Sample records for furnace gas blue

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  3. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing furnaces and water heaters and power vent waterheater, electric water heaters and furnaces, which includeResidential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States

  5. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offsets the sizable electricity savings. References TitleElectricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forfueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace

  6. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.gas furnaces and water heaters in US new constructioncondensing furnace and water heater and the pay-back period

  7. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blowerto the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance.not account for the electricity consumption of the appliance

  8. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the total electricity consumption by BPM furnaces. Thisbecause furnace electricity consumption is significant.of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate

  9. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standby power consumption in BPM furnaces is significantlytotal electricity consumption by BPM furnaces. This is notOverall, it appears the BPM motors used in furnaces offer

  10. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  12. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  13. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricityof two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricityPSC) and brushless permanent magnet (BPM) 1 . PSC motors are

  14. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratoryto decrease the electricity consumption of furnaces, mainlytotal fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory

  15. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  16. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  17. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented....

  18. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  20. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  1. Gas-powder flow in blast furnace with different shapes of cohesive zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Pinson, D.; Zhang, S.J.; Yu, A.B.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With high PCI rate operations, a large quantity of unburned coal/char fines will flow together with the gas into the blast furnace. Under some operating conditions, the holdup of fines results in deterioration of furnace permeability and lower production efficiency. Therefore, it is important to understand the behaviour of powder (unburnt coal/char) inside the blast furnace when operating with different cohesive zone (CZ) shapes. This work is mainly concerned with the effect of cohesive zone shape on the powder flow and accumulation in a blast furnace. A model is presented which is capable of simulating a clear and stable accumulation region in the lower central region of the furnace. The results indicate that powder is likely to accumulate at the lower part of W-shaped CZs and the upper part of V- and inverse V-shaped CZs. For the same CZ shape, a thick cohesive layer can result in a large pressure drop while the resistance of narrow cohesive layers to gas-powder flow is found to be relatively small. Implications of the findings to blast furnace operation are also discussed.

  2. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  3. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013DepartmentEnterpriseDepartment ofFurnaces Covered

  4. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  5. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  6. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino, Undersecretary11-161-LNGGary M. Mignogna -GasA

  7. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H. [AG der Dillinger Huettenweke, Dillingen (Germany); Grisse, H.J. [Dango and Dienenthal Siegen (Germany); Speranza, B.E. [Dango and Dienenthal, Inc., Highland, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  8. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as furnaces having a heat input rate of less than 225,000that cycles a burner between reduced heat input rate and offor between the maximum heat input rate and off. Two-stage

  9. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  10. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing furnaces and water heaters and power-vent waterstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

  12. The Modeling of a Laboratory Natural GasFired Furnace with a HigherOrder Projection Method for Unsteady Combustion \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low­ Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame fromThe Modeling of a Laboratory Natural Gas­Fired Furnace with a Higher­Order Projection Method of Pember et al. [1] by using it to simulate a natural gas flame from a 300kW IFRF burner in the Burner

  13. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11 shows the monthly natural gas price forecast for 2010 forNov Dec Fig 11 Natural gas price forecast for 2010 Figure 12Florida Fig 12 Natural gas price forecast from 2010 to 2030

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Florida Fig. 11 Natural gas price forecast for 2010 Jan FebMMBtu) Fig. 12 Natural gas price forecast from 2010 to 203011 shows the monthly natural gas price forecast for 2010 for

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas space heating and water-heating technologies. USheating and gas water-heating technology characterizationspace and water-heating technologies. It also shows that

  16. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas space heating and water heating technologies. 3.Heating and Gas Water Heating Technology Characterizationspace and water heating technologies. It also shows that

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption and Energy Efficiency (2010) 3:203–222 91% of all residential gas 1 consumption in the USA (

  18. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around 25% of the gas water heating market by 2015. DOE alsoSpace Heating and Water Heating Market Characterization Thespace heating and water heating market differs significantly

  19. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report submitted by Environ (Appendix A). That plan required the V&V contractor to: (1) Establish the as-found furnace operating conditions; (2) Tune the furnace using currently available technology to establish baseline conditions; (3) Tune the furnace using the FIA technology; and (4) Document the improved performance that resulted from application of the FIA technology. It is important to note that the testing was not designed to be a competition or comparison between two different methodologies that could be used for furnace tuning. Rather, the intent was to quantify improvements in furnace performance that could not be achieved with existing technology. Therefore, the measure of success is improvement beyond the furnace efficiency obtainable using existing furnace optimization methods rather than improvement from the as found condition.

  20. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Gas Space and Water Heating Market and TechnologyThe U.S. central space heating market is dominated by forcedmarket the most common combination of water heating and

  1. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. 2004. Heat pump water heater technology:gas tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters,heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as

  2. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

  3. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  5. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  6. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  7. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van [Sidmar N.V., Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  8. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element [20] which accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transportAn Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas

  9. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 7, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) is leading a team of companies involved in this effort. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown in Figure 1.

  10. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  11. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  12. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  13. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  14. CenterPoint Energy- Residential Gas Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  15. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  16. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  17. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conditioner performance1 , standby power, as well as igniter and combustion air blower power. Energy savings for a typical three-and-a-half ton air conditioner with typical California ducts are 45 kWh. Peak demand combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. The laboratory test

  18. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kimitsu, Chiba (Japan). Kimitsu Works; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan); Imuta, Akira [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Plant and Machinery Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  19. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a Furnace Burning City of Heavy Fuel Oil (from Sato, et . ~"a copper catalyst. heavy fuel oil, naptha, or natural gas,from city gas and heavy fuel oil burning in the Kyoto

  20. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  1. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  2. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  3. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  4. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  5. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  6. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  7. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  8. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  9. Furnaces | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife EnergyFreightFulong Wind TechnologyFuningFurnaces

  10. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  11. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Heat Recovery- Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) Thomas O?Brien Recycled Energy Development, LLC tobrien@recycled-energy.com Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000oF using...

  12. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  13. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  14. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  15. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  16. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  17. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  18. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship... wall temperatures Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time...

  19. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  20. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace (HITAF): Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing of an atmospheric circulating bed pyrolyzer was done at Southern Illinois University. A variety of experiments have been conducted in a laboratory scale pyrolyzer with coal input flow rates from 2 to 6 lb/h. three feed coal particle sizes, corresponding to a nominal -40 mesh, -30 mesh and -18 mesh were used. The limestone used in the tests was a Genstar limestone. Parameters investigated in the tests include the influence of superficial velocity, temperature and coal-air mass ratios. Char particle size distributions under various test conditions have been measured and the char composition determined. Fuel gas composition, yields and heating values have been investigated. Char morphology has been studied using scanning electron microscopy. Char reactivity for selected samples has been measures, and the influence of feed coal size, bed temperature and superficial velocity has been determined. Material balance calculations have been performed and found to be in very good agreement. Energy audit calculations for the process have been made to investigate the flow of energy and to estimate the losses during the process. Full details of the data, results obtained and conclusions drawn are presented.

  1. Inflation and Alternatives with Blue Tensor Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Wang; Wei Xue

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  2. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  3. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  4. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  5. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  6. Blue Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: The Chinese have a centuries-old love affair with pork. It constitutes 70% of the meat in their diet. Mao Zedong even called pork a "national treasure." However, that pork was the "the other white meat," not phosphorescent blue...

  7. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  8. In this diagram, ferromagnetic phase transition is shown in a gas of fermions in a periodic crystal (top, shown in blue) and in a gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties similar to a magnet made of iron or nickel. The MIT team observed the behavior in a gas of lithium protons, three neutrons and three electrons. Just like electrons, these lithium-6 atoms act like little systems in nature don't have strong enough interactions to become ferromagnetic," explains physics

  9. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inc. Pigg, Scott. 2003. Electricity Use by New Furnaces: Astage furnaces offer national electricity savings, but withABORATORY Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional

  10. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  11. Montana-Dakota Utilities (Gas)- Commercial Natural Gas Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) offers rebates on energy efficient natural gas furnaces to its eligible commercial customers. New furnaces are eligible for a rebate incentive between $150 and $300,...

  12. Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determine are the effects of combustion air preheat on four additional furnace operating characteristics. These characteristics are: (1) fuel utilization of a furnace operating cycle; (2) time to heat the furnace load; (3) scale production; and (4) furnace...

  13. Residential Condensing Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptemberAssessments |FossilThisDepartment of EnergyCraig

  14. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces isthe total furnace electricity consumption and are primarilyto calculate the electricity consumption during cooling

  15. Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of air conditioner performance, standby power, as well as igniter and combustion air blower power results in 10% lower air conditioner efficiency. For heating, the advantage of the BPM blower was to assess the performance of residential furnace blowers for both heating, cooling and air distribution

  16. Peoples Gas- Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Peoples Gas offers the Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program to help non-residential customers purchase energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available on energy efficient furnaces, boilers,...

  17. Some features of the melting of borosilicate glasses in continuous furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivko, A.P.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quality of G40-1 glass obtained in continuous gas furnaces was studied. The solubility of the gases in the G40-1 glass was determined for acceptable articles obtained in the two furnaces. The effect of repeat heating of the G40-1 glass in the forming zone was studied to find reasons for the formation of seeds and bubbles. It was shown that they form when scale from hot angle-bar supporting the plate-blocks of the crown fell into the glass of the working end of the furnace if the lining of the curtain wall has not been adequately sealed. When borosilicate glass with a large concentration of the boron oxide phase was melted in continuous furnaces it was not permissible to have a positive pressure of the gas medium in the sub-crown space.

  18. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Furnace (2) Heater (35) Water Heater (32) ~ Space u.. c:Emissionsfrom Gas-fired Water Heaters, Report No. 1507,gas furnaces and water heaters," JAPCA 31:1268 (1981). Table

  19. Bluefield Blue Jays Internships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Bluefield Blue Jays Internships General Internship Start Date: Mid May 2014 JOB DESCRIPTION: The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking for an individual: #12;The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking

  20. Wide Blue Sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Caroline Imani

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dressed neatly in a dark blue dress, its high neck trimmedIt was covered in a light blue fabric embellished with softOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Wide Blue Sky A Thesis submitted in

  1. G-Man Blues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohn, Lee Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    you’re mistaken. I know my blues, friend. BARRY Anyone can’tdon’t know shit about the blues. The Drag Queen laughs.interest in traditional blues all of a sudden? BARRY Because

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martensson, A.

    , April 22-23, 1992 Table I. Furnace energy use in Sweden, 1989. Source: Jemkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden. Fuel Energy use a [GWh) ([10 9 Btu)) aI 1680 (5732) Propane 1272 (4340) Natural gas 48 (164) Coke oven gas 400 (1365) Electricity (induction...ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT BY MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL A case study of reheating furnaces in the steel industry Anders Mlirtensson Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies Lund University S-22362 Lund Sweden ABSTRACT...

  3. Xcel Energy (Gas)- Residential Conservation Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel Energy offers its Wisconsin residential natural gas customers rebates for high efficiency heating equipment. Currently, rebates are available for tankless and storage water heaters, furnaces,...

  4. Columbia Gas of Ohio- Residential Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Ohio (CGO) offers energy efficiency rebates for furnaces, boilers, and customers that enroll in the Home Performance Solutions Program. 

  5. Colorado Natural Gas- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Colorado Natural Gas offers the Excess is Out Program for residential and commercial customers in Colorado. Incentives are available for purchasing and installing energy efficient furnaces, boilers...

  6. Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litka, A.F.; Becker, F.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.

  7. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  8. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  9. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  10. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12 OPAM RevisedFunding Opportunities FundingFurnaces Data

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  12. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to power your water heater? a. Natural Gas b. Propaneranges, furnaces and water heaters. The most common gasof gas heaters or water heaters within the home (indicating

  13. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  14. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf More...

  15. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  18. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C. [Hoogovens Research and Development, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Staal Primary Products, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  19. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G. [US Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  20. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  1. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  2. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  3. The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Press Kit Blue Band Office 101 Blue Band Director vcc2@psu.edu orb1@psu.edu gad157@psu.edu (814) 865 - 3982 #12;History of the Blue Band The Marching Blue Band numbers 310 members which includes: 260 instrumentalists, 34 silks, 14 Touch of Blue

  4. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G. [BHP Slab and Plate Products Div., Port Kembla, New South Wales (Australia); Jelenich, L. [BHP Rod and Bar Products Div., Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Ward, R.F. [BHP Long Products Div., Whyalla, South Australia (Australia)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  5. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  6. Orange and Rockland Utilities (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Orange and Rockland Utilities provides rebates for residential customers purchasing energy efficient natural gas equipment. Rebates exist for furnaces, water boilers and controls, steam boilers,...

  7. Columbia Gas of Virginia- Business Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Virginia offers rebates to commercial customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient equipment. Water heaters, furnaces, boilers, controls, and infrared heaters are...

  8. Laclede Gas Company- Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Laclede Gas Company offers various rebates to residential customers for investing in energy efficient equipment and appliances. Residential customers can qualify for rebates on boilers, furnaces,...

  9. Montana-Dakota Utilities (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) offers several residential rebates on energy efficient measures and natural gas equipment. New furnaces, water heaters and programmable thermostats are eligible for a...

  10. Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Energy Resources provides rebates to their residential customers for the purchase of energy efficient natural gas equipment and set-back thermostats. Rebates are available for furnaces,...

  11. Cascade Natural Gas- Conservation Incentives for Existing Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cascade Natural Gas offers a variety of incentives to residential customers for making energy efficiency improvements to existing homes. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, water heaters,...

  12. Columbia Gas of Kentucky- Home Savings Rebate Program (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Kentucky offers rebates to residential customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient appliances and equipment. Water heaters, furnaces and space heating equipment...

  13. Philadelphia Gas Works- Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Philadelphia Gas Works' (PGW) Residential Heating Equipment rebates are available to all PGW residential or small business customers installing high efficiency boilers and furnaces, and...

  14. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  15. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  16. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat...

  17. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

  18. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  19. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat...

  20. PECO Energy (Gas) – Heating Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PECO Smart Gas Efficiency Upgrade Program offers rebates and incentives to commercial or residential customers that install an ENERGY STAR qualified high-efficiency natural gas furnace or...

  1. Oklahoma Natural Gas- Residential Efficiency Rebates (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To encourage customers to install high-efficiency natural gas equipment in homes, Oklahoma Natural Gas offers rebates to residential customers and builders for furnace, water heating, or space...

  2. Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 101-Residential Service rate are eligible for these...

  3. Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 201-Residential Service Rate or 221-Residential Service...

  4. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida has recently changed its name to Florida Blue Resources Benefits Office at (850) 6444015, or insben@admin.fsu.edu. RELATED LINKS ­ Florida Blue

  5. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters or natural gas furnaces. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or...

  6. Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications interesting. One of these applications is the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A new test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace built by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

  7. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  8. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  10. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  11. Blue Award 2012 International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Award 2012 · International Student Competition for Sustainable Architecture Sign in: www.blueaward.at Blue Award 2012 · International Student Competition for Sustainable Architecture Organizers Vienna blueaward.at Organizers Vienna University of Technology Department for Spatial and Sustainable Design

  12. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  13. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  14. Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

  15. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  16. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  17. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  18. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model: Catalysis, Energy Materials, Performance Materials and Recycling. Each business area is divided into market

  19. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  20. Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

  1. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:to Pure Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . C02

  2. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Castles; S. M. Morris; E. M. Terentjev; H. J. Coles

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  3. A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heat also minimizing mass at the furnace centre. Tantalum and alumina were specified for these items723 A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group Neutron Division, Rutherford Appleton

  4. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace...

  5. Proceedings of the 45th electric furnace conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains the proceedings of the 46th Electric Furnace Conference. Topics included are: EAF Dust Decomposition and Metals Recovery at ScanDust, Optimization of Electric Arc Furnace Process by Pneumatic Stirring, and Melt Down Control for Electric Arc Furnaces.

  6. Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace the "C" clamp. Take the ceramic and quartz end caps off. 2. Load your samples into a quartz boat. Load

  7. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  8. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified...

  9. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

  10. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)

    2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  11. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

    2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  12. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  13. Efficiency Maine Business Programs (Unitil Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Maine offers natural gas efficiency rebates to Unitil customers. Equipment eligible for rebates includes boilers, furnaces, ECM units, unit heaters and food service equipment. Rebates...

  14. MidAmerican Energy (Gas)- Commercial EnergyAdvantage Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers a variety of incentives for commercial customers to improve the energy efficiency of facilities. Qualified natural gas equipment includes ovens, steamers, fryers, furnaces...

  15. Material challenges in ethylene pyrolysis furnace heater service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating temperatures of pyrolysis furnaces are sometimes in excess of 2000/sup 0/F (1100/sup 0/C). These temperatures are very detrimental to the life of the typical HK-40 furnace tubes which normally have a three to five year life in the hot section of these furnaces. Short life is attributed to rapid carburization of ID surfaces which subjects tubes to higher than normal stresses and results in creep cracking of furnace tubes. As an aid to understanding the materials problems the ethylene process will be presented, along with data on the carburization of furnace tubes.

  16. Choosing between Blue Cross plans...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Peter

    Choosing between Blue Cross plans... ...when you have Medicare PresentedPresented By Glenn. Medicare and UC II. Medicare and Anthem Blue Cross III. Plan Comparisons · Pros/Cons · Medical coverage will automatically be enrolled in Part D by Blue Cross No additional Part D premium · Blue Cross members have

  17. North Shore Gas- Commercial & Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Shore Gas offers the Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program to help non-residential customers purchase energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available on energy efficient furnaces, boilers...

  18. Texas Gas Service- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Gas Service offers an incentive for its residential customers within the Austin and Sunset Valley city limits to install new central furnaces, hydronic water heaters, high efficiency gas...

  19. PG&E (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) offers rebates for residential gas customers who install energy efficient furnaces or water heaters in homes. More information and applications for...

  20. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  1. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  2. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  3. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  4. Sclerosing cellular blue nevus simulating melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydingoz, Ikbal Esen; Dikicioglu-Cetin, Emel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F, Cainelli T. Agminate blue nevus combined with lentigo. Ais a very rare type of blue nevus and owing to the diversitymelanocytic neoplasms: sclerotic blue nevi. Arch Dermatol .

  5. Blue Ball Properties – initiating responsible environmental stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McColl, Jayne E.; Daly, Dorothy

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002. Environmental Assessment, Blue Ball Properties Areamarkers at the site. Photo 1. Blue Ball Dairy Barn. Photo 2.BLUE BALL PROPERTIES – INITIATING RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL

  6. 6-arm blue grand design of NGC 309

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernin, A D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometry and physics of the spiral structure of the giant Hubble type Sc galaxy NGC 309 is studied. A schematic of two patterns with three arms in each is suggested for the blue spiral. The red and blue patterns form together a grand design with two-fold symmetry. A possible gas-dynamics explanation of the phenomenon is suggested which shows how the two-arm red spiral may induce the formation of the six-arm coherent blue spiral. Key words: galaxies: individual (NGC 309) -- galaxies: spiral

  7. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  8. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  9. Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    · · · · / · #12;V1 Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey 156 Cradle Of History V1 PRSRTSTD U Greece, Israel, Cyprus and Turkey. Depart Athens for Agios Nikolaos and admire its rich beauty that island of Rhodes, with its wealth of ancient archaeological monuments. Sail to Turkey and visit the ruins

  10. Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

  11. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  12. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  13. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  14. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  15. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

  16. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans. 79 FR 500 (January 3, 2014). Find more information on the rulemaking, including milestones,...

  17. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and...

  18. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  19. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen Re-direct Destination: Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation,...

  20. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

  1. Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic Trough ParabolicPerformancePetition

  2. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycles the burners between a reduced heat input rate and offor between the maximum heat input rate and off. Two-stageReduced Mode Fuel Input Rate Heat from Fuel Burner Operating

  3. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comfort Series 13 Air Conditioner with Puron Refrigerant.for new houses with 3.5 ton air-conditioners from a study ofblower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power.

  4. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FY 2011Talley,GENII Code GENII CodeDepartment

  5. American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17,2-13) All Other EditionsAmandaAmericanTurningof

  6. American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -Alicia MoultonPassEnergy InnovatorTurning Energyof

  7. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exclude Black Men from Blue-Collar Jobs. Berkeley, CA:How Black and Latino Blue Collar Workers Make Decisionsof Sample Respondents Blue-Collar Latinos Blue-Collar Black

  8. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  9. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome| Department ofForms FormsProjectsFurnaces and

  10. List of Furnaces Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouseEvaporative CoolersFurnaces

  11. Furnace Pressure Controllers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3Fungible and CompatibleFurnace

  12. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3Fungible andFurnaces and Boilers

  13. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials FindAdvanced Materials AdvancedFurnace can Cut Solar

  14. Innovative gas energy systems for use with passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, D.; Kosar, D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRI asked Booz, Allen, and Hamilton to analyze the integration of passive solar with gas-fired energy systems for heating and cooling homes. Direct gain, trombe wall, thermosiphon and thermal roof storage heating systems were studied. Solar load control, evaporative cooling, earth coupling, and night radiation cooling systems were investigated. The drawbacks of conventional gas backup systems are discussed. Innovative passive/gas combinations are recommended. These include multizone gas furnace, decentralized gas space heater, gas desiccant dehumidifier, and gas dehumidifier for basement drying. The multizone furnace saves $1500, and is recommended for Pilot Version development.

  15. Stabilising the Blue Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an investigation of the phase diagram of cholesteric liquid crystals within the framework of Landau - de Gennes theory. The free energy is modified to incorporate all three Frank elastic constants and to allow for a temperature dependent pitch in the cholesteric phase. It is found that the region of stability of the cubic blue phases depends significantly on the value of the elastic constants, being reduced when the bend elastic constant is larger than splay and when twist is smaller than the other two. Most dramatically we find a large increase in the region of stability of blue phase I, and a qualitative change in the phase diagram, in a system where the cholesteric phase displays helix inversion.

  16. Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, Mark

    1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub

  17. Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

    that the furnaces are not modified in their construction. This paper, however, will give you a definite answer to this question. One of the most effective methods for increasing the calorific efficiency is to improve thermal control systems of reheating furnaces...

  18. STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    continuously through the furnace, to certain temperatures and then cooling it, resulting in a change, and subsequent coating. The temperature along the furnace is controlled by varying the power supplied to the heating elements and by use of cooling tubes. The cooling tubes are located in the last half

  19. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  20. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  1. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This...

  2. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  3. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  4. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  5. FTIR Emission Spectra and Molecular Constants for DCl HCl is an important gas which is used as an absolute wavenumber standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    and calcium chloride in a tantalum boat were heated to 1000°C in a tube furnace, while D2 gas was passed

  6. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  7. Integrating Gas Turbines with Cracking Heaters - Impact on Emissions and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platvoet, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbine Exhaust Gas (TEG) contains high levels of oxygen, typically 15 vol. percent, due to gas turbine blade material temperature limits. As such it can be used as an oxidant for combustion in cracking furnaces and reformers. Its high temperature...

  8. Flexoelectric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G P Alexander; J M Yeomans

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the occurence and properties of liquid crystal phases showing two dimensional splay and bend distortions which are stabilised by flexoelectric interactions. These phases are characterised by regions of locally double splayed order separated by topological defects and are thus highly analogous to the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. We present a mean field analysis based upon the Landau--de Gennes Q-tensor theory and construct a phase diagram for flexoelectric structures using analytic and numerical results. We stress the similarities and discrepancies between the cholesteric and flexoelectric cases.

  9. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate

  10. Blue-Dam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue4 B

  11. Blue-Dam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue4 B5

  12. Blue-Dam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue4

  13. Blue-Dam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue43 B

  14. Blue-Dam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue43

  15. Blue-LessInk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewind Generator RewindChronic BerylliumBlue436

  16. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  17. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  18. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  20. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  1. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  2. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  3. Blue Care Elect Enhanced Value (PPO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Care Elect SM Enhanced Value (PPO) Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards of your directory, call Member Service at the number on your ID card. ·Visit the Blue Cross Blue Shield

  4. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  5. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  6. Rheology of Cubic Blue Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver Henrich; Kevin Stratford; Peter V. Coveney; Michael E. Cates; Davide Marenduzzo

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behaviour of cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, Blue Phase I (BPI) and Blue Phase II (BPII). The disclination network of Blue Phase II continuously breaks and reforms under steady shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. For larger shear rates, the structure breaks up into a Grandjean texture with a cholesteric helix lying along the flow gradient direction. Blue Phase I leads to a very different response. Here, oscillations are only possible for intermediate shear rates -- very slow flow causes a transition of the initially ordered structure into an amorphous network with an apparent yield stress. Larger shear rates lead to another amorphous state with different structure of the defect network. For even larger flow rates the same break-up into a Grandjean texture as for Blue Phase II is observed. At the highest imposed flow rates both cubic blue phases adopt a flow-aligned nematic state. Our results provide the first theoretical investigation of sheared blue phases in large systems, and are relevant to understanding the bulk rheology of these materials.

  7. TRACES Centre Thermo GFS35 Graphite Furnace Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    TRACES Centre Thermo GFS35 Graphite Furnace Spectrometer Standard Operating Procedure 1. Turn. Click on the lamp icon a. ID the lamp of choice and click the `Off' button to `On' b. Non-Thermo lamps

  8. Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) routes, P1 could be used as substitute for coal or coke, and P2 could replace with raw materials cheaper than coke. As additional potential benefits the amount of CO2 generated

  9. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  10. Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com Industry: Healthcare Brief Company Overview: Headquartered in Boston, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts provides comprehensive-level position: Please visit www.bluecrossma.com/careers. With almost 3 million members, Blue Cross Blue Shield

  11. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Prime PPO Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  12. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA HMO/POS Plan. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Rocky Mountain Hospital and Medical Service, Inc. HMO products underwritten by HMO Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue

  13. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Custom Plus Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  14. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  15. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  16. BRANCHED ALKANES FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ALKANES FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE RECEIV r -· LAWREW RADIATIONAlkanes From Blue-Green Algae by Jerry Han and Oep~rtment l~alkanes from blue-green algae were separated on a The

  17. BRANCHED ALKANES FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ BRANCHED ALKANES FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE RECEIV r -· LAWREWBranched Alkanes From Blue-Green Algae by Jerry Han and Oep~Branched alkanes from blue-green algae were separated on a

  18. Furnace Controls Using High Temperature Preheated Combustion Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzales, J. M.; Rebello, W. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FURNACE CONTROLS USING HIGH TEMPERATURE PREHEATED COMBUSTION AIR Jeffrey M. Gonzalez Wilfred J. Rebello GTE Products Corporation PAR Enterprises, Inc. Towanda, Pennsylvania Fairfax, Virginia ABSTRACT GTE Products Corporation (Towanda... available ratio control apparatus. Various control sys (I) was the development of a different way of looking at combustion. As preheated combustion air temperatures increase, excess air Industrial furnaces generally utilize air as the basic source...

  19. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  20. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  1. Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

  2. 21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association. ® ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross

  3. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

  4. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  5. Theory of Polar Blue Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh M. Shamid; David W. Allender; Jonathan V. Selinger

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In liquid crystals, if flexoelectric couplings between polar order and director gradients are strong enough, the uniform nematic phase can become unstable to formation of a modulated polar phase. Previous theories have predicted two types of modulation, twist-bend and splay-bend; the twist-bend phase has been found in recent experiments. Here, we investigate other types of modulation, using lattice simulations and Landau theory. In addition to twist-bend and splay-bend, we also find polar blue phases, with 2D or 3D modulations of both director and polar order. We compare polar blue phases with chiral blue phases, and discuss opportunities for observing them experimentally.

  6. Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (formerly Geothermal Technologies Program) assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a...

  8. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  9. Columbia Blue Furnald MathematicsLewisohn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Columbia Blue #12;Furnald MathematicsLewisohn Dodge Miller Theatre Kent International Affairs Columbia Blue Blue View: Part I 4 Exponential Education 10 Columbia Days 26 Common Core, 44 Uncommon 72 Columbia Engineering 78 Community, Columbia Style 84 Columbia Moments: 100 Tried and True Blue

  10. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

  11. The Blue Language1 Michael Klling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    1 The Blue Language1 Michael Kölling School of Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash. The system we are about to discuss is named Blue. Blue is an integrated programming environment and an object. In this issue, we discuss the language aspects of Blue. Next month we will continue the discussion by describing

  12. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  13. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  14. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

  15. 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 35 - 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium Resources/Benefits Office for additional information. ANTHEM BLUE DENTAL PPO PLUS This dental plan offers

  16. Method and apparatus for off-gas composition sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ottesen, David Keith (Livermore, CA); Allendorf, Sarah Williams (Fremont, CA); Hubbard, Gary Lee (Richmond, CA); Rosenberg, David Ezechiel (Columbia, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for non-intrusive collection of off-gas data in a steelmaking furnace includes structure and steps for transmitting a laser beam through the off-gas produced by a steelmaking furnace, for controlling the transmitting to repeatedly scan the laser beam through a plurality of wavelengths in its tuning range, and for detecting the laser beam transmitted through the off-gas and converting the detected laser beam to an electrical signal. The electrical signal is processed to determine characteristics of the off-gas that are used to analyze and/or control the steelmaking process.

  17. The BlueTides Simulation: First Galaxies and Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert A; Bird, Simeon; Battaglia, Nicholas; Wilkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the BlueTides simulation and report initial results for the luminosity functions of the first galaxies and AGN, and their contribution to reionization. BlueTides was run on the BlueWaters cluster at NCSA from $z=99$ to $z=8.0$ and includes 2$\\times$7040$^3$ particles in a $400$Mpc/h per side box, making it the largest hydrodynamic simulation ever performed at high redshift. BlueTides includes a pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation (including molecular hydrogen), black hole growth and models for stellar and AGN feedback processes. The star formation rate density in the simulation is a good match to current observational data at $z\\sim 8-10$. We find good agreement between observations and the predicted galaxy luminosity function in the currently observable range $-18\\le M_{\\mathrm UV} \\le -22.5$ with some dust extinction required to match the abundance of brighter objects. BlueTides implements a patchy reionization model that produces a fluct...

  18. On the structure of blue phase III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We report large scale simulations of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. Our results suggest a structure for blue phase III, the blue fog, which has been the subject of a long debate in liquid crystal physics. We propose that blue phase III is an amorphous network of disclination lines, which is thermodynamically and kinetically stabilised over crystalline blue phases at intermediate chiralities}. This amorphous network becomes ordered under an applied electric field, as seen in experiments.

  19. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  20. IMPROVED FURNACE EFFICIENCY THROUGH THE USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturers, refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment of novel refractory systems and techniques. Work in furnace applications related to aluminum, gasification, and lime are discussed. The energy savings strategies discussed are achieved through reduction of chemical reactions, elimination of mechanical degradation caused by the service environment, reduction of temperature limitations of materials, and elimination of costly installation and repair needs. Key results of several case studies resulting from a US Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program are discussed with emphasis on applicability of these results to high temperature furnace applications.

  1. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects of the technology employed have been patented in the U.S. and elsewhere. This paper discusses the use of process heat and gas turbine exhaust for air preheat to provide plant fuel savings of about 8% over and above a modern, fuel efficient...

  2. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  3. Furnace atmosphere effects on casting of eutectic superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Greskovich, C.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of furnace atmosphere is a key factor in the use of silica-bonded alumina shell molds for the directional solidification of eutectic superalloys reinforced with tantalum monocarbide whiskers. The use of a furnace atmosphere which is simultaneously oxidizing to aluminum in the eutectic alloy and reducing to silica phases in the mold results in the formation of an alumina barrier layer in situ at the metal/mold interface and an absence of silica phases in the mold region adjacent to this barrier layer. The presence of this microstructure permits castings of eutectics at metal temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/C.

  4. NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

  5. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  6. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  7. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  8. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  9. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  10. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  11. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without

  12. Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method usedLBNL 40587 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems Vol. 104 Part 1 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution

  13. Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Enebakk, NO); Brinch, Jon Christian (Oslo, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

  14. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  15. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  16. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  17. Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    led to an optimized iron recovery of 78.5 % corresponding to an elemental iron content of 51 %, close to the ore grade required in a blast furnace. At the global scale of ELV recycling, these results entail an increase by 4 % of the fluff recycling rate, thus helping to meet the European requirements for 2015

  18. Blue whale response to underwater noise from commercial ships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenna, Megan Frances

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding:2010. Association between Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)and calling behavior of blue whales from a suction-cup-

  19. Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Inc. (Blue Mountain) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Inc. (Blue Mountain) Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Inc. (Blue Mountain) Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Inc. (Blue Mountain) Nevada Geothermal...

  20. Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Lorraine C; Dyke, Gregory S Van; Lipton, Shira; Binder, Scott W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    overlying a nevus with blue nevus features. Acknowledgement:Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features Lorrainewith congenital as well as blue nevus features. To the best

  1. Blue oak enhance soil quality in California oak woodlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlgren, Randy; Horwath, William; Tate, Kenneth W; Camping, Trina

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kay BL 1987. The effect of blue oak re- moval on herbaceousmitigate habitat loss in blue oak woodlands. In: Standifordremoval in California blue oak woodlands. In: Standiford RB,

  2. Blue oak enhance soil quality in California oak woodlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlgren, Randy A.; Horwath, William R.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Camping, Trina J.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kay BL 1987. The effect of blue oak re- moval on herbaceousmitigate habitat loss in blue oak woodlands. In: Standifordremoval in California blue oak woodlands. In: Standiford RB,

  3. Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy By Elly Blue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barajas, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Save the Economy By Elly Blue Microcosm, 2013 Reviewed bymaking standard, in Bikenomics Elly Blue delivers a pro-bikebicycle advocate, Elly Blue backs her claims with research

  4. Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. High-Efficiency Low-Dross Combustion System for Aluminum Remelting Reverberatory Furnaces, Project Final Report, July 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soupos, V.; Zelepouga, S.; Rue, D.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    GTI, and its commercial partners, have developed a high-efficiency low-dross combustion system that offers environmental and energy efficiency benefits at lower capital costs for the secondary aluminum industry users of reverberatory furnaces. The high-efficiency low-dross combustion system, also called Self-Optimizing Combustion System (SOCS), includes the flex-flame burner firing an air or oxygen-enriched natural gas flame, a non-contact optical flame sensor, and a combustion control system. The flex-flame burner, developed and tested by GTI, provides an innovative firing process in which the flame shape and velocity can be controlled. The burner produces a flame that keeps oxygen away from the bath surface by including an O2-enriched fuel-rich zone on the bottom and an air-fired fuel-lean zone on the top. Flame shape and velocity can be changed at constant firing rate or held constant over a range of firing conditions. A non-intrusive optical sensor is used to monitor the flame at all times. Information from the optical sensor(s) and thermocouples can be used to control the flow of natural gas, air, and oxygen to the burner as needed to maintain desired flame characteristics. This type of control is particularly important to keep oxygen away from the melt surface and thus reduce dross formation. This retrofit technology decreases fuel usage, increases furnace production rate, lowers gaseous emissions, and reduces dross formation. The highest priority research need listed under Recycled Materials is to turn aluminum process waste into usable materials which this technology accomplishes directly by decreasing dross formation and therefore increasing aluminum yield from a gas-fired reverberatory furnace. Emissions of NOx will be reduced to approximately 0.3 lb/ton of aluminum, in compliance with air emission regulations.

  6. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  7. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 2003: With ProjectionsAdministration, Annual Energy Outlook 2002: With Projectionschanges in EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) [4] to

  8. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy-Energy Information Administration, A Look atof Energy-Energy Information Administration. Annual Energyof Energy - Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy

  9. Original article Blue-stain fungi associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark and blue-stained sapwood in connection with galleries of T piniperda. Samples were also taken from beetle

  10. Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This system, called Blue Waters, is based on the latest computing

  11. Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    i Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK Konstantinos Grassos H00113751 August 2012. In this project, Blue Badge Car Park (BBCP) is presented which is actually a mobile-based park finder application. It specifically focuses on finding parking spaces for wheelchair users, which are indicated by the blue badge

  12. PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado Higher Education Insurance Benefits Alliance Trust Effective January 1, 2015 Blue Advantage HMO/Point-of-Service(POS) Plan and copayment options reflect the amount the covered person will pay. BlueAdvantage HMO

  13. The riddle of the blue-straggler stars Die Blauen Nachz uglersterne (blue-straggler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The riddle of the blue-straggler stars Die Blauen Nachz uglersterne (blue-straggler stars) sind sequence beyond the turn o#11;. These so- called blue-straggler stars (BS) are quite common, they occur systems. Fig. 1 provides an example of an intermediate old open cluster with a rich blue

  14. Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

  15. Rheology of cholesteric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Dupuis; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals offer a spectacular example of naturally occurring disclination line networks. Here we numerically solve the hydrodynamic equations of motion to investigate the response of three types of blue phases to an imposed Poiseuille flow. We show that shear forces bend and twist and can unzip the disclination lines. Under gentle forcing the network opposes the flow and the apparent viscosity is significantly higher than that of an isotropic liquid. With increased forcing we find strong shear thinning corresponding to the disruption of the defect network. As the viscosity starts to drop, the imposed flow sets the network into motion. Disclinations break-up and re-form with their neighbours in the flow direction. This gives rise to oscillations in the time-dependent measurement of the average stress.

  16. 1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. ® Registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Request for Certification for a Mentally or Physically

  17. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  18. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  19. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  20. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  1. AGA encouraging industry to adopt gas option. [American Gas Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Gas Association (AGA) supports a policy of increasing conventional natural gas production and sustaining the higher level for at least 40 years in addition to developing unconventional sources by coal gasification, methane, biomass, and other technologies. International efforts to shift from petroleum to gas are responding to the need for appropriate policies. With gas supplying 40% of the energy consumed by American buildings and by industry and agriculture, the country has a significant financial investment in equipment and distribution systems. Although deregulation of gas prices will not prevent a decline in conventional production for the next decade, new sources and technologies will combine to maintain supplies. Policies are needed to enhance the US coal gasification capability and to promote the use of dual-fired furnaces. The worldwide gas option is an appropriate to other oil-importing countries as it is to the US. (DCK)

  2. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. BLUE MOUNTAIN | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:WhetherNovember 13, 2009Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)ofBLUE

  6. Add Blue | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindeySanta Clara, CaliforniaIAdamstown,Tennessee:Blue Place:

  7. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Thermodynamics of Blue Phases In Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present extensive numerical studies to determine the phase diagrams of cubic and hexagonal blue phases in an electric field. We confirm the earlier prediction that hexagonal phases, both 2 and 3 dimensional, are stabilized by a field, but we significantly refine the phase boundaries, which were previously estimated by means of a semi-analytical approximation. In particular, our simulations show that the blue phase I -- blue phase II transition at fixed chirality is largely unaffected by electric field, as observed experimentally.

  9. 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association. Pricing and Health Care Reform Overview Heather Westman Director, Actuarial #12;2 Agenda Pricing Overview Health Care Reform Overview Major Provisions Insurance Market Reforms Exchange Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Rate Review Reform Impact Scenarios

  10. Sclerosing cellular blue nevus simulating melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydingoz, Ikbal Esen; Dikicioglu-Cetin, Emel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in close association with slate gray pigmented dots inin close association with slate gray pigmented dots incollagenized fibrosis. The slate blue dots were regarded as

  11. Deep Blue No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at Blue Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Deep Blue No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at...

  12. Deep Blue No.1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Deep Blue No.1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At...

  13. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  14. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

  15. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, D. F.

    for three 7-ton rod holding furnaces, and a 3500 ACFM air compressor. 104 1--~---------+--;I:---1'--.TOROD 'URNACES AND AIR L:......:~--f-----T"--'1'4'---I--COMPRISSOR flGURI NO ? The cold well pump P2 is started and stopped manually. The hot well... or rust inhibitors were to be added. There were several instances of foaming until anti-foaming agents were introduced to the system. Glycol should be purchased with anti-foaming agents and rust inhibitors already mixed in. 3. The system strainers...

  16. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  17. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  18. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  19. DOE Furnace Rule Ex Parte Communication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJulyD&D Project|StatementDOE Fuel CellMillion toDOE Furnace

  20. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  4. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  5. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    FLUID BED WASTE HEAT BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating... on an aluminium melting furnace at the ALCOA Massena Integrated Aluminum Works in upstate New York. Waste heat from an aluminum melting furnace is captured for general plant use for the first time in this plant. It is accomplished with advanced fluid bed heat...

  6. Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

  7. Flexoelectric switching in cholesteric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; M. E. Cates; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present computer simulations of the response of a flexoelectric blue phase network, either in bulk or under confinement, to an applied field. We find a transition in the bulk between the blue phase I disclination network and a parallel array of disclinations along the direction of the applied field. Upon switching off the field, the system is unable to reconstruct the original blue phase but gets stuck in a metastable phase. Blue phase II is comparatively much less affected by the field. In confined samples, the anchoring at the walls and the geometry of the device lead to the stabilisation of further structures, including field-aligned disclination loops, splayed nematic patterns, and yet more metastable states. Our results are relevant to the understanding of the switching dynamics for a class of new, "superstable", blue phases which are composed of bimesogenic liquid crystals, as these materials combine anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients, and low or near-zero dielectric anisotropy.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  9. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  10. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  11. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

  12. Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, Mike Lubliner, Darryl Dickerhoff,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers of California. #12;1 Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, LBNL Mike Lubliner, Washington been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air

  13. Blue and fin whale acoustics and ecology off Antarctic Peninsula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirovic, Ana

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for increases in Antarctic blue whales based on BayesianG. , 1962b. The movements of blue and fin whales within theF. G. Wheeler, 1929. Southern blue and fin whales. Discovery

  14. Blue oak seedling age influences growth and mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Ralph L.; McDougald, Neil K.; McCreary, Doug D.; Atwill, Edward R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1997b. Stand- level status of blue oak sapling recruitment1991. Soil water effects on blue oak seedling establishment.NK, Standiford RB, Frost WE. 1996. Blue oak seedlings may be

  15. The truth about 'The truth about true blue'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jonathan; Hardin, C. L.; McLaughlin, Brian P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2168. Tye, M. (2006a). True blue. Analysis, 66. Tye, M. (2006b). The truth about true blue. Analysis, 66(4).D. R. (2006). Truest blue. Analysis, 66. Cohen, J. , Hardin,

  16. Exclosure size affects young blue oak seedling growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Ralph L.; McDougald, Neil K.; Atwill, Edward R.; McCreary, Doug

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in?uences rodent damage to blue oaks. Oaks ’N Folks tat.Exclosure size affects young blue oak seedling growth byR. Atwill and Doug McCreary Blue oak, a tree native only to

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Wrist Tendinosis in Blue Collar Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris Adamson, Carisa

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of Wrist Tendinosis in Blue Collar Workers. by CarisaStudy of Wrist Tendinosis in Blue Collar Workers by Carisawrist tendinosis among blue—collar workers, and includes a

  18. Informationen zur Ausschreibung des Studienreformprojekts ,,Blue Engineering Seminar"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Informationen zur Ausschreibung des Studienreformprojekts ,,Blue Engineering Seminar" angesiedelt am Fachgebiet Konstruktion von Maschinensystemen Die Idee von Blue Engineering ist es, soziale und Ingenieurberufs, Greenwashing oder Energiespeicherung. Das Blue Engineering Seminar wurde während der letzten drei

  19. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  20. With BlueCard Worldwide you can explore the world with peace of mind. Like your passport, always carry your Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    With BlueCard Worldwide you can explore the world with peace of mind. Like your passport, always carry your Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Oklahoma (BCBSOK) identification (ID) card with you when you travel or live abroad. Through the BlueCard Worldwide program, you have access to medical assistance

  1. Quantification of Liquid Holdup in the Dropping Zone of a Blast Furnace--A Cold Model Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. GUPTA and K. NAVEEN A two-dimensional cold model study, replicating an ironmaking blast furnace dropping

  2. Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical Modification of Host Materials . Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

  3. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free...

  4. High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex in phosphine oxide host. High-efficiency turquoise-blue electrophosphorescence from a...

  5. High efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using mixed host architecture. High efficiency and low roll-off blue phosphorescent organic...

  6. EA-1746: Blue Mountain Geothermal Development Project, Humboldt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    December 3, 2007 EA-1746: Final Environmental Assessment Blue Mountain Geothermal Development Project April 26, 2010 EA-1746: Finding of No Significant Impact Blue Mountain...

  7. Sensitivity of the Properties of Ruthenium Blue Dimer”...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of the Properties of Ruthenium Blue Dimer” to Method, Basis Set, and Continuum Model. Sensitivity of the Properties of Ruthenium Blue Dimer” to Method,...

  8. Phosphine oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint theoretical and experimental study of their electronic Phosphine oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity...

  10. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date...

  11. Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Geothermal Area...

  12. Aerial Photography At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Aerial Photography At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Geothermal Area...

  13. Studies of NO-char reaction kinetics obtained from drop-tube furnace and thermogravimetric experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaozeng Sun; Juwei Zhang; Xidong Hu; Shaohua Wu; Jiancheng Yang; Yang Wang; Yukun Qin [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Institute

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four coal chars were prepared in a flat flame flow reactor (FFR), which can simulate the temperature and gas composition of a real pulverized coal combustion environment. The pore structure of chars was measured by mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption, and the Hg and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas were obtained. The kinetics of NO-char was studied in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the TGA experiments, the random pore model (RPM) was applied to describe the NO-char reactions and obtain the intrinsic kinetics. By presenting the data of DTF and TGA experiments on the same Arrhenius plot, it can be concluded that TGA is an available tool to study the kinetics of a high-temperature NO-char reaction. With respect to the DTF experiments, in comparison to the BET surface area, the Hg surface area is a better basis for normalizing the reactivity of different coal chars because of less scatter in the measured values, better agreement with TGA experimental data, and more stable values during the process of reaction. Moreover, by comparing the Hg surface area of chars before and after reactions, it is believed that the Hg surface area basis is more appropriate for high-rank coal chars. The determined kinetic rate constants are in good agreement with other data in the literature, and a new rate constant expression is proposed. 30 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Blue Sky Bio Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirchBlockVI JumpBlueBlueBlue Sky

  15. Blue Sphere Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirchBlockVI JumpBlueBlueBlue

  16. Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

  17. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  19. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel J. H. Chung; Hojin Yoo

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  20. A Clock Reaction Based on Molybdenum Blue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow ...

  1. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  2. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriver, Zachary H.

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example — named Mallard Blue — has now been shown ...

  3. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  4. The California Economy: Singing the Housing Blues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CALIFORNIA ECONOMY: SINGING THE HOUSING  BLUES Many  parts  of  the  economy  are  doing  better  than towards 2007 the entire economy is being threatened by the 

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the recommendations of the Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel, a panel of geothermal experts assembled in March 2011 for a discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the U.S.

  6. Cryptographic Hash Function BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Alan

    224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512 for all variants of the BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.1 BMW224 and BMW256

  7. Axion isocurvature fluctuations with extremely blue spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuya, Shinta [Department of Information Science, Kanagawa University, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct an axion model for generating isocurvature fluctuations with blue spectrum, n{sub iso}=2-4, which is suggested by recent analyses of admixture of adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations with independent spectral indices, n{sub ad}{ne}n{sub iso}. The distinctive feature of the model is that the spectrum is blue at large scales while scale invariant at small scales. This is naturally realized by the dynamics of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field.

  8. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  9. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2013/14 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  10. Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards Reform Law. #12;Your Care Your Primary Care Provider. When you enroll in Blue Choice New England, you

  11. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  12. P\\procedure\\UAVP#20 EMERGENCY BLUE LIGHTS PLACEMENTS & MAINTENANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    P\\procedure\\UAVP#20 TITLE: EMERGENCY BLUE LIGHTS ­ PLACEMENTS & MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE: To establish a policy for the installation of new emergency blue lights and the maintenance of existing emergency blue lights. Objective include: Provide adequate emergency blue lights throughout campus. Ensure

  13. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chentao

    The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA Summary Cryptochrome 2 is a ¯avin-type blue light receptor mediating ¯oral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl

  14. An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum, as part of the Massachusetts Health Care Reform Law. HMO Blue New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits Williams College #12;Your Care Your Primary Care Provider. When you enroll in HMO Blue New England, you must choose

  15. LtBlue-LessInk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6, 2014Innovation PortalSoftLED Gas

  16. Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and should enable substantial capital cost savings in new furnace applications. Recent performance improvements established from tests of high intensity combustion systems are described along with advances made in the analytical prediction of design...

  17. (Acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam furnace)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohriner, E.K.; Howell, C.R.

    1990-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The travelers observed the acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam (EB) furnace constructed by Leybold (Hanau) Technologies prior to disassembly and shipping. The testing included: (1) operation of the mold withdrawal system (2) vacuum pumping and vacuum chamber leak-up rates, (3) power stability at full power, (4) x-radiation monitoring at full power, and (5) demonstration of system interlocks for loss of water cooling, loss of vacuum, loss of power, and emergency shutdown. Preliminary training was obtained in furnace operation, EB gun maintenance, and use of the programmable logic controller for beam manipulation. Additional information was obtained on water-cooling requirements and furnace platform construction necessary for the installation. The information gained and training received will greatly assist in minimizing the installation and startup operation costs of the furnace.

  18. Innovative Energy Conservation Through Scrao Pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dicion, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will present an innovative energy conservation technology for scrap pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace that is being implemented in an industrial facility in Ontario. The objective of the paper is to examine the electrical...

  19. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  20. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  1. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  2. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  3. Evaluation of Advanced PSA and Oxygen Combustion System for Industrial Furnace Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delano, M. A.; Lagree, D.; Kwan, Y.

    M. A. Delano Union Carbide Corp. Tarrytown, NY ABSTRACT EVALUATION OF ADVANCED PSA AND OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL FURNACE APPLICATIONS D. Lagree Union Carbide Corp. Tonawanda, NY The performance of a pilot scale advanced PSA... oxygen generation system and a low NO x oxygen burner was evaluated for industrial furnace applications. The PSA system employs a two-bed vacuum cycle design with a capacity of 1.3 TPD at 90% O 2 purity. The oxygen generated from the PSA system...

  4. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  5. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  6. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  7. Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stegemann, J.A.; Roy, A.; Caldwell, R.J.; Schilling, P.J.; Tittsworth, R.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium and nickel contaminants in EAF dust are largely unleachable (<5% available in AALT and pH 5 Stat), as they are found with the predominant spinel ferrite phase in EAF dust. However, even a small proportion of oxidized chromium can result in significant leachate concentrations of highly toxic chromate. The leachability of zinc (7--50% available), lead (2--17% available), and cadmium (9--55% available) can be significant, as large fractions of these contaminants are found as chlorides and oxides. The leaching of these metals is largely controlled by pH. The acid neutralization capacity of the EAF dusts appeared to be controlled by dissolution of lime and zincite, and results from regulatory leaching tests can be misleading because the variable acid neutralization capacity of EAF dusts can lead to very different final leachate pHs (5--12.4). A more informative approach would be to evaluate the total amounts of contaminants available in the long term, and the acid neutralization capacity.

  8. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, T.W.; Chapman, J.S.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sandblasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production. Field testing of the technology was conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in early July of 1991 at the Earle M. Jorgensen Steel Co. (EMJ) plant in Seattle, Washington, and both technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. TCLP testing of the product determined that leachability characteristics of metals in the product meet treatment standards for K061-listed waste. The Process was also shown to be economically viable, based on capital and operating cost estimates, and profit and revenue forecasts for a 21,000 ton-per-year operation. Although this effort showed that the technology holds promise, regulatory compliance should be evaluated on the basis of the actual hardware configuration and operating procedures along with the leachability of the specific product formulations to be used.

  9. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy (2009a). Annual energy outlook 2009 with projectionsEnergy (2008). Annual energy outlook 2008 with projectionsfrom the 2008 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO 2008) (U.S.

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy (2009a). Annual energy outlook 2009 with projectionsEnergy (2008). Annual energy outlook 2008 with projectionsfrom the 2008 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO 2008; US Department

  13. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensing tankless com- bined space/water heaters, solarmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablewater heaters, combined solar space/water heater, electric

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  16. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.2004. Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiences ofStar Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  18. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experiencesstar residential water heaters: Final criteria analysis.market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- able

  19. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    25 273 950 4 38 34 328 780 TABLE 5: Turbine Cost (F.O.B. USA) $/kW k~J Efficiency, % Garret 1M831 483 518 21 Allison 501KB5 404 3700 29 N.P. 1002 281 4500 25 GE LM2500-20 469 12,800 34 GE LM2500-33* 326 21,500 36 * same Frame... Plant Emissions; paper presented at the' EPA/EPRI Joint Symposium Stationery Combustion:NO Control, Denver Colorado, October 6-9, 1980. I x 12. William F. Kenney. Combustion Air preheat Saves Energy in Olefins Production at Ethylene: Plants; Oil...

  20. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewablespace heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as other

  1. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablecom- bined space/water heaters, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  2. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Release. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC.products. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC.to 2030. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC.

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space heating and water-heating market characterization Thespace heating and water-heating market differs significantlyThe US central space heating market is dominated by forced

  5. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.water heaters, included in options 3 and 6, are not yet available for residential storage-tankand water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and limited availability of power-vent and condensing storage-tank

  6. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.water heaters, included in Options 3 and 6, are not yet available for residential storage tankand water heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and limited availability of power vent and condensing storage-tank

  7. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for water heaters includes maintenance for draining the tankgas water heaters could spill over into the more common tankwater heater includes the cost of changes to the heat exchanger and the tank.

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in United States New Construction Market Alex B. Lekov,in United States New Construction Market Alex B. Lekov,New single-family home construction represents a significant

  9. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heaters in US new construction market Alex B. Lekov &single-family home construction rep- resents a significantequipment. In the new construction market, the choice of

  10. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    annual regional energy price projections (U.S. Department ofprice forecast for 2010 Figure 12 shows annual trends (based on AEO 2009 projections)

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    annual regional energy price projections (US Department ofprices. Figure 12 shows annual trends (based on AEO 2009 projections)

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Southworh. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology:a larger market for heat pump water heaters (U.S. Departmentfurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%). (U.S.

  13. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). Heat pump water heater technology: Experienceslarger market for heat pump water heaters (US Department offurnace or heat pump and electric water heater (26%; US

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,UnitedCommunication,1] U.S.EducationalJanuary - March

  15. DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No Significant6-2002DOE/EA-1313 Rev. 0Program Final45 FINAL

  16. DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUMCOSTDOENuclear1 ofDOE Office of4 Volume15 FINAL

  17. If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts subscriber your Fitness Benefit can save you or your Benefit after you've belonged to your health club and been a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

  18. If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a subscriber to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, your Weight Loss Benefit can save you the qualified program in which you enroll. Receipts must show the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts member

  19. High-purity hydrogen gas from the reaction between BOF steel slag and water in the 473e673 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    . Iron reduction is achieved witha reducing gas (generally,a gas mixture ofH2 and CO produced by coal reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.03.163 #12;agent such as coke, in a blast furnace

  20. Bistable defect structures in blue phase devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini; F. Salvadore

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue phases (BPs) are liquid crystals made up by networks of defects, or disclination lines. While existing phase diagrams show a striking variety of competing metastable topologies for these networks, very little is known as to how to kinetically reach a target structure, or how to switch from one to the other, which is of paramount importance for devices. We theoretically identify two confined blue phase I systems in which by applying an appropriate series of electric field it is possible to select one of two bistable defect patterns. Our results may be used to realise new generation and fast switching energy-saving bistable devices in ultrathin surface treated BPI wafers.

  1. Blue Marble Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirchBlockVI JumpBlue HillSeattle,Blue

  2. Blue Square Energy BSE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotins Energia Jump to:Black RiverblogsBlue EnergyBlue

  3. Behavioral context of call production by eastern North Pacific blue whales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Erin M; Calambokidis, J; Burgess, W C; McDonald, M A; LeDuc, C A; Hildebrand, J A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by eastern North Pacific blue whales Erin M. Oleson 1, *,context of calls produced by blue whales Balaenoptera mus-North Pacific population of blue whales (Thompson 1965,

  4. Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malvehy J. Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenitalof a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma.Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral

  5. Biogeographic characterization of blue whale song worldwide: Using song to identify populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Mark A; Mesnick, Sarah L; Hildebrand, John A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Songs of Indian Ocean blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus. (and Gordon, J.C.D. 1991. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus1982. Vocalisations of the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus

  6. Tree shelters and weed control enhance growth and survival of natural blue oak seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural regeneration of blue oaks Initial height Treatmental. 1993. Growth trends of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) in1997. Stand-level status of blue oak sapling recruitment and

  7. The Ocean and Coastal Conservation Guide: The Blue Movement Directory (2005-2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    where one can plug into The Blue Frontier Campaign. Alsoname. Helvarg (The President of the Blue Frontier Campaign (Conservation Guide: The Blue Movement Directory (2005-2006)

  8. Red-white and blue baby: a case of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrom, Lisa; Surjana, Devita; Yoong, Corinne; Zappala, Tania

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vignette Red-white and blue baby: a case of phacomatosisextensive greyish-blue patches (dermal melanocytosis)addition, marble-like reddish- blue patches consistent with

  9. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  10. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  12. Numerical Results for the Blue Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

    2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We review recent numerical work investigating the equilibrium phase diagram, and the dynamics, of the cholesteric blue phases. In equilibrium numerical results confirm the predictions of the classic analytical theories, and extend them to incorporate different values of the elastic constants, or the effects of an applied electric field. There is a striking increase in the stability of blue phase I in systems where the cholesteric undergoes helical sense inversion, and the anomalous electrostriction observed in this phase is reproduced. Solving the equations of motion allows us to present results for the phase transition kinetics of blue phase I under dielectric or flexoelectric coupling to an applied electric field. We also present simulations of the blue phases in a flow field, showing how the disclination network acts to oppose the flow. The results are based on the Landau-de Gennes exapnsion of the liquid crystal free energy: that such a simple and elegant theory can predict such complex and subtle physical behaviour is remarkable.

  13. Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

  14. WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

  15. LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY REGAL BLUES DANCE CLINIC MARCH 22, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY REGAL BLUES DANCE CLINIC MARCH 22, 2014 WHO CAN ATTEND? The clinic is for all dancers grades 7-12 who are interested in learning dance routines from the Regal Blues. This clinic will also help any

  16. Green Lands Blue Water 2014 Fall Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Green Lands Blue Water 2014 Fall Conference Green Lands Blue Water 2014 Fall Conference November 18, 2014 10:00AM CST to November 20, 2014 4:00PM CST Richland Community College...

  17. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal`s unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  18. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal's unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  19. COMPOSITION OF LOW-REDSHIFT HALO GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Halo gas in low-z (z < 0.5) {>=}0.1 L{sub *} galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of <10{sup 5}, 10{sup 5-6}, and >10{sup 6} K, respectively. Utilizing O VI {lambda}{lambda}1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at {approx}30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

  20. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  1. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Zuo, G. [Luleaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Process Metallurgy

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  2. Well Log Data At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Data At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann, 2004) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. Conceptual Model At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Faulds & Melosh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Conceptual Model At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Faulds & Melosh, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Exploratory Boreholes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Parr...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Exploratory Boreholes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Parr & Percival, 1991) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  5. Alcian Blue Cartilage Staining Beatrice Jegalian & Eddy M. De Robertis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Robertis, Eddy M.

    Alcian Blue Cartilage Staining Beatrice Jegalian & Eddy M. De Robertis (Cell 71, 901-910, 1992) 1 will require more time) in 0.05% Alcian blue 8GX (Fisher) in 5% acetic acid. 6. Wash embryos in 5% acetic acid Alcian Blue 8 g NaCl 0.05% Alcian blue 8GX .2 g KCl 5% acetic acid 1.44 g Na2HPO4 water .24 g KH2PO4 800

  6. Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment M. Sánchez del Río[1], P. Martinetto [2], C, Departamento de Geología, E-37008 Salamanca, Spain Abstract Maya blue is an organo-clay artificial pigment (VIII-XVI cent.). We analyse in this paper one of the characteristics of Maya blue that attracted

  7. Jose Groh (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland) Luminous Blue Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Jose Groh (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland) Luminous Blue Variables: massive stars extremely close Groh - Luminous BlueVariables: massive stars extremely close to the Eddington limit JD2:Very massive Jose Groh - Luminous BlueVariables: massive stars extremely close to the Eddington limit JD2:Very

  8. Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited] Jin Yan and Shin-Tson Wu@mail.ucf.edu Abstract: Blue phase liquid crystals exhibit several attractive features, such as self-assembled three, and submillisecond response time. This tutorial gives step-by-step introduction on basic blue- phase materials

  9. Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look Ralph L. Phillips u Neil K. McDougald o Richard B. Standiford William E.Frost A 4-year study indicates that na- tive blue oak seedlings are prob- ably much the year of above- average rainfall. Blue oak (Quercusdouglasii)trees are a valuable economic and aesthetic

  10. Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes Caltech Katherine Breeden Stanford Victor high-quality blue noise point distributions of arbitrary density functions. At its core is a novel diagrams. Our mathematical, algorithmic, and practical contributions lead to high-quality blue noise point

  11. Alcian Blue Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Robertis, Eddy M.

    Alcian Blue ­ Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003 Eddy M. De Robertis 1. Dissect mice damage. 3. Replace 95% ethanol with Alcian blue staining solution for 1-3 days slowly rocking at room days. 4. Replace Alcian blue solution with 95% ethanol for 6 hours slowly rocking at room temperature

  12. Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction Aaron A. Reed Abstract--Blue Lacuna is a new long form interactive fic- tion comprising nearly 400,000 words of prose play time of fifteen to twenty hours. In development between 2006 and 2009, Blue Lacuna fea- tures

  13. Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel Poly copolymers give rise to efficient ( ) 0.16-0.76) blue solid-state emission (max ) 422-443 nm) which can-PPE (max 500-520 nm). The effective and blue-shifted solid-state emission is a result of disrupting

  14. BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerbs, R. W.

    BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note Robert W. Kerbs. This paper introduces a prototype data visualization system, BLUE, to help induce meaningful decision trees from databases that contain primarily categorical attributes. BLUE is an interactive model creation

  15. ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes: initial discoveries from+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Inland blue holes of the Bahamas are anchialine ecosystems with distinct fresh and geomicrobiology exploration of blue holes are providing a first glimpse of the geochemistry and microbial life

  16. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  17. Blue Waters An Extraordinary Computer to Enable Extraordinary Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Waters An Extraordinary Computer to Enable Extraordinary Research Thom Dunning National Center for Supercomputing Applications Blue Waters Extraordinaire · 25 February 2011 · Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (NCSA Building, NPCF) · Three major computing systems (Abe, Lincoln, Ember) Blue Waters Extraordinaire

  18. Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

  19. Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans (Nakamura, 1985). In the Pacific, blue marlin are harvested data (Kleiber et al., 2003) indicate that there is a single stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean- ies for the stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean, there have been few published studies

  20. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  1. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Steel, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  2. Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.

    2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.

  3. Blue Munk: Towards an Analysis of Causatives and the Like in Chinuk Wawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Thomas W

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BLUE MUNK: TOWARDS AN ANALYSIS OF CAUSATIVES AND THE LIKE INpoetry songs Tom Larsen Blue munk: Towards an alanysis of

  4. Non-polar Flexoelectrooptic Effect in Blue Phase Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Outram; S. J. Elston; F. Castles; M. M. Qasim; H. Coles; H. -Y. Chen; S. -F. Lu

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue phase liquid crystals are not usually considered to exhibit a flexoelectrooptic effect, due to the polar nature of flexoelectric switching and the cubic or amorphous structure of blue phases. Here, we derive the form of the flexoelectric contribution to the Kerr constant of blue phases, and experimentally demonstrate and measure the separate contributions to the Kerr constant arising from flexoelectric and dielectric effects. Hence, a non-polar flexoelectrooptic effect is demonstrated in blue phase liquid crystals, which will have consequences for the engineering of novel blue-phase electrooptic technology.

  5. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  6. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. (SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden). Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  7. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  8. Blue-green lasers and electrodeless flashlamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the questions of combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid state laser to achieve an efficient, compact, and reliable blue green laser. The scheme is based on resonant absorption of the 1D2 state of Pr(+3) which coincides with strong yellow lines of a sodium discharge at 589 nm. A Q switched lasing transition to the 3F3 state can be doubled into the desired blue green region. Estimates show that a moderate pressure electrodeless flashlamp should emit roughly 30% of its light in the 589 nm band. More generally, the moderate pressure electrodeless flashlamp should be an effective and efficient emitter of resonant radiation throughout the visible and UV region, opening possibilities for other resonantly pumped lasers. Several specific possibilities are pointed out, including an energy efficient system at 610 nm, and a candidate inertial fusion driven at 250 nm.

  9. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  10. 7/6/12 Florida Blue Key Homecoming 1/8fbk.org/homecoming/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latchman, Haniph A.

    7/6/12 Florida Blue Key Homecoming 1/8fbk.org/homecoming/ Since 1923, Florida Blue Key has served in the fall, Homecoming and Gator Growl are produced by a team of over 500 students working in Florida Blue Blue Key on Facebo 430 people like Florida Blue Key Like Florida Blue Key via Growl & UF Homecoming

  11. ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 34 - ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet two choices are: Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus Anthem Blue Dental PPO NOTE: Children are eligible in retirement. PERA retirement benefits are based on your highest three years of earnings. Anthem Blue Dental

  12. Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenberg, J. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Bostroem, S. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland); Hernberg, R. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700{endash}900{degree}C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300{endash}400{degree}C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40{degree} below the furnace temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damkroger, B.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

  14. Temperature Compensated Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When recuperation is added to a furnace, air/ fuel ratio control seemingly becomes more complicated. Two methods normally used are mass flow control where the fuel pressure or flow is proportional to the mass flow of air or cross-connected control...

  15. Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Robert G.

    must provide high peak energy above sequentially with the analysis time determined primarilyLaser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an optical parametric for electrothermal atomic excited atomic ¯ uorescence spectrometry (LEAFS ) in a absorption spectrometry (ETAAS

  16. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces Fans; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 3, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule in the Federal Register that established the test procedure for residential furnace fans. Due to drafting errors, that document inadvertently removed necessary incorporation by reference material in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This final rule rectifies this error by once again adding the removed material.

  17. Temperature Compensated Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When recuperation is added to a furnace, air/ fuel ratio control seemingly becomes more complicated. Two methods normally used are mass flow control where the fuel pressure or flow is proportional to the mass flow of air or cross-connected control...

  18. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  19. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  20. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.