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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOur Mission Oura

2

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOur Mission OuraStructure Illuminates

3

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOur Mission OuraStructure IlluminatesStructure

4

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOur Mission OuraStructure

5

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout » Staff125,849| OSTI, USStructure Illuminates

6

Heterocycles 1999, 51, 13 -16 SYNTHESIS AND CYCLIZATION OF NOVEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a Bergman cyclization.2 Semmelhack et al.3a demonstrated that the cyclization of anthraquinone (1) underwent

Rusell, K.C.

7

Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Deadly Carcinogen Unraveled: The Molecular Origami of Fungal Polyketide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files Data Files 1 EIADeadline for Venture AccelerationDeadly

9

Characterization of the Biosynthetic Pathway of Fungal Aromatic Polyketides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

act KR with the anthraquinone emodin and suggested that actacid 52 which is the anthraquinone precursor of the well-fren minimal PKS, the anthraquinone compound 63 is formed

Li, Yanran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

11

Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

12

Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

angucyclinone polyketide ws5995b: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 July, 2009 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , glandular trichome, hemp, hop, Humulus lupulus, marijuana, polyketide synthase, trichomes. Introduction...

14

Identification and characterization of the polyketide synthase involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus carbonarius  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and is a common contaminant of a wide variety of food commodities, with Aspergillus carbonarius being the main producer of OTA contamination in grapes and wine. The molecular structure of OTA is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine and, as shown in different producing fungal species, a polyketide synthase (PKS) is a component of the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Similar to observations in other filamentous ascomycetes, the genome sequence of A. carbonarius contains a large number of genes predicted to encode PKSs. In this work a pks gene identified within the putative OTA cluster of A. carbonarius, designated as AcOTApks, was inactivated and the resulting mutant strain was unable to produce OTA, confirming the role of AcOTApks in this biosynthetic pathway. AcOTApks protein is characteristic of the highly reduced (HR)-PKS family, and also contains a putative methyltransferase domain likely responsible for the addition of the methyl group to the OTA polyketide structure. AcOTApks is different from the ACpks protein that we previously described which showed an expression profile compatible with OTA production. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the ?-ketosynthase and acyl-transferase domains of the OTA PKSs which had been identified and characterized in different OTA producing fungal species. The phylogenetic results were similar for both the two domains analyzed and showed that OTA PKS of A. carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus clustered in a monophyletic group with 100% bootstrap support suggesting a common origin, while the other OTA PKSs analyzed were phylogenetically distant. A qRT-PCR assay monitored AcOTApks expression during fungal growth and concomitant production of OTA by A. carbonarius in synthetic grape medium. A clear correlation between the expression profile of AcOTApks and kinetics of OTA production was observed with AcOTApks which reached its maximum level of transcription before OTA accumulation in mycelium reached its highest level, confirming the fact that gene transcription always precedes phenotypic production.

Gallo, Antonia; Knox, Benjamin P.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Solfrizzo, Michele; Baker, Scott E.; Perrone, Giancarlo

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

15

JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

View Supports functional genomics, user data deposition andJGI Fungal Genomics Program Igor V. Grigoriev 1 DOE Jointof California. JGI Fungal Genomics Program Contact: Igor

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Fungal Genomics Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strains Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of xyloseFungal Genomics Program Igor Grigoriev 1 * (complex communities Fungal Genomics Program Igor Grigoriev

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JGI Fungal Genomics Program Igor V. Grigoriev 1 Lawrenceof California. JGI Fungal Genomics Program Contact: IgorJGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi,

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Synthesis of indoles via a tandem benzannulation-cyclization strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vinylketenes (generated in situ from cyclobutenones or a-diazo ketones) react with ynamides via a pericyclic cascade process to produce highly-substituted aniline derivatives. Cyclization of the benzannulation products can ...

Lam, Tin Yiu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Bridging the Gap: Studying Sequence to Product Correlation among Fungal Polyketide Synthases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Citric and gluconic acid production from fig by Aspergillus niger using solid-state fermentation."industrial fermentation for the production of citric acid,

Zabala, Angelica Obusan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fungal Genomics Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

22

JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

23

Origin of Selectivity in the Antibody 20F10-Catalyzed Yang Cyclization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identified that can act as local sensitizers to enhance the cyclization process. Introduction Although life pathway. Biocatalysis represents an attractive strategy to restrain mechanistic manifolds and channel of lowering the activation energy barrier is irrelevant. Other concepts of enzyme catalysis such as entropic

Keinan, Ehud

24

Synthesis of a 7-Azaindole by Chichibabin Cyclization: Reversible Base-Mediated Dimerization of 3-Picolines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of a 7-Azaindole by Chichibabin Cyclization: Reversible Base-Mediated Dimerization of 3 of heteroannulation- appending a pyrrole to a pyridine or vice versa.1,2 In connection with a program at Sanofi-Aventis to synthesize polycyclic pyrrole derivatives to be tested for the treatment of asthma,2c the conversion of 2

Collum, David B.

25

Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JW. 2010. China's fungal genomics initiative: a whitepaper.and Saccharomycotina. BMC Genomics. 8, 325. Bailly J,Harnessing ectomycorrhizal genomics for ecological insights.

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Enzyme-Like Catalysis of the Nazarov Cyclization by Supramolecular Encapsulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A primary goal in the design and synthesis of molecular hosts has been the selective recognition and binding of a variety of guests using non-covalent interactions. Supramolecular catalysis, which is the application of such hosts towards catalysis, has much in common with many enzymatic reactions, chiefly the use of both spatially appropriate binding pockets and precisely oriented functional groups to recognize and activate specific substrate molecules. Although there are now many examples which demonstrate how selective encapsulation in a host cavity can enhance the reactivity of a bound guest, all have failed to reach the degree of increased reactivity typical of enzymes. We now report the catalysis of the Nazarov cyclization by a self-assembled coordination cage, a carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction which proceeds under mild, aqueous conditions. The acceleration in this system is over a million-fold, and represents the first example of supramolecular catalysis that achieves the level of rate enhancement comparable to that observed in several enzymes. We explain the unprecedented degree of rate increase as due to the combination of (a) preorganization of the encapsulated substrate molecule, (b) stabilization of the transition state of the cyclization by constrictive binding, and (c) increase in the basicity of the complexed alcohol functionality.

Hastings, Courtney; Pluth, Michael; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of Armatol A through a polyepoxide cyclization cascade : revision of the proposed structures of Armatols A-F  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cyclization Cascades Leading to the Tricyclic Fragment of Armatol A The synthesis of the fused 6,7,7-tricycle of armatol A was investigated. Fragments containing both a ketone and an aldehyde for subsequent fragment coupling ...

Underwood, Brian Saxton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

Cheung, Chi Wai

30

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi that inhabit healthy plant tissues without  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Abstract Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi that inhabit healthy plant tissues without causing disease. Endophytes have been found in every plant species sites in a lowland, moist tropical forest of central Panama, we quantified endophyte colonization

California at Berkeley, University of

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess fungal metabolic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> 1 The FungalWeb Ontology The Core of a Semantic Web Application for Fungal Genomics Summary: 1 The FungalWeb Ontology The Core of a Semantic Web Application for Fungal...

32

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY with endophytic fungi. Cheatgrass populations were sampled across North America and endophytes were isolated from

33

MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

34

Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk #12;Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk.......................................................................................................8 Harvesting and processing...................................................................9

35

Melanoma Therapy with Rhenium-Cyclized Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malignant melanoma is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer with increasing incidence in the United States. It is estimated that 54,200 cases of malignant melanoma will be newly diagnosed and 7,600 cases of death will occur in the United States in the year 2003 (1). At the present time, more than 1.3% of Americans will develop malignant melanoma during their lifetime (2). The average survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is about 6-9 months (3). Moreover, metastatic melanoma deposits are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (3). Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is the only single chemotherapy agent approved by FDA for metastatic melanoma treatment (5). However, the response rate to Dacarbazine is only approximately 20% (6). Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma. The global goal of this research program is the rational design, characterization and validation of melanoma imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Significant progress has been made in the design and characterization of metal-cyclized radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. Therapy studies with {sup 188}Re-CCMSH demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the receptor-targeted treatment in murine and human melanoma bearing mice (previous progress report). Dosimetry calculations, based on biodistribution data, indicated that a significant dose was delivered to the tumor. However, {sup 188}Re is a very energetic beta-particle emitter. The longer-range beta-particles theoretically would be better for larger tumors. In the treatment of melanoma, the larger primary tumor is usually surgically removed leaving metastatic disease as the focus of targeted radiotherapy. Isotopes with lower beta-energies and/or shorter particle lengths should be better suited for targeting metastases. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH and {sup 212}Pb-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH complexes were developed and synthesized to investigate its ability to target and deliver an effective dose to small melanoma tumors and metastatic deposits. Dosimetry calculations for {sup 188}Re-CCMSH and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi[DOTA]-Re(Arg11)CCMSH were compared in the B16/F1 mouse melanoma flank tumor model to analyze the delivered dose to tumor and normal organs.

Thomas P Quinn

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

Development of a copper-catalyzed amidation-base-promoted cyclization sequence for the synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl1-4 quinolones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A direct two-step method for the preparation of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-4-quinolones that utilizes a copper-catalyzed amidation of ortho-halophenones followed by a base-promoted Camps cyclization of the resulting N-(2-keto-aryl)amides ...

Jones, Carrie Preston

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A fungal endophyte induces transcription of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A fungal endophyte induces transcription of genes encoding a redundant trees, proposed ecologically to act as a fungicide. Taxus is host to fungal endophytes, defined as organisms that inhabit plants without causing disease. The Taxus endophytes have been shown to synthesize

Raizada, Manish N.

38

Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree A. Elizabeth Arnold* , Luis Carlos Meji species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes rep- resent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal

Bermingham, Eldredge

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - arrest key fungal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused... by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective...

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal fungal pathogen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the fungal pathogen... of fungal pathogens in the Ascomycetes. We observed that the interaction with a specific environment... RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The Potential for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Detoxification of aromatic pollutants by fungal enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fungal enzymes, such as laccase, peroxidase, and tyrosinase, play a prominent role in catalyzing the transformation of various aromatic compounds in the environment. The enzyme-mediated oxidative coupling reaction results in covalent binding of chlorinated phenols and anilines to soil organic matter or polymerization of the substrates in aquatic systems. Both of these processes are accompanied by a detoxification effect. Therefore, it has been postulated that they be exploited for the treatment of polluted soil and water. The mechanism and efficiency of oxidative coupling in pollutant removal were studied by incubation of chlorinated phenols and anilines with various humic substances or soil and analysis of the reaction products by chromatography and mass and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The decontamination effect could be enhanced by optimization of the reaction conditions and immobilization of enzymes on solid materials. The results obtained strongly support the concept of using enzymes for control of environmental pollution.

Bollag, J.M.; Dec, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants Van Bael et al. Van Open Access Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants Sunshine with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost

Bermingham, Eldredge

43

The intramolecular cyclization of bis-2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrofurans and bis-2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrothiophenes: An approach to macrocycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first two papers of this dissertation present our work with the intramolecular cyclizations of a pair of p-quinodimethanes. The p-quinodimethanes were generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) and were linked by a bridging chain. The third paper of this dissertation presents our work in the synthetic manipulation of the products formed from the intramolecular reactions of the p-quinodimethanes.

Klumpp, D.A.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

44

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, ...

Holder, Jason W.

45

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy Abstract Fungal endophytes ­ fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease ­ are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated

Coley, Phyllis

46

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses we ...

Becklin, Katie M.; Hertweck, Kate L.; Jumpponen, Ari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens Sunshine with their fungal garden, while the leaf material they provide to their garden is usually filled with endophytic fungi. The ants and their cultivar may interact with hundreds of endophytic fungal species, yet little

Bermingham, Eldredge

48

Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus baseline data for future surveys of fungal endophytes. Examination of internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 evidence of host species or plant association effects on total recovery of fungal endophytes or recovery

49

Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition Jennifer A hosts the foliar endophytic fungus, Neotypho- dium coenophialum. We quantified vegetation development of the endophyte (KY-31, AR-542) in two tall fescue cultivars (Georgia-5, Jesup). The KY-31 endophyte produces

Rudgers, Jennifer

50

Fungal Diversity Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal Diversity 51 Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia using AFLP, SSR.D., Wingfield, M.J. and Steenkamp, E.T. (2006). Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and DNA sequence analyses to study 32 strains of F. oxysporum from Ethiopia

51

West Nile virus (WNV) genome RNAs with up to three adjacent mutations that disrupt long distance 5'-3' cyclization sequence basepairs are viable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mosquito-borne flavivirus genomes contain conserved 5' and 3' cyclization sequences (CYC) that facilitate long distance RNA-RNA interactions. In previous studies, flavivirus replicon RNA replication was completely inhibited by single or multiple mismatching CYC nt substitutions. In the present study, full-length WNV genomes with one, two or three mismatching CYC substitutions showed reduced replication efficiencies but were viable and generated revertants with increased replication efficiency. Several different three adjacent mismatching CYC substitution mutant RNAs were rescued by a second site mutation that created an additional basepair (nts 147-10913) on the internal genomic side of the 5'-3' CYC. The finding that full-length genomes with up to three mismatching CYC mutations are viable and can be rescued by a single nt spontaneous mutation indicates that more than three adjacent CYC basepair substitutions would be required to increase the safety of vaccine genomes by creating mismatches in inter-genomic recombinants.

Basu, Mausumi; Brinton, Margo A., E-mail: mbrinton@gsu.ed

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisopliae fungal catalase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fungal Isolates Metarhizium anisopliae... var. anisopliae PCR assays with ... Source: Johnson, Dan L. - Department of Geography, University of Lethbridge Collection: Environmental...

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - antigens fungal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PCR 8 ; Mycoplasma... ; Fungal culture 3 ; Histopathology 4 ; Neospora IFA 5 ; Toxic heavy metal screen 6 ; Toxoplasma gondii MAT... for parasite exam 2 ; Dexamethasone...

54

Fungal Genomics Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUSTPart 3 of3.2.103 Fungal Genomics

55

Fungal diversity within the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUSTPart 3 of3.2.103 Fungal

56

Role of fungal ligninolytic enzymes in pollutant degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ligninolytic fungi that cause white rot of wood have recently become the object of increasing attention from hazardous waste management specialists. The metabolic pathways that they employ for ligninolysis appear to have unusual xenobiotic capabilities, and there is some preliminary evidence that their extracellular lignin peroxidases, which normally catalyze the depolymerization of lignin, could bring about the initial oxidation of certain aromatic pollutants in vivo. However, it remains to be demonstrated that high levels of lignin peroxidase activity will necessarily lead to improved rates of pollutant degradation, or indeed that these enzymes are actually involved in any of the fungal xenobiotic oxidations that have been observed. To address these questions, the authors have begun a study of anthracene metabolism in the lignin degrader Phanerochaete chrysosporium: this simple model pollutant is quantitatively oxidized to anthraquinone by purified lignin peroxidases, is at least to some extent oxidized to the same quinone by whole fungal cultures, and is also mineralized at appreciable rates in vivo. The results point to a role for lignin peroxidases in organopollutant degradation by Phanerochaete, but more work is required to elucidate the pathways involved.

Hammel, K.E.; Tardone, P.J.; Price, L.A.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens Sunshine, while the leaf material they provide to their garden is usually filled with endophytic fungi. The ants and their cultivar may interact with hundreds of endophytic fungal species, yet little is known about

Bermingham, Eldredge

58

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect March 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 Ó Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Endophytic fungal symbionts of studies on endophyte­ grass symbioses have been conducted on economically important, agricultural species

Rudgers, Jennifer

59

Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and fungal endophytes Keenan M. L. Mack and Jennifer A. Rudgers K. M. L. Mack and J. A. Rudgers (jrudgers, a protective fungal endophyte aboveground, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and nutritional symbionts (arbuscular and applied a fertilizer treatment to individual plants. Endophyte presence in host plants strongly reduced

Rudgers, Jennifer

60

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of takahe on offshore islands? DOC. References 9 #12;4 Jamieson & Easton--Tall fescue-endophytes and takahe reproction on offshore islands Final of Conservation. This paper may be cited as: Jamieson, I.; Sydney Easton, H. 2002: Does a toxic fungal endophyte

Jamieson, Ian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Communities of fungal endophytes in tropical forest grasses: highly diverse host-and habitat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communities of fungal endophytes in tropical forest grasses: highly diverse host- and habitat: Charles W. Bacon Keywords: Barro Colorado Island Biodiversity Community assembly Fungal endophytes Poaceae- studied endophytes in the lowland forests of Panama. We used sequence data for 402 isolates from two

Coley, Phyllis

62

13:00:09:11:10 Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13:00:09:11:10 Page 769 Page 769 Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against herbivory-transmitted fungal endophytes, some grasses produce a larger quantity of seeds, although these seeds are smaller than if the infection reduces predation pressure. Question: Does the endophyte protect grass seedlings against herbivory

Kramarz, Paulina

63

Fungal Diversity Ceratocystis neglecta sp. nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal Diversity 73 Ceratocystis neglecta sp. nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia Rodas, C Eucalyptus trees in Colombia. Fungal Diversity 28: 73-84. Commercial plantation forestry utilising species of non-native Eucalyptus trees forms an important industry in Colombia. These trees are, however

64

Twenty-Seventh Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, CA, March 12-17, 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This meeting brings together ~900 international scientists to discuss the latest research on fungal genetics. Sessions of particular relevance to DOE include lignocellulose degradation, cellulose conversion to fermentable sugars, fermentation of sugars to fuel molecules. Other sessions cover fungal diseases of biomass crops (miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, etc.).

Walton, Jonathan

2013-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities wereDigging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks Krista L a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings

Fierer, Noah

66

LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

Wan, Jinrong (Columbia, MO); Stacey, Gary (Columbia, MO); Stacey, Minviluz (Columbia, MO); Zhang, Xuecheng (Columbia, MO)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

67

Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem, elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen enrichment, parasites, plant pathogensEffects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species

Crews, Stephen

68

Sequencing the fungal tree Terrestrial ecosystems host a complex array of interacting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms alike, and play an integral and growing role in the development in three areas: plant health, biorefinery and fungal diversity. Plant health depends on interactions

Hibbett, David S.

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - arachidonate-rich fungal oil Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

< 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson Summary: Mycorrhizal...

70

Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat.

Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose. Enzymes will play an increased role in this conversion in that they potentially provide an alternative to costly and caustic high temperature and acid treatment. The increasing use of enzymes in biotechnology is facilitated by both continued improvements in enzyme technology but also in the discovery of new and novel enzymes. The present proposal is aimed at identifying the enzymes which are known to depolymerize woody biomass. Fundamental understanding of how nature gains access to cellulose and hemicellulose will impact all applications. Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has evolved different fungal mechanisms for enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. Most notable are the white-rot fungi (wrf) and the brown-rot fungi (brf). This proposed research aims at determining the complete transcriptome of three wrf and two brf to determine the enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation. The transcriptome work will be supported by enzyme characterization (and zymograms) and finally analysis of the lignin component to determine the mode of lignin modification. In this proposed research, we hypothesize that: 1) Determination of the complete transcriptome of closely related white and brown rot fungi will lead to knowledge of the relevant enzymes involved in wood degradation. 2) Knowledge of the extracellular transcriptome and the mechanism of wood decay can only be obtained if the products of the decay are known. As such, characterization of the lignin oxidation products will correlate the enzymes involved (obtained from the transcriptome) to the lignin oxidation products. The Department of Energy has sequenced the P. chrysosporium genome and has approved the sequencing of the genome of the closely-related brown rot fungus P. placenta. This comparative genomics approach will yield important information on differences between these two fungi. Analysis of gene unique to each fungus (which have been lost or gained) can potentially lead to determining the enzymes which are responsible for each type of decay. This comparison, however, would not be complete without comparing the transcriptome and the proteome/enzymes. Comparative genomics may tell us which genes may be important, but it will not tell us when these genes are expressed, at what levels and will not necessarily tell us what these genes do.

Tien, Ming

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

72

2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

Judith Berman

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

73

Sesquiterpene Quinones and Related Metabolites from Phyllosticta spinarum, a Fungal Strain Endophytic in Platycladus orientalis of the Sonoran Desert1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Endophytic in Platycladus orientalis of the Sonoran Desert1 E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Priyani A. Paranagama, a fungal strain endophytic in Platycladus orientalis. The structures of the new compounds were determined of Phyllosticta spinarum (Botry- osphaeriaceae), a fungal strain endophytic in the leaf tissue of oriental arbor

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

74

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times Deborah A. Neher1 *, Thomas R. Weicht1 , Scott T. Bates2 , Jonathan W. Leff3 , Noah Fierer3 of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America Abstract Compost production is a critical component

Colorado at Boulder, University of

75

Effect of sampling height on the concentration of airborne fungal spores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and possible sources of air pollution.8 In addition, it is high enough to avoid vandalism and bothering aeroallergens. Airborne fungal spores are commonly collected from the outdoor air at the rooftop level of high respiration level (1.5 m above the ground) and at roof level (12 m height). Methods: Air samples were

Levetin, Estelle

76

Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTHESIS Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using in tissue (e.g., Stone et al. 2000; Arnold 2007). Most mem- bers of these communities are endophytes asymptomatic (Stone et al. 2000; Schulz and Boyle 2005). Designation as an endophyte therefore depends

Kohn, Linda M.

77

Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of tropical forest grasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes examining endophytic fungi associated with grasses (Poaceae) have focused on agronomically important species and forest-edge communities. To provide a broader context for understanding grass-endophyte associations we

Coley, Phyllis

78

Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues in Comparative Fungal Genomics Tom Hsiang1 and David L. Baillie2 1 Department. By the middle of 2005, there were almost 300 complete genomes that were publicly accessible. Most of these were archeal or bacterial since prokaryotic genomes are much smaller than eukaryotic genomes. Among eukaryotes

Hsiang, Tom

79

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fungal Diversity of Norway Spruce Litter: Effects of Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fungal Diversity of Norway Spruce Litter: Effects of Site Conditions and Premature duplicatus). The study was conducted in 37-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stands as endophytes of Norway spruce in prior studies. During spring of 2005, we found less than half the number

Minnesota, University of

80

Soil fungal pathogens and the relationship between plant diversity and productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTER Soil fungal pathogens and the relationship between plant diversity and productivity John L community productivity often increases with increasing plant diversity. Most frequently, resource- based or competitive interactions are thought to drive this positive diversity­productivity relationship. Here, we ask

Cleveland, Cory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Structures of Cryptococcus neoformans Protein Farnesyltransferase Reveal Strategies for Developing Inhibitors That Target Fungal Pathogens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. Few antifungals can treat C. neoformans infections, and drug resistance is increasing. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes post-translational lipidation of key signal transduction proteins and is essential in C. neoformans. We present a multidisciplinary study validating C. neoformans FTase (CnFTase) as a drug target, showing that several anticancer FTase inhibitors with disparate scaffolds can inhibit C. neoformans and suggesting structure-based strategies for further optimization of these leads. Structural studies are an essential element for species-specific inhibitor development strategies by revealing similarities and differences between pathogen and host orthologs that can be exploited. We, therefore, present eight crystal structures of CnFTase that define the enzymatic reaction cycle, basis of ligand selection, and structurally divergent regions of the active site. Crystal structures of clinically important anticancer FTase inhibitors in complex with CnFTase reveal opportunities for optimization of selectivity for the fungal enzyme by modifying functional groups that interact with structurally diverse regions. A substrate-induced conformational change in CnFTase is observed as part of the reaction cycle, a feature that is mechanistically distinct from human FTase. Our combined structural and functional studies provide a framework for developing FTase inhibitors to treat invasive fungal infections.

Hast, Michael A.; Nichols, Connie B.; Armstrong, Stephanie M.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Hellinga, Homme W.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Beese, Lorena S. (Duke)

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

83

2010 CELL AND MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 13-18, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Conference provides a forum for presentation of the latest advances in fungal research with an emphasis on filamentous fungi. This open-registration scientific meeting brings together the leading scientists from academia, government and industry to discuss current research results and future directions at Holderness School, an outstanding venue for scientific interaction. A key objective of the conference is to foster interaction among scientists working on model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans and scientists working on a variety of filamentous fungi whose laboratory tractability is often inversely proportional to their medical, industrial or ecological importance. Sessions will be devoted to Systems Biology, Fungi and Cellulosic Biomass, Small RNAs, Population Genomics, Symbioses, Pathogenesis, Membrane Trafficking and Polarity, and Cytoskeleton and Motors. A session will also be devoted to hot topics picked from abstracts. The CMFB conference provides a unique opportunity to examine the breadth of fungal biology in a small meeting format that encourages in-depth discussion among the attendees.

Michelle Momany

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

84

Synthetic studies applied to polyketide natural products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1) (BnO) 2 P-N( i Pr) 2 tetrazole, CH 2 Cl 2 OH Ph OBn O OBna stirred suspension of tetrazole (27 mg, 0.38 mmol) in CH 2mg, 2.10 mmol), 1- phenyl-1H-tetrazole thiol (748 mg, 4.20

Mandel, Alexander

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago] [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL] [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred endophytic fungi in asymp- tomatic foliage of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in North Carolina, USA, with four (environmental PCR of surface sterilized foliage) for estimating endophyte diversity and species composition

Lutzoni, François M.

87

Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion

88

Short title: Endophytes of grasses Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short title: Endophytes of grasses Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of tropical forest grasses K. Lindsay Higgins Phyllis D. Coley Thomas A. Kursar: Most studies examining endophytic fungi associated with grasses (Poaceae) have focused on agronomically

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

89

An Extensive Study of Mutation and Selection on the Wobble Nucleotide in tRNA Anticodons in Fungal Mitochondrial Genomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Extensive Study of Mutation and Selection on the Wobble Nucleotide in tRNA Anticodons in Fungal hypotheses aim to predict the wobble nucleotide of tRNA anticodons in mitochondrion. The codon-anticodon adaptation hypothesis predicts that the wobble nucleotide of tRNA anticodon should evolve toward maximizing

Xia, Xuhua

90

Fungal species on baobabs in Western Australia Prepared by: Draginja Pavlic (PhD student working on a project entitled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal species on baobabs in Western Australia Prepared by: Draginja Pavlic (PhD student working species endemic in Australia and is restricted to the north-western parts of the country. Baobabs belong is a single species from the family Bombaceae present in Australia. A recent study revealed that A. gibbosa

91

Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; St. John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

93

Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BACKGROUND: Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. RESULTS: We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P.

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T.

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Environmental fitness and production of a fungal inhibitory compound by selected bacteria: a potential biocontrol for oak wilt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) was isolated at 3 mo (bole) and TAMU 1-1 at 1 wk, while all other samples did not yield any of the introduced isolates. Preliminary results indicate that the trees are not well protected from natural spread of C. fagacearum. TANU 1-15 produces a fungal.... inhibitory compound 15 23 27 33 39 45 51 56 66 73 LIST OP TABLES Table Page Plot characteristics (0. 1 acres) in a 1' o k (Q ~f' ' ) t d treated with bacterial strains. Number of bacterial isolates recovered from alternating one foot bole...

Gehring, Eugene Herman

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and morpholinones and related analogues such as quinoxalinones and benzoxazin-2-ones.

Klobukowski, Erik

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Trap cultures reveal higher species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in comparison to soil samples in the Phoenix metropolitan area.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal and dark septate endophytes colonization of plant roots from urban desert preserves a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

samples in the Phoenix metropolitan area.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal and dark septate endophytes mycorrhizal fungal and dark septate endophytes colonization of plant roots from urban desert preserves (Brundett 1999). Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are another type of root colonizing fungi mainly classified

Hall, Sharon J.

100

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates, Joshua Hodgson, Neil J. Morley, Brian C. Sutton &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates(8): 1199­ 1208 doi: 10.1002/ece3.953 Abstract To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs field- grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyle- dons and true leaves

Chittka, Lars

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles 30602 Introduction Estonia relies on vast reserves of oil shale to produce electricity. The mining and burning of oil shale is extremely inefficient and produces large quantities of tailings and ash (Vallner

Shefferson, Richard P.

102

Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its ?-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the ?-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ice nucleation on fungal spores may affect the frequency and properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilagomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are cosmopolitan all over the globe. Ustilagomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes since they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated were found to cause freezing of water droplets at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -36 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilagomycetes > Agaricomycetes ? Eurotiomycetes. We show that at temperatures below -20 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98 % of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the atmospheric transport and global distributions of these spores in the atmosphere. Simulations show that inclusion of ice nucleation scavenging of fungal spores in mixed-phase clouds can decrease the surface annual mean mixing ratios of fungal spores over the oceans and polar regions and decrease annual mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere.

Haga, D. I.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Poschl, U.; Bertram, Allan K.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

a32 modular polyketide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing. Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio 2010-01-01 6 Modular Entanglement...

107

aryl radical cyclization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organizational transformation, new organizational forms and the new public management (NPM) in a novel way. Data reveal important limits to intended organizational transformation...

108

Intramolecular Cyclization Strategies Towards the Synthesis of Zoanthamine Alkaloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noted. Air- and moisture-sensitive liquids and solutions were transferred via syringe or stainless steel (60F-254) and visualized under UV light and/or developed by dipping in solutions of 10% ethanolic and purified through a silica plug. The crude aldehyde was obtained as oil and used without further

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

109

A Dioxane Template for Highly Selective Epoxy Alcohol Cyclizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ladder polyether natural products are a class of natural products denoted by their high functional-group density and large number of well-defined stereocenters. They comprise the toxic component of harmful algal blooms ...

Mousseau, James J.

110

Photochemical and Thermal Bergman Cyclization of a Pyrimidine Enediynol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over the naturally occurring products as therapeutic agents because they may show reduced toxicity.3Versity of Miami, 1301 Memorial DriVe, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, and Department Of Radiation Oncology (R-71 compounds were also shown to cleave dsDNA under the appropriate conditions. Since the natural enediyne

Rusell, K.C.

111

Quantitation of fungal mRNAs in complex substrates by reverse transciption pcr and its application to Phanerochaete chrysosporium-colonized soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorough analysis of fungi in complex substrates has been hampered by inadequate experimental tools for assessing physiological activity and estimating biomass. We report a method for the quantitative assessment of specific fungal mRNAs in soil. The method was applied to complex gene families of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white-rot fungus widely used in studies of organopollutant degradation. Among the genes implicated in pollutant degradation, two closely related lignin peroxidase transcripts were detected in soil. The pattern of lignin peroxidase gene expression was unexpected; certain transcripts abundant in defined cultures were not detected in soil cultures. Transcripts encoding cellobiohydrolases and{beta}-tubulin were also detected. The method will aid in defining the roles of specific genes in complex biological processes such as organopollutant degradation, developing strategies for strain improvement, and identifying specific fungi in environmental samples. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Lamar, R.T.; Schoenike, B.; Dietrich, D.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

113

Distribution and localization of microsatellites in the Perigord black truffle genome and identification of new molecular markers (2010) Fungal Genetics and Biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The level of genetic diversity and genetic structure in the Perigord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) has been debated for several years, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic markers. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are important for the genome organisation, phenotypic diversity and are one of the most popular molecular markers. In this study, we surveyed the T. melanosporum genome (1) to characterise its SSR pattern; (2) to compare it with SSR patterns found in 48 other fungal and three oomycetes genomes and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for population genetics. The T. melanosporum genome is rich in SSRs with 22,425 SSRs with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motifs. SSRs were found in all genomic regions although they are more frequent in non-coding regions (introns and intergenic regions). Sixty out of 135 PCR-amplified mono-, di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotides were polymorphic (44%) within black truffle populations and 27 were randomly selected and analysed on 139 T. melanosporum isolates from France, Italy and Spain. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 18 and the expected heterozygosity from 0.124 to 0.815. One hundred and thirty-two different multilocus genotypes out of the 139 T. melanosporum isolates were identified and the genotypic diversity was high (0.999). Polymorphic SSRs were found in UTR regulatory regions of fruiting bodies and ectomycorrhiza regulated genes, suggesting that they may play a role in phenotypic variation. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic and our results showed that T. melanosporum is a species with an important genetic diversity, which is in agreement with its recently uncovered heterothallic mating system.

Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Riccioni, C [INRA, Nancy, France; Belfiori, B [INRA, Nancy, France; Cichocki, N [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tisserant, Emilie [INRA, Nancy, France; Paolocci, F [INRA, Nancy, France; Rubini, A [INRA, Nancy, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Antitumor activity of a membrane lytic peptide cyclized with a linker sensitive to membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a concen- tration of 5 Mmol/L, suppressed activity to MCF-7 and RBC was observed, whereas the toxicity of the cyclic peptide was shown by comparing cytotoxicity results on RBC and two human breast cancer cell lines of different malignancy and MT1-MMP expression: highly invasive MDA-MB-435 and noninvasive MCF-7. Above

Chau, Ying

115

Investigation into the Nazarov Cyclization of Aryl Dienyl Ketones and Synthetic Studies Toward Tetrapetalone A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.145a The Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis involves the acid-perform the Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis with aniline 2.145a

Marcus, Andrew Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Structure of the Product from a Novel Cyclization Reaction Involving a C(6)-Substituted Uridine Analog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORNL-3794. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA. KATTI, S. K . , SESHADRI, T . P. & VISWAMITRA, M . A . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Acta Cryst. B37, 407-^10. MAIN, P . , HULL, S . E . , LESSINGER, L . , GERMAIN, G . , DECLERCQ, J.-P. & WOOLFSON, M. M...

Wang, Binghe; Takusagawa, Fusao; Mertes, Mathias P.; Bowman-James, Kristin

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

acid-promoted cyclization reactions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an...

118

Synthesis of highly substituted benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles via tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benzannulations employing ynamides and vinylketenes (generated in situ from [alpha]-diazo ketones) were investigated. Irradiation of the diazo ketones using a batch or continuous-flow reactor leads to the formation of ...

Willumstad, Thomas P. (Thomas Paul)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl alcohol cyclization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Progress toward the Synthesis of Garsubellin A and Related Summary: . Condensation of bicycle 15 with allyl alcohol18 followed by a thermal Claisen rearrangement19 and...

120

Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fungi play important roles across the range of current and future biofuel production processes. From crop/feedstock health to plant biomass saccharification, enzyme production to bioprocesses for producing ethanol, higher alcohols or future hydrocarbon biofuels, fungi are involved. Research and development are underway to understand the underlying biological processes and improve them to make bioenergy production efficient on an industrial scale. Genomics is the foundation of the systems biology approach that is being used to accelerate the research and development efforts across the spectrum of topic areas that impact biofuels production. In this review, we discuss past, current and future advances made possible by genomic analyses of the fungi that impact plant/feedstock health, degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of sugars to ethanol, hydrocarbon biofuels and renewable chemicals.

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cullen, Daniel; Hibbett, David; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Kuske, Cheryl; Magnuson, Jon K.; Martin, Francis; Spatafora, Joey; Tsang, Adrian; Baker, Scott E.

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Understanding the Forest Microbiome: A Fungal Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rytas Vilgalys, Duke University, speaking at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 19, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif

Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

122

Calorimetric analysis of fungal degraded wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Endothermic transition and gross heat of combustion of aspenwood subjected to degradation by Lenzites trabea and Polyporus versicolor were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an adiabatic O bomb. Endothermic peak areas of undegraded and fungi-degraded wood differed from each other at all levels of weight loss. The regression analysis of the DSC data vs. weight loss revealed a significant relations, although not highly correlated, for P. versicolor-degraded specimens and a nonsignificant relation for L. trabea-degraded specimens; weight loss and gross heat of combustion values of degraded specimens were significantly correlated.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Baldwin, R.C.; Merrill, W. Jr.; Ottone, S.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biofuels. 108:147-177. Harman GE,or future hydrocarbon biofuels, fungi are involved. Researchtopic areas that impact biofuels production. In this review,

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fungal Diversity Identification and pathogenicity of Graphium and Pesotum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wounds on Schizolobium parahybum in Ecuador Maria M. Geldenhuis1 , Jolanda Roux1 , Fernando Montenegro3, Quito, Ecuador Geldenhuis, M.M., Roux, J., Montenegro, F., De Beer, Z.W., Wingfield, M.J. and Wingfield

125

Fungal Diversity Chrysoporthe doradensis sp. nov. pathogenic to Eucalyptus in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gryzenhout1* , Henrietta Myburg2 , Brenda D. Wingfield2 , Fernando Montenegro3 and Michael J. Wingfield1 1 Juan Manuel Durini, Quito, Ecuador Gryzenhout, M., Myburg, H., Wingfield, B.D., Montenegro, F

126

Fungal diversity within the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Symbiosis Conference Speaker and Attendee List Integrating Environmental, Safety, and Quality Management System Audits NYC Taxi Drive Cycle Development and Simulation Study...

127

Pectinases Link Early Fungal Evolution to the Land Plant Lineage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mary Berbee, University of British Columbia, Canada, speaking at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 19, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Berbee, Mary [University of British Columbia

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Strong coupling of plant and fungal community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tropical rainforest trees (Augspurger, 1983; Comita et al., 2010; Mangan et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012

Fine, Paul V.A.

129

Fungal Symbionts (Harpellales) in Norwegian Aquatic Insect Larvae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 12854.209E 51 23-VIII-2002 Djubvasselva stream connecting lake Djupvatnet and lake Laksjøen. Nord-Trøndelag, Lierne. 20 C. 64826.089N, 13836.939E 52 23-VIII-2002 Stream draining lake 491 at Økstjorna W of Rt. 765. Nord-Trøndelag, Lierne. 64821.709N..., 13837.299E 53 23-VIII-2002 Aunelva stream draining S. Nord-Trøndelag, Steinkjer. 17.5 C. 64819.669N, 13835.529E 54 28-VIII-2002 Small stream crossing Rt. 759, SSE of Steinkjer. 15.5 C. 63857.649N, 11834.279E 56 28-VIII-2002 Very small waterfall on E side...

White, Merlin M.; Lichtwardt, Robert W.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

allergic fungal sinusitis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Rhinitis (Montpellier Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 344 Interference of a short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide with allergic airways responses to allergenic Physics...

131

Comparative gene identification in mammalian, fly, and fungal genomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An important step in genome interpretation is the accurate identification of protein-coding genes. One approach to gene identification is comparative analysis of the genomes of several related species, to find genes that ...

Lin, Michael F. (Michael Fong-Jay)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Biosynthetic investigations of ansamycin natural products from marine-derived actinomycetes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polyketide Pathways in an Endophyte. Angew Chem Int Ed (114)Polyketide Pathways in an Endophyte. Angew Chem Int EdA-D from a Mangrove Endophyte Reveal an Unparalleled

Wilson, Micheal Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Synthetic studies of the Thio-Nazarov Cyclization, Biomimetic Total Syntheses of Shimalactones and Exiguamines, and Synthesis of Photoswitchable Dopamine Analogs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synthesis began with tetrahydroindole 3.23 (Scheme 3.4), which is readily available in multigram quantities from pyrrole

Sofiyev, Vladimir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Nucleophile-Induced Intramolecular Dipole 1,5-Transfer and 1,6-Cyclization: Experimental and ab Initio Studies of Formation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-propanesulfenimido-1,2,4,5-tetrazine Piotr Kaszynski*, and Victor G. Young, Jr. Contribution from the Organic-propanethiol/Et3N furnished tetrazine ylide 1 as the main product. The structure of this unprecedented ylide. In the process of developing an alternative route to 3,6- diphenyl-1,2,4,5-thiatriazine,5 we found that tetrazine

Kaszynski, Piotr

135

sine.I0 Cyclization of 4 to a tetrahydrobenzazepine 5 could be followed by oxidative fission of one aromatic ring. in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excited Iodine Monochloride with Halogenated Olefins Sir: We report here the photochemical separation, the trans- ClHC=CHCl photoproduct has a 35C1:37C1ratio of 2:1 compared to 3:l for naturally occurring trans with a new means of following organic gas-phase photochemical reac- tions with state selection

Zare, Richard N.

136

The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JD (2009) Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases.JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomassthe next-generation of biofuels— liquid fuels derived from

Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 60, No. 13, pp. 37153726, 2009 doi:10.1093/jxb/erp210 Advance Access publication 6 July, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, glandular trichome, hemp, hop, Humulus lupulus, marijuana, polyketide synthase, trichomes. Introduction substantially in economic traits that range from marijuana, arguably the most widespread illicit drug, to hemp

Weiblen, George D

138

Fungal Diversity A new bark canker disease of the tropical hardwood tree Cedrelinga cateniformis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Ecuador Lombard, L.1* , Bogale, M.2 , Montenegro, F.3 , Wingfield, B.D.2 and Wingfield, M.J.1 1 Department, L., Bogale, M., Montenegro, F., Wingfield, B.D. and Wingfield, M.J. (2008). A new bark canker

139

Bacterial and fungal organisms in the vagina of normal cows and cows with vaginitis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequent aerobic isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp. These organisms were isolated from both groups of cows, but more frequently from the vaginitis group...

Husted, James Ross

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

140

A novel test for host-symbiont codivergence indicates ancient origin of fungal endophytes in grasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Significant phylogenetic codivergence between plant or animal hosts ($H$) and their symbionts or parasites ($P$) indicate the importance of their interactions on evolutionary time scales. However, valid and realistic methods to test for codivergence are not fully developed. One of the systems where possible codivergence has been of interest involves the large subfamily of temperate grasses (Pooideae) and their endophytic fungi (epichloae). These widespread symbioses often help protect host plants from herbivory and stresses, and affect species diversity and food web structures. Here we introduce the MRCALink (most-recent-common-ancestor link) method and use it to investigate the possibility of grass-epichlo\\"e codivergence. MRCALink applied to ultrametric $H$ and $P$ trees identifies all corresponding nodes for pairwise comparisons of MRCA ages. The result is compared to the space of random $H$ and $P$ tree pairs estimated by a Monte Carlo method.

Schardl, Chris L; Lindstrom, Adam; Speakman, Skyler; Stromberg, Arnold; Yoshida, Ruriko

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay b Forestry and Agricultural Agropecuaria (INIA), Uruguay d Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, USA a r t i c l e i n f

Blanchette, Robert A.

142

Monitoring Viable Fungal and Bacterial Bioaerosol Concentrations to Identify Acceptable Levels for Common Indoor Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 CFU/m3 of non-toxigenic or non-pathogenic organisms should be typical for normal, non-immunocompromised environments. With the exception of Cladosporium, no organism should individually contribute more than 150 CFUfm3. Furthermore, it is concluded...

Robertson, L. D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Discovery of Fungal Cell Wall Components Using Evolutionary and Functional Genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

profiling and comparative genomics approaches." Eukaryotcerevisiae." Comp Funct Genomics 2(3): 124-42. Dinsdale, E.profiling and comparative genomics approaches." Eukaryot

Sain, Divya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Dispersed Polyphosphate in Fungal Vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/Pisolithus tinctorius  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Stained sections of ether­acrolein freeze-substituted mycorrhizas also showed only dis- persed material

Vesk, Peter

145

Mycoflora of pecans and microscopic studies of host-fungal interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Inoculation experiments * 1 d h h d k d y p ~ r d hy~yh 'd h dark unknown fungus. The dark fungus failed to produce spores under a series of environmental conditions on several different media. Continued effort is underway to identify this fungus because... slowly than Success, Mahan or Desirable. The predominant fungi isolated from these k* 1 p '* f P I. , P ' 'll', P~h d 'k dar'k fungus. An examination of fungi in pecans of 7 cultivars moving in trade channels indicated all cultivars contained...

Wang, Huey-Ming

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and subsequently validating and expanding the promising results, AgriLife Extension compiled data from the 2010,000 acres of dryland cotton (230,000 total acres). The total net economic benefit to growers was estimated

147

BIOTECHNOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ENZYMES AND PROTEINS Cloning, characterization, and engineering of fungal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

users. B. Kim :R. P. Sullivan :H. Zhao Energy Biosciences Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA H. Zhao (*) Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Bioengineering, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana

Zhao, Huimin

148

Discovery of Fungal Cell Wall Components Using Evolutionary and Functional Genomics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Understanding the various processes/pathways necessary for the biogenesis and maintenance of the cell wall is of immense value as that knowledge can be used for… (more)

Sain, Divya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Kitty" - Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University; Theimer, Tad - Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University Collection: Biology...

150

Genomic Analysis of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Elisabeth Fournier2,11 , Lilian Gout2 , Matthias Hahn12 , Linda Kohn13 , Nicolas Lapalu1 , Kim M. Plummer14

Kohn, Linda M.

151

No biogeographical pattern for a root-associated fungal species complexgeb_589 160..169  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* 1 Forest Pathology and Dendrology, Institute of Integrative Biology (IBZ), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland, 2 Plant Pathology, Institute of Integrative Biology (IBZ), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland and Dendrology, Institute of Integrative Biology (IBZ), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. E-mail: christoph

Bruns, Tom

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-fungal drug design Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pg. 1: Eligible Expenses & Documentation Pg. 2: Over-The-Counter Changes due to Health Care Reform Summary: Allergy & sinus medicines and products Feminine anti-fungalanti-itch...

153

Protective effect of endolithic fungal hyphae on oolitic limestone buildings Nicolas Concha-Lozano a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

limestone from four quarries and eight monuments exposed on various environmental conditions focusing molding. Study of weathering forms on old quarries indicates that lichens colonization (Verrucaria

Boyer, Edmond

154

Population structure of the fungal pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti in Australia and South Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

causes bark cracks, cankers, dieback of coppice shoots and in severe cases, tree death has been reported

155

Assessing the Roles of Striatin Orthologs in Fungal Morphogenesis, Sexual Development and Pathogenicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-utilizing mutants demonstrates that Str1 is required for hyphal fusion. In pathogenicity, ?str1 is less virulent in maize anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot. The phenotypes of ?str1 are complemented by the Fusarium verticillioides striatin ortholog (fsr1...

Wang, Chih-Li

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of the Fungal Virulence of Cryptococcus and Exploration of Novel Antifungals Against Cryptococcosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-? Interferon-? IRZ Itracazole MAT Mating Type MFC Minimum Fungicidal Concentration MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MOPS morpholinepropanesulfonic acid vi mTOR mammalian Target Of Rapamycin PDCD4 Programmed Cell Death 4 PMB Polymyxin B PMDD... proliferative and non- proliferative cryptococcal cells in vitro ..................................................... 79 3.3.6. The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus facilitates the fungicidal activity of polymyxin B...

Zhai, Bing

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Nutrient Losses in Agriculture: the Role of Biochar and Fungal Associations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatments, average weekly percentage loss of water did not explain variation in biomass (Figure 4, p=0.22). Excluding data representing pots that received fertilization, biochar, and mycorrhizae the relationship between water leached and shoot biomass... the habitat for microorganisms.5 The increase in microbial biomass often seen with biochar application has prompted many hypotheses about soil microorganism responses to biochar. One of the more popular hypotheses is that the miniscule pores that cover...

King, Alison

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Diversity of Orchid Fungal Symbionts in Estonian Mine Tailings Sam Willis, Charles Cowden and Richard Shefferson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

little more than burnt oil soaked shale and ash. We extracted all DNA in soil samples taken from multiple samples were taken is on a barren hill that was created when Estonia burned oil soaked shale to produce the fungi are utilizing the nutrients from the burnt oil and shale to support the orchids (Shefferson et al

Gittleman, John

160

The Ecophysiology and Evolution of Mycoheterotrophic Plants in the Tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

species. Fungal endophytes in the genus Phialocephala andfungus, Endo=fungal endophyte, ErM=ericoid mycorrhizalFlagelloscypha sp. OTU # Fungal endophyte Fungus sp.1 Fungus

Hynson, Nicole

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The development of iterative and cascade methods for the rapid synthesis of ladder polyether natural products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. The Development of Methods for the Iterative Synthesis of Polytetrahydropyrans An iterative method comprising chain homologation, epoxidation, 6-endo cyclization, and protiodesilylation was developed. Notable achievements ...

Heffron, Timothy Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

November 2008 www.aznps.org The Plant Press ARIZONA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY 13 Introduction to fungal endophytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

endophytes When first introduced in 1866, "endophyte" was used broadly to refer to any organism found within, but modern mycologists generally agree that endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to their host. Research in my group (http://www.endophytes.org) focuses

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

163

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

known as dark septate endophyte Type 1. Mycologia 97: 628–pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes. Mycologia 102: 1318–

Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

165

Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

causes disease mainly on lucerne [44]. Other differencestwo genetically distinct groups referred to as non-lucerneand lucerne pathotype, respectively [46,47,48]. Within

Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Etymology: Medicago sativa (‘alfalfa’), the only currentlyPD353 (USA: PA; alfalfa), PD489 (USA; alfalfa), PD620 (Canada; alfalfa), PD681 (USA; alfalfa), PD682 and PD683 (

Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The evolution of LOL, the secondary metabolite gene cluster for insecticidal loline alkaloids in fungal endophytes of grasses.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................... 24 3 Determination of repetitive DNA content for the E. festucae BAC library ........................................................ 26 4 A set of contiguous BAC clones associated with the odc probe....... 29 5 Microsynteny... and sequencing............................................. 43 4 Species binomen and accession numbers for taxa in Cys/Met Metab PP gene family trees............................................... 66 5 Species binomen and accession numbers for taxa...

Kutil, Brandi Lynn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2003) 61:512516 DOI 10.1007/s00253-003-1277-8  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecules. In this study, the gene scbA, which had been shown previously to be involved in the synthesis lividans 66, which has been engineered to overproduce either the polyketide acti- norhodin (ACT) or the tri-pyrrole

Bibb, Mervyn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - aminoacylation reaction integrated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hybrid Nonribosomal PeptidePolyketide Synthetase from Summary: , followed by 3 mM ATP to initiate the aminoacylation reaction, which was allowed to proceed at 30 C... the...

172

Studies on taxadiene synthase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 2D NMR. These results support the intermediacy and the existence of the cembrenyl cation in the cyclization of GGPP to taxadiene, and indicate that modifications at the 10,11 double bond of GGPP are tolerable in the cyclization....

Chow, Siew Yin

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

173

Diversification of NRT2 and the Origin of Its Fungal Homolog Jason C. Slot,* Kelly Hallstrom,* Patrick B. Matheny,* and David S. Hibbett*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus, Hebeloma. Introduction 35 Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils (including diatoms and oomy- cetes, but not yet kelp), and fungi. NRT2 belongs to the Nitrate/Nitrite Porter

Matheny, P. Brandon

174

Diversification of NRT2 and the Origin of Its Fungal Homolog Jason C. Slot,* Kelly N. Hallstrom,* Patrick B. Matheny,* and David S. Hibbett*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus, Hebeloma. Introduction Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in most forest soils (including diatoms and oomy- cetes, but not yet kelp), and fungi. NRT2 belongs to the Nitrate/Nitrite Porter

Hibbett, David S.

175

Towards Stunt-Free Lonren Reniform Nematode Resistance by Dissection of an Alien R-Gene Chromosome Segment and Detection of Significant Fungal Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

^(lon) -linked. To enable large-scale SNP applications, we developed inexpensive methods for high-throughput non-destructive seed DNA extraction for PCR-based genotyping. We then high-resolution mapped 10 SNPs in the proximal alien segment near Ren^(lon). We...

Zheng, Xiuting

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promoting bacterial endophytes. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2012, 61,phyllosphere, or as endophytes [10,26,27]. In a survey ofBLAST. Previously, an endophyte identified as B. simplex

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A P-loop Mutation in G[alpha] Subunits Prevents Transition to the Active State: Implications for G-protein Signaling in Fungal Pathogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active G{alpha}{beta}{gamma} heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the G{alpha} subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates G{alpha}, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting G{alpha} to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of G{alpha} subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that G{alpha}(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon G{alpha}{sub i1}(G42R) binding to GDP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -} or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. G{alpha}(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with G{beta}{gamma} and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding G{alpha}{sub q}(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the G{alpha} subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two G{alpha} mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.

Bosch, Dustin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Kimple, Adam J.; Willard, Melinda D.; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Siderovski, David P. (UNC); (Singapore)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

The influence of bacterial and fungal isolates from the rhizosphere of Tamcot CAMD-E on host response to Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'* ph . R \\ t * t ~Ph t t ' h omnivorum appears to be influenced by such a mechanism. Investigations have been conducted over a three year period in greenhouse and field experiments to determine what effect microorganisms from MAR cottons have... on the incidence of dead plants for greenhouse Experiment One. . 25 3 Dead plants and seed cotton yield for Experiment One in the greenhouse testing the effects of microbial treatments on Phymatotrichum root rot. 26 4 Dead plants over time for Experiment Two...

Lazo, Gerard Raymond

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transition-metal catalysis of cyclocarbonylation and cycloisomerization reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. The asymmetric Pauson-Khand cyclization of nitrogen-containing enynes using carbon monoxide and a catalytic amount of (EBTHI)TiMe2 was examined. The influence of the nitrogen substituent and the concentration ...

Sturla, Shana Jocette, 1975-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Poly(Pyridinium Phenylene)s: Water-Soluble N-Type Polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Poly(pyridinium phenylene) conjugated polymers are synthesized by a cross-coupling and cyclization sequence. These polyelectrolytes are freely soluble in water and display high degrees of electroactivity. When reduced ...

Swager, Timothy Manning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Mechanism and Transition-State Structures for Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Alkyne?Aldehyde Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanism of nickel-catalyzed reductive alkyne?aldehyde coupling reactions has been investigated using density functional theory. The preferred mechanism involves oxidative cyclization to form the nickeladihydrofuran ...

McCarren, P. R.

182

Rhodium-catalyzed epoxide-opening cascades toward brevisin and hemibrevetoxin B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I. Rhodium-Catalyzed Epoxide-Opening Cascades: Formal Synthesis of (-)-Brevisin [chemical formula inserted] [Rh(CO)?Cl]? was found to be an effective catalyst for endo-selective cyclizations and cascades of ...

Armbrust, Kurt W. (Kurt Willes)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Synthesis of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds based on the intramolecular OH insertion and Wolff rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tetrahydrofuran derivatives.2 Palladium- catalyzed cyclization of allylic 2-alkynoates has been utilized to build of rhodium (II) acetate, with the expectation that Rh(II)-carbene intra- molecular O­H insertion should occur

Wang, Jianbo

184

Studies directed towards the total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Progress towards the total synthesis of sieboldine A is described. This synthetic approach uses a nickel-catalyzed alkyne-ketone reductive cyclization to form the hydrindane core of the natural product in good yield and ...

Gehling, Victor S. (Victor Scott)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Gilbert Stork: Explorations into Position Selectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regiospecific deprotonation & trapping with saturated ketones · -Vetivone Cyano-epoxide and allylic-Patchouli alcohol · (+)-Digitoxigenin Radical cyclization to form a temporary ring Mixed acetal linkage · 12a

Stoltz, Brian M.

186

Bispyridinium-phenylene-based copolymers: low band gap n-type alternating copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bispyridinium-phenylene-based conjugated donor–acceptor copolymers were synthesized by a Stille cross-coupling and cyclization sequence. These polyelectrolytes are freely soluble in organic solvents and display broad optical ...

Swager, Timothy Manning

187

The development of endo-selective epoxide-opening cascades in water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This tutorial review traces the development of endo-regioselective epoxide-opening reactions in water. Templated, water-promoted epoxide-opening cyclization reactions can offer rapid access to subunits of the ladder ...

Morten, Christopher J.

188

Batch and Flow Photochemical Benzannulations Based on the Reaction of Ynamides and Diazo Ketones. Application to the Synthesis of Polycyclic Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly substituted polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds are produced via a two-stage tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategy. The initial benzannulation step proceeds via a pericyclic cascade mechanism ...

Willumstad, Thomas P.

189

Crystal Structure of (+)-[delta]-Cadinene Synthase from Gossypium arboreum and Evolutionary Divergence of Metal Binding Motifs for Catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(+)-{delta}-Cadinene synthase (DCS) from Gossypium arboreum (tree cotton) is a sesquiterpene cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate in the first committed step of the biosynthesis of gossypol, a phytoalexin that defends the plant from bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of unliganded DCS at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and the structure of its complex with three putative Mg{sup 2+} ions and the substrate analogue inhibitor 2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate (2F-FPP) at 2.75 {angstrom} resolution. These structures illuminate unusual features that accommodate the trinuclear metal cluster required for substrate binding and catalysis. Like other terpenoid cyclases, DCS contains a characteristic aspartate-rich D{sup 307}DTYD{sup 311} motif on helix D that interacts with Mg{sub A}{sup 2+} and Mg{sub C}{sup 2+}. However, DCS appears to be unique among terpenoid cyclases in that it does not contain the 'NSE/DTE' motif on helix H that specifically chelates Mg{sub B}{sup 2+}, which is usually found as the signature sequence (N,D)D(L,I,V)X(S,T)XXXE (boldface indicates Mg{sub B}{sup 2+} ligands). Instead, DCS contains a second aspartate-rich motif, D{sup 451}DVAE{sup 455}, that interacts with Mg{sub B}{sup 2+}. In this regard, DCS is more similar to the isoprenoid chain elongation enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase, which also contains two aspartate-rich motifs, rather than the greater family of terpenoid cyclases. Nevertheless, the structure of the DCS-2F-FPP complex shows that the structure of the trinuclear magnesium cluster is generally similar to that of other terpenoid cyclases despite the alternative Mg{sub B}{sup 2+} binding motif. Analyses of DCS mutants with alanine substitutions in the D{sup 307}DTYD{sup 311} and D{sup 451}DVAE{sup 455} segments reveal the contributions of these segments to catalysis.

Gennadios, Heather A.; Gonzalez, Veronica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Miller, David J.; Allemann, Rudolf K.; Christianson, David W.; (UPENN); (Cardiff); (UC)

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

190

Nombramientos SECRETARIOS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

types of fungal bioreactors with inmmobilized Trametes versicolor for post-treated weak black liquor

191

Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of the Holo Form of the Frenolicin Acyl Carrier Protein,)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were made for 433 hydrogen atoms, 333 carbon atoms, and 84 nitrogen atoms, representing a total of 94 in a bundle with three additional short helices in intervening loops; one of the short helices slowly. The carbon chain assembly of polyketides is analogous to fatty acid biosynthesis, in which successive

Puglisi, Joseph

192

Natural Product Synthesis DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006154  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an unprecedented 9,10-anthraquinone methide moiety fused to a dihydropyran (Scheme 1). This flat tetracyclic ring polyketide pathway (for the anthraquinone derivative), and Scheme 1. Racemic natural products featuring N) and hydroxyviocristin (5), an anthrone and a 1,4-anthraquinone, respectively, that bear a substitution pattern

Trauner, Dirk

193

Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

Copper (I)-catalyzed carbon-hydogen insertion reactions of diazoesters: an asymmetric approach to the mitosene ring system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of mitosenes 16 and 17 from the cyclization of diazoester 15 followed by DDQ oxidation The HPLC chromatograms of mitosenes 24 and 25 from the cyclization of diazoester 23 followed by DDQ oxidation . . . . . . . The 200 MHz 'H NMR spectrum of pantolactone 2...-nitrophenylacetate 10 in CDCI, . The 50 MHz "C NMR spectrum of pantolactone 2-nitrophenylacetate 10 in CDCI, The IR spectrum of pantolactone 2-nitrophenylacetate 10 in CH, CI, . The 200 MHz 'H NMR spectrum of pantolactone 2-(2, 5-dihydro)pyrrolophenylacetate 12...

Cha, Kobporn Lulu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A functional role in plant defense mechanism and a predicted structure of the U-box domain combined  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

|14582200| immediate-early fungal elicitor [Petroselinum crispum] 1.E-26 27 10 - 391 442 gi|19911585

Sjölander, Kimmen

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashbya gossypii strain Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 4 Structural features of fungal genomes Phatthanaphong...

197

SHORT COMMUNICATION Production of Minima Workers by Gynes of Atta colombica Guerin-Meneville  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SHORT COMMUNICATION Production of Minima Workers by Gynes of Atta colombica Gue´rin-Me´ne´ville (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini) that Lack a Fungal Pellet HERMO´ GENES FERNA´ NDEZ-MARI´N 1 AND WILLIAM T showed that gynes sometimes lose their fungal pellets, or the fungal garden fails before workers emerge

Bermingham, Eldredge

198

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 25--July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material covered in this report is divided into two parts: further cyclization experiments on 1,4-diethyl-2-[(2`- methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene and its sulfone both by chemical and photochemical means, and progress toward synthesis of modified target molecule, 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzo-thiophene. 8 refs, figs.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

199

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material covered in this report is divided into two parts: further cyclization experiments on 1,4-diethyl-2-[(2'- methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene and its sulfone both by chemical and photochemical means, and progress toward synthesis of modified target molecule, 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzo-thiophene. 8 refs, figs.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Chinese Journal of Polymer Science Vol. 22, No. 4, (2004), 349-353 SYNTHESIS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Polybenzoxazoles (PBOs) have long been regarded as heat-resistant fibers and as matrix materials for fiberChinese Journal of Polymer Science Vol. 22, No. 4, (2004), 349-353 SYNTHESIS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES precursor was subjected to thermal cyclization in an inert atmosphere to convert it into the corresponding

Wan, Xin-hua

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 93105, 2002. 2002 IUPAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Catalysis Science and Technology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 presented at the 11th IUPAC International Symposium on Organometallic Chemistry Directed Towards Organic [9]; and (c) methods that involve chirality transfer, such as the oxidative cyclization [10] and poly

Keinan, Ehud

202

Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Bachkirova, Elena (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Ascomycete Verticillium longisporum Is a Hybrid and a Plant Pathogen with an Expanded Host Range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of three new Neotyphodium endophyte species from grassesal. (2007) New Neotyphodium endophyte species from the grassamongst asexual fungal endophytes of grasses. Mol Ecol 13:

Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolateRedman, R.S. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functionalet al. The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate

Druzhinina, Irina S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Feasibility of Biodegradation of Polyfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkyl Substances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

general suite of fungal endophytes dominate the roots of twohas been shown to be an endophyte, growing on the roots ofand both fungi are endophytes [255] (Genbank Accession

Tseng, Nancy Shiao-lynn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. PAHs and the different fungal species that can metabolize them. (adapted from Kanaly et al 2000) Compound Organisms Acenaphthene Cunninghamella elegans Anthracene Bjerkandera sp, Cunninghamella elegans...

Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. (2009) Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogensComparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhancedapplications. BMC Genomics Wisselink HW, Toirkens MJ, Wu Q,

Wohlbach, Dana J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus oryzae learning Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

domestication on the fungal proteome Summary: , 2331-2336 9 Machida, M. et al. (2008) Genomics of Aspergillus oryzae: learning from the history of Koji... of domestication on...

210

Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation) Re-direct Destination: Fungal free enzymes and bacterial...

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - aflatoxin b1 toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

potent toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites... CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS... Tucson, AZ Abstract...

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - aphid pathogen pandora Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: aphid pathogen pandora Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Community ecology Ants defend aphids against Summary: aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections...

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - aquatic fungus blastocladiella Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oregon State University Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 48 Fungal farming in a snail Brian R. Silliman* Summary: between fungi and...

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - activation defines nonpathogenic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

related non-pathogenic species should therefore provide... data from a wide range of phy- topathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and the available fungal genome Source: Talbot,...

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus flavus aflatoxins Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

108 ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO COMMERCIAL COTTON FIELDS... are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus flavus em Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: 108 ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO COMMERCIAL COTTON FIELDS... are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain...

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus flavus infection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: 108 ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO COMMERCIAL COTTON FIELDS... are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain...

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - anu sepp estonia Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences 5 Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson Summary: and Sepp...

219

Use of Comparative Genomics for Non-coding Rna Prediction and Investigation of Dna Introgression in Yeast.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The rapid development of large-scale genomic sequencing has dramatically changed the field of genetics, in part through the development of comparative genomics. Fungal comparative genomics… (more)

Kavanaugh, Laura Anne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Synthetic route to meso-tetra hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrins and derivatives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The hydroxyl group in a pyrrolic compound having in the 2-position thereof a group having the formula R(OH)CH-R is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, is replaced by a group, for example a p-nitrobenzoate group, having better leaving properties than those of hydroxyl for a subsequent self-condensation and cyclization of the pyrrolic compound to form a meso-hydrocarbyl or meso-substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrin.

Wijesekera, T.P.; Wagner, R.W.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Synthetic route to meso-tetra hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrins and derivatives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The hydroxyl group in a pyrrolic compound having in the 2-position thereof a group having the formula R(OH)CH--R is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, is replaced by a group, for example a p-nitrobenzoate group, having better leaving properties than those of hydroxyl for a subsequent self-condensation and cyclization of the pyrrolic compound to form a meso-hydrocarbyl or meso-substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrin.

Wijesekera, Tilak P. (Glen Mills, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Xyolide, a bioactive nonenolide from an Amazonian endophytic fungus, Xylaria feejeensis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xyolide, a bioactive nonenolide from an Amazonian endophytic fungus, Xylaria feejeensis Ezra G Fungal endophyte Pythium ultimum a b s t r a c t Endophytes isolated from tropical plants represent a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive secondary metabolites. We screened a library of fungal endophyte

Handelsman, Jo

223

This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.elsevier.com/copyright #12;Author's personal copy Geographic locality and host identity shape fungal endophyte communities Cupressaceae Molecular phylogeny Species richness Symbiosis a b s t r a c t Understanding how fungal endophyte ranges of their hosts is key to understanding the ecology and evolutionary context of endophyte

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

224

www.newphytologist.org 147 Blackwell Publishing LtdOxford, UKNPHNew Phytologist0028-646X The Authors (2008). Journal compilation New Phytologist (2008)235010.1111/j. 1469-8137.2008.02350.xDecember 200700147???156???Original ArticlesXX XX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the fungal endophyte community of maize (Zea mays) Jean J. Pan1,2 , Andrew M. Baumgarten3 and Georgiana May2 fungal endophyte studies has been how plants benefit from endophyte infection. Few studies have investigated the role of the host plant as an environment in shaping endophyte community diversity

Bruns, Tom

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class of Pezizomycotina: Xylonomycetes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class: Ascomycota Endophytes Fungal phylogeny Hevea Sapwood Tropical forest a b s t r a c t Through a culture foliar endophytes. Because its origin is nested within this major burst of fungal diversification, we

Lutzoni, François M.

226

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the pre-dominant forage species on over one million acres of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal Endophyte While occasional negative responses of animals con- suming tall fescue were observed an endophyte because it is found within tissue and does not affect the outward appear- ance of the grass. In the scientific community, the tall fescue fungal endophyte was formerly known as Acremonium coenophialum, but has

Liskiewicz, Maciej

227

Mycologia, 95(3), 2003, pp. 388398. 2003 by The Mycological Society of America, Lawrence, KS 66044-8897  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

66044-8897 Canopy cover and leaf age affect colonization by tropical fungal endophytes: Ecological Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama Abstract: Fungal endophytes inhabit healthy of endophyte infection in leaves of tropical forest trees. However, ecological factors underlying

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

228

to the Midwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,4 Marilyn J. Roossinck1 * A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass­8). However, the effect of mycoviruses on mutualistic fungal endophytes is unknown. There is only one report of a mycovirus from the well- known mutualistic endophyte, Epichloë festucae, but no phenotype has been

Saleska, Scott

229

STUDIES IN MYCOLOGY 55: 1333. 2006. How many species of fungi are there at the tip of Africa?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biodiversity. Key words: Biodiversity, conservation, National Collection of Fungi, numbers of fungi voor Schimmelcultures, Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P. O. Box 85167, 3508 AD, Utrecht, The Netherlands of fungal biodiversity, and have used these data as basis for revised estimates of species numbers based

230

The authors are solely responsible for the content of this technical presentation. The technical presentation does not necessarily reflect the official position of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), and its printing and distribution do  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fungi are well known as producers of commercially important products such as antibiotics, chemicals-flow external-loop air-lift bioreactor (EALR) for production of secreted enzymes through a perfusion fungal Estimation of a Laboratory-Scale External-loop Air-lift Bioreactor for Fungal Culture Using pH Tracer Method

He, Brian

231

Allylation of acetanilides with allyl acetate under conditions of metal-complex catalysis combined with phase-transfer catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetanilides are alkylated at the nitrogen atom under the conditions of phase-transfer catalysis. For the case of the reaction of acetanilides with allyl acetate the authors showed that 2-alkenyl esters can be used for the alkylation of acetanilides under the conditions of phase-transfer catalysis in the presence of the complexes of zero valent palladium. N-Acetylskatole was obtained with a yield of 50% from N-allyl-2-bromoacetanilide by intramolecular cyclization in the presence of Od(OAc)/sub 2/ as catalyst.

Lebedev, S.A.; Leonova, Yu.P.; Berestova, S.S.; Petrov, E.S.

1988-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

Photocatalyzed multiple additions of amines to {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated esters and nitriles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoelectron-transfer-catalyzed intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines with {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated esters and nitriles using photosensitizers such as anthraquinone, acridone, and dicyanoanthracene has been investigated. The addition of {alpha}-aminoalkyl radicals, generated via photoelectron-transfer processes, to olefinic substrates and the subsequent 1,5-hydrogen abstraction reactions of the amine-olefin adduct radicals lead to a number of interesting multiple-olefin-added products. The adducts of the primary and secondary amines with {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated esters undergo further cyclizations to give spiro and cyclic lactams, respectively.

Das, S.; Kumar, J.S.D.; Thomas, K.G.; Shivaramayya, K. [Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India); George, M.V. [Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India)]|[Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

1994-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thermally-generated reactive intermediates: Trapping of the parent ferrocene-based o-quinodimethane and reactions of diradicals generated by hydrogen-atom transfers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocenocyclobutene is prepared by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of the N-amino-2-phenylaziridine hydrazone of 2-methylferrocenealdehyde. In the second section of this dissertation, a series of hydrocarbon rearrangements were observed. FVP of o-allyltoluene at 0.1 Torr (700--900 C) gives 2-methylindan and indene, accompanied by o-propenyltoluene. FVP of 2-methyl-2`-vinylbiphenyl gives 9-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, which fits the proposed mechanism. However, FVP of 2-(o-methylbenzyl)styrene gives mainly anthracene and 1-methylanthracene. This cyclization reaction was also successful with o-allylphenol and o-(2-methylallyl)phenol.

Ferguson, J.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Syntrophic exchange in synthetic microbial communities Michael T. Meea,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recently described including the bioconversion of unprocessed cellulolytic feedstocks into biofuel isobutanol using fungal­bacterial communities (4) and biofuel precursor methyl halides using yeast using engineered quorum-sensing Escherichia coli (7, 8). These advances paint an exciting future

Collins, James J.

235

ANNUAL SYMBIOSIS WORKSHOP ---MAY 19-20TH , 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:20-1:40 Sharon Lafferty Doty Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytes of Poplar and Willow:10 ­ 2:30 Carolin Frank Bacterial Endophytes of Forest Conifers: Specificity Interacting symbioses: leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf

Sachs, Joel

236

Endomelanconiopsis, a new anamorph genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae Enith I. Rojas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discomycete. Endomelanconiopsis endo- phytica was isolated as an endophyte from healthy leaves of Theobroma microspora was isolated from soil in Europe. Key words: Austrocenangium, Endomelanconium, endophytic fungi, Heisteria concinna, systematics, Theobroma cacao INTRODUCTION Fungal endophytes live inside plant tissues

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

237

Endophyte Microbiome Diversity in Micropropagated Atriplex canescens and Atriplex torreyi var griffithsii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Endophyte Microbiome Diversity in Micropropagated Atriplex canescens and Atriplex torreyi var to diverse fungal and bacterial taxa. Culturing isolated some seed borne endophyte taxa which could, Cooke P, Dowd S, Sun S (2011) Endophyte Microbiome Diversity in Micropropagated Atriplex canescens

238

ANNUAL SYMBIOSIS WORKSHOP ---MAY 19-20TH , 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:20-1:40 Sharon Lafferty Doty Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytes of Poplar and Willow Frank Bacterial Endophytes of Forest Conifers: Specificity and Adaptive symbioses: leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants · 2

Sachs, Joel

239

Parasites may help stabilize cooperative relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 50. Tanaka A, Tapper BA, Popay A, Parker EJ, Scott B: A symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from a mutual- istic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protec- tion to the symbiotum from insect herbivory. Mol Microbiol 2005...

Little, Ainslie E. F.; Currie, Cameron R.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Phylogenetic relationships, host affinity, and geographic structure of boreal and arctic endophytes from three major plant lineages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phylogenetic relationships, host affinity, and geographic structure of boreal and arctic endophytes Although associated with all plants, fungal endophytes (microfungi that live within healthy plant tissues, or phylogenetic relationships. We surveyed endophytic Ascomycota from healthy photosyn- thetic tissues of three

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

242

Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a fungal prey. BMC Genomics 10, 567 (2009). This studythe TrichoEST functional genomics approach. Curr. Genet. 51,in Hypocrea jecorina. BMC Genomics. 9, 430 (2008) Mukherjee,

Druzhinina, Irina S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobe und anaerobe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of GI, tissue, cavity or wound anaerobes. Aerobic and fungal... to avoid loss of oxygen-excluding gas cap. Blood Culture Bottles for Aerobic and Anaerobic Culture... are used...

244

Biomarkers of Exposure to Foodborne and Environmental Carcinogens: Enterosorbent Intervention in a High Risk Population  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been useful in providing information on population exposure and reducing associated public health impacts. Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in a variety of foods. Among these toxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1...

Johnson, Natalie Malek

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Assembly of the Candida albicans genome into sixteen supercontigs aligned on the eight chromosomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: The 10.9× genomic sequence of Candida albicans, the most important human fungal pathogen, was published in 2004. Assembly 19 consisted of 412 supercontigs, of which 266 were a haploid set, since this fungus is ...

van het Hoog, Marco

246

Nature's approach toward ring formation and structural diversity in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ergot alkaloids are fungal-derived secondary metabolites well known for a diverse array of pharmacological effects both beneficial and detrimental to human health. Historically, the ergot alkaloids have been known to cause ...

Cheng, Johnathan Zandrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Total synthesis of cyclotryptamine and diketopiperazine alkaloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. Total Synthesis of the (+)-12,12'-Dideoxyverticillin A The fungal metabolite (+)-12,12'-dideoxyverticillin A, a cytotoxic alkaloid isolated from a marine Penicillium sp., belongs to a fascinating family of densely ...

Kim, Justin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Major Nitrogen Loss Pathways in Upland Blueberry Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 O production in an arable peat soil in Central KalimantanTateyama brown forest soil + peat moss (1:1), SC- Soil +the tropical and boreal peat soils have a wide fungal

Vano, Imre

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of conidiophores and sexually through the formation of cleistothecia. Both A. parasiticus and A. flavus reproduce asexually via the conidiophore. The development of these reproductive structures seems to bepartially dependent upon the fungal molecule called psi...

Hinze, Lori Lynn

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

250

RESEARCH ARTICLE Managing grey mould on raspberry grown under protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-harvest cooling and cold storage is used to delay the onset of fungal rotting. This new strategy was evaluated . Raspberry. Grey mould . Cold storage . Zero residues 1 Introduction Raspberry fruit are very susceptible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Investigation of microbicidal activity of surface-immobilized hydrophobic polycations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrophobic polycations have been shown to completely kill bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, on-contact. Herein we describe advances with this technology on two fronts: (1) innovation of a polycationic-derivative ...

Hsu, Bryan Boen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

Ramaswamy, Anitha

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses -Mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Ling, Ph.D. Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering The Ohio State University #12;Integrated Rust Botrytis #12;Disease Enabler: Condensation Fungal pathogens like Botrytis require a water film

Ling, Peter

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus oryzae strain Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aspergillus oryzae strain Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Copyright 2007 CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167,...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity histopathology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

P.O. Box 5786 Summary: ; Fungal culture 3 ; Histopathology 4 ; Neospora IFA 5 ; Toxic heavy metal screen 6 ; Toxoplasma gondii MAT... Parvovirus-2 FA 4 ; Histopathology 5 ; (2)...

256

Sorghum Ergot: New Disease Threat to the Sorghum Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produces very durable, compact fungal structures called sclerotia. Where is it? Sorghum ergot has existed in Africa for many decades. It appeared in Brazil in 1995, and since then it has quickly spread throughout sorghum production areas in the Americas...

Krausz, Joseph P.; Isakeit, Thomas

1998-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

Baker elected SIMB president-elect | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at the Torrey Mesa Research InstituteSyngenta, where he was on a team that used a genomics-based approach to study fungal plant pathogens. Baker received his doctorate in Cell...

258

Effect of Virulence Factors on the Photodynamic Inactivation of Cryptococcus neoformans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Opportunistic fungal pathogens may cause an array of superficial infections or serious invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogen causing cryptococcosis in HIV/AIDS ...

Prates, Renato A.

259

Arthropod population and community dynamics in turfgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-target arthropod and nematode populations in ographics. fungal and nematode treated bermudagrass were contrasted with populations in a chlorpyrifos and an untreated control treatment. Fifty-five arthropod families or suborder, herein referred...

Wang, Yong

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Palynology and Paleoecology of the Lake Somerville spillway section, Late Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group), east-central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of lignites, freshwater and marine siliciclastic sediments from the Lake Somerville spillway section (Late Eocene, Jackson Group, Manning Formation) yielded a diverse assemblage of terrestrial palynomorphs including fungal spores (84 genera...

Sancay, Recep Hayrettin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were...

262

arbuscular mycorrhizal status: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were...

263

arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were...

264

185Agron. Sustain. Dev. 26 (2006) 185193 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost of investmentsand energy,together with their impact on crops (Ehret et al., 2001). Among other Fungal diseases are a major problem in soilless cultivation of greenhouse plants because both yield

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

Terminal structures of West Nile virus genomic RNA and their interactions with viral NS5 protein  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Genome cyclization is essential for flavivirus replication. We used RNases to probe the structures formed by the 5'-terminal 190 nucleotides and the 3'-terminal 111 nucleotides of the West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA. When analyzed individually, the two RNAs adopt stem-loop structures as predicted by the thermodynamic-folding program. However, when mixed together, the two RNAs form a duplex that is mediated through base-pairings of two sets of RNA elements (5'CS/3'CSI and 5'UAR/3'UAR). Formation of the RNA duplex facilitates a conformational change that leaves the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the genome (position - 8 to - 16) to be single-stranded. Viral NS5 binds specifically to the 5'-terminal stem-loop (SL1) of the genomic RNA. The 5'SL1 RNA structure is essential for WNV replication. The study has provided further evidence to suggest that flavivirus genome cyclization and NS5/5'SL1 RNA interaction facilitate NS5 binding to the 3' end of the genome for the initiation of viral minus-strand RNA synthesis.

Dong Hongping; Zhang Bo [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States); Shi Peiyong [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)], E-mail: pei_yong.shi@novartis.com

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

267

Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Field evaluation of the lignin-degrading fungus 'phanerochaete sordida' to treat creosote-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. The study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal treatments and appropriate control treatments. Soil concentrations of 14 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote were measured over time to determine treatment efficacies. Fungal treatments involved mixing fungal inocula and aspen chips into the contaminated soil and maintaining moisture by irrigation and aeration by tillage. PAHs of more than 4 rings persisted at their original concentrations during the 8 wk course of the study for all treatments and controls.

Davis, M.W.; Glaser, J.A.; Evans, J.W.; Lamar, R.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

The Structure of the L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate Synthase-NAD[superscript +]-2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-(E)-Vinylhomophosphonate Complex Demands a Revision of the Enzyme Mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (MIP) synthase catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate to 1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of all inositol-containing compounds. It involves an oxidation, enolization, intramolecular aldol cyclization, and reduction. Here we present the structure of MIP synthase in complex with NAD{sup +} and a high-affinity inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-(E)-vinylhomophosphonate. This structure reveals interactions between the enzyme active site residues and the inhibitor that are significantly different from that proposed for 2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-phosphate in the previously published structure of MIP synthase-NAD{sup +}-2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-phosphate. There are several other conformational changes in NAD{sup +} and the enzyme active site as well. Based on the new structural data, we propose a new and completely different mechanism for MIP synthase.

Jin, Xiangshu; Foley, Kathleen M.; Geiger, James H. (MSU)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

272

United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO{sup 2}{sup 2+}) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

Schoendorff, George

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

273

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

Mishra, N.C.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the author plans to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. He also plans to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

Mishra, N.C.

1996-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Fifth quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

Mishra, N.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

Mishra, N.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nematology 16 (2014) 379-385 brill.com/nemy Soil energy pathways of different ecosystems using nematode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nematology 16 (2014) 379-385 brill.com/nemy Soil energy pathways of different ecosystems using, and forest) to compare relative magnitude of energy pathways through the soil food web. Bacterial-, fungal- and herbivorous-based energy pathways were compared by percentages (in either abundances or biomass) of three soil

Neher, Deborah A.

278

Treena BURGESS1,2 *, Brenda D. WINGFIELD2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sapinea is an endophyte and latent pathogen of pines, assumedly introduced to the Southern Hemisphere. radiata has acquired this fungal endophyte from other Pinus within the exotic environment. INTRODUCTION Sphaeropsis sapinea is a ubiquitous endophyte and latent pathogen of Pinus (Smith & Stanosz 1995, Smith et al

279

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the primary forage base is endophyte- infected (E+) Kentucky 31 (KY31) tall fescue. Tall fescue sets performance and disorders caused by the presence of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum reduces its-infected. The endophytic fungus produces ergot alkaloids that are toxic to livestock (Ball, Hoveland, and Lacefield 2002

Liskiewicz, Maciej

280

GLOMEROMYCOTEAN ASSOCIATIONS IN LIVERWORTS: A MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, AND TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

End Road, London E1 4NS, UK Liverworts form endophytic associations with fungi that mirror mycorrhizal (except a few mostly derived clades), and part of the Metzgeriidae. Fungal endophytes from Haplomitrium, Conocephalum, Fossombronia, and Pellia were related to Glomus Group A, while the endophyte from Monoclea

Bruns, Tom

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Functional Ecology 2008, 22, 706713 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01395.x 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation 2008 British Ecological Society  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Journal compilation © 2008 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd Endophyte symbiosis investigated how a fungal endophyte symbiosis affects the growth and survival of a rare, mid-western United compared the performance of endophyte-infected and endophyte- disinfected grove bluegrass (Poa alsodes

Rudgers, Jennifer

282

Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens Luis C. Mejia a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens Luis C. Meji´a a,b , Enith I; accepted 18 January 2008 Available online 31 January 2008 Abstract Fungal endophytes isolated from healthy endophytic morphospecies, 40% (21/52), 65% (28/43) and 27% percent (4/15) showed in vitro antagonism against

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

283

Syst. Biol. 58(3):283297, 2009 Copyright c Society of Systematic Biologists  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

endophytes associated with foliage of plants). Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous among all lineages of land the evolution of endophytism and the diversification of the most species-rich phylum of Fungi (Ascomycota) lies in endophyte-like fungi that can be isolated from the interior of apparently healthy lichens

Lutzoni, François M.

284

Ecology, 00(0), 0000, pp. 000000 0000 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPLICATIONS OF ANTI-PATHOGEN EFFECTS OF TROPICAL FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES AND MYCORRHIZAE EDWARD ALLEN HERRE,1,3 LUIS Jersey 08901 USA Abstract. We discuss studies of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal of endophyte free (EÀ) and endophyte containing (Eþ) plant tissues in T. cacao show that foliar endophytes (FEF

Bermingham, Eldredge

285

The Authors (2009) New Phytologist (2009) 182: 229238 229 Journal compilation New Phytologist (2009) www.newphytologist.org 229  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-8137.2008.02746.xDecember 200800229???238???Original ArticleXX XX Evidence for alteration of fungal endophyte, Canada Summary · Plant defense compounds are common stressors encountered by endophytes. Fungi readily variation in defense compound production on endophyte colonization. We compared the influence of defense

Kohn, Linda M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes to invasion by the non-native  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes grass, Poa alsodes, and a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) improved the grass's ability to compete naturally endophyte-symbiotic and experi- mentally endophyte-free P. alsodes plants with the invader

Whitney, Kenneth

287

Ecology, 88(1), 2007, pp. 1825 2007 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arundinaceum (tall fescue), hosts a fungal endophyte that is toxic to herbivores. In replicated experimental grasslands, the presence of the endophyte in tall fescue reduced tree abundance and size, altered tree spp.) was 65% higher in plots with the endophyte at the one grassland site where these data were

Rudgers, Jennifer

288

Ecology, 93(1), 2012, pp. 38 2012 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reports Ecology, 93(1), 2012, pp. 3­8 Ó 2012 by the Ecological Society of America Fungal endophytes conditions. Here we tested the effects of two phylotypes of Alternaria endophytes on the growth, competitive in the absence of endophytes. However, one endophyte both increased the biomass of C. stoebe and reduced

Aschehoug, Erik

289

www.newphytologist.org 413 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

endophyte Epichloë glyceriae has a positive effect on clonal growth of its host (Pan & Clay, 2002; 2003 in hosts infected by E. glyceriae may function as one mechanism by which endophytic fungi could increase, AMF and leaf- inhabiting fungal endophytes are widely distributed in some ecologically important

Alvarez, Nadir

290

Original article Creation of stable associations between perennial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and fungal endophytes Walid Naffaaa Claude Astierb Catherine Ravelb Jean-Jacques Guillaumin a Unité de - The ability of 15 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from ten species of grasses to form compatible asso-like endophyte, could be associated with both L. perenne and F. arundinacea. Acremonium sp. from L. persicum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

Purdue University Name of Student: Department of Entomology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was to examine how tall fescue cultivar and endophyte strain influence feeding behavior and survival of four endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Neotyphodium endophytes are symbiotic fungal mutualists of many cool. There are alkaloids that are associated with endophytes that provide insect resistance. The only problem is that some

Ginzel, Matthew

292

INSECTSYMBIONT INTERACTIONS Endophyte-Mediated Resistance to Herbivores Depends on Herbivore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSECTÐSYMBIONT INTERACTIONS Endophyte-Mediated Resistance to Herbivores Depends on Herbivore, herbivore identity can alter the outcome of plantÐsymbiont interactions. Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes the production of alkaloids. Although endophytes are common in nature, relatively little is known about

Rudgers, Jennifer

293

Copyright c Society of Systematic Biologists DOI:10.1093/sysbio/syp001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

endophytes associated with foliage of plants). Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous among all lineages of land the evolution of endophytism and the diversification of the most species-rich phylum of Fungi (Ascomycota) lies in endophyte-like fungi that can be isolated from the interior of apparently healthy lichens

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

294

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

endophyte of black spruce (Picea mariana) needles is also an aquatic hyphomycete. (2006) Molecular Ecology #12;Blackwell Publishing Ltd A fungal endophyte of black spruce (Picea mariana) needles is also spacer (ITS) sequence of this fungus and of a com- monly encountered foliar endophyte isolated from P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass DOE JGI/EMSL Collaborative Science Projects and degrade carbon. This is an image of the Mn(II)-oxidizing fungus Stilbella aciculosa ­ the fungal biomass Better Biomass Feedstock Science Highlights 15 Clouds up Close Improving Catalysts Pore Challenge

296

Author's personal copy Dendrochronology of two butternut (Juglans cinerea) populations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

since the last ice-age, but an exotic fungal pathogen (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) has been nuts, and as a mast source for wildlife (Clark, 1958; Rink, 1990; Ostry and Pijut, 2000). In the southern part of its range, butternut has comprised 1­3% of arboreal pollen since the last ice

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

297

Bridging mycorrhizal genomics, metagenomics and forest ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meetings Bridging mycorrhizal genomics, metagenomics and forest ecology 6th New Phytologist of easily cultured saprotrophic fungi (among the first three published genomes were the models Saccharomyces or biotechnological interest, genomics is now poised to rapidly permeate the fields of fungal ecology and evolution

Pringle, Anne

298

Comparative Transcriptomics of the Saprobic and Parasitic Growth Phases in Coccidioides pp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phase in the environment and as spherules in the parasitic phase in the mammalian host. In this study unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source in many fungal pathogens to identify genes critical to growth in a host environment [1

299

Pcp1p, an Spc110p-related Calmodulin Target at the Centrosome of the Fission Yeast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pcp1p, an Spc110p-related Calmodulin Target at the Centrosome of the Fission Yeast.] Abstract In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the calmodulin-binding protein Spc110p/Nuf1p facilitates mitotic spindle formation from the fungal centrosome or spindle pole body (SPB). The human Spc110p

Davis, Trisha N.

300

Ann. For. Sci. 67 (2010) 802 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010 www.afs-journal.org  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, threatened by several factors, including fungal pathogens that reduce timber quality and cause tree mortality, commercial companies and research and educational organiza- tions in the country. 1. INTRODUCTION Increasing, wealth creation, the production of export capital as well as fuel and construction timber

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

302

1276 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 10 A Detached Cucumber Fruit Method to Screen for Resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1276 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 10 A Detached Cucumber Fruit Method to Screen for Resistance to Phytophthora capsici and Effect of Fruit Age on Susceptibility to Infection A. J. Gevens, Department of Plant, East Lansing 48824 Fruit rot caused by the fungal-like oo- mycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici

Lamour, Kurt

303

Volume 102, pp. 209220 OctoberDecember 2007 Observations in Pluteus section Pluteus in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Spain: two new records for Europe A. Justo & M.L. Castro fjusto@uvigo.es or alfredo de Vigo E-36310 Vigo Spain Abstract -- Pluteus atropungens and Pluteus brunneidiscus are recorded in studies of fungal biodiversity in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal) and Balearic Islands (Spain

Hibbett, David S.

304

Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Cellulases in the Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Ethanol Christine Kelly, Oregon State to ethanol. The team will examine fungal heme peroxidases to discover new "accessory" enzymes that function of conversion of softwoods to ethanol. Progress to Date · Bioreactor runs and analyses: Dr. Kelly and her

Tullos, Desiree

305

3.1.1.2 Feed Processing and Handling DL2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This milestone report is the deliverable for our Feed Processing and Handling project. It includes results of wet biomass feedstock analysis, slurry pumping information, fungal processing to produce a lignin-rich biorefinery residue and two subcontracted efforts to quantify the amount of wet biomass feedstocks currently available within the corn processing and paper processing industries.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Wend, Christopher F.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.bioone.org) is a nonprofit, online aggregation of core research in the biological, ecological, and environmental sciences% with its host fungus, Rhizopogon salebrosus A.H. Sm. (Basidiomycota). Even short GA exposure (one or three with its fungal symbiont. Application of GA to induce monotrope germination may be used to examine

California at Berkeley, University of

307

REGULAR ARTICLE Soil nitrogen cycling rates in low arctic shrub tundra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the soil microbial community in both ecosystems indicat- ed similar fungal dominance (epifluorescence landscape. Keywords 15 Nitrogen . Gross N mineralization . Arctic tundra . Litter. Soil microbial community). For example, remote sensing studies have characterized an increase in peak-season biomass across the Arctic

Grogan, Paul

308

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Breeding for Resistance in Norway Spruce to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 162 Breeding for Resistance in Norway Spruce to the Root Results from previous studies of resistance in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to the pathogens Heterobasidion spp. show significant genotypic variation in fungal growth and spore susceptibility among Norway

Standiford, Richard B.

309

Effects of supplementary feed enzymes on the laying performance and fecal moisture of a commercial incrossbred egg stock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

offeots of eater treatment of barley and fungal snmpne suyylsmsntation on Che metabolisahle . nf- %he raMonx-' ai-ref&i+ted bf Cha-:perfc~- of -gi ouing- ohkobd:: ?. The authors reported inoreassi-in the msCaboliga&e energy-as a rema& of the addition...

Ibarbia, Ramon Amador

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report of Metabolites of an Endolichenic Fungus1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report fungal strain, Corynespora sp. BA-10763, occurring in the cavern beard lichen Usnea ca the lichen Usnea caVernosa (cavern beard lichen; Parmeliaceae; Lecanorales), collected in early 2005 from

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

311

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 26812690, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/2681/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel 2Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University. Burshtein1, J. Peccia2, O. Yarden3, and Y. Rudich1 1Department of Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores re- quires detailed

Meskhidze, Nicholas

312

The 9th International Mycological Congress (IMC 9) 1-6 August, Edinburgh, Scotland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years tree pathologists, crop scientists, geneticists, medical mycologists, mushroom growers talks and more than 1500 posters. Among these were 11 Fabians and several ex-Fabians (Ph.D. students themed symposia. FABI contributions were in the fields of tree pathogens, endophytes, fungal taxonomy

313

Published Ahead of Print 6 September 2013. 10.1128/AEM.01702-13.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sites where the effect of climate warming is under investigation. A total of 226,695 reads were at the genus level were subjected to BLAST analysis against the ARB-SILVA database, where 50% most closely effect after 1 year of warming on the fungal community struc- ture at both sites, except perhaps

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

314

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is ubiquitous and commonly found on decaying plant material. A. niger has a saprophytic lifestyle and plays an important role in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is therefore of great importance for future optimisation of heterologous protein production in the fungus into smaller molecules that can be taken up and serve as energy and nutrient sources, the fungus successfully exploited for the production of homologous and other fungal enzymes, the expression

Hille, Sander

315

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic variation of natural durability traits in Eucalyptus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-treated wood in some of the world's main wine-producing countries. · Methods Stem diameter at breast height over- and under- bark, heartwood proportion, wood density, methanol extrac- tives and fungal decay were. · Discussion NIR was an effective predictor of methanol extractives, moderately effective for basic density

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

RESEARCH ARTICLES DothideomycetePlant Interactions Illuminated by Genome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to foliar pathogens in Western Australia and north central and northeastern North America (Solomon et al a Australian Centre for Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens, Murdoch University, WA 6150, Australia b Department the carbon skeletons and energy for the synthesis of proteins and other components destined

McDonald, Bruce

317

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia ShuaiFei Chen cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously

318

ABSTRACT: The effect of the cotton storage trisaccharide raf-finose and cottonseed storage protein (CSP) in combination on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: The effect of the cotton storage trisaccharide raf- finose and cottonseed storage protein of ground whole cottonseed and water-extracted cotton- seed meal to support fungal biosynthesis of aflatoxin in raffinose refer- ence media. Results with ground whole cottonseed as a sole carbon/nitrogen source

Cotty, Peter J.

319

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effectiveness of Infection Control Barriers for Construction in Healthcare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Aspergillus spore (after David Gregory and Debbie Marshall, 2012) ............... 7 Figure 2. Diagram of the ventilation system ................................................................. 17 Figure 3. Fungal growth... half of these occurred with construction activities around the hospital. Figure 1 shows the picture of the Aspergillus spores from Franzblau (2012). Figure 1. Aspergillus spore (after David Gregory and Debbie Marshall, 2012) 8 Gregory...

Huo, Jinyun

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

No claim to original US government works New Phytologist (2009) 182: 483494 483 Journal compilation New Phytologist (2009) www.newphytologist.org 483  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to volume ratios affected water-loss rates. · We used oxygen stable isotope analysis of water combined can affect water-loss rates and hence influences fungal ability to fruit during summer drought. Author : volume ratio, water loss, water sources. Introduction Summer drought in forested ecosystems presents

Silver, Whendee

322

Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ? Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ? Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ? Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ? Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Trees (2007) 21:239247 DOI 10.1007/s00468-006-0116-9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or excess of irradiance, and nutrient un- balance, and soil communities are in initial stages of de to drive sufficient C gain to provide energy for themselves and fungal symbionts. Keywords Betula pendula- tal flora of a city. For example, 162 plant species or nearly one-sixth of the total flora

Minnesota, University of

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

This article is from the October 2007 issue of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

where parameter values for wind and gravitation lead to expo- nentially or polynomially decreasing explicitly in terms of parameters for diffusion, wind, gravitation, and spore release height. Additional keywords: dispersal gradient, power law. The dispersal of airborne fungal spores within a field has been

325

a Miscellaneous Paper A-96-1 US Army Corps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Netherland, Judy F. Shearer =.=- -===- Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited Prepared for Control of Hydrilla by Michael D. Netherland, Judy F. Shearer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Netherland, Michael D. Integrated use of fluridone and a fungal pathogen for control of hydrilla / by Michael

US Army Corps of Engineers

326

Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80 lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002

327

PUBLICATION 600-080 Fish Health and Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PUBLICATION 600-080 Fish Health and Disease Striped bass (Morone saxitilis) and hybrid striped bass these fish are commonly raised in high densities under intensive aquaculture situations (e.g., cages, ponds of the viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens, but the fish become increasingly susceptible

Liskiewicz, Maciej

328

Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Inhibits Adhesion of Candida albicans by Interacting with Yeast Cell-Wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University (Taiwan). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision by LL-37 provides a new strategy to prevent C. albicans infection, and LL-37 is a useful, new tool of patients receiving antibiotic and immunosuppressive therapies, there is an increased risk of fungal

329

The use of cotton blue stain to improve the efficiency of picking and identifying chironomid head capsules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOTE The use of cotton blue stain to improve the efficiency of picking and identifying chironomid Cotton blue was added to sediment sam- ples at least 2 h before chironomid head capsules were picked during the picking process. Cotton blue has been used previously to stain chitin in fungal cell walls

Bern, Universität

330

INTRODUCTORY MYCOLOGY: BIOM 423 Fall 2010, 3 cr. LEC 2 LAB 1, PGC, Rm 214, M W 1:00-4:00 (1 hr lecture and 2 hr lab), field trips.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

20* White-spored Mushrooms Mushroom ID D2L, Web W Sept 22 Dark-spored Mushrooms Mushroom ID D2L, Web mycology. Lecture Lab Reading M Aug 30 Introduction: the Fungal Lifestyle Movie, or movie clips D2L, Web W Sept 1 Phylogeny of Fungi Microscopic technique D2L, Web W Sept 8 BASIDIOMYCOTA introduction tissue

Cripps, Cathy

331

DOI: 10.1126/science.1197754 , 1100 (2011);332Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-syp) bio- synthetic pathway in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (9). NRPS-mutant O33 colonized culture-independent and culture- dependent analyses, shows that plants, like mam- mals and insects (10 plants from fungal infection through the production of a putative chlorinated lipopeptide encoded by NRPS

Li, Teng

332

1 JUNE 2006 Bact to basics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the bug another talent. The fungal enzymes now used to degrade cellulose for ethanol are expensive, she into ethanol? "We think we can produce a cellulase enzyme that can break down cellulose into glucose, and obtain a microorganism that will be able to degrade cellulose, and transform it into ethanol." That

Lovley, Derek

333

Southwest MN IPM STUFF All the pestilence that's fit to print  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-spotted spider mite problems or 2012 collapsed from fungal disease during a drought. Cool mornings with lingering developing period and sensitivity to stress Stress likely to cause pod abortion and reduces pod number The R4 senescence begins Pod abortion is now less likely. Stress reduces seed size The R6 stage averages 18 days (9

Amin, S. Massoud

334

Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids that circumvent fungal drug- resistance mechanisms. In this work we used soft X-ray tomogra- phy to image of an entire, fully functional biological system, i.e., in the milieu of a cell (8, 10). Recently, soft X-ray

Barron, Annelise E.

335

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2011, p. 54905504 Vol. 77, No. 15 0099-2240/11/$12.00 doi:10.1128/AEM.02996-10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels are C4 energy crops, e.g., Miscanthus and Saccharum (52). However, most research on fungal decon in the Field Prachand Shrestha,1 Timothy M. Szaro,2 Thomas D. Bruns,2 and John W. Taylor2 * Energy Biosciences June 2011 The goals of our project were to document the diversity and distributions of cultivable fungi

Silver, Whendee

336

The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen (NIH); (Kentucky)

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

Merino, Sandra

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

Merino, Sandra

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

339

Modeling the effects of cymene on the distribution of germination and growth of Beauveria bassiana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Essential oils have antifungal and antipathogenic effects and therefore are targets in plant pathology research for their potential uses as natural substitutes for inorganic plant pesticides. Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, can endophytically colonize a vast number of plant species and trigger induced systemic resistance against plant pathogens. Spore germination is the most vulnerable in the fungal life cycle and is therefore a good candidate for monitoring the effect of essential oils on the growth of B. bassiana. Percentage germination of fungal spores and length of germination tubes were recorded from experiments. A mathematical model that was able to capture the effects of cymene, an essential oil produced by Monarda, on the germination and growth was developed. This is the first report of a model for the impact of essential oils on B. bassiana spore germination.

Luong Nguyen; Dubravka Bodiroga; Reka Kelemen; Jaewook Joo; Kimberly D. Gwinn

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

Merino, Sandra

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the authors plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitates depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the products of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. Results are presented for the cloning of genes for Neurospora CSA-protein.

Mishra, N.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens. [Treatment of sewage sludge for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges.

Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Sorghum Ergot - Field Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a dirty- white, brittle crust on the panicle and leaf surfaces. Prepared by: Joseph Krausz, Thomas Isakeit, and Harold Kaufman, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiol- ogy, The Texas A&M University System. Photos by T. Isakeit. In moist..._lower may be replaced by a hard, dense fungal mass (sclerotium) which may be capable of overwintering (Photo not available). E-463 Texas AgriLife Extension Service ? Zerle L. Carpenter, Director ? The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas...

Krausz, Joseph P.

1997-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

345

The action of Trichoderma viride cellulase on purified and partially purified cellulosic substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of practical importance are usually fungal in origin, and each particular one is really a complex of enzymes whose overall action is the degradation of cellulose to glucose. The past work has been limited somewhat in that although many fungi produce... digestion some workers have used the culture filtrate with no special treatments other than filtration through glass wool and pH adjustment (24). In the past, attempts have been made to convert wood to an energy source for ruminant animal nutrition...

Villarreal, Anita

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Effects of soil solarization on yields of celery, pepper, onion, control of soil-borne pathogens, and chemical changes in the soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sublethal temperatures or a combination of thermal and biological control (36). In some of the same experiments, Fusarium spp. were also controlled by solarization (36, 67). Katan et al. (36) found that preheating the soil 45 to 50'C, allowing it to cool... (16) . Effective disease control is correlated with a corresponding reduction in inoculum density of pathogenic fungal propagules in solari zed soil (27, 32, 36, 71, 49, 3, 67, 22 ) . The reduction in inoculum density in solarized soil by thermal...

Avila, Francisco Antonio

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Rice Diseases Atlas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of environmental conditions, race of the fungus and susceptibility of varieties being grown. Blast may be found on rice in the seedling stage, or it may be found attacking the nodes, sheath, leaves and panicle. Normally the fungal, organism..., completely replaces the endosperm with black smut spores. Other fungi may enter the flower during flowering and kill the developing endosperm. The blast fungus attacks the panicle cutting off some or all of the food supplied to developing grain, thus...

Walla, Walter

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Exploring Hormone Crosstalk in Fusarium verticillioidies Infection of Maize  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of IAA had an effect on F. verticillioides (fig. 2). Sporulation of the fungus was relatively unaffected by the addition of IAA (a). However, application of exogenous IAA did cause enhanced fungal colonization (b). At day 1 and 2 post inoculation... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by: Research Advisor: Dr. Michael Kolomiets April 2013 Major: Bio-Environmental Science 1 TABLE...

Drab, Dillon

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

349

Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

350

THE ROLE FUNGI AND YEAST IN MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fungi and yeast have been characterized as important components in the bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil and water including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, research into their ability to metabolize these compounds in extreme environments has been limited. In this work forty-three fungi and yeasts were isolated from a PAH-contaminated sludge waste lagoon in Poland. The lagoon was part of a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study where natural reduction of PAHs and associated toxicity over time in non-disturbed areas of the sludge lagoon indicated MNA activity. The microorganisms were initially isolated on minimal medium containing naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. Fungal isolates were then maintained on MEA and identified based on microscopic examination and BIOLOG{reg_sign}. The analysis identified several of the fungal isolates as belonging to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Aspergillus, and Eupenicillium. Yeasts included Candida parapsilosis and C. fluvialitis. Further microbial characterization revealed that several isolates were capable of rowing on acidified media of pH 4, 3, and 2.5. Over twenty percent of the fungi demonstrated growth as low as pH 2.5. Of the 43 isolates examined, 24 isolates exhibited growth at 5 C. Nine of the fungal isolates exhibiting growth at 5 C were then examined for metabolic activity using a respirometer testing metabolic activity at pH 3. Microcosm studies confirmed the growth of the fungi on PAH contaminated sediment as the sole carbon and energy source with elevated metabolic rates indicating evidence of MNA. Our findings suggest that many of the Poland fungal isolates may be of value in the bioremediation processes in acidic waste sites in northern climates typical of Northern Europe.

Brigmon, R.; Abe, M.; Johnson, B.; Simpson, W.; Mckinsey, P.

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

Thermal degradation of cellulose in alkali  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass in an alkaline aqueous slurry can be liquefied by heat and pressure. Understanding the mechanisms of biomass liquefaction to improve the efficiency of converting biomass to useful products, particularly chemicals and synthetic fuels is discussed. To study the chemical mechanisms of this process, pure cellulose, the main component of biomass, was liquefied. The 78 cellulose liquefaction products that were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry include polyols, furans, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds. Polyols may be formed by hydrogenolytic cleavage. Furans an cyclic ketones may be cyclization products of dicarbonyl intermediates formed by aldol condensation of small initial degradation products such as acetone and acrolein. Several of these small carbonyl compounds were used as model compounds to test proposed mechanisms for furans and cyclic ketones and obtained products supporting five of the mechanisms. For the best case of 26 cellulose liquefaction experiments, 34% of the initial mass of the cellulose was converted to acetone-soluble oil with a heat of combustion of 14,000 Btu/lb.

Miller, R.K.; Molton, P.M.; Russell, J.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Self-avoiding worm-like chain model for dsDNA loop formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute for the first time the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte-Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self- avoiding worm-like chains, which are used to compute the J-factor for varying lengthscales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92, which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power-law predicted by the non-self-avoiding worm-like chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, lead to an increase in the J-factor of the self-avoiding worm-like chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

Yaroslav Pollak; Sarah Goldberg; Roee Amit

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. We are studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: Impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. A complicating feature in the interpretive extrapolation of model compound behavior to coal is the possible modifications in free-radical reactivity patterns resulting from restricted translational mobility in the coal where breaking one bond in the macromolecular structure will result in radical centers that are still attached to the residual framework. We are modeling this phenomenon by studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Catalytic cracking of a Gippsland reduced crude on zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking reactions of a Gippsland reduced crude have been investigated at 520[degrees]C over HY and HZSM-5. Gasolines with similar characteristics can be obtained on both zeolites, although the mechanistic routes to these products are quite distinct. Changes in aromatic product selectivities are consistent with the zeolite pore geometries. Minor quantities of aromatics are formed via hydrogen transfer processes involving product olefins and naphthenes over the faujasite and the cyclization (and to a lesser extent oligomerization) of olefinic species on the pentasil. Dehydrogenation of naphthenic species in the feedstock is also important for aromatic formation. While paraffins are formed via hydrogen transfer processes together with cracking and isomerization of feed paraffins on HY, only the latter route can explain formation of saturated species on HZSM-5. The removal of linear paraffins from the GRC was traced as a function of conversion on HY. It was found that the relative reactivity of the linear paraffins increased monotonically with paraffin chain length. 43 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Guerzoni, F.N.; Abbot, J. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere - VIII - NMR and Py-GC-MS characterization of soluble labdanoid polymers isolated from holocene class I resins.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soluble polylabdanoids isolated by sequential solvent extraction have been characterized by liquid-state {sup 13}C- and {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H HMQC (heteronuclear correlation) NMR spectroscopy in addition to solid-state NMR and Py-GC-MS techniques. Two Holocene resins originating from Santander, Colombia and Mombasa, Kenya were analyzed. Soluble polymers were isolated by extraction with a 1:1 (v/v) methylene chloride-methanol mixture following sequential extractions with methylene chloride and methanol. The molecular weight of polymer extracts was shown by GPC analyses to exceed that of non-polymeric occluded terpenoids. Py-GC-MS, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS and {sup 13}C cross-polarization/depolarization NMR spectroscopy results indicated that chemical compositions of soluble polymers isolated from immature resins are highly representative of the structure of corresponding insoluble polymers, i.e. polylabdatrienes. These data provide evidence for cross-linking or cyclization of side-chain olefinic carbons during or shortly after polymerization. Generally, the characterization of soluble resin polymers by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy has proven to be an excellent means for investigating the maturation mechanism of polylabdanoid resinites, and has potential for furthering the application of Class I resinites as geothermal indicators.

Clifford, D. J.; Hatcher, P. G.; Botto, R. E.; Muntean, J. V.; Michaels, B.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Amoco Oil Co.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Directed metalation of N,N-diethylbenzamides. Silylated benzamides for the synthesis of naturally occurring peri-methylanthraquinones and peri-methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient methodologies based on directed ortho metalation, fluoride-induced carbodesilylation, and metal-halogen exchange processes (Scheme I) are reported for the synthesis of peri-methyl-substituted anthraquinone natural products 5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6, 7. Benzamide 8 (Scheme II) is converted in a one-pot sequence into the disilylated derivative 10, which upon metalation, condensation with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, CsF desilylation, and TsOH cyclization leads to the key phthalide 11. Compound 11 is transformed into deoxyerythrolaccin tris(methyl ether) 5c, which has been previously converted into the natural product 5a. For the synthesis of erythrolaccin tetrakis(methyl ether) 5d, the silyl and bromo benzamides 14 and 15 (Scheme III) are condensed with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by CsF-induced carbodesilylation and metal-halogen exchange expedients, respectively, to give the phthalide 16, which is transformed into the target anthraquinone 55d by methods identical with those used in 5c. Along similar lines, the synthesis of 11-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6a, Scheme IV), 8-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6b), and 10-methyl-9,14-dibenz(a,c)anthraquinone (7) is described.

Mills, R.J.; Snieckus, V. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effects of grain deterioration on sorghum food quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Bechtel 1978). Storage fungi common on grains grow most rapidly at about 30-32 C, and their growth rate decreases as temperature decreases. Qasem and Christensen (1960), working with samples of maize stored in the laboratory at moisture contents of 16... deteriorated grain was set at about 18%, which allowed fungal growth but not sprouting. Under field conditions, the moisture content is much higher, after a rain or dew, for example. TADI 1. 2 Effeii of Cruin Deterroraciun on tlir I'hysicai amd Chemical...

Domanski, Cristian Estanislao

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

except for GB1-RIP2– CARD which used 4 h at 37 #4;C. Cultures were pelleted, frozen over- night and resuspended in standard lysis buffer (100 mM NaCl, 25 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM imidazole, 5 mM b-mercap- toethanol, 0.1 % Triton-X100). Appropriate... -I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production. Nat. Immunol. 11, 63–69. [15] Glocker, E.-O. et al. (2009) A homozygous CARD9 mutation in a family with susceptibility to fungal infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 361...

Parkhouse, Rhiannon; Boyle, Joseph P.; Mayle, Sophie; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Rittinger, Katrin; Monie, Tom P.

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

2012 U.S. Department of Energy: Joint Genome Institute: Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) is to serve the diverse scientific community as a user facility, enabling the application of large-scale genomics and analysis of plants, microbes, and communities of microbes to address the DOE mission goals in bioenergy and the environment. The DOE JGI's sequencing efforts fall under the Eukaryote Super Program, which includes the Plant and Fungal Genomics Programs; and the Prokaryote Super Program, which includes the Microbial Genomics and Metagenomics Programs. In 2012, several projects made news for their contributions to energy and environment research.

Gilbert, David [DOE JGI Public Affairs Manager] [DOE JGI Public Affairs Manager

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

Tolmachev, Aleksey V. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

364

Characterizing the regulatory mechanisms in fusarium verticillioides secondary metabolism using functional genomics approaches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and manipulation. Bacterial plasmid DNA and fungal genomic DNA were extracted with Wizard miniprep DNA purification system (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and OmniPrep Genomic DNA Extraction kit (G Biosciences, St. Louis, MO, USA), respectively. Total RNA for QRT... protoplasts were generated using the protocol described by Shim & Woloshuk (2001), except that Mureinase (2 mg per ml) was replaced with Drieselase (5 mg mL -1 ) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). The CPP1 gene disruption vector, YEC2, was created by inserting...

Choi, Yoon E

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Comparison of Tamspan 90 peanut component lines for aflatoxin production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid, 73 ml ha ') were applied ppi, and Fusilade (fluazifop-butyl, 1. 75 I ha '), Cobra (lactefin, 17 g ha'), and Basagran (bentozan, 2. 3 I ha ') were applied post-emergence (July 8 and 9, and August 12, respectively) for control of speciTic weed... and absence of visible Aspergillus mycelia, random pod samples were taken from 60 random plots for determination of extent of fungal infection. At the conclusion of eight days at 28. 5 C and 95% relative humidity, only 3% of the samples were found...

Lopez, Yolanda

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #6 (Fact Sheet).  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUSTPart 3 of3.2.103 Fungal6 *

367

Furnace Standard Analysis Discussion Document  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUSTPart 3 of3.2.103 Fungal6

368

Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUSTPart 3 of3.2.103 Fungal6Further

369

Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Network Automata: Coupling structure and function in real-world networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce Network Automata, a framework which couples the topological evolution of a network to its structure. It is useful for dealing with networks in which the topology evolves according to some specified microscopic rules and, simultaneously, there is a dynamic process taking place on the network that both depends on its structure but is also capable of modifying it. It is a generic framework for modeling systems in which network structure, dynamics, and function are interrelated. At the practical level, this framework allows for easy implementation of the microscopic rules involved in such systems. To demonstrate the approach, we develop a class of simple biologically inspired models of fungal growth.

David M. D. Smith; Jukka-Pekka Onnela; Chiu Fan Lee; Mark Fricker; Neil F. Johnson

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

371

An Exocyclic Methylene Group Acts As a Bioisostere of the 2?-Oxygen Atom in LNA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show for the first time that it is possible to obtain LNA-like (Locked Nucleic Acid 1) binding affinity and biological activity with carbocyclic LNA (cLNA) analogs by replacing the 2{prime}-oxygen atom in LNA with an exocyclic methylene group. Synthesis of the methylene-cLNA nucleoside was accomplished by an intramolecular cyclization reaction between a radical at the 2{prime}-position and a propynyl group at the C-4{prime} position. Only methylene-cLNA modified oligonucleotides showed similar thermal stability and mismatch discrimination properties for complementary nucleic acids as LNA. In contrast, the close structurally related methyl-cLNA analogs showed diminished hybridization properties. Analysis of crystal structures of cLNA modified self-complementary DNA decamer duplexes revealed that the methylene group participates in a tight interaction with a 2{prime}-deoxyribose residue of the 5{prime}-terminal G of a neighboring duplex, resulting in the formation of a CH...O type hydrogen bond. This indicates that the methylene group retains a negative polarization at the edge of the minor groove in the absence of a hydrophilic 2{prime}-substituent and provides a rationale for the superior thermal stability of this modification. In animal experiments, methylene-cLNA antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) showed similar in vivo activity but reduced toxicity as compared to LNA ASOs. Our work highlights the interchangeable role of oxygen and unsaturated moieties in nucleic acid structure and emphasizes greater use of this bioisostere to improve the properties of nucleic acids for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

Seth, Punit P.; Allerson, Charles R.; Berdeja, Andres; Siwkowski, Andrew; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Gaus, Hans; Prakash, Thazha P.; Watt, Andrew T.; Egli, Martin; Swayze, Eric E. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

HARNESSING THE CHEMISTRY OF CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research program is broadly focused on activating CO{sub 2} through the use of organic and organometallic based catalysts. Some of our methods have centered on annulation reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons (and carbonyl substrates) to provide a diverse array of carbocycles and heterocycles. We use a combination of catalyst discovery and optimization in conjunction with classical physical organic chemistry to elucidate the key mechanistic features of the cycloaddition reactions such that the next big advances in catalyst development can be made. Key to all of our cycloaddition reactions is the use of a sterically hindered, electron donating N heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, namely IPr (or SIPr), in conjunction with a low valent nickel pre-catalyst. The efficacy of this ligand is two-fold: (1) the high {delta}-donating ability of the NHC increases the nucleophilicity of the metal center which thereby facilitates interaction with the electrophilic carbonyl and (2) the steric hindrance prevents an otherwise competitive side reaction involving only the alkyne substrate. Such a system has allowed for the facile cycloaddition to prepare highly functionalized pyrones, pyridones, pyrans, as well as novel carbocycles. Importantly, all reactions proceed under extremely mild conditions (room temperature, atmospheric pressures, and short reaction times), require only catalytic amounts of Ni/NHC and readily available starting materials, and afford annulated products in excellent yields. Our current focus revolves around understanding the fundamental processes that govern these cycloadditions such that the next big advance in the cyclization chemistry of CO{sub 2} can be made. Concurrent to our annulation chemistry is our investigation of the potential for imidazolylidenes to function as thermally-actuated CO{sub 2} sequestering and delivery agents.

Louie, Janis

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

373

Analytical Methodologies for Detection of Gamma-Valerolactone, Delta-Valerolactone, Acephate and Azinphos Methyl and Their Associated Metabolites in Complex Biological Matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-invasive biomonitoring for chemicals of interest in law enforcement and similar monitoring of pesticides, together with their metabolites, can not only save money but can lead to faster medical attention for individuals exposed to these chemicals. This study describes methods developed for the analysis of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), delta-valerolactone (DVL), acephate, and azinphos methyl in saliva and serum. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operated in the negative and positive ion mode and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to analyze GVL and DVL. Although both analytical techniques worked well, lower detection limits were obtained with GC/MS. The lactones and their corresponding sodium salts were spiked into both saliva and serum. The lactones were isolated from saliva or serum using newly developed extraction techniques and then subsequently analyzed using GC/MS. The sodium salts of the lactones are nonvolatile and require derivatization prior to analysis by this method. N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was ultimately selected as the reagent for derivatization because the acidic conditions required for reactions with diazomethane caused the salts to undergo intramolecular cyclization to the corresponding lactones. In vitro studies were conducted using rat liver microsomes to determine other metabolites associated with these compounds. Azinphos methyl and acephate are classified as organophosphate pesticides, and are known to be cholinesterase inhibitors in humans and insects, causing neurotoxicity. For this reason they have both exposure and environmental impact implications. These compounds were spiked into serum and saliva and prepared for analysis by GC/MS. Continuation of this research would include analysis by GC/MS under positive ion mode to determine the parent ions of the unknown metabolites. Further research is planned through an in vivo analysis of the lactones and pesticides. These methodologies could be extended for further analysis of other similar compounds.

Zink, E.; Clark, R.; Grant, K.; Campbell, J.; Hoppe, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CROWN ETHERS BEARING THE exo-cis-2,3-NORBORNYL GROUP AS POTENTIAL Na+ AND K+ EXTRACTANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of a series of novel dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 and dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ethers that incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety within the macrocycle framework is described. The key starting material for the crown ethers, exo-cis-2,3-norbornanediol, was successfully prepared on a large (>30g) scale in 88% yield from norbornylene by osmium tetroxide-catalyzed hydroxylation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 ether family were prepared using diethylene glycol with ring closure achieved using a methallyl linkage. The isomers cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-15-methyleno-16-crown-5 (6A and 6B) could be separated using column chromatography, and a single crystal of the syn isomer 6A suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis was obtained, thereby confi rming the syn orientation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ether family were successfully prepared employing a different synthetic strategy, involving the potassium–templated cyclization of two bis-hydroxyethoxy-substituted exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl groups under high dilution conditions. Attempts to fully separate cis-syn-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10A) and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10B) from one another using column chromatography were unsuccessful. All intermediates and products were checked for purity using either thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, and characterized by proton and carbon NMR. Crown ethers 6AB and 10AB are to our knowledge the fi rst crown ethers to incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety into the crown ring to be successfully synthesized and characterized.

Robeson, R.M.; Bonnesen, P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

An electrocyclic strategy to poly(triarylmethyl radical) polymers: Potential organic ferromagnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent interest in organic ferromagnetism has been stimulated by the idea that large poly(triarylmethyl radical) polymers in which the radical centers are connected by [open quotes]meta[close quotes]-aryl groups may possess ferromagnetic properties. However, synthesis of these polyradicals has been limited by stepwise methods that are unsuitable for the preparation of large polymers. This limitation represents a primary challenge confronting the field. The authors have developed the first polymeric strategy to poly (m-triarylmethyl radical) precursors that involves an electrocyclic formation of the [open quotes]meta[close quotes]-substituted triarylmethyl chloride repeating unit from a polypropynol precursor. Poly[(E)-6-[beta]-chloroethenyl-1,3-phenylene-1-phenylpropynol-1,3-ylene] was prepared by palladium-catalyzed coupling of a bifunctional acetylene-aryl iodide monomer. The stable polymer reacted with thionyl chloride to form an unstable polychloroallene intermediate that underwent an electrocyclic conversion to the polyradical precursor, poly(1-chloro-2,7-naphthalenechlorobenzylidene). The reduced polyradicals exhibited properties of radical-radical coupling, and preparation of a second generation polymer that would overcome this problem has been initiated. The polymeric strategy was based on model studies that showed that (E)-3-(2-[beta]-chloroethenylphenyl)-1,1-diphenylpropynol, when converted to the corresponding chloroallene with thionyl chloride, underwent an electrocyclic conversion to [beta]-(1-chlornaphthyl)diphenylmethyl chloride. The strategy expanded upon the use of triarylpropynes as precursors to triarylmethyl chlorides, and extension of both approaches to higher analogs was demonstrated with dimeric systems. The electrocyclic processes were found to occur only for the trans-vinyl chlorides; the cis-isomers were found to undergo an alternative concerted cyclization to benzofluorene products.

Morelli, J.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Part I. Halichondrin B: Studies on the total synthesis. Part II. Levuglandins: Generation from PGH sub 2 and binding with proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Halichondrins are a new family of extremely bioactive marine natural products present in minute quantities in a sponge, Halichondria Okadai Kadota. Halichondrin B is the most biologically active member of this family and shows remarkably effective in vivo antitumor activity. A practical synthesis would allow clinical testing of this rare molecule. The C6-C12 fragment corresponds to a heptulose which might cyclize to the required polyheterocycle in analogy with the presumed biosynthesis of halichondrin B. The key heptulose intermediate was prepared from D-ribose. A novel mixed ethyl dimethoxybenzyl acetal of formylmethylenetriphenylphosphorane stereoselectively gave a cis alkene upon reaction with the aldehyde obtained from oxidation of methyl isopropylidene D-riboside. Osmium tetraoxide-catalyzed vicinal hydroxylation of the resulting cis alkene, protection of the diol as an acetonide, and hydrolysis of the acetal under neutral conditions using DDQ delivered two diastereomers of the desired aldehyde in excellent yield. Absolute stereochemical characterization of these diastereomers was achieved by correlation with derivatives of D-allose and L-talose. An effective new method was developed for purification of the prostaglandin endoperoxide PGH{sub 2} based on centrifugal partition chromatography and a novel aprotic two phase ternary solvent system. Recent studies showed that solvent-induced decomposition of PGH{sub 2} produces levuglandins, {gamma}-ketoaldehydes with 10,11-seco prostanoic acid (levuglandin E{sub 2} LGE{sub 2}) or 9,10-seco prostanoic acid (levuglandin D{sub 2},LGD{sub 2}) structures. The abundant supply of pure PGH{sub 2} now available and a simple HPLC assay procedure developed for detection of levuglandins allowed a reexamination of the silica gel-catalyzed decomposition of PGH{sub 2}.

Jirousek, M.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Germicidal ultraviolet (UVGI) lamps have a long history of use for inactivating microbial aerosols. Most reports have focused on the control of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), in the occupied spaces of medical facilities. Ventilation duct use of UVGI has been increasing. In-duct applications are generally more concerned with controlling environmental organisms than with controlling infections agents. This document reports the results of a project to investigate the ability of UVGI lamps to inactivate representative environmental microbial aerosols in ventilation ducts. During this research, UVGI lamps were experimentally demonstrated to inactivate bioaerosols composed of vegetative bacteria, bacteria spores, or fungal spores to a reproducible degree under conditions of fixed dose. Vegetative bacteria were most susceptible to UVGI, with bacteria and fungal spores being substantially more resistant. The performance equation commonly cited in the literature for UVGI inactivation was found to generally apply, provided its parameters were known. Revision of final report DOE/OR22674/610-40030-01. Revised table 5 on page 33.

Douglas VanOsdell; Karin Foarde

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes, mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.

Wohlbach, Dana J.; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Trey K.; Potts, Katlyn M.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Sun, Hui; Clum, Alicia; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Zinkel, Robert; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Gasch, Audrey P.

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON MITOCHONDRIA & CHLOROPLASTS, LUCCA, ITALY, JULY 11-16, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2010 GRC on Mitochondria & Chloroplasts will assemble an international group of molecular, structural and cellular biologists, biochemists and geneticists investigating a broad spectrum of fundamental problems related to the biology of these organelles in animal, plant and fungal cells. This field has witnessed an extraordinary expansion in recent years, fueled by the discovery of the role of mitochondria in human disease and ageing, and of the synergy of chloroplasts and mitochondria in energetic output, the identification of novel factors involved in organelle division, movement, signaling and acclimation to changing environmental conditions, and by the powerful tools of organelle proteomics. The 2010 GRC will highlight advances in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of organelle biogenesis including regulation of genome structure, evolution and expression, organellar protein import, assembly and turnover of respiratory and photosynthetic complexes, bidirectional signaling between organelles and nucleus, organelle morphology and dynamics, and the integration of cellular metabolism. We will also explore progress in mechanisms of disease and ageing/ senescence in animals and plants. The organellar field has forged new fronts toward a global and comprehensive understanding of mitochondrial and chloroplast biology at the molecular level. Many of the molecules under study in model organisms are responsible for human diseases, providing significant impetus for a meeting that encourages interactions between mammalian, fungal and plant organellar biologists.

Alice Barkan

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

2012 MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE & GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JULY 29 - AUGUST 3, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will assemble an international group of scientists investigating fundamental properties of these organelles, and their integration into broader physiological processes. The conference will emphasize the many commonalities between mitochondria and chloroplasts: their evolution from bacterial endosymbionts, their genomes and gene expression systems, their energy transducing membranes whose proteins derive from both nuclear and organellar genes, the challenge of maintaining organelle integrity in the presence of the reactive oxygen species that are generated during energy transduction, their incorporation into organismal signaling pathways, and more. The conference will bring together investigators working in animal, plant, fungal and protozoan systems who specialize in cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, proteomics, genomics, and structural biology. As such, this conference will provide a unique forum that engenders cross-disciplinary discussions concerning the biogenesis, dynamics, and regulation of these key cellular structures. By fostering interactions among mammalian, fungal and plant organellar biologists, this conference also provides a conduit for the transmission of mechanistic insights obtained in model organisms to applications in medicine and agriculture. The 2012 conference will highlight areas that are moving rapidly and emerging themes. These include new insights into the ultrastructure and organization of the energy transducing membranes, the coupling of organellar gene expression with the assembly of photosynthetic and respiratory complexes, the regulatory networks that couple organelle biogenesis with developmental and physiological signals, the signaling events through which organellar physiology influences nuclear gene expression, and the roles of organelles in disease and development.

Barkan, Alice

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

382

Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the investigators plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. Main objectives are: (1) cloning of Neurospora gene for coal depolymerization protein controlling solubilization in different host cells, utilizing Neurospora plasmid and other vector(s); (2) (a) development of a large scale electrophoretic separation of coal drived products obtained after microbial solubilization; (b) identification of the coal derived products obtained after biosolubilization by Neurospora cultures or obtained after Neurospora enzyme catalyzed reaction in in vitro by the wildtype and mutant enzymes; (3) bioconversion of coal drived products into utilizable fuel; and (4) characterization of Neurospora wildtype and mutant CSA protein(s) involved in solubilization of coal in order to assess the nature of the mechanism of solubilization and the role of Neurospora proteins in this process.

Mishra, N.C.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC -> AQ -> phthalate + CO2 and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Gai, W.Z.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryote  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC {yields} AQ {yields} phthalate + CO{sub 2} and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Wen Zhi Gai (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in good yields via the intermolecular C-N {sigma}-bond addition of amides and S-N {sigma}-bond addition of sulfinamides to arynes under mild reaction conditions. The indazole moiety is a frequently found subunit in drug substances with important biological activities. Indazole analogues have been readily synthesized under mild reaction conditions by the [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-silylaryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF. Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons have been synthesized in high yields by two different processes involving the Pd-catalyzed annulation of arynes. Both processes appear to involve the catalytic, stepwise coupling of two very reactive substrates, an aryne and an organopalladium species, to generate excellent yields of cross-coupled products.

Zhijian Liu

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

387

Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

Manoj Kumar

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

388

Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

A dicer-like protein is essential for normal sexual development and meiotic silencing in the filamnentous fungus neurospora crassa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manipulations. TABLE 2 ? Fungal strains used in this study Name a Genotype b Origin DLNCR63A (Sad-1 RIP , his-3 + ::lpl ?(5192-6046) ::Sad-1 RIP [301-3950]; inl A) (LEE et al. 2003b) DLNCR64A (Sad-1 RIP64 , his-3; inl a) (LEE et al. 2003b) DLNCR65A... (his-3; Sms-3 RIP65 ; inl a) Progeny from RANCR43A?9 x (KYNCT02A + FGSC 4564) DLNCR66A (Sad-1 RIP64 , his-3; inl A) Progeny from DLNCR63A x (KYNCT02A + FGSC 4564) DLNCR69A (Sad-1 RIP64 , his-3 + ::lpl ? (5192-6046) ::Asm-1 + [9336-3426]; Asm-1...

McLaughlin, Malcolm Thomas

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Enhanced bioremediation process: A case study of effectiveness on PAH contamination in soils at a former wood-treating site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Enhanced Bioremediation Process (EBP) technology is an exsitu biodegradation process that utilizes bacterial and fungal inoculants to effectively oxidize and bioremediate persistent hard to degrade organics in contaminated soils. The EBP fungal inoculants produce highly reactive extracellular peroxidase enzymes that can oxidize and degrade lignin, a complex, natural polymer composed of phenylpropane units that is resistant to decay. The lignin peroxidase enzymes are highly nonspecific because of their ability to oxidize the heterogenic lignin molecule, and are capable of degrading a wide variety of complex organic compounds. Because the chemical sub-structure of lignin (1,2-aryl diethers, alkyl sidechains and connected aryl systems) resembles that of many persistent organic compounds, the EBP inoculants are very effective in biodegrading similar hazardous organic pollutants in contaminated soils. As an inadvertent by-product of these biochemical processes, the EBP organisms reduce the organic constituents to a soluble form. In a soluble form, the indigenous organisms can further degrade the contaminants. The technology is applied in such a manner as to maximize the activity of the indigenous organisms by establishing optimum growth conditions. The efficacy of the EBP technology in degrading persistent environmental pollutants has been documented at both the bench scale and pilot demonstration levels. A recently completed field pilot demonstration was conducted at a creosote contaminated site. The demonstration entailed the treatment of approximately 700 tons of soil contaminated with PAH constituents. Laboratory analyses of pre and post-treated soils indicate that total average PAH concentrations in many samples were reduced by greater than 91 percent over a two month treatment period.

Mills, W.F. [Miltech Environmental, Inc., Tucker, GA (United States); Matens, B.L. [Dames and Moore, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Buchalter, D.S. [EMCON, Norcross, GA (United States); Montgomery, D.N. [Georgia Dept. of Transportation, Forest Park, GA (United States). Office of Materials and Research

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Challenges in Whole-Genome Annotation of Pyrosequenced Eukaryotic Genomes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrosequencing technologies such as 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina vastly lower the cost of nucleotide sequencing compared to the traditional Sanger method, and thus promise to greatly expand the number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. However, the new technologies also bring new challenges such as shorter reads and new kinds and higher rates of sequencing errors, which complicate genome assembly and gene prediction. At JGI we are deploying 454 technology for the sequencing and assembly of ever-larger eukaryotic genomes. Here we describe our first whole-genome annotation of a purely 454-sequenced fungal genome that is larger than a yeast (>30 Mbp). The pezizomycotine (filamentous ascomycote) Aspergillus carbonarius belongs to the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex, members of which are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as agricultural toxigens. Application of a modified version of the standard JGI Annotation Pipeline has so far predicted ~;;10k genes. ~;;12percent of these preliminary annotations suffer a potential frameshift error, which is somewhat higher than the ~;;9percent rate in the Sanger-sequenced and conventionally assembled and annotated genome of fellow Aspergillus section Nigri member A. niger. Also,>90percent of A. niger genes have potential homologs in the A. carbonarius preliminary annotation. Weconclude, and with further annotation and comparative analysis expect to confirm, that 454 sequencing strategies provide a promising substrate for annotation of modestly sized eukaryotic genomes. We will also present results of annotation of a number of other pyrosequenced fungal genomes of bioenergy interest.

Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

393

IDENTIFICATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LIGNASE PROTEINS FROM TERMITES FOR DEPOLYMERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, a large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses included significantly reducing proteases and preventing blackening immune reactions that occur when caterpillars are homogenized. Proteases may degrade enzymes and immune reaction blackening may inactivate enzymes thus compromising the ability of these crude recombinant expressed termite enzyme preparations to release sugars. Commercial preparations of fungal enzymes currently are used to digest wood for ethanol production. We demonstrated in this study that termite enzymes could improve the efficiency of fungal enzyme cocktails. Although the economic feasibility of using caterpillar expressed termite enzymes alone to treat wood was not proven, this work points to the potential to combine C-PERLXpressed insect enzymes with industrial enzyme cocktails to boost their efficiency at treating wood for biofuels.

SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

394

Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D. (eds.); Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the JGI has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

Grimwood, Jane: Schmutz, Jeremy, J.: Myers, Richard, M.

2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

396

Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

399

Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain and a separate simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) of the cellulosic fraction by a genetically modified ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca strain and a fungal enzyme cocktail. In order to reduce unit operations and produce a fermentation beer with higher ethanol concentrations to reduce distillation costs, we have proposed to develop a simultaneous saccharification co-fermentation (SScF) process, where the fermentation of the pentose-containing hydrolysate and cellulosic fraction occurs within the same fermentation vessel. In order to accomplish this goal, improvements in the ethanologens must be made to address a number of issues that arise, including improved hydrolysate tolerance, co-fermentation of the pentose and hexose sugars and increased ethanol tolerance. Using a variety of approaches, including transcriptomics, strain adaptation, metagenomics and directed evolution, this work describes the efforts of a team of scientists from Verenium, University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Genomatica to improve the E. coli and K. oxytoca ethanologens to meet these requirements.

Dr. David Nunn

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fungal polyketide cyclization" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

Aimee Classen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Degradation of 4,4{prime}-Dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-Tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-Hexachlorobiphenyl by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has demonstrated abilities to degrade many xenobiotic chemicals. In this study, the degradation of three model polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (4,4{prime}- dichlorobiphenyl [DCB], 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl) by P. chrysosporium in liquid culture was examined. After 28 days of incubation, {sup 14}C partitioning analysis indicated extensive degradation of DCB, including 11% mineralization. In contrast, there was negligible mineralization of the tetrachloro- or hexachlorobiphenyl and little evidence for any significant metabolism. With all of the model PCBs, a large fraction of the {sup 14}C was determined to be biomass bound. Results from a time course study done with 4,4{prime}-[{sup 14}C]DCB to examine {sup 14}C partitioning dynamics indicated that the biomass-bound {sup 14}C was likely attributable to nonspecific adsorption of the PCBs to the fungal hyphae. In a subsequent isotope trapping experiment, 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol were identified as metabolites produced from 4,4{prime}-[{sup 14}C]DCB. To the best of our knowledge, this the first report describing intermediates formed by P. chrysosporium during PCB degradation. Results from these experiments suggested similarities between P. chrysosporium and bacterial systems in terms of effects of congener chlorination degree and pattern on PCB metabolism and intermediates characteristic of the PCB degradation process. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Dietrich, D.; Lamar, R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Madison, WI (United States); Hickey, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

3-Nitropropionic Acid is a Suicide Inhibitor of MitochondrialRespiration that, Upon Oxidation by Complex II, Forms a Covalent AdductWith a Catalytic Base Arginine in the Active Site of the Enzyme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report three new structures of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II (succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.3.5.1) at up to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, with various inhibitors. The structures define the conformation of the bound inhibitors and suggest the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the dicarboxylate site. In particular they support the role of Arg297 as a general base catalyst accepting a proton in the dehydrogenation of succinate. The dicarboxylate ligand in oxaloacetate-containing crystals appears to be the same as that reported for Shewanella flavocytochrome c treated with fumarate. The plant and fungal toxin 3-nitropropionic acid, an irreversible inactivator of succinate dehydrogenase, forms a covalent adduct with the side chain of Arg297. The modification eliminates a trypsin cleavage site in the flavoprotein, and tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of the new fragment shows the mass of Arg 297 to be increased by 83 Da and to have potential of losing 44 Da, consistent with decarboxylation, during fragmentation.

Huang, Li-shar; Sun, Gang; Cobessi, David; Wang, Andy C.; Shen,John T.; Tung, Eric Y.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Berry, Edward A.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Development and demonstration of biosorbents for clean-up of uranium in water. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU, a nongenetically engineered bacterial strain known to bind dissolved hexavalent uranium, shows particular promise as the basis of an immobilized-cell process for removal of dissolved uranium from contaminated wastewaters. It was characterized with respect to its sorptive active. Living, heat-killed, permeabilized, and unreconstituted lyophilized cells were all capable of binding uranium. The uranium biosorption equilibrium could be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of uranium adsorption increased following permeabilization of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by organic solvents such as acetone. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was significantly more sorptive toward uranium than certain novel, patented biosorbents derived from algal or fungal biomass sources. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was also competitive with commercial cation-exchange resins, particularly in the presence of dissolved transition metals. Uranium binding by P. aeruginosa was clearly pH dependent. Uranium loading capacity increased with increasing pH under acidic conditions, presumably as a function of uranium speciation and due to the H{sup +} competition at some binding sites. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests that this microorganism is also capable of binding anionic hexavalent uranium complexes. Ferric iron was a strong inhibitor of uranium binding to P. aeruginosa CSU biomass, and the presence of uranium also decreased the Fe{sup 3+} loading when the biomass was not saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, suggesting that Fe{sup 3+} and uranium may share the same binding sites on biomass.

Faison, B.D.; Hu, M.Z.C.; Norman, J.M.; Reeves, M.E.; Williams, L.; Schmidt-Kuster, W.; Darnell, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Ogden Environmental Service, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

Whisler, Howard C.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaiprasongsuk, Minta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Guanglin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be very effective solvents for biomass pretreatment. It is known that some ILs can have a strong inhibitory effect on fungal cellulases, making the digestion of cellulose inefficient in the presence of ILs. The identification of IL-tolerant enzymes that could be produced as a cellulase cocktail would reduce the costs and water use requirements of the IL pretreatment process. Due to their adaptation to high salinity environments, halophilic enzymes are hypothesized to be good candidates for screening and identifying IL-resistant cellulases. Using a genome-based approach, we have identified and characterized a halophilic cellulase (Hu-CBH1) from the halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis. Hu-CBH1 is present in a gene cluster containing multiple putative cellulolytic enzymes. Sequence and theoretical structure analysis indicate that Hu-CBH1 is highly enriched with negatively charged acidic amino acids on the surface, which may form a solvation shell that may stabilize the enzyme, through interaction with salt ions and/or water molecules. Hu-CBH1 is a heat tolerant haloalkaliphilic cellulase and is active in salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl. In high salt buffer, Hu-CBH1 can tolerate alkali (pH 11.5) conditions and, more importantly, is tolerant to high levels (20percent w/w) of ILs, including 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). Interestingly, the tolerances to heat, alkali and ILs are found to be salt-dependent, suggesting that the enzyme is stabilized by the presence of salt. Our results indicate that halophilic enzymes are good candidates for the screening of IL-tolerant cellulolytic enzymes.

Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry; Ivanova, Natalia; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Chen, Feng; Kyrpides, Nikos; Hugenholtz, Philip; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake; Rubin, Eddy

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Efficient Graph Based Assembly of Short-Read Sequences on Hybrid Core Architecture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced architectures can deliver dramatically increased throughput for genomics and proteomics applications, reducing time-to-completion in some cases from days to minutes. One such architecture, hybrid-core computing, marries a traditional x86 environment with a reconfigurable coprocessor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. In addition to higher throughput, increased performance can fundamentally improve research quality by allowing more accurate, previously impractical approaches. We will discuss the approach used by Convey?s de Bruijn graph constructor for short-read, de-novo assembly. Bioinformatics applications that have random access patterns to large memory spaces, such as graph-based algorithms, experience memory performance limitations on cache-based x86 servers. Convey?s highly parallel memory subsystem allows application-specific logic to simultaneously access 8192 individual words in memory, significantly increasing effective memory bandwidth over cache-based memory systems. Many algorithms, such as Velvet and other de Bruijn graph based, short-read, de-novo assemblers, can greatly benefit from this type of memory architecture. Furthermore, small data type operations (four nucleotides can be represented in two bits) make more efficient use of logic gates than the data types dictated by conventional programming models.JGI is comparing the performance of Convey?s graph constructor and Velvet on both synthetic and real data. We will present preliminary results on memory usage and run time metrics for various data sets with different sizes, from small microbial and fungal genomes to very large cow rumen metagenome. For genomes with references we will also present assembly quality comparisons between the two assemblers.

Sczyrba, Alex; Pratap, Abhishek; Canon, Shane; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Wang, Zhong; Brewer, Tony; Soper, David; D'Jamoos, Mike; Collins, Kirby; Vacek, George

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

411

Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MBP-Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the 'ATP state' of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck-core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Allingham, John S., E-mail: allinghj@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1991--December 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year`s project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, an unexpected complement of flagellar genes, and presence of three laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value.

Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Effect of a heavy metal on ecto- and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: The physiology, ultrastructure, and ecology of copper stress and tolerance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first chapter examines the enzyme tyrosinase in several ectomycorrhizal fungi and shows that its activity is altered in these fungi in response to copper. Polyamines are also examined, and it is shown that their levels are altered in some ectomycorrhizal fungi due to copper stress but not in others. The second chapter uses transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that copper is bound to the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on solid media, but the location of the binding varies between fungal species. In vitro copper tolerances of a number of ectomycorrhizal species are compared and differences in tolerance are evident between species and between different isolates of the same species. In the third chapter, four ectomycorrhizal fungi and one nonmycorrhizal fungus are evaluated for their ability to improve the growth of Japanese Red Pine under conditions of copper stress. Improvement of pine seedling growth is not correlated with in vitro copper tolerance of the fungus, but is related to the degree of compatibility between host and fungus. Despite differences in in vitro tolerance between three isolates of the same species, there are no differences in the effect of the isolates on the tree host under conditions of copper stress. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were also inoculated in pairs on pine seedlings and the competitive abilities of the fungi are compared under stressed and nonstressed conditions. The fourth chapter discusses the results of inoculation of pine with a nonhost fungus which stimulates dichotomous branching of the root system. The compound responsible for the branching is demonstrated to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth hormone. The final two chapters deal with endomycorrhizal fungi.

Gruhn, C.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Melanin, a promising radioprotector: Mechanisms of actions in a mice model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioprotective effect of extracellular melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, isolated from the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was examined in BALB/C mice, and the probable mechanism of action was established. At an effective dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, melanin exhibited both prophylactic and mitigative activities, increasing the 30-day survival of mice by 100% and 60%, respectively, after exposure to radiation (7 Gy, whole body irradiation (WBI)). The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters such as index, total cellularity, endogenous colony forming units, and maintenance of circulatory white blood cells and platelet counts. Melanin also reversed the radiation-induced decrease in ERK phosphorylation in splenic tissue, which may be the key feature in its radioprotective action. Additionally, our results indicated that the sustained activation of AKT, JNK and P38 proteins in splenic tissue of melanin pre-treated group may also play a secondary role. This was also supported by the fact that melanin could prevent apoptosis in splenic tissue by decreasing BAX/Bcl-XL ratio, and increasing the expressions of the proliferation markers (PCNA and Cyclin D1), compared to the radiation control group. Melanin also reduced the oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and abrogated immune imbalance by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and TNF?). In conclusion, our results confirmed that fungal melanin is a very effective radioprotector against WBI and the probable mechanisms of radioprotection are due to modulation in pro-survival (ERK) signaling, prevention of oxidative stress and immunomodulation. -- Highlights: ? Melanin showed promising radioprotection under pre and post irradiation condition. ? Melanin protects the hematopoietic system from radiation induced damage. ? Melanin modulates pro-survival pathways, immune system and prevents oxidative stress.

Kunwar, A., E-mail: amitbio@rediffmail.com [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Adhikary, B. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)] [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, S. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)] [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barik, A. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)] [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)] [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Raghukumar, S. [Myko Tech Private Limited, Dona Paula, Goa?403004 (India)] [Myko Tech Private Limited, Dona Paula, Goa?403004 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I., E-mail: kindira@barc.gov.in [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian L.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry C.

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

420

Structural characterization of a ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with succinic semialdehyde reductase activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beta-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (?-HAD) genes have been identified in all sequenced genomes of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Their gene products catalyze the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent oxidation of various ?-hydroxy acid substrates into their corresponding semialdehyde. In many fungal and bacterial genomes, multiple ?-HAD genes are observed leading to the hypothesis that these gene products may have unique, uncharacterized metabolic roles specific to their species. The genomes of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens each contain two potential ?-HAD genes. The protein sequences of one pair of these genes, Gs-?HAD (Q74DE4) and Gm-?HAD (Q39R98), have 65% sequence identity and 77% sequence similarity with each other. Both proteins reduce succinic semialdehyde, a metabolite of the GABA shunt. To further explore the structural and functional characteristics of these two ?-HADs with a potentially unique substrate specificity, crystal structures for Gs-?HAD and Gm-?HAD in complex with NADP+ were determined to a resolution of 1.89 Å and 2.07 Å, respectively. The structure of both proteins are similar, composed of 14 ?-helices and nine ?-strands organized into two domains. Domain One (1-165) adopts a typical Rossmann fold composed of two ?/? units: a six-strand parallel ?-sheet surrounded by six ?-helices (?1 – ?6) followed by a mixed three-strand ?-sheet surrounded by two ?-helices (?7 and ?8). Domain Two (166-287) is composed of a bundle of seven ?-helices (?9 – ?14). Four functional regions conserved in all ?-HADs are spatially located near each other at the interdomain cleft in both Gs-?HAD and Gm-?HAD with a buried molecule of NADP+. The structural features of Gs-?HAD and Gm-?HAD are described in relation to the four conserved consensus sequences characteristic of ?-HADs and the potential biochemical importance of these enzymes as an alternative pathway for the degradation of succinic semialdehyde.

Zhang, Yanfeng; Zheng, Yi; Qin, Ling; Wang, Shihua; Buchko, Garry W.; Garavito, Michael R.

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale.

Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

HAM-5 functions as a MAP kinase scaffold during cell fusion in Neurospora crassa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every 4 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a protein of unknown biochemical function. How this oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) that can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, ?ham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM5-GFP co-localized with NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the ?mak-2 strain, HAM5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK2 activity influences HAM5 function/localization. However, MAK2-GFP showed only cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a ?ham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta, as observed in wild type germlings. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM5 was shown to physically interact with MAK2, MEK2 and NRC1, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members during oscillation and chemotropic interactions during both germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK2 to upstream factors and other proteins involved in this intriguing process of fungal communication.

Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Starr, Trevor L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Glass, N. Louise

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

424

Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial ?13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data loggers for measuring soil temperatures. To determine the early pathways of decomposition, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux, dissolved organic C (DOC), and DO13C approximately monthly over two growing seasons from a subsample of the research plots. To determine the portion of soil surface CO2 efflux attributable to wood-derived C, we used Keeling plot techniques to estimate the associated ?13C values of the soil CO2 efflux. We measured the ?13CO2 once during the peak of each growing season. Initial values for soil ?13C values and CN concentrations averaged across the six sites were -26.8‰ (standard error = 0.04), 2.46% (se = 0.11), and 0.15% (se = 0.01), respectively. The labeled wood chips from the Aspen FACE treatments had an average ?13C value of -39.5‰ (se 0.10). The >12 ‰ isotopic difference between the soil and wood chip ?13C values provides the basis for tracking the wood-derived C through the early stages of decomposition and subsequent storage in the soil. Across our six research sites, average soil surface CO2 efflux ranged from 1.04 to 2.00 g CO2 m-2 h-1 for the first two growing seasons. No wood chip controls had an average soil surface CO2 efflux of 0.67 g CO2 m-2 h-1 or about half of that of the wood chip treatment plots. Wood-derived CO2 efflux was higher for loam textured soils relative to sands (0.70 and 0.54 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p = 0.045)), for surface relative to buried wood chip treatments (0.92 and 0.39 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p < 0.001), for warmed relative to ambient temperature treatments (0.99 and 0.78 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; 0.004), and for natural rot relative to brown and white rots (0.93, 0.82, and 0.78 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p = 0.068). Our first two growing seasons of soil surface CO2 efflux data show that wood chip location (i.e., surface vs. buried chip application) is very important, with surface chips loosing twice the wood-derived CO2. The DOC data support this trend for greater loss of ecosystem C from surface chips. This has strong implications for the importance of root and buried wood for ecosystem C retention. This strong chip location effect

Resh, Sigrid C. [Michigan Technological University

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

425

Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of three study groups (direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 15 March to 21 June 2004. In total, 842 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.5% (842 of 2,755) of the entire 2003-2004 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially or for the duration of the experiment. All steelhead kelts received hw-wiegandt multi vit dietary supplement as a means to improve initial nutrition. Long-term steelhead kelts received Moore-Clark pellets to provide essential minerals and nutrients necessary for gonadal redevelopment. Oxytetracycline was administered to all reconditioned fish to boost immune system response following the stress of initial capture. To control parasitic infestations two methods were used, first, after initial capture an intubation of Ivermectin{trademark} was administered to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Next, a Formalin drip was used for the duration of reconditioning to prevent fungal outbreaks. Captured kelts were separated into three experimental groups: short-term reconditioning, long-term reconditioning, and direct transport and release. Success indicators for the short-term experiment include the proportion of fish that survived the reconditioning process and the proportion of fish that initiated a feeding response. Short-term kelts were reconditioned for 3 to 5 weeks. Surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on May 11, 2004. Survival-to-release was good for the short-term experiment, with a rate of 79.0%. Long-term steelhead kelts are currently being held for a 6-9 month period with a scheduled release in December 2004. Long-term success indicators include the proportion of fish that survived the reconditioning process and the proportion of surviving fish that successfully remature. Survival and rematuration for long-term kelts has not been determined and will be presented in the 2005 annual report. Direct transport and release kelts and short-term reconditioned kelts were radio or acoustic tagged to assess their travel time and migratory behaviors below Bonneville Dam. A total of 29 direct-transport and release kelts and 29 short-term reconditioned kelts received surgically implanted radio tags, and a total of 28 direct-transport/release and 26 short-term reconditioned fish received surgically implanted hydro acoustic tags. These tags will allow us to determine outm

Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z