct using a rotating mask spectrometer.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories, in partnership with the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has developed an optical-based sensor for the detection of CO in appliances such as residential furnaces. The device is correlation radiometer based on detection of the difference signal between the transmission spectrum of the sample multiplied by two alternating synthetic spectra (called Eigen spectra). These Eigen spectra are derived from a priori knowledge of the interferents present in the exhaust stream. They may be determined empirically for simple spectra, or using a singular value decomposition algorithm for more complex spectra. Data is presented on the details of the design of the instrument and Eigen spectra along with results from detection of CO in background N{sub 2}, and CO in N{sub 2} with large quantities of interferent CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that using the Eigen spectra technique, CO can be measured at levels well below acceptable limits in the presence of strongly interfering species. In addition, a conceptual design is presented for reducing the complexity and cost of the instrument to a level compatible with consumer products.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Blair, Raymond (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Albuqueruque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electronic backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterize the growth-tip region of a 4.2-cm diameter CdZnTe (CZT) boule grown using low-pressure Bridgman method in a vertical gradient freeze furnace. The boule was sectioned and polished and a section taken along the boule longitudinal centerline with an approximate surface area of 1-cm2 was used for optical and scanning electron microscopy. A collage was assembled using EBSD/SEM images to show morphological features, e.g., twin structure, grain structure, and overall crystal growth direction. Severely twinned regions originating from the tip and side walls were observed. The overall growth orientation was close to and directions. In some regions, the (001) poles of the CZT matrix aligned with the growth direction, while twins aligned such that (111) and (112) poles aligned with the growth direction. In some other areas, (112) or (011) poles of the CZT matrix aligned with the growth direction. New relationships between the CZT matrix and large Te polycrystalline particles were revealed: {11 }CZT??{1 00}Te and {001}CZT??{0 1}Te.

Sundaram, S. K.; Henager, Charles H.; Edwards, Danny J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predi