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1

Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.

Walid K. Abou Salem; Juerg Froehlich

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

2

FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARCTURUS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters and abundances of 17 elements for the red giant star Arcturus: T{sub eff} = 4286 {+-} 30 K, log g = 1.66 {+-} 0.05, and [Fe/H] = -0.52 {+-} 0.04. The effective temperature was determined using model atmosphere fits to the observed spectral energy distribution from the blue to the mid-infrared (0.44 to 10 {mu}m). The surface gravity was calculated using the trigonometric parallax of the star and stellar evolution models. A differential abundance analysis relative to the solar spectrum allowed us to derive iron abundances from equivalent width measurements of 37 Fe I and 9 Fe II lines, unblended in the spectra of both Arcturus and the Sun; the [Fe/H] value adopted is derived from Fe I lines. We also determine the mass, radius, and age of Arcturus: M = 1.08 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun }, R = 25.4 {+-} 0.2 R{sub Sun }, and {tau} = 7.1{sup +1.5}{sub -1.2} Gyr. Finally, abundances of the following elements are measured from an equivalent width analysis of atomic features: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. We find the chemical composition of Arcturus typical of that of a local thick-disk star, consistent with its kinematics.

Ramirez, I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Allende Prieto, C., E-mail: ivan@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be run in steady state and dynamic simulations. However, such advanced models of the Purex process require a wide range of fundamental data including all relevant basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data for the major species present in the process. This paper will summarize some of these recent process chemistry studies that underpin our simulation, design and testing of Purex solvent extraction flowsheets. Whilst much kinetic data for actinide redox reactions in nitric acid exists in the literature, the data on reactions in the diluted TBP solvent phase is much rarer. This inhibits the accurate modelization of the Purex process particularly when species show a significant extractability in to the solvent phase or when cycling between solvent and aqueous phases occurs, for example in the reductive stripping of Pu(IV) by ferrous sulfamate in the Magnox reprocessing plant. To support current oxide reprocessing, we have investigated a range of solvent phase reactions: - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 2}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Pu catalysis); - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Tc catalysis); - U(IV)+ Np(VI); - U(IV)+Np(V); - Np(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - Np(V)+Np(V); Rate equations have been determined for all these reactions and kinetic rate constants and activation energies are now available. Specific features of these reactions in the TBP phase include the roles of water and hydrolyzed intermediates in the reaction mechanisms. In reactions involving Np(V), cation-cation complex formation, which is much more favourable in TBP than in HNO{sub 3}, also occurs and complicates the redox chemistry. Whilst some features of the redox chemistry in TBP appear similar to the corresponding reactions in aqueous HNO{sub 3}, there are notable differences in rates, the forms of the rate equations and mechanisms. Secondly, to underpin the development of advanced single cycle flowsheets using the complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid, we have also characterised in some detail its redox chemistry and solvent extraction behaviour with both Np and Pu ions. We find that simple hydroxamic acids are remarkably rapid reducing agents for Np(VI). They also reduce Pu(VI) and cause a much slower reduction of Pu(IV) through a complex mechanism involving acid hydrolysis of the ligand. AHA is a strong hydrophilic and selective complexant for the tetravalent actinide ions as evidenced by stability constant and solvent extraction data for An(IV), M(III) and U(VI) ions. This has allowed the successful design of U/Pu+Np separation flowsheets suitable for advanced fuel cycles. (authors)

Taylor, R.J.; Fox, O.D.; Sarsfield, M.J.; Carrott, M.J.; Mason, C.; Woodhead, D.A.; Maher, C.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Steele, H. [Nexia Solutions, inton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6AS (United Kingdom); Koltunov, V.S. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Institute of Inorganic Materials, VNIINM, PO Box 369, Moscow 123060 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials.

Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

An electromagnetic and thermodynamic lumped parameter model of an explosively driven regenerative magnetohydrodynamic generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.

Morrison, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

DOE-HDBK-1012/3-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Volume 3 of 3  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3-92 3-92 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Volume 3 of 3 U.S. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from (615) 576- 8401. FTS 626-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Order No. DE92019791 THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Rev. 0 HT ABSTRACT The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was

7

DOE-HDBK-1012/2-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Volume 2 of 3  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2-92 2-92 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Volume 2 of 3 U.S. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from (615) 576- 8401. FTS 626-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Order No. DE92019790 THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Rev. 0 HT ABSTRACT The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was

8

DOE-HDBK-1012/1-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Volume 1 of 3  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1-92 1-92 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Volume 1 of 3 U.S. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Order No. DE92019789 THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Rev. 0 HT ABSTRACT The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance

9

Fundamental  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

. * : TID-267 11-P2 '4 ' Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements Solutions to Problems Donald R. Olander Department - of Nuclear Engineering University of Cacfornia,...

10

Engineering Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... republication of works by American authors) to give a rigorous treatment of fundamental and applied thermodynamics for the engineering student.

J. H. HORLOCK

1958-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

11

Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Physical Chemistry: an Advanced Treatise. Vol. 1. Thermodynamics. Edited by Henry Eyring, Douglas Henderson and Wilhelm Jost. Pp. xxii + 659 ... advanced treatise have already appeared and have been well received. The present volume deals with thermodynamics. It is, however, neither a "basic" volume for the whole treatise nor ...

D. H. EVERETT

1972-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A Micro-Thermodynamic Formalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the micro-canonical ensemble of a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system, the Hamiltonian being parameter dependent and in the possible presence of other first integrals. We describe a thermodynamic formalism in which a 1st law of thermodynamics, or fundamental relation, is based upon the bulk-entropy, S. Under an ergodic hypothesis, S is shown to be an adiabatic invariant. Expressions for derivatives and thermodynamic relations are derived within the micro-canonical ensemble itself.

Hans Henrik Rugh

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

A Fundamental, Relativistic and Irreversible Law of Motion: A Unification of Newton's Second Law of Motion and the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature is an outsider in the laws of motion given by Newton and Einstein and this oversight is the source of the predictions of time-reversal-invariance made by these two great systems of motion. By taking into consideration Planck's law of blackbody radiation and the Doppler effect, in thinking about Maxwell's electromagnetic wave equation, I have shown that photons, in the environment through which any charged particle moves, act as a source of temperature-dependent friction on everything from elementary particles to galaxies. Because the optomechanical friction is universal and inevitable, no real systems are conservative, and temperature can no longer be an outsider in a fundamental and irreducible law of motion. I have defined the change of entropy (\\Delta S) in irreversible systems at constant temperature in terms of the optomechanical friction. The Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that \\Delta S > 0 for spontaneous processes, is explained by electromagnetic interactions between charged particles and the Doppler-shifted photons through which they move as opposed to chance and statistics. \\Delta S, as defined here, is not subject to Poincar\\'e's recurrence theorem. Consequently, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is shown to be a fundamental law rather than a statistical law. This result, which supports the idea that every instant of time is unique, is consistent with intuition and the routine experience of botanists.

Randy Wayne

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Tait's “Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Prof. Tait added to the two essays a mathematical sketch of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and in this form the book was published in 1868. In the present edition ... at his leisure.

J. CLERK MAXWELL

1878-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

On equivalence of high temperature series expansion and coupling parameter series expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids.

Sai Venkata Ramana, A., E-mail: asaivenk@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae I: Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is of key importance to constrain the different candidates for intra-cluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a large range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D LTE atmospheric models together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = $-0.78\\pm0.07$ and $[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]=0.34\\pm0.03$ in...

Thygesen, A O; Andrievsky, S; Korotin, S; Yong, D; Zaggia, S; Ludwig, H -G; Collet, R; Asplund, M; D'Antona, F; Meléndez, J; D'Ercole, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

3 - Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Many types of phase diagram sections involving temperature, composition, pressure, chemical potentials, partial pressures, volume and enthalpy as axis variables or constants are described for binary, ternary and multicomponent systems. The theme is the relationship between thermodynamics and phase diagrams. A review of the fundamentals of thermodynamics as required for the interpretation and calculation of phase diagrams is presented. One set of general geometrical rules which governs all types of single-valued phase diagram sections is derived. The computer calculation of phase diagrams from large critically assessed databases of model parameters is discussed.

Arthur D. Pelton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermodynamics and macromolecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... slowly away from exact thermodynamic interpretations and so student interest in the fundamental understanding of thermodynamics has waned. It is a pity that some recipe cannot be found which convinces ... pity that some recipe cannot be found which convinces students that the three laws of thermodynamics provide a thread for connecting many phenomena associated with macro-molecular solutions.

S. P. Spragg

1980-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

Automated procedure to derive fundamental parameters of B and A stars: Application to the young cluster NGC 3293  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work describes a procedure to derive several fundamental parameters such as the effective temperature, surface gravity, equatorial rotational velocity and microturbulent velocity. In this work, we have written a numerical procedure in Python which finds the best fit between a grid of synthetic spectra and the observed spectra by minimizing a standard chi-square. LTE model atmospheres were calculated using the ATLAS9 code and were used as inputs to the spectrum synthesis code SYNSPEC48 in order to compute a large grid of synthetic Balmer line profiles. This new procedure has been applied to a large number of new observations (GIRAFFE spectra) of B and A stars members of the young open cluster NGC3293. These observations are part of the GAIA ESO Survey. Takeda's procedure was also used to derive rotational velocities and microturbulent velocities. The results have been compared to previous determinations by other authors and are found to agree with them. As a first result, we concluded that using this proc...

Aydi, E; Monier, R; Royer, F; Lobel, A; Blomme, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The qWR star HD 45166. II. Fundamental stellar parameters and evidence of a latitude-dependent wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The enigmatic object HD 45166 is a qWR star in a binary system with an orbital period of 1.596 day, and presents a rich emission-line spectrum in addition to absorption lines from the companion star (B7 V). As the system inclination is very small (i=0.77 +- 0.09 deg), HD 45166 is an ideal laboratory for wind-structure studies. The goal of the present paper is to determine the fundamental stellar and wind parameters of the qWR star. A radiative transfer model for the wind and photosphere of the qWR star was calculated using the non-LTE code CMFGEN. The wind asymmetry was also analyzed using a recently-developed version of CMFGEN to compute the emerging spectrum in two-dimensional geometry. The temporal-variance spectrum (TVS) was calculated for studying the line-profile variations. Abundances, stellar and wind parameters of the qWR star were obtained. The qWR star has an effective temperature of Teff=50000 +- 2000 K, a luminosity of log(L/Lsun)=3.75 +- 0.08, and a corresponding photospheric radius of Rphot=1.00 Rsun. The star is helium-rich (N(H)/N(He) = 2.0), while the CNO abundances are anomalous when compared either to solar values, to planetary nebulae, or to WR stars. The mass-loss rate is Mdot = 2.2 . 10^{-7} Msun/yr, and the wind terminal velocity is vinf=425 km/s. The comparison between the observed line profiles and models computed under different latitude-dependent wind densities strongly suggests the presence of an oblate wind density enhancement, with a density contrast of at least 8:1 from equator to pole. If a high velocity polar wind is present (~1200 km/s), the minimum density contrast is reduced to 4:1. The wind parameters determined are unusual when compared to O-type stars or to typical WR stars. (abridged)

J. H. Groh; A. S. Oliveira; J. E. Steiner

2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics: A Second Law analysis of assumptions and parameters:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this work, a model derived from Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, for the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, was utilized in order to explore the effect of… (more)

Garcia Navarro, J.C.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modern thermodynamics – New concepts based on the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a core part of science. Nearly all scientists should have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is a science of development, and is a viewpoint of scientific development in natural sciences. Achievement of thermodynamics has influence not only on natural sciences, but also on social sciences and philosophy. Fundamental concepts and definitions are very important for any discipline of science, so what is classical thermodynamics and what is modern thermodynamics have become the key points of puzzledom in thermodynamics. In this paper, after clarification of fundamental concept in thermodynamics, a complete basic modern classification of thermodynamics is naturally obtained. It is suggested that extended Carnot theorem and dissipation decrease theorem, together with the laws of thermodynamics, are the most fundamental theorems in thermodynamics discipline. Nondissipative thermodynamics is a new field besides equilibrium thermodynamics belonging to the equal part of the second law of thermodynamics.

Jitao Wang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The BaSeL library as a basic tool to provide fundamental stellar parameters of future space missions: COROT and GAIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COROT and GAIA are two future major space missions directly connected to most of the stellar astrophysic questions, from stellar physics to evolution of galaxies. We describe a project for the preparation of these two missions by using the possibilities of the ``BaSeL'' models, a library of theoretical stellar energy distributions, to provide automatically the fundamental stellar parameters of the candidate stars. We present the results already obtained for the stars of the COROT main programme.

E. Lastennet; T. Lejeune; F. Cuisinier

2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

24

Foundations of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE first introduction of the fundamentals of thermodynamics to a student is necessarily of a brief and dogmatic nature and often he has ... which is concerned with the task of propagating a firm understanding of the bases of thermodynamics among students with a moderate acquaintance of the structure.

S. ANGUS

1958-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

25

Stringy Generalization of the First Law of Thermodynamics for Rotating BTZ Black Hole with a Cosmological Constant as State Parameter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we will show that using the cosmological constant as a new thermodynamical state variable, the differential and integral mass formulas of the first law of thermodynamics for asymptotic flat spacetimes can be extended to be used at the two horizons of the (2+1) dimensional BTZ black hole. We also extend this equations to the stringy description of the BTZ black hole, in which two new systems that resemble the right and left modes of effective string theory, are defined in terms of the inner and outer horizons.

Alexis Larranaga

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

The fundamental constants and theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1. Introduction The fundamental constants appear as parameters...least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants (Mohr Taylor...are the following: How does theory enter into the CODATA evaluation of the fundamental constants? What are the...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Thermodynamics and the Structure of Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THERMODYNAMICS and statistical mechanics are commonly treated as separate subjects. They are, however, so ... fundamental theory, and the other eight to various applications.

A. F. DEVONSHIRE

1957-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Pollution and thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pollution and thermodynamics ... Examines pollution through the lens of thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics ...

William F. Sheehan

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermodynamics and song  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and song ... Availability of a song on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics ...

Brian D. Kybett

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Contributions to thermodynamics: The inconsistency of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contributions to thermodynamics: The inconsistency of thermodynamics ... Presents a flawed thermodynamic argument to test readers' insight and ingenuity. ...

J. McQuirg

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this work is to discuss recent progress in deriving the fundamental laws of thermodynamics (0th, 1st and 2nd-law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Basic thermodynamic notions are clarified and different reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes are studied from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics. Special emphasis is put on new adiabatic theorems for steady states close to and far from equilibrium, and on investigating cyclic thermodynamic processes using an extension of Floquet theory.

Walid K. Abou Salem

2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

32

Basic Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THIS is a good introduction to thermodynamics which deals with the three laws, basic kinetic theory (viscosity is not mentioned) ... The last part deals with thermal measurements. Students will obtain a good working knowledge of thermodynamics from this book.

P. T. LANDSBERG

1973-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

33

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

35

Relativistic thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics, when formulated as a dynamic action principle, allows a simple and effective integration into the General Theory of Gravitation.

Christian Frønsdal

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermodynamics of Prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A system responding to a stochastic driving signal can be interpreted as computing, by means of its dynamics, an implicit model of the environmental variables. The system’s state retains information about past environmental fluctuations, and a fraction of this information is predictive of future ones. The remaining nonpredictive information reflects model complexity that does not improve predictive power, and thus represents the ineffectiveness of the model. We expose the fundamental equivalence between this model inefficiency and thermodynamic inefficiency, measured by dissipation. Our results hold arbitrarily far from thermodynamic equilibrium and are applicable to a wide range of systems, including biomolecular machines. They highlight a profound connection between the effective use of information and efficient thermodynamic operation: any system constructed to keep memory about its environment and to operate with maximal energetic efficiency has to be predictive.

Susanne Still; David A. Sivak; Anthony J. Bell; Gavin E. Crooks

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

Thermodynamics of graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The 21st century has brought a lot of new results related to graphene. Apparently, graphene has been characterized from all points of view except surface science and, especially, surface thermodynamics. This report aims to close this gap. Since graphene is the first real two-dimensional solid, a general formulation of the thermodynamics of two-dimensional solid bodies is given. The two-dimensional chemical potential tensor coupled with stress tensor is introduced, and fundamental equations are derived for energy, free energy, grand thermodynamic potential (in the classical and hybrid forms), enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The fundamentals of linear boundary phenomena are formulated with explaining the concept of a dividing line, the mechanical and thermodynamic line tensions, line energy and other linear properties with necessary thermodynamic equations. The one-dimensional analogs of the Gibbs adsorption equation and Shuttleworth–Herring relation are presented. The general thermodynamic relationships are illustrated with calculations based on molecular theory. To make the reader sensible of the harmony of chemical and van der Waals forces in graphene, the remake of the classical graphite theory is presented with additional variable combinations of graphene sheets. The calculation of the line energy of graphene is exhibited including contributions both from chemical bonds and van der Waals forces (expectedly, the latter are considerably smaller than the former). The problem of graphene holes originating from migrating vacancies is discussed on the basis of the Gibbs–Curie principle. An important aspect of line tension is the planar sheet/nanotube transition where line tension acts as a driving force. Using the bending stiffness of graphene, the possible radius range is estimated for achiral (zigzag and armchair) nanotubes.

A.I. Rusanov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Thermodynamics of Fractal Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in a fractal universe. We find that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation of the fractal universe in the form of the entropy balance relation $ \\delta Q=T_h d{S_h}$, where $ \\delta Q $ and $ T_{h} $ are the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the apparent horizon. We find that the entropy $S_h$ consists two terms, the first one which obeys the usual area law and the second part which is the entropy production term due to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fractal universe. This shows that in a fractal universe, a treatment with nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime may be needed. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the framework of fractal universe. When the temperature of the apparent horizon and the matter fields inside the horizon are equal, i.e. $T=T_h$, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled provided the deceleration and the equation of state parameters ranges either as $-1 \\leq q thermodynamics can be secured in a fractal universe by suitably choosing the fractal parameter $\\beta$.

Ahmad Sheykhi; Zeinab Teimoori; Bin Wang

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thermodynamics and the bounce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and the bounce ... Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics ...

Charles E. Carraher

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Understanding Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics By H. A. Buchdahl. (Cambridge Monographs on Physics.) Pp. xi+223. ... .) 45s.net; $;8.50.

W. K. BURTON

1966-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Practical Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... HERE is an excellent introductory textbook on engineering thermodynamics to swell the contents of an already well stocked shelf. Of course, none of ... the author's style, his decision strictly to limit the contents to that part of thermodynamics which is relevant to the treatment of power cycles, refrigeration cycles and heat engines ...

J. C. MATTHEWS

1973-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Chemical Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE authors of these books are enthusiasts about thermodynamics, but with rather different outcomes to their enthusiasm. Prof. Everett shares the view ... the view of P. Duhem (1903) that the range of scientific studies to which thermodynamics is applicable is extremely broad. There are aspects of this universal discipline of interest ...

A. R. UBBELOHDE

1960-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

43

Network Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... CLASSICAL thermodynamics is limited m that it deals only with the initial and final equilibrium states of ... states of a process, it provides no information about the dynamical behaviour between these states Thermodynamics tells us where we have been and where we are, but not how we ...

GEORGE OSTER; ALAN PERELSON; AHARON KATCHALSKY

1971-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Local Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Charged and Polarized Layers By A. Sanfeld. (Monographs in Statistical Physics and ... of Charged and Polarized Layers By A. Sanfeld. (Monographs in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics, Vol. 10.) Pp. xxiv + 258. (Wiley: London and New York ...

ROGER PARSONS

1969-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

45

General Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... principally in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. These ideas relate to a study of thermodynamics from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with ... from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with the thermodynamics of metastable states and irreversible processes as wall as with the stable states and reversible ...

R. W. HAYWOOD

1956-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Irreversibility and the second law of thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irreversibility and the second law of thermodynamics Jos Uffink July 5, 2001 1 INTRODUCTION The second law of thermodynamics has a curious status. Many modern physicists regard it as an obsolete relic thermodynamics, in which the state does not con- tain velocity-like parameters, one may take R to be the identity

Seevinck, Michiel

47

Fundamental Studies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Support of GEO-SEQ LBNL's Consolidated Sequestration Research Program (CSRP) Project Number FWP ESD09-056 Tom Daley Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Infrastructure for CCS August 20-22, 2013 2 Presentation Outline * Benefits and Goals of Fundamental Studies * Technical Status - Petrophysical Relationships - Geochemical Processes - Monitoring Instrumentation * Accomplishments and Summary 3 Benefit to the Program * Program goals being addressed: - Develop and validate technologies to ensure 99 percent storage permanence. - Develop technologies to improve reservoir storage efficiency while ensuring containment effectiveness

48

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Granular Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present experimental evidence for a strong analogy between quasi-2D uniform non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) of excited granular materials and equilibrium thermodynamics. Under isochoric conditions we find that the ...

Shattuck, M. D.

50

Distinguished Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THAT a third edition of Prof. E. A. Guggenheim's "Thermodynamics" has appeared barely eight years after publication of the first edition is proof that ... rate, to more familiar physical quantities.

N. K. ADAM

1957-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

A second lecture in thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A second lecture in thermodynamics ... Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics ... Thermodynamics ...

Milton Burton

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Friedmann Thermodynamics and the Geometry of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a recent article we have introduced Friedmann thermodynamics, where certain geometric parameters in Friedmann models are treated like their thermodynamic counterparts (temperature, entropy, Gibbs potential etc.). This model has the advantage of allowing us to determine the geometry of the universe by thermodynamic stability arguments. In this article we review connections between thermodynamics, geometry and cosmology.

Selcuk S. Bayin

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Thermodynamics for undergraduates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics for undergraduates ... The writer provides some useful addenda to the number of instructive articles that have appeared on thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics ...

Jurg Waser

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermodynamics and Relativity: A Message to Physics Teachers (for an easier understanding of the thermodynamic theory)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Whoever has to learn or to teach thermodynamics is confronted with conceptual difficulties which are specific to this field of physics ([1],[2]). It seems that they can be eliminated by inserting relativity in the thermodynamic theory. The aim of this paper is to summarize the problem and draw attention upon a fundamental point of the discussion.

Jean-Louis Tane

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

Relativistic Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that a generalized formulation of statistical mechanics provides a unified logical basis for the construction of a manifestly covariant theory of relativistic thermodynamics in contrast to heuristic approaches, such as the original theory by Planck and Einstein, and more recent ones by Ott and Møller. The generalized formalism is applied to discuss the relativistic thermodynamics of blackbody radiation, including such processes as the absorption and reflection of a light beam as well as the adiabatic cooling of cosmic blackbody radiation in Milne's model of the universe. The measurement of the temperature of a light beam is also discussed.

VICTOR H. HAMITY

1969-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

57

On Phantom Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermodynamic properties of dark energy fluids described by an equation of state parameter $\\omega=p/\\rho$ are rediscussed in the context of FRW type geometries. Contrarily to previous claims, it is argued here that the phantom regime $\\omega0$ and $S>0$ in the course of the Universe expansion. Further, the negative value of the chemical potential resulting from the entropy constraint ($S>0$) suggests a bosonic massless nature to the phantom particles.

S. H. Pereira; J. A. S. Lima

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermodynamics of Inhomogeneous Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A self-consistent thermodynamic formalism is developed for the treatment of the equilibrium of systems, some of whose parameters vary continuously from place to place. The method is specially designed for the description of transition interfaces separating two phases. The energy per unit volume is assumed to depend explicitly on the space derivatives of the molecule densities. Equilibrium conditions are obtained for the appropriate internal variables of the system, and all externally measurable intensive variables are uniquely defined by a variational procedure.

Edward W. Hart

1959-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Thermodynamics of resource recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics of resource recycling ... The author applies principles of thermodynamics to analyze the efficiency of resource recycling. ...

W. B. Hauserman

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions ... The development of the necessary thermodynamic equations directly in terms of molality is not common ... ...

Gabor Jancso; David V. Fenby

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.

Jinwoo, Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Chapter 14 - Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics has some fundamental limitations: (1) it does not incorporate mechanisms into its formulation, nor does it provide values for the phenomenological coefficients, and (2) it is based on the local-equilibrium hypothesis, and therefore it is confined to systems in the vicinity of equilibrium. Also, properties not needed or defined in equilibrium may influence the thermodynamic relations in nonequilibrium situations. For example, the density may depend on the shearing rate in addition to temperature and pressure. The local-equilibrium hypothesis holds only for linear phenomenological relations, low frequencies, and long wavelengths, which makes the application of the linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory limited for chemical reactions. In the following sections, some of the attempts that have been made to overcome these limitations are summarized.

Ya?ar Demirel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Physical chemistry - Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Physical chemistry - Thermodynamics ... A style of question that allows the instructor of thermodynamics to cover a wide range of material at varying levels of achievement in a reasonable period of time. ... Thermodynamics ...

Jack Richlin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Better Thermodynamics Teaching Needs More Thermodynamics Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a limit to the number of possible explanations of why engineering students should find thermodynamics difficult to understand.

J. R. Himsworth

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

QCD Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent results on QCD thermodynamics are presented. The nature of the T>0 transition is determined, which turns out to be an analytic cross-over. The absolute scale for this transition is calculated. The temperature dependent static potential is given. The results were obtained by using a Symanzik improved gauge and stout-link improved fermionic action. In order to approach the continuum limit four different sets of lattice spacings were used with temporal extensions N_t=4, 6, 8 and 10 (they correspond to lattice spacings a \\sim 0.3, 0.2, 0.15 and 0.12 fm). A new technique is presented, which --in contrast to earlier methods-- enables one to determine the equation of state at very large temperatures.

Z. Fodor

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

66

(1) Thermodynamics and Chemistry (2) Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Prof. H. C. Weber's book strikes a new note in the literature of thermodynamics. The engineer has long made use of the thermodynamic functions but is probably not ... subject, and although the chemist has very recently become aware of the immense utility of thermodynamics, he has usually very little knowledge of those parts of the subject which do ...

J. R. PARTINGTON

1940-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

67

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard are calculated using the fundamental measure density functional theory. Using the thermodynamic perturbation. INTRODUCTION Density functional theory DFT became a practical the- oretical tool for the calculation

Song, Xueyu

68

Minimal Energy Cost for Thermodynamic Information Processing: Measurement and Information Erasure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fundamental lower bounds on the thermodynamic energy cost of measurement and information erasure are determined. The lower bound on the erasure validates Landauer’s principle for a symmetric memory; for other cases, the bound indicates the breakdown of the principle. Our results constitute the second law of “information thermodynamics,” in which information content and thermodynamic variables are treated on an equal footing.

Takahiro Sagawa and Masahito Ueda

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermodynamics and Chemistry (DeVoe, Howard)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and Chemistry (DeVoe, Howard) ... Covers all important topics in chemical thermodynamics. ... Thermodynamics ...

Eric A. Gislason

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

UAV Fundamentals: Introduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first two sections of the handbook have introduced the reader to UAVs in ... the way for this third section, UAV Fundamentals, which details those fundamentals that constitute the foundational elements of UAV...

Kimon P. Valavanis; George J. Vachtsevanos

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fundamentals of physiological computing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......information. 4.2 Fundamental issues A review...realised unless these fundamental issues are addressed...will technology force us to choose between...emotion. In: Handbook of Emotions-Lewis...Gilliland K., et al. Fundamental dimensions of subjective...methodology. In: Handbook of Human Perception......

Stephen H. Fairclough

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry ... The principles of the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics are illustrated in songs and poems. ... Thermodynamics ...

Wayne L. Smith

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Thermodynamics of an accelerated expanding universe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the laws of thermodynamics in an accelerating universe driven by dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state. In the case we consider that the physically relevant part of the Universe is that enveloped by the dynamical apparent horizon, we have shown that both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. On the other hand, if the boundary of the Universe is considered to be the cosmological event horizon the thermodynamical description based on the definitions of boundary entropy and temperature breaks down. No parameter redefinition can rescue the thermodynamics laws from such a fate, rendering the cosmological event horizon unphysical from the point of view of the laws of thermodynamics.

Bin Wang; Yungui Gong; Elcio Abdalla

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

Thermodynamics of an accelerated expanding universe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the laws of thermodynamics in an accelerating universe driven by dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state. In the case we consider that the physically relevant part of the Universe is that enveloped by the dynamical apparent horizon, we have shown that both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. On the other hand, if the boundary of the Universe is considered to be the cosmological event horizon the thermodynamical description based on the definitions of boundary entropy and temperature breaks down. No parameter redefinition can rescue the thermodynamics laws from such a fate, rendering the cosmological event horizon unphysical from the point of view of the laws of thermodynamics.

Wang Bin; Gong Yungui; Abdalla, Elcio [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics and College of Electronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66.318, CEP 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermodynamics of an accelerated expanding universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the laws of thermodynamics in an accelerating universe driven by dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state. In the case we consider that the physically relevant part of the Universe is that envelopped by the dynamical apparent horizon, we have shown that both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. On the other hand, if the boundary of the Universe is considered to be the cosmological event horizon the thermodynamical description based on the definitions of boundary entropy and temperature breaks down. No parameter redefinition can rescue the thermodynamics laws from such a fate, rendering the cosmological event horizon unphysical from the point of view of the laws of thermodynamics.

Bin Wang; Yungui Gong; Elcio Abdalla

2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

Rigorous and General Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical foundations of a variety of emerging technologies --- ranging from the applications of quantum entanglement in quantum information to the applications of nonequilibrium bulk and interface phenomena in microfluidics, biology, materials science, energy engineering, etc. --- require understanding thermodynamic entropy beyond the equilibrium realm of its traditional definition. This paper presents a rigorous logical scheme that provides a generalized definition of entropy free of the usual unnecessary assumptions which constrain the theory to the equilibrium domain. The scheme is based on carefully worded operative definitions for all the fundamental concepts employed, including those of system, property, state, isolated system, environment, process, separable system, system uncorrelated from its environment, and parameters of a system. The treatment considers also systems with movable internal walls and/or semipermeable walls, with chemical reactions and/or external force fields, and with small numbers of particles. The definition of reversible process is revised by introducing the new concept of scenario. The definition of entropy involves neither the concept of heat nor that of quasistatic process; it applies to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. The role of correlations on the domain of definition and on the additivity of energy and entropy is discussed: it is proved that energy is defined and additive for all separable systems, while entropy is defined and additive only for separable systems uncorrelated from their environment; decorrelation entropy is defined. The definitions of energy and entropy are extended rigorously to open systems. Finally, to complete the discussion, the existence of the fundamental relation for stable equilibrium states is proved, in our context, for both closed and open systems.

Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Nature of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... position of author and reader in this challenging book are those of two students of thermodynamics who have mastered conventional ... who have mastered conventional thermodynamics, and, having attained some degree of maturity in applying it, agree to confide ...

E. A. MILNE

1942-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

78

Thermodynamics makes Progress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... new in solid state devices ?", few people would ask "What is new in thermodynamics ?". Yet at the boundaries of ... ?". Yet at the boundaries of thermodynamics, as well as at the foundations, there is considerable scientific activity. Indeed, the ...

P. T. LANDSBERG

1970-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

79

Thermodynamics of Diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN his review of “Thermodynamics” (NATURE, July 25) and again in the Philosophical Magazine for July, Mr. ... I direct attention to the,context in connection with Which this result is stated in "Thermodynamics"(§§ I24"126, 156)?

G. H. BRYAN

1907-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

80

Thermodynamics in Kaluza-Klein Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted to check the validity of laws of thermodynamics for Kaluza-Klein universe in the state of thermal equilibrium, composed of dark matter and dark energy. The generalized holographic dark energy and generalized Ricci dark energy models are considered here. It is proved that the first and generalized second law of thermodynamics are valid on the apparent horizon for both of these models. Further, we take a horizon of radius $L$ with modified holographic or Ricci dark energy. We conclude that these models do not obey the first and generalized second law of thermodynamics on the horizon of fixed radius $L$ for a specific range of model parameters.

Sharif, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Zeroth law compatibility of nonadditive thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonextensive thermodynamics is criticized by the statement that the zeroth law cannot be satisfied with nonadditive composition rules. In this paper we determine the general functional form of those nonadditive composition rules that are compatible with the zeroth law of thermodynamics. We find that this general form is additive for the formal logarithms of the original quantities and the familiar relations of thermodynamics apply to these. Our result offers a possible solution to the long-standing questions about equilibrium between extensive and nonextensive systems or systems with different nonextensivity parameters.

T. S. Biró and P. Ván

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thermodynamics in Kaluza-Klein Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted to check the validity of laws of thermodynamics for Kaluza-Klein universe in the state of thermal equilibrium, composed of dark matter and dark energy. The generalized holographic dark energy and generalized Ricci dark energy models are considered here. It is proved that the first and generalized second law of thermodynamics are valid on the apparent horizon for both of these models. Further, we take a horizon of radius $L$ with modified holographic or Ricci dark energy. We conclude that these models do not obey the first and generalized second law of thermodynamics on the horizon of fixed radius $L$ for a specific range of model parameters.

M. Sharif; Rabia Saleem

2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

83

Thermodynamics of Optical Tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the measurement of the gradient and scattering forces based on a thermodynamic treatment of optical tweezers.

Stilgoe, Alexander B; Nguyen, Lan T P; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

84

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: STATUS AND CHALLENGES San Diego, California, USA 14 ­ 15 June 2011 The First Law of energy conservation was even known (Joule 1843) and long before Thermodynamic concepts were, including this one. The Laws of Thermodynamics have much wider, including philosophical significance

Kostic, Milivoje M.

85

Computational Reality X Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Reality X Thermodynamics B. Emek Abali @ LKM - TU Berlin Abstract After solving energy density. This is actually a branch of thermodynamics, though this question never gets its full answer in a thermodynamics' class. Here we will show one possibility of deriving the energy formulation

Berlin,Technische Universität

86

Thermodynamics and rocket propulsion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and rocket propulsion ... This paper outlines the application of the principles of chemical thermodynamics to a comparison of the merit of one rocket propellant (fuel plus oxidizer) with that of another fuel-oxidizer pair for liquid-fueled rocket motors. ... Thermodynamics ...

Frank H. Verhoek

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and Spontaneity ... Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject. ... This may appeal to students in advanced courses in chemical thermodynamics, but not to most. ...

Raymond S. Ochs

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermodynamics for Visual Learners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics for Visual Learners ... I have developed several examples for visual learners in the area of thermodynamics and would like to share these with other professors. ... The examples center around the following topics: the second law of thermodynamics, isothermal processes (ideal gas), ideal gas changes of state, and the relationship between internal energy, temperature, and heat. ...

Todd M. Hamilton

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Treatise on Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE important part played by thermodynamics in modern physics, and especially in chemistry, is a sure guarantee that an English ... , gaseous systems, dissociation, and dilute solutions. As is well known to specialists in thermodynamics, Prof. Planck, instead"of using"the thermodynamic potentials of the majority of writers, ...

G. H. B.

1903-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Fundamentals of Failure Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical microscopes are fundamental to any failure analysis laboratory being easy ... to use and understand. However, most professional electronic component failure analysis laboratories employ more specialised ....

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Particle Production and Universal Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work, particle creation mechanism will be employed to the universe as a thermodynamical system. The universe is considered to be spatially flat FRW model and cosmic fluid is chosen as perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state: p=(\\gamma -1)\\rho. By proper choice of the particle creation rate, entropy and temperature will be determined at various stages of the evolution of the universe. Finally, using the deceleration parameter as a function of the redshift parameter based on recent observations, particle creation rate will be evaluated and its variation at different epochs will be shown graphically.

Subhajit Saha; Subenoy Chakraborty

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fundamental Equation of State for Deuterium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

World utilization of deuterium is anticipated to increase with the rise of fusion-energy machines such as ITER and NIF. We present a new fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of fluid deuterium. Differences between thermodynamic properties of orthodeuterium, normal deuterium, and paradeuterium are described. Separate ideal-gas functions were fitted for these separable forms together with a single real-fluid residual function. The equation of state is valid from the melting line to a maximum pressure of 2000 MPa and an upper temperature limit of 600 K, corresponding to available experimental measurements. The uncertainty in predicted density is 0.5% over the valid temperature range and pressures up to 300 MPa. The uncertainties of vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities are 2% and 3%, respectively, while speed-of-sound values are accurate to within 1% in the liquid phase.

Richardson, I. A.; Leachman, J. W., E-mail: jacob.leachman@wsu.edu [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 642920, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Lemmon, E. W. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Particle Adventure | What is fundamental? | Fundamental  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Theory of 1964 Theory of 1964 The Theory of 1964 In 1964, six theoretical physicists hypothesized a new field (like an electromagnetic field) that would permeate all of space and solve a critical problem for our understanding of the universe. Independently, other physicists were constructing a theory of the fundamental particles, eventually called the "Standard Model," that would prove to be phenomenally accurate.* These otherwise unrelated efforts turned out to be intimately interconnected. The Standard Model needed a mechanism to give fundamental particles mass. The field theory devised by Peter Higgs, Robert Brout, François Englert, Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen, and Thomas Kibble did just that. Photo of Francois Englert and Peter Higgs - © CERN * Experimental tests of the accuracy of some parts of the Standard Model

94

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics James D. Callen University of Wisconsin, Madison June 28, 2006 #12;PREFACE Plasma physics is a relatively new branch of physics that became a mature science over the last half of the 20th century. It builds on the fundamental areas of classical physics: mechanics

Callen, James D.

95

Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics Project Reference Document Principal Investigator: James and detailed content of a comprehensive Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics research project. It contains) Hypersonic Project is based on the fact that all access to earth or planetary orbit, and all entry into earth

96

Black Hole Constraints on Varying Fundamental Constants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We apply the generalized second law of thermodynamics and derive upper limits on the variation in the fundamental constants. The maximum variation in the electronic charge permitted for black holes accreting and emitting in the present cosmic microwave background corresponds to a variation in the fine-structure constant of {delta}{alpha}/{alpha}{approx_equal}2x10{sup -23} per second. This value matches the variation measured by Webb et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 884 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 091301 (2001)] using absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars and suggests the variation mechanism may be a coupling between the electron and the cosmic photon background.

MacGibbon, Jane H. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States)

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermodynamics in the physical chemistry course  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics in the physical chemistry course ... Provides suggestions for effectively integrating thermodynamics in the physical chemistry course. ... Thermodynamics ...

James L. Dye

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... non-metallic materials, to a final section on contracts, and certainly deals with the fundamental subjects required by the engineer. The forty authors responsible for this work have been ... due attention.

1937-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Panel Interfaces: Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter describes the fundamentals of interfaces between graphics adapters (or graphics controllers) as signal sources and the input of display modules. We distinguish between analog and digital transmiss...

Dr. Karlheinz Blankenbach

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fundamentals of RMA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this chapter is to review briefly the fundamental principles and methods of RMA. We assume that you have prior knowledge of RMA and require only a refresher. If you require more than a refresher...

Mark H. Klein; Thomas Ralya; Bill Pollak…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fundamentals of Spherical Astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief survey of the fundamentals of spherical astronomy. This is a field that today is often neglected, although it is in fact still the foundation of many branches of a...

K. Schütte

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fundamentals of Power Electronics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter gives a description and overview of power electronic technologies including a description of the fundamental systems that are the building blocks of power electronic systems. Technologies that are de...

Edison R. C. da Silva; Malik E. Elbuluk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

third law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

third law of thermodynamics [The statement that the entropy of any perfect crystalline substance becomes zero at the absolute zero of temperature] ? dritter thermodynamischer Hauptsatz m, Nernstscher...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermodynamics without tears  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, 2nd Edn. By Herbert B. Callen. Wiley:1985 ... . Callen. Wiley:1985. Pp.493. 45.15, 34.75.

Tony Guénault

1986-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

Thermodynamics and scale relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

Robert Carroll

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

106

Thermodynamics and Humanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... chapter, his intention appears to have been to write on the wider human aspects of thermodynamics, to contribute to scientific humanism, which he defines as the unification of the specialized ... body of the book is, however, a fairly straightforward explanation of the laws of thermodynamics, partly classical and partly statistical, which will undoubtedly be helpful to students of the ...

J. A. V. BUTLER

1947-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermodynamics and Fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AN important section of the work of modern chemical engineers lies in the application of thermodynamics to problems of fluid systems. This volume, the fourth in the series, is ... properties of physical systems and to the transport properties of fluids. The first section on thermodynamics has been written by Dr. R. Strickland Constable of the Chemical Engineering Department at ...

J. M. COULSON

1958-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thermodynamics and surface chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE foundations of theoretical thermodynamics laid by Willard Gibbs represent a truly great intellectual and artistic achievement, perhaps marred ... that it seems to require almost as much effort to understand or use or teach thermodynamics as we imagine to have been required for the original creation. George Scatchard devoted ...

Charles Tanford

1977-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

Gravitation and Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE suggestion in NATURE of March 1 that thermodynamics might throw light on the question of the temperature variation of gravitation has not been ... unkindly received. The criticisms have not been directed so much against this suggested application of thermodynamics as against the expression deduced for the attraction between two bodies. ...

GEORGE W. TODD

1917-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

110

Developments in Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A SYMPOSIUM on Thermodynamics was held during August 20-25 at Fritzens-Wattens, near Innsbruck, Austria, under ... and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the latter through its Commission on Thermodynamics, the Sub-Commission on Experimental Thermochemistry and the Sub-Commission on Experimental ...

H. A. SKINNER; K. SCHÄFER; J. S. ROWLINSON

1959-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

111

Thermodynamics for Engineers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... it is difficult for the worker in any one branch to follow the applications of thermodynamics to other subjects with the principles of which he is unfamiliar; and he is ... motors, or refrigerating machines, to include one or more chapters on the principles of thermodynamics in relation to the subject discussed. This is a very natural compromise, but involves ...

H. L. C.

1920-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

112

Formal and Practical Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... MAY I put in a word for the British way of looking at thermodynamics, now largely confined to engineers, as suggested by the critical remarks on the second ... school. I remember when Prof. Planck, in a new edition of his book on thermodynamics, attracted attention by ultimately blessing them: which led to an invasion into Great Britain ...

JOSEPH LARMOR

1936-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Roberts's “Heat and Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the last edition of the late Dr. J. K. Roberts's "Heat and Thermodynamics" appeared. The new material incorporated in this, the fourth edition, by Dr. ... ', but simply because new problems have afforded such excellent examples of the application of thermodynamics that their study must surely help the reader to a better understanding of the subject ...

G. R. NOAKES

1952-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-In a recent article1 Hillel proposes a statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics which he claims is consistent with the time reversal symmetry of the microscopic laws of ... physical processes (such as K meson decay) which are asymmetric in time independently of thermodynamics. Hillel's remarks are thus a statement about time and not about ...

P. C. W. DAVIES

1974-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

Thermodynamics and Chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... subject, which is more a matter for the drawing office than for the student of thermodynamics. The properties of electrolytes are dealt with from the point of view of activity, ... chapter on the quantum theory and Nernsts heat theorem. The number of books on chemical thermodynamics is not large, and Prof. Macdougalls is a useful member of the group. ...

1927-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

116

Thermodynamics of Biological Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SEVERAL selected topics of thermodynamics are of importance for the interpretation of the results of biochemical experiments. A closer ... ago there were still lively disputes among eminent scientists as to whether the laws of thermodynamics are strictly applicable to biological systems. Some suggested that evolution or man's intellect ...

HERBERT GUTFREUND

1957-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN this book, Professor Landsberg brings together thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to provide a coherent account of these interrelated branches of physical theory ... side usually result in the essential structures of both becoming obscured. The value of classical thermodynamics lies in what it can do without invoking microscopic models and it is best learnt ...

C.J. Adkins

1979-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

Extensions of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE laws of 'reversible' thermodynamics lead to relationships between the 'equilibrium' properties of substances, for example, specific heats ... fully realized, cannot be deduced rigorously by the 'text-book' method of using reversible thermodynamics (because of the impossibility of finding conditions in which the irreversible effects associated with ...

H. N. V. TEMPERLEY

1952-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

Wireless Sensor Network Fundamentals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wireless Sensor Network Fundamentals Wireless Sensor Network Fundamentals Speaker(s): Steven Lanzisera Date: February 8, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kevin Kircher Wireless sensor networks have been promising to provide easy data collection and control capability to applications ranging from scientific data collection, disaster recover, national security, and more. The user experience, however, has been filled with confusing terminology, complicated systems, and a lack of interoperability between vendors. Users with a background in the technology and fundamentals are better able to understand system capabilities, make decisions, and end up with a network that meets their needs. Although a sufficient coverage of this topic is at least a semester course, the goal of this talk is to give a brief

120

Monte Carlo fundamentals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermodynamics of driven systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A geometrical formulation of thermodynamics is carried in this paper to a domain that includes dynamics and driven systems. Let it be known from experience that the behavior of an externally unforced or a driven system is well described in a state space N. The thermodynamics of the system is a geometrical structure in N that arises from an analysis of the time evolution in a more microscopic (i.e., depicting more details) state space M. If in particular the system is externally unforced then the state space N can be chosen to be the state space NET of equilibrium thermodynamics. The geometrical structure in NET, obtained by analyzing the time evolution in a more microscopic state space M, appears to be the geometrical formulation of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. The general formulation of thermodynamics introduced in this paper is illustrated by the example of a k-component system undergoing a chemical reaction.

Miroslav Grmela

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber Office Hall--Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

123

Minimal Energy Cost for Thermodynamic Information Processing: Measurement and Information Erasure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fundamental lower bounds of the thermodynamic energy cost (work) needed for the measurement and the erasure of information are found. The lower bound for the erasure vindicates the "Landauer's principle" for a special case, but otherwise implies its breakdown, indicating that no unique relationship exists between logical reversibility and physical one. Our results constitute the second law of "information thermodynamics", in which the information content and thermodynamic variables are treated on an equal footing.

Takahiro Sagawa; Masahito Ueda

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

124

Biodiversity, Entropy and Thermodynamics http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/bio info/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiversity, Entropy and Thermodynamics John Baez http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/bio info/ October(pi ) is fundamental to thermodynamics and information theory. But it's also used to measure biodiversity, where pi. In biodiversity studies, the entropy of an ecosystem is the expected amount of information we gain about

Baez, John

125

Variable-speed-of-light cosmology and second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine whether cosmologies with a varying speed of light (VSL) are compatible with the second law of thermodynamics. We find that the VSL cosmology with a varying fundamental constant is severely constrained by the second law of thermodynamics, whereas the bimetric cosmological models are less constrained.

Donam Youm

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

126

Dissecting The Second Law of Thermodynamics: It Could Be Challenged But Not Violated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissecting The Second Law of Thermodynamics: It Could Be Challenged But Not Violated Milivoje M.kostic.niu.edu * E-mail: kostic@niu.edu The Second Law of Thermodynamics is among the most fundamental principles of engineering, science and nature. Even today, the Second Law remains obscure, due to the lack of its holistic

Kostic, Milivoje M.

127

Hoisting & Rigging Fundamentals  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hoisting and Rigging Hoisting and Rigging Fundamentals for Riaaers and ODerators Pendant Control - Components TR244C, Rev. 5 December 2002 TR244C Rev . 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii HOISTING AND RIGGING OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WIRE ROPE SLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SYNTHETIC WEBBING SLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I O CHAINSLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 METAL MESH SLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SPREADER BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 RIGGING HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

EWONAP Procurement Fundamentals  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

HUD's Eastern Woodlands Office of Native American Programs in collaboration with the Seminole Tribe of Florida Native Learning Center invites you to attend the Procurement Fundamentals training instructed by Vince Franco, Compliance & Resource Development Director of the Native Learning Center in Atlanta, Georgia on September 8-9, 2014.

129

Wormholes and thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hawking has recently pointed out that black holes cannot evaporate and disappear through wormholes because the entropy of a baby universe would not equal its size squared times some proportionality constant. In this report it is shown that multiply connected Euclidean wormhole spacetimes can be associated with nonlinear dynamic laws which are analogous to those of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, making plausible a full generalization of thermodynamics encompassing both nonequilibrium and gravitational effects. It is seen that both at equilibrium and out of it baby universe thermodynamics can provide the right relation between the size of the originating black hole and its entropy.

Pedro F. González-Díaz

1996-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thermodynamic Model of the Macroscopically Ordered Exciton State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explain the experimentally observed instability of cold exciton gases and the formation of a macroscopically ordered exciton state in terms of a thermodynamic model accounting for the phase fluctuations of the condensate. We show that the temperature dependence of the exciton energy exhibits fundamental scaling behavior with the signature of the second order phase transition.

S. V. Andreev

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fundamentals Explain High Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: One can use a simple model to deal with price/fundamental relationships. This one predicts monthly average WTI price as a function of OECD total petroleum stock deviations from the normal levels . The graph shows the model as it begins predicting prices in 1992. It shows how well the model has predicted not only the direction, but the magnitude of prices over this 8+ year period. While the model is simple and not perfect, it does predict the overall trends and, in particular, the recent rise in prices. It also shows that prices may have over-shot the fundamental balance for a while -- at least partially due to speculative concerns over Mideast tensions, winter supply adequacy, and Iraq's export policies. Prices now seem to be correcting, and may even undershoot briefly

132

Masses of Fundamental Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the original paper entitled, "Masses of Fundamental Particles"(arXiv:1109.3705v5, 10 Feb 2012), not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs boson, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite models of quarks and leptons successfully. In this addendum entitled, "Higgs Boson Mass in the Minimal Unified Subquark Model", it is emphasized that the Higgs boson mass is predicted to be about 130Gev in the minimal unified subquark model, which agrees well with the experimental values of 125-126GeV recently found by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC.

Hidezumi Terazawa

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

133

Thermodynamics in biological systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... An EMBO-sponsored Workshop on Thermodynamics in Biological Systems was held at the Villa Durazzo at Santa Margherita Ligure under the ... auspices of the University of Genoa on April 5?9, 1976.

A Correspondent

1976-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

134

Thermodynamics in Physiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... These principles can be, and are, accepted. Philosophically speaking, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, dealing with the limitations of the availability of energy, is more liable to doubt ... the jurisdiction of the Second Law.

A. V. HILL

1924-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

135

Advances in Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE first of the laws of thermodynamics dis-A covered was the second, by Carnot in 1824, when he described the ... , caloric for Carnot) and intensity (for example, temperature).

J. R. PARTINGTON

1952-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Tait's “Thermodynamics”1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the molecules from the potential energy of their configuration; but they have no place in thermodynamics proper, in which we deal only with sensible masses and their sensible motions.

J. CLERK MAXWELL

1878-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermodynamics of Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Chapter 3, the example of a flat one-dimensional flame was used to show that several ingredients are needed for the solution of the conservation equations. One of these ingredients is the thermodynamic prop...

Professor Dr. Jürgen Warnatz; Priv.-Doz. Dr. Ulrich Maas…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thermodynamics of Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Chapter 3, the example of a flat one-dimensional flame was used to show that several ingredients are needed for the solution of the conservation equations. One of these ingredients is the thermodynamic prop...

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Warnatz; Prof. Dr. Ulrich Maas…

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Extensivity and Relativistic Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mathematical properties associated with the widely accepted concept of the extensivity of many of the common thermodynamic variables are examined and some of their consequences considered. The possible conflict between some of these and currently accepted results of special relativistic thermodynamics is highlighted. Although several questions are raised, answers are not advanced as this seems an area demanding calm, widespread reflection which could conceivably lead to radical revision of part, or parts, of theoretical physics.

J. Dunning-Davies

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

Reheating and causal thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reheating process in inflationary universe models is considered as an out-of-equilibrium mixture of two interacting and reacting fluids, and studied within the framework of causal, irreversible thermodynamics. The evolution of the temperature and the decay rate as determined by causal thermodynamics are estimated at different stages of the process. A simple model is also used to find the perturbations of the expansion rate, including the possibility of damped oscillations.

Winfried Zimdahl; Diego Pavón; Roy Maartens

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pauli problem in thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermodynamic analogue of the Pauli problem (reconstruction of a wavefunction from the position and momentum distributions) is formulated. The coordinates of a quantum system are replaced by the inverse absolute temperature and other intensive quantities, and the Planck constant is replaced by the Boltzmann constant multiplied by two. A new natural mathematical generalization of the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory is suggested and sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the thermodynamic Pauli problem are obtained.

Artur E. Ruuge

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

142

Analog computer fundamentals & application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ANALOG COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS Rc APPLICATION A Technical RePort by R. N. PATE L submitted to PROD J. H. CADDESS In n art i a 1 fulf i lment of the requi. rements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING TEXAS A...-linear operation which is necessary on a general purpose computer. A "quarter-square" tech- -nique is used to effect this operation, use being made of the identity: X7 = 'j?'P(?J3 -c~-~)3 The connections shown i. n figure be made to the patch panel...

Patel, R.N

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

From Thermodynamics to the Bound on Viscosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics may shed much light on the mysterious Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) bound on the ratio of viscosity to entropy density. In particular, we obtain the lower bound $\\eta/s +O(\\eta^3/s^3)\\geq 1/4\\pi$. Furthermore, for conformal field theories we obtain a new fundamental bound on the value of the relaxation coefficient $\\tau_{\\pi}$ of causal hydrodynamics, which has been the focus of much recent attention: $(\\tau_{\\pi}T)^2\\geq {{(\\sqrt{3}-1)}/{2\\pi^2}}$.

Shahar Hod

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Quasilocal first law for black hole thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We first show that stationary black holes satisfy an extremely simple quasilocal form of the first law, ?E=?¯8??A, where the (quasilocal) energy E=A/(8??) and (local) surface gravity ?¯=1/?, with A the horizon area and ? is a proper length characterizing the distance to the horizon of a preferred family of quasilocal observers suitable for thermodynamical considerations. Our construction is extended to the more general framework of isolated horizons. The local surface gravity is universal. This has important implications for semiclassical considerations of black hole physics as well as for the fundamental quantum description arising in the context of loop quantum gravity.

Ernesto Frodden; Amit Ghosh; Alejandro Perez

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

145

Holographic Bound From Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A necessary condition for the validity of the holographic principle is the holographic bound: the entropy of a system is bounded from above by a quarter of the area of a circumscribing surface measured in Planck areas. This bound cannot be derived at present from consensus fundamental theory. We show with suitable {\\it gedanken} experiments that the holographic bound follows from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for both generic weakly gravitating isolated systems and for isolated, quiescent and nonrotating strongly gravitating configurations well above Planck mass. These results justify Susskind's early claim that the holographic bound can be gotten from the second law.

Jacob D. Bekenstein

2000-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

146

Thermodynamics of Ideal Gas in Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equation of state and the state functions for the gravitational source are necessary conditions for solving cosmological model and stellar structure. The usual treatments are directly based on the laws of thermodynamics, and the physical meanings of some concepts are obscure. This letter show that, we can actually derive all explicit fundamental state functions for the ideal gas in the context of cosmology via rigorous dynamical and statistical calculation. These relations have clear physical meanings, and are valid in both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic cases. Some features of the equation of state are important for a stable structure of a star with huge mass.

Ying-Qiu Gu

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

147

STEP and fundamental physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's Equivalence Principle from their present sensitivity of 2 parts in $10^{13}$ to 1 part in $10^{18}$ through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status, and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity, and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

James Overduin; Francis Everitt; Paul Worden; John Mester

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

STEP and fundamental physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's Equivalence Principle from their present sensitivity of 2 parts in $10^{13}$ to 1 part in $10^{18}$ through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status, and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity, and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these ...

Overduin, James; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

STEP and fundamental physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

James Overduin; Francis Everitt; Paul Worden; John Mester

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fisher info and thermodynamics' first law  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theory, that thermodynamics’ ?rst law (TFL) can bewhich is a “Fisher’s thermodynamics” ?rst-law: note that theone can derive thermodynamics ?rst law for the Fisher

Plastino, A; Plastino, A R; Soffer, Bernard H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Evolution Vs. Thermodynamics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evolution Vs. Thermodynamics Evolution Vs. Thermodynamics Name: Murphy iii Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Does the THEORY of evolution contradict the Second Law of thermodynamics? If not, how can an organic system grow in complexity in light of that law? Do not even try to tell me that hot methane soup has less chaos than cool DNA. Replies: The second law only says that the entropy (disorder) of a complete closed system must increase with time, not that the orderliness of one part of that system cannot increase. Increasing complexity of life must be balanced with more increase of disorder somewhere else in the system. Life itself increases order, but only of a small part of the overall system, whose entropy, when all parts are added up, must always be increasing

152

Thermodynamic Modeling Studies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling Studies Modeling Studies J. Lindner, L. T. Smith, J. C. Luthe, L. Pearson. R. K. Toghiani, Y. Xia, and P. Naik Institute for Clean Energy Technology Mississippi State University May 20,2009 Initial Tank Composition Remove liquid to reflect undrained saltcake Stage 1 Dissolution Remove transfer stream 1 liquids transfer stream 0 liquids recycle solids liquids transfer stream 1 liquids recycle solids Next Stage of Dissolution DWPF recycle Thermodynamic Modeling Studies 2 Overview of Presentation * Database Activities and Needs * C farm retrievals and neural network development * Thermodynamic data and computational methods for liquid waste flowsheet modeling (SRS) * Aluminum solubility studies Thermodynamic Modeling Studies 3 Database Activities and Needs * Earlier a mid-term study addressed the solubility of a number of systems if

153

Thermodynamics of quantum lightspheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lightspheres, surfaces where massless particles are confined in closed orbits, are expected to be common astrophysical structures surrounding ultra-compact objects. In this paper a semi-classical treatment to photons in a lightspheres is proposed. We consider the quantum Maxwell field and derive its energy spectra. A thermodynamic approach for the quantum lightsphere is explored. Within this treatment, an expression for the spectral energy density of the emitted radiation is presented. Our results suggest that lightspheres populated by photons, when thermalized with their environment, have non-usual thermodynamic properties, which could lead to distinct observational signatures.

M. C. Baldiotti; Walace S. Elias; C. Molina; Thiago S. Pereira

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

154

Thermodynamics of quantum lightspheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lightspheres, surfaces where massless particles are confined in closed orbits, are expected to be common astrophysical structures surrounding ultra-compact objects. In this paper a semi-classical treatment to photons in a lightspheres is proposed. We consider the quantum Maxwell field and derive its energy spectra. A thermodynamic approach for the quantum lightsphere is explored. Within this treatment, an expression for the spectral energy density of the emitted radiation is presented. Our results suggest that lightspheres populated by photons, when thermalized with their environment, have non-usual thermodynamic properties, which could lead to distinct observational signatures.

Baldiotti, M C; Molina, C; Pereira, Thiago S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Thermodynamics, Liposuction, and Metabolism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The regulation of body weight adheres to the principles of thermodynamics: a positive energy balance causes weight gain, and weight loss occurs when the energy expenditure exceeds intake. More than half the adults in the United States are overweight or obese, and many of these people make an effort... The regulation of body weight adheres to the principles of thermodynamics: a positive energy balance causes weight gain, and weight loss occurs when the energy expenditure exceeds intake. More than half the adults in the United States are overweight or ...

Kelley D.E.

2004-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Confusion in Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a long time now, confusion has existed in the minds of many over the meaning of various concepts in thermodynamics. Recently, this point has been brought to people's attention by two articles appearing on the well-known archive (arxiv) web site. The content of these two pieces serves to illustrate many of the problems and has occasioned the construction of this answer to at least some of them. The position of the axiom proposed by Carath\\'eodory is central in this matter and here its position is clarified and secured within the framework of thermodynamics. In particular, its relation to the First Law is examined and justified.

Jeremy Dunning-Davies; David Sands

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermodynamics in the Viscous Early Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming that the matter filling the background geometry in the Early Universe was a free gas and no phase transitions took place, we discuss the thermodynamics of this closed system using classical approaches. We found that essential cosmological quantities, such as the Hubble parameter $H$, the scaling factor $a$ and the curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model. The results are compatible with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and Einstein field equations. Including finite bulk viscosity coefficient leads to important changes in the cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of radical revision. We found that $k$ strongly depends on thermodynamics of the cosmic background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on the relation between the matter content and the total energy. Using quantum and statistical approaches, we introduced expressions for $H$ a...

Tawfik, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Zeroth Law compatibility of non-additive thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-extensive thermodynamics was criticized among others by stating that the Zeroth Law cannot be satisfied with non-additive composition rules. In this paper we determine the general functional form of those non-additive composition rules which are compatible with the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics. We find that this general form is additive for the formal logarithms of the original quantities and the familiar relations of thermodynamics apply to these. Our result offers a possible solution to the longstanding problem about equilibrium between extensive and non-extensive systems or systems with different non-extensivity parameters.

T. S. Biró; P. Ván

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Mathematical analysis of spark ignition engine operation via the combination of the first and second laws of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cycle simulation of the diesel cycle: exergy as a second...Shapiro, H. N. 2000 Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamic...on a turbo-charged diesel engine performance and exergy...spark ignition engine cycle using first and second...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Facility Representative Program: DOE Fundamentals Handbooks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fundamentals Handbooks Fundamentals Handbooks Classical Physics (DOE-HDBK-1010-92) Volume 1 of 1 Electrical Science (DOE-HDBK-1011-92) Volume 1 of 4 Volume 2 of 4 Volume 3 of 4 Volume 4 of 4 Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (DOE-HDBK-1012-92) Volume 1 of 3 Volume 2 of 3 Volume 3 of 3 Instrumentation and Control (DOE-HDBK-1013-92) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Mathematics (DOE-HDBK-1014-92) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Chemistry (DOE-HDBK-1015-93) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Engineering Symbology, Prints and Drawings (DOE-HDBK-1016-93) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Material Science (DOE-HDBK-1017-93) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Mechanical Science (DOE-HDBK-1018-93) Volume 1 of 2 Volume 2 of 2 Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory (DOE-HDBK-1019-93) Volume 1 of 2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thermodynamics: Keeping Up to Date  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THERMODYNAMICS still holds surprises, as delegates learnt at the international conference on this topic held ... concepts like information."

A Correspondent

1970-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

162

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

163

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

164

Fundamental parameters and infrared excesses of Hipparcos stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts...Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California...observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA...2010, AA, 518, L141. LibertY.GerardE.Le BertreT......

I. McDonald; A. A. Zijlstra; M. L. Boyer

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Process Fundamentals and Parameters of Electro-Spark Deposition.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Electrospark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-bonding process that is capable of depositing wear and corrosion resistance coating to repair, to improve and to extend the… (more)

Tang, Siu Kei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Thermodynamics and gravitational collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known now that a typical gravitational collapse in general relativity, evolving from regular initial data and under physically reasonable conditions would end in either a black hole or a naked singularity final state. An important question that needs to be answered in this connection is, whether the analogues of the laws of thermodynamics, as formulated for relativistic horizons are respected by the dynamical spacetimes for collapse that end in the formation of a naked singularity. We investigate here the thermodynamical behaviour of the dynamical horizons that form in spherically symmetric gravitational collapse and we show that the first and second laws of black hole thermodynamics, as extended to dynamical spacetimes in a suitable manner, are not violated whether the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. We then make a distinction between the naked singularities that result from gravitational collapse, and those that exist in solutions of Einstein equations in vacuum axially symmetric and stationary spacetimes, and discuss their connection with thermodynamics in view of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the validity of the third law of black hole mechanics.

Daniele Malafarina; Pankaj S. Joshi

2011-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thermodynamics of a nonionic sponge phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different suggestions for the mechanism governing the narrow stability of the L3 (sponge) phase have led to a series of debates in recent years. There have been several models developed to describe such a mechanism via thermodynamics. To date, experimental data are insufficient to test present theories. In this study, we revisit the sponge phase with two series of thermodynamic data performed on the well-characterized C12E5–n-decane–H2O system. These thermodynamic data sets stem from phase equilibrium and static light scattering experiments designed to link system-specific parameters such as the temperature dependence of the spontaneous curvature Ho and the two bending moduli ? and ?¯, which have only been loosely connected in earlier experiments. The use of a well-characterized system is important in that it allows usage of molecular descriptors from earlier studies to reduce fit parameters. Another advantage for using this system is that its phase behavior is analogous to a two-component system which, from an experimental standpoint, is more practical to perform accurate measurements and, from a theoretical standpoint, more simple to model. In the present investigation, we use these tools to quantitatively test parameters obtained by different experimental techniques and assumptions inherited in theoretical models designed to interpret them.

T. D. Le; U. Olsson; H. Wennerström; P. Schurtenberger

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters

Sparks, Donald L.

169

Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

P. Ván

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Classical QGP : IV. Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct the equation of a state of the classical QGP valid for all values of Gamma=V/K, the ratio of the mean Coulomb to kinetic energy. By enforcing the Gibbs relations, we derive the pertinent pressure and entropy densities for all Gamma. For the case of an SU(2) classical gluonic plasma our results compare well with lattice simulations. We show that the strongly coupled component of the classical QGP contributes significantly to the bulk thermodynamics across T_c.

Sungtae Cho; Ismail Zahed

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

Jerome Perez

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Thermodynamics of irregular scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is pointed out that scaling (multifractal) properties of chaotic repellers underlying irregular scattering in two-degrees-of-freedom systems can be deduced by measuring simple length scales generated hierarchically along a straight line taken far away from the interaction region, or on the Poincaré plane, and analyzing them in the spirit of the thermodynamic formalism. The method is easier to apply than a periodic orbit analysis.

Zoltán Kovács and Tamás Tél

1990-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

Thermodynamics of clan production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scenarios for particle production in the GeV and TeV regions are reviewed. The expected increase with the c.m. energy of the average number of clans for the soft component and the decrease for the semihard one indicate possible classical and quantum behavior of gluons, respectively. Clan thermodynamics, discussed in the paper, appears as the natural framework to deal with such phenomena.

Alberto Giovannini; Sergio Lupia; Roberto Ugoccioni

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

Yun Soo Myung

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

Chung, T.H.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Effect of fluctuations on electron and phonon processes and thermodynamic parameters of Ag{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}Se in the region of phase transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature dependences of electrical conductivity {sigma}, thermoelectric power {alpha}, results of differential thermal analysis {delta}T{sub y}, thermal conductivity {chi}, temperature conductivity {kappa}, and heat capacity C{sub p} were studied in Ag{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}Se semiconductors in the region of the phase transition. Two extrema are observed in the temperature dependence {chi}(T): a maximum in the region of the {alpha}' {sup {yields}} {beta}' transition and a minimum in the region of the {beta}' {sup {yields}} {beta} transition; these extrema are caused by the similar dependence C{sub p}(T). It is shown that the {alpha} {sup {yields}} {alpha}' and {beta}' {sup {yields}} {beta} transitions are displacement transitions, while the {alpha}' {sup {yields}} {beta}' transition is of reconstruction type. It is established that the disorder parameter {eta} in silver chalcogenides is highly smeared in the region of the phase transition; therefore, disordering of phases at the point of the phase transition is incomplete: 73, 62, and 48% in Ag{sub 2}Te, Ag{sub 2}Se, and Ag{sub 2}S, respectively. The minimum volumes V{sub ph} for new phases are calculated; it is shown that the value of V{sub ph} in displacement transitions is larger than in the reconstruction-type transitions.

Aliev, S. A.; Aliev, F. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermodynamics of Lovelock-Lifshitz black branes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the thermodynamics of Lovelock-Lifshitz black branes. We begin by introducing the finite action of third order Lovelock gravity in the presence of a massive vector field for a flat boundary, and use it to compute the energy density of these black branes. Using the field equations, we find a conserved quantity along the r coordinate that relates the metric parameters at the horizon and at infinity. Remarkably, though the subleading large-r behavior of Lovelock-Lifshitz black branes differs substantively from their Einsteinian Lifshitz counterparts, we find that the relationship between the energy density, temperature, and entropy density is unchanged from Einsteinian gravity. Using the first law of thermodynamics to obtain the relationship between entropy and temperature, we find that it too is the same as the Einsteinian case, apart from a constant of integration that depends on the Lovelock coefficients.

Dehghani, M. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mann, R. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Thermodynamics of free Domain Wall fermions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying various thermodynamic quantities for the free domain wall fermions for both finite and infinite fifth dimensional extent N_5, we find that the lattice corrections are minimum for $N_T\\geq10$ for both energy density and susceptibility, for its irrelevant parameter M in the range 1.45-1.50. The correction terms are, however, quite large for small lattice sizes of $N_T\\leq8$. We propose modifications of the domain wall operator, as well as the overlap operator, to reduce the finite cut-off effects to within 10% of the continuum results of the thermodynamic quantities for the currently used N_T=6-8 lattices. Incorporating chemical potential, we show that \\mu^2 divergences are absent for a large class of such domain wall fermion actions although the chiral symmetry is broken for $\\mu\

R. V. Gavai; Sayantan Sharma

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

179

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 -CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS FALL, 2014 (6/24/14) CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted

Kounaves, Samuel P.

180

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 (10/31/12) CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB Atomic, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted

Kounaves, Samuel P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Universe Adventure - Fundamental Particles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fundamental Particles Fundamental Particles Chart of Fundamental Particles All matter in the universe is comprised of fundamental particles. So what exactly makes up this matter? All matter is made of fundamental particles that came into being at the birth of the Universe. Quarks experience the strong force which is carried by massless particles called gluons. They bond together in specific combinations to form protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. Leptons do not experience the strong force but may interact via the electromagnetic force, the weak force, or both. Anti-quarks and anti-leptons are exactly the same as their quark and lepton counterparts, but have an opposite charge. All massive particles are influenced by the force of gravity. Quark-Gluon Plasma: 10-12 Seconds After the Big Bang

182

2 - Fundamentals of vibrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: An elastic system could exhibit oscillatory motion when external energy is supplied to the system. External energy can be supplied to the system through either an applied force or an imposed motion excitation. The applied force or motion excitation may be harmonic, periodic, nonperiodic, or random in nature. Real engineering systems can be modeled as discrete systems (single or multiple-degree-of-freedom system) or continuous system having an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The discrete system contains discrete masses and springs and even dampers, whereas the continuous system has distributed masses, springs and dampers. A vibration system may experience transient response under suddenly applied non-periodic excitation. The nondeterministic vibration of system under random excitation could be quantified by probabilistic analysis. The dynamical system’s parameters such as stiffness and damping could exhibit salient nonlinearity if the amplitude of motion is relatively large. Nonlinear system exhibit complicated vibrations such as primary resonance, super-and-sub harmonics, combination resonance, bifurcation and chaos. This chapter provides detailed discussion of single- and multiple-degree-of-freedom linear systems under harmonic excitations and random excitations. It will present the vibrations of continuous systems including string, rod and beam. This chapter will also present the methods to treat nonlinear systems, focusing on three kinds of typical nonlinear systems: Duffing equations, Van der Pol equations and Mathieu equations. This chapter will also brief the concept of bifurcation and chaos in nonlinear systems.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Irreversible Thermodynamics of the Universe: Constraints from Planck Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work deals with irreversible Universal thermodynamics. The homogenous and isotropic flat model of the universe is chosen as open thermodynamical system and non-equilibrium thermodynamics comes into picture due to the mechanism of particle creation. For simplicity, entropy flow is considered only due to heat conduction. Further, due to Maxwell-Cattaneo modified Fourier law for non-equilibrium phenomenon, the temperature satisfies damped wave equation instead of heat conduction equation. Validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) has been investigated for Universe bounded by apparent or event horizon with cosmic substrutum as perfect fluid with constant or variable equation of state or interacting dark species. Finally, we have used three Planck data sets to constrain the thermal conductivity \\lambda and the coupling parameter b^2. These constraints must be satisfied in order for GSLT to hold for Universe bounded by apparent or event horizons.

Subhajit Saha; Atreyee Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

184

Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space,...

Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Is it not true that the Second Law of ... of Thermodynamics is contradicted by the known facts of diffusion? When, for instance, masses of ...

M. A. BROWNE

1905-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford Motor Company Don Siegel dsiegel2@ford.com Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007) 1 Acknowledgements C. Wolverton V. Ozolins Computation Northwestern UCLA J. Yang A. Sudik Experiments Ford Ford 2 Computational Methodology * Atomistic computer simulations based on quantum mechanics (Density Functional Theory) * First-principles approach: - Only empirical input are crystal structure and fundamental physical constants - VASP code - PAW potentials - PW91 GGA - Temperature-dependent thermodynamic contributions evaluated within harmonic approximation * "Direct method" for construction of dynamical matrix

187

CHEMISTRY 223: Introductory Physical Chemistry I. Kinetics 1: Gas laws, kinetic theory of collisions. Thermodynamics: Zeroth law of thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics, heat capacity,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of collisions. Thermodynamics: Zeroth law of thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics, heat capacity, enthalpy, thermochemistry, bond energies. Second law of thermodynamics; the entropy and free energy functions. Third law of thermodynamics, absolute entropies, free energies, Maxwell relations and chemical

Ronis, David M.

188

Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

The Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop is a three-day workshop for tribes to understand how to manage the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process and implement the Council on...

189

(1) A Textbook of Thermodynamics (2) Applied Thermodynamics (3) Elementary Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... (1) DR. HOARE'S book, which deals with pure thermodynamics, is one of the most readable treatises yet published on a subject which is ...

A. L. B.

1939-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Thermodynamic Origin of Life  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as a catalyst for the absorption and dissipation of sunlight at the surface of shallow seas. The resulting heat is then efficiently harvested by other irreversible processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the intense ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are remarkably rapid in transforming this light into heat in the presence of liquid water. From this perspective, the origin and evolution of life, inseparable from water and the water cycle, can be understood as resulting from the natural thermodynamic imperative of increasing the entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with its solar environment. A mechanism is proposed for the reproduction of RNA and DNA without the need for enzymes, promoted instead through UV light dissipation and the ambient conditions of prebiotic Earth.

K. Michaelian

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

191

Molecular Fundamentals of Enzyme Nanogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular Fundamentals of Enzyme Nanogels ... In addition to the H-bond, a static electronic force or hydrophobic interactions may also be anticipated to create a monomer?enzyme assembly and fabricate various enzyme nanogels and thus merit further efforts. ... Combinatorial approaches are increasingly applied in the design of robust immobilized enzymes by rational combination of fundamental immobilization techniques (i.e., non-covalent adsorption, covalent binding, entrapment, and encapsulation) or with other relevant technologies. ...

Jun Ge; Diannan Lu; Jun Wang; Ming Yan; Yunfeng Lu; Zheng Liu

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

192

Geometric Foundation of Thermo-Statistics, Phase Transitions, Second Law of Thermodynamics, but without Thermodynamic Limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A geometric foundation thermo-statistics is presented with the only axiomatic assumption of Boltzmann's principle S(E,N,V)=k\\ln W. This relates the entropy to the geometric area e^{S(E,N,V)/k} of the manifold of constant energy in the finite-N-body phase space. From the principle, all thermodynamics and especially all phenomena of phase transitions and critical phenomena can unambiguously be identified for even small systems. The topology of the curvature matrix C(E,N) of S(E,N) determines regions of pure phases, regions of phase separation, and (multi-)critical points and lines. Within Boltzmann's principle, Statistical Mechanics becomes a geometric theory addressing the whole ensemble or the manifold of all points in phase space which are consistent with the few macroscopic conserved control parameters. This interpretation leads to a straight derivation of irreversibility and the Second Law of Thermodynamics out of the time-reversible, microscopic, mechanical dynamics. This is all possible without invoking the thermodynamic limit, extensivity, or concavity of S(E,N,V). The main obstacle against the Second Law, the conservation of the phase-space volume due to Liouville is overcome by realizing that a macroscopic theory like Thermodynamics cannot distinguish a fractal distribution in phase space from its closure.

D. H. E. Gross

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Contact Symmetries and Hamiltonian Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we analyze several aspects of the application of contact geometry to thermodynamics. We first investigate the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries in thermodynamics, with respect to both the contact and the metric structures. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the thermodynamic phase space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, using contact Hamiltonian dynamics, we propose a formalism for thermodynamics that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics. We find out the general functional form for the relevant contact Hamiltonian in thermodynamics and show that it is a measure of the entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a precise definition of thermodynamically admissible processes according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we also show that we can give an equivalent formulation in terms of the Fisher-Rao metric, in analogy with the Theory of Relativity, where the metric structure defines admissible paths.

A. Bravetti; C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; F. Nettel

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

194

The Thermodynamics of Heat Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... necessary when an engineer is presenting the usual useful application of the known laws of thermodynamics that he should introduce it in thirty-six pages of this style of writing. ... given to or taken from the stuff than heat and work. The first law of thermodynamics states that, if stuff is carried through a cyclic change and is brought back ...

JOHN PERRY

1903-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

The General Theory of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... being as given in the title. The following is an abstract of the lecture:-Thermodynamics, Prof. Reynolds said, was a very difficult subject. The reasoning involved was such ... The physical theories of astronomy, light, and sound involved even more mathematical complexities than thermodynamics, but these subjects had been rendered popular, and this to the great improvement of ...

1883-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thermodynamics of urban population flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Orderliness, reflected via mathematical laws, is encountered in different frameworks involving social groups. Here we show that a thermodynamics can be constructed that macroscopically describes urban population flows. Microscopic dynamic equations and simulations with random walkers underlie the macroscopic approach. Our results might be regarded, via suitable analogies, as a step towards building an explicit social thermodynamics.

A. Hernando and A. Plastino

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermodynamics of dilaton-axion black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considering a generalized action for the Einstein-Maxwell theory in four dimensions coupled to scalar and pseudoscalar fields, the thermodynamic properties of asymptotically flat black hole solutions in such a background are investigated. Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law is verified for these class of black holes. From the property of specific heat, it is shown that such black holes can be stable for a certain choice of the parameters like charge, mass, and the scalar vacuum expectation value. The possibility of a black hole phase transition is discussed in this context.

Ghosh, Tanwi; SenGupta, Soumitra [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta-700 032 (India)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. And the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but are actually also found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.

Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

199

The fundamental plane of clusters of galaxies: a quest for understanding cluster dynamics and morphology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss implications of the fundamental plane parameters of clusters of galaxies derived from combined optical and X-ray data of a sample of 78 nearby clusters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of these parameters on the dynamical state of the cluster. We introduce a new concept of allocation of the fundamental plane of clusters derived from their intrinsic morphological properties, and put some theoretical implications of the existence of a fundamental plane into perspective.

Christoph Fritsch; Thomas Buchert

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

THERMODYNAMICS Unified Model for Nonideal Multicomponent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMODYNAMICS Unified Model for Nonideal Multicomponent Molecular Diffusion Coefficients Alana and a rigorous descrip- tion of mixture nonideality in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Molecular

Firoozabadi, Abbas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Anisotropic Dark Energy and the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a Bianchi type $I$ model in which anisotropic dark energy is interacting with dark matter and anisotropic radiation. With this scenario, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. It is concluded that the validity of this law depends on different parameters like shear, skewness and equation of state.

M. Sharif; Farida Khanum

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

202

Thermodynamics of clusterized matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.

Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topical surveys on the significance and use of print media prove that the need for print media is growing worldwide. This is indicated by the fact that at the end of the millenium Time Magazine acknowledged the s...

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Helmut Kipphan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic principle of the STM experiment is described in Sect. 2.1. A theoretical basis for the treatment of electron tunneling in STM is given by Bardeen’s theory [1], which is the preeminent quantitative theor...

Florian Buchner

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biotechnological perspectives. FUNDAMENTALS Structure and Composition...even in terms of such fundamentals as the orientation...intersheet van der Waals forces; despite the weakness...such models in either fundamental or applied contexts...noncovalent interactive forces. Catalytic domains...

Lee R. Lynd; Paul J. Weimer; Willem H. van Zyl; Isak S. Pretorius

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental...system for stem cell culture does not exist; however, bioreactor...Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles. | In recent...require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic geometry of Park black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of Park black hole in Ho\\v{r}ava gravity. By incorporating the ideas of differential geometry, we have investigated the thermodynamics using Weinhold geometry and Ruppeiner geometry. We have also analyzed it in the context of newly developed geometrothermodynamics(GTD). Divergence of specific heat is associated with the second order phase transition of black hole. Here in the context of Park black hole, both Weinhold's metric and Ruppeiner's metric well explain this phase transition. But these explanations depend on the choice of potential. Hence the Legendre invariant GTD is used, and with the true singularities in the curvature scalar, GTD well explain the second order phase transition. All these methods together give an exact idea of all the behaviors of the Park black hole thermodynamics.

Jishnu Suresh; Tharanath R; Nijo Varghese; V C Kuriakose

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment Embrittlement, under static load could be a result of the...

210

Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education News and...

211

Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza Department of Electrical Engineering San Jose State University October 12, 2007 #12;Cognitive Radio - RHMZ - 2007 Slide 2 of 18 Outline. Cognitive radio (CR) a) Definition and overview (Mitola) b) CR features (FCC) 3. Unlicensed TV spectrum

Morelos-Zaragoza, Robert H.

212

Fundamental Constants of the Muon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three precise measurements exist on static properties of the muon. These are the g factor, g-2, and the frequency of the 3D-2P transition in mesonic phosphorus. They are combined to obtain the best fit to the fundamental constants of the muon.

G. Shapiro and L. M. Lederman

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

ONAP/NLC Procurement Fundamentals  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Eastern Woodlands Office of Native Americans Programs, in collaboration with the Seminole Tribe of Florida Native Learning Center, is hosting a free Procurement Fundamentals training instructed by Vince Franco, Compliance & Resource Director of the Native Learning Center.

214

Plasmons in Graphene: Fundamental Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVITED P A P E R Plasmons in Graphene: Fundamental Properties and Potential Applications in graphene have intriguing fundamen- tal properties and hold great potential for applications. They enable via gate voltage, providing an advantage for graphene's plasmons over surface plasmons (SPs

Soljaèiæ, Marin

215

Fundamental Catalysis Research in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fundamental Catalysis Research in Japan ... Japan is one of the foremost nations in catalysis research. ... Dr. Horiuti responded with information on what he and other Japanese research workers were doing, and subsequently I decided to visit Japan to study catalysis during my sabbatical leave from New York University last spring. ...

JOHN HAPPEL

1966-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber OÃ?ce: Kerr Hall|Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

217

Notes on the Third Law of Thermodynamics.I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze some aspects of the third law of thermodynamics. We first review both the entropic version (N) and the unattainability version (U) and the relation occurring between them. Then, we heuristically interpret (N) as a continuity boundary condition for thermodynamics at the boundary T=0 of the thermodynamic domain. On a rigorous mathematical footing, we discuss the third law both in Carath\\'eodory's approach and in Gibbs' one. Carath\\'eodory's approach is fundamental in order to understand the nature of the surface T=0. In fact, in this approach, under suitable mathematical conditions, T=0 appears as a leaf of the foliation of the thermodynamic manifold associated with the non-singular integrable Pfaffian form $\\delta Q_{rev}$. Being a leaf, it cannot intersect any other leaf $S=$ const. of the foliation. We show that (N) is equivalent to the requirement that T=0 is a leaf. In Gibbs' approach, the peculiar nature of T=0 appears to be less evident because the existence of the entropy is a postulate; nevertheless, it is still possible to conclude that the lowest value of the entropy has to belong to the boundary of the convex set where the function is defined.

F. Belgiorno

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

Microscopic diagonal entropy and its connection to basic thermodynamic relations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We define a diagonal entropy (d-entropy) for an arbitrary Hamiltonian system as S{sub d}=-{Sigma}{sub n{rho}nn}ln{rho}{sub nn} with the sum taken over the basis of instantaneous energy states. In equilibrium this entropy coincides with the conventional von Neumann entropy S{sub n} = -Tr{rho} ln {rho}. However, in contrast to S{sub n}, the d-entropy is not conserved in time in closed Hamiltonian systems. If the system is initially in stationary state then in accord with the second law of thermodynamics the d-entropy can only increase or stay the same. We also show that the d-entropy can be expressed through the energy distribution function and thus it is measurable, at least in principle. Under very generic assumptions of the locality of the Hamiltonian and non-integrability the d-entropy becomes a unique function of the average energy in large systems and automatically satisfies the fundamental thermodynamic relation. This relation reduces to the first law of thermodynamics for quasi-static processes. The d-entropy is also automatically conserved for adiabatic processes. We illustrate our results with explicit examples and show that S{sub d} behaves consistently with expectations from thermodynamics.

Polkovnikov, Anatoli, E-mail: asp@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the second law of thermodynamics. This law will conform to your intuition—once you understand its significance and can apply it properly to both closed and open systems.

Dwight C. Look Jr.; Harry J. Sauer Jr.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... be faced by every student attempting to grasp for himself the significance of the second law of ... of thermodynamics. As I, with difficulty and without much help from the text-books, extricated ...

F. SODDY

1905-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Third Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 1956, the late Sir Francis Simon gives a historical and critical survey of the third law of ... of thermodynamics. In 1906, in a paper entitled "On the Calculation of Chemical Equilibria from ...

S. WEINTROUB

1957-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In our qualitative description of processes we have already emphasized the trend of any isolated system towards an unique and stable equilibrium state. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is the quantitative formula...

Henning Struchtrup

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

On the Mathematics of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the mathematical structure of Gibbsian thermodynamics flows from the following simple elements: the state space of a thermodynamical substance is a measure space together with two orderings (corresponding to "warmer than" and "adiabatically accessible from") which satisfy certain plausible physical axioms and an area condition which was introduced by Paul Samuelson. We show how the basic identities of thermodynamics, in particular the Maxwell relations, follow and so the existence of energy, free energy, enthalpy and the Gibbs potential function. We also discuss some questions which we have not found dealt with in the literature, such as the amount of information required to reconstruct the equations of state of a substance and a systematic approach to thermodynamical identities.

J. B. Cooper; T. Russell

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

224

Methodological principles of modern thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The article describes basic principles of the theory which unites thermodynamics of reversible and irreversible processes also extends them methods on processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy

V. A. Etkin

2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

225

Relativisticlike structure of classical thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze in the context of geometrothermodynamics a Legendre invariant metric structure in the equilibrium space of an ideal gas. We introduce the concept of thermodynamic geodesic as a succession of points, each corresponding to a state of equilibrium, so that the resulting curve represents a quasi-static process. A rigorous geometric structure is derived in which the thermodynamic geodesics at a given point split the equilibrium space into two disconnected regions separated by adiabatic geodesics. This resembles the causal structure of special relativity, which we use to introduce the concept of adiabatic cone for thermodynamic systems. This result might be interpreted as an alternative indication of the inter-relationship between relativistic physics and classical thermodynamics.

Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez; Alejandro Vazquez

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

226

Thermodynamics of regular black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermodynamic Analysis for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION William F. Kenney Exxon Chemical Company Florham Park, New Jersey , ,,~ This paper describes a methodology for per forming a thermodynamic analysis of a process, and it demonstrates how... fired. In a cracking furnace it can reduce lost work in combustion and in the convec tion section at the cost of more surface area in the convection section, reduced steam make, and slightly higher radiative temperature differences. Preheating air...

Kenney, W. F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Thermodynamics of Modified Chaplygin Gas and Tachyonic Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we generalize the results of the work of ref. [10] in modified Chaplygin gas model and tachyonic field model. Here we have studied the thermodynamical behaviour and the equation of state in terms of volume and temperature for both models. We have used the solution and the corresponding equation of state of our previous work [12] for tachyonic field model. We have also studied the thermodynamical stability using thermal equation of state for the tachyonic field model and have shown that there is no critical points during thermodynamical expansion. The determination of $T_{*}$ due to expansion for the tachyonic field have been discussed by assuming some initial conditions. Here, the thermal quantities have been investigated using some reduced parameters.

Samarpita Bhattacharya; Ujjal Debnath

2010-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Entanglement Theory and the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entanglement is central both to the foundations of quantum theory and, as a novel resource, to quantum information science. The theory of entanglement establishes basic laws, such as the non-increase of entanglement under local operations, that govern its manipulation and aims to draw from them formal analogies to the second law of thermodynamics. However, while in the second law the entropy uniquely determines whether a state is adiabatically accessible from another, the manipulation of entanglement under local operations exhibits a fundamental irreversibility which prevents the existence of such an order. Here we show that a reversible theory of entanglement and a rigorous relationship with thermodynamics may be established when one considers all non-entangling transformations. The role of the entropy in the second law is taken by the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement in the basic law of entanglement. We show the usefulness of this new approach to general resource theories and to quantum information theory.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Martin B. Plenio

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

230

Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

231

Constraining gravitational and cosmological parameters with astrophysical data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use astrophysical data to shed light on fundamental physics by constraining parametrized theoretical cosmological and gravitational models. Gravitational parameters are those constants that parametrize possible departures ...

Mao, Yi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic...

233

Thermodynamics of the BCS-BEC crossover  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a self-consistent theory for the thermodynamics of the BCS-BEC crossover in the normal and superfluid phase which is both conserving and gapless. It is based on the variational many-body formalism developed by Luttinger and Ward and by DeDominicis and Martin. Truncating the exact functional for the entropy to that obtained within a ladder approximation, the resulting self-consistent integral equations for the normal and anomalous Green functions are solved numerically for arbitrary coupling. The critical temperature, the equation of state, and the entropy are determined as a function of the dimensionless parameter 1?kFa, which controls the crossover from the BCS regime of extended pairs to the BEC regime of tightly bound molecules. The tightly bound pairs turn out to be described by a Popov-type approximation for a dilute, repulsive Bose gas. Even though our approximation does not capture the critical behavior near the continuous superfluid transition, our results provide a consistent picture for the complete crossover thermodynamics which compares well with recent numerical and field-theoretic approaches at the unitarity point.

R. Haussmann; W. Rantner; S. Cerrito; W. Zwerger

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

234

Holographic Viscosity of Fundamental Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(N_c) gauge theory with a small number of flavours N_f viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s >= 1/4\\pi. The contribution of the fundamental matter eta_fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta_fund ~ lambda N_c N_f T^3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential.

David Mateos; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4??cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1?g+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1?g+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1? between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

G. D. Dickenson; M. L. Niu; E. J. Salumbides; J. Komasa; K. S. E. Eikema; K. Pachucki; W. Ubachs

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

Phantom Thermodynamics Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although generalized Chaplygin phantom models do not show any big rip singularities, we investigated k-essence models together with noncanonical kinetic energy for which there might be a big rip future singularity in the phantom region. We present our results by finely tuning the parameter ($\\beta$) which is closely related to the canonical kinetic term in $k$-essence formalism. The scale factor $a(t)$ could be negative and decreasing within a specific range of $\\beta$ during the initial evolutional period. There will be no singularity for the scale factor for all times once $\\beta$ is carefully selected.

A. Kwang-Hua Chu

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Thermodynamics of inflation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inflationary models that depend on a temperature-dependent phase change require a homogeneous thermal state as an initial condition. In this paper we estimate the average total number of interactions per particle obtained with various models and thereby determine self-consistently whether a thermal state is likely. The requirement that a thermal state should occur is used to provide bounds on the parameters in such models. The formalism we develop can be used to study questions concerning the validity of the initial thermal state in a quatitative way. In particular we verify that the "new inflation" scenario is not viable.

P. D. B. Collins and R. F. Langbein

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Information Thermodynamics on Causal Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study nonequilibrium thermodynamics of complex information flows induced by interactions between multiple fluctuating systems. Characterizing nonequilibrium dynamics by causal networks (i.e., Bayesian networks), we obtain novel generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the fluctuation theorem, which include an informational quantity characterized by the topology of the causal network. Our result implies that the entropy production in a single system in the presence of multiple other systems is bounded by the information flow between these systems. We demonstrate our general result by a simple model of biochemical adaptation.

Sosuke Ito and Takahiro Sagawa

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Horizon thermodynamics and composite metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the conditions under which the thermodynamic behaviour of gravity can be explained within an emergent gravity scenario, where the metric is defined as a composite operator. We show that due to the availability of a boundary of a boundary principle for the quantum effective action, Clausius-like relations can always be constructed. Hence, any true explanation of the thermodynamic nature of the metric tensor has to be referred to an equilibration process, associated to the presence of an H-theorem, possibly driven by decoherence induced by the pregeometric degrees of freedom, and their entanglement with the geometric ones.

Lorenzo Sindoni

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermodynamics of Radiative Emission Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A basic assumption implicit in the application of thermodynamics to the electromagnetic field is that the laws of thermodynamics are locally valid for radiative emission and absorption processes. This means that a certain minimum amount of entropy must be created by the radiative process itself. It is shown, by considering the extreme case in which the spontaneous emission of a natural spectral line is the only process taking place, that this assumption is correct, and that its validity is essentially a consequence of the uncertainty principle as expressed by the reciprocal relationship between natural line breadth and lifetime.

M. A. Weinstein

1960-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Thermodynamics of quantum photon spheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photon spheres, surfaces where massless particles are confined in closed orbits, are expected to be common astrophysical structures surrounding ultracompact objects. In this paper a semiclassical treatment of a photon sphere is proposed. We consider the quantum Maxwell field and derive its energy spectra. A thermodynamic approach for the quantum photon sphere is developed and explored. Within this treatment, an expression for the spectral energy density of the emitted radiation is presented. Our results suggest that photon spheres, when thermalized with their environment, have nonusual thermodynamic properties, which could lead to distinct observational signatures.

M.?C. Baldiotti; Walace S. Elias; C. Molina; Thiago S. Pereira

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermodynamics of local causal horizons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose an expression for the entropy density associated with the local causal horizons in any diffeomorphism-invariant theory of gravity. If the black-hole entropy of the theory satisfies the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics, then our proposed entropy satisfies the Clausius relation. Thus, our study shows that the thermodynamic nature of the spacetime horizons is not restricted to the black holes; it also applies to the local causal horizons in the neighborhood of any point in the spacetime.

Arif Mohd and Sudipta Sarkar

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

243

Fundamentals of wetting and spreading with emphasis on soldering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soldering is often referred to as a mature technology whose fundamentals were established long ago. Yet a multitude of soldering problems persist, not the least of which are related to the wetting and spreading of solder. The Buff-Goodrich approach to thermodynamics of capillarity is utilized in a review of basic wetting principles. These thermodynamics allow a very compact formulation of capillary phenomena which is used to calculate various meniscus shapes and wetting forces. These shapes and forces lend themselves to experimental techniques, such as the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate, for measuring useful surface and interfacial energies. The familiar equations of Young, Wilhelmy, and Neumann are all derived with this approach. The force-energy duality of surface energy is discussed and the force method is developed and used to derive the Herring relations for anisotropic surfaces. The importance of contact angle hysteresis which results from surface roughness and chemical inhomogeneity is presented and Young's equation is modified to reflect these ever present effects. Finally, an analysis of wetting with simultaneous metallurigical reaction is given and used to discuss solder wetting phenomena. 60 refs., 13 figs.

Yost, F.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

On the foundation of thermodynamics by microcanonical thermostatistics. The microscopic origin of condensation and phase separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional thermo-statistics address infinite homogeneous systems within the canonical ensemble. However, some 170 years ago the original motivation of thermodynamics was the description of steam engines, i.e. boiling water. Its essential physics is the separation of the gas phase from the liquid. Of course, boiling water is inhomogeneous and as such cannot be treated by conventional thermo-statistics. Then it is not astonishing, that a phase transition of first order is signaled canonically by a Yang-Lee singularity. Thus it is only treated correctly by microcanonical Boltzmann-Planck statistics. This is elaborated in the present paper. It turns out that the Boltzmann-Planck statistics is much richer and gives fundamental insight into statistical mechanics and especially into entropy. This can be done to a far extend rigorously and analytically. The deep and essential difference between ``extensive'' and ``intensive'' control parameters, i.e. microcanonical and canonical statistics, is exemplified by rotating, self-gravitating systems. In this paper the necessary appearance of a convex entropy $S(E)$ and the negative heat capacity at phase separation in small as well macroscopic systems independently of the range of the force is pointed out. The appearance of a critical end-point for the liquid-gas transition in the $p-E$ or $V-E$ phase diagram can be easily explained as well the non-existence of a critical end-point of the solid-liquid transition.

D. H. E. Gross

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

245

"Thermodynamics", Temporal Correlations and Scaling Laws  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Thermodynamics, Temporal Correlations and Scaling Laws Hirokazu Fujisaka * Department...equilibrium statistical-thermodynamics, and the temporal correlation...static and dynamic scaling laws of relevant functions characteristic......

Hirokazu Fujisaka

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Should thermodynamics be X-rated?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Should thermodynamics be X-rated? ... A simple analogy is suggested illustrating the thermodynamic sign convention and the significance of the negative sign of ?H and ?G on spontaneity for general or introductory chemistry students. ...

Henry A. Bent

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

248

The world according to Rényi: Thermodynamics of fractal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss a basic thermodynamic properties of systems with multifractal structure. This is possible by extending the notion of Gibbs-Shannon’s entropy into more general framework-Rényi’s information entropy. We show a connection of Rényi’s parameter q with the multifractal singularity spectrum f(?) and clarify a relationship with the Tsallis-Havrda-Charvat entropy. Finally we generalize Hagedorn’s statistical theory and apply it to high-energy particle collisions.

Petr Jizba; Toshihico Arimitsu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

Joseph, Anosh [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States); Rajeev, Sarada G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Mathematics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of co-dimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

Anosh Joseph; S. G. Rajeev

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

251

Thermodynamics of dark energy interacting with dark matter and radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics, in the cosmological scenario where dark energy interacts with both dark matter and radiation. Calculating separately the entropy variation for each fluid component and for the apparent horizon itself, we show that the generalized second law is always and generally valid, independently of the specific interaction form, of the fluids equation-of-state parameters and of the background geometry.

Jamil, Mubasher [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Setare, M. R. [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

Don N. Page

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thermodynamics of the Yang-Mills gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contribution of nonlinear fluctuations (instantons) to the thermodynamics of the Yang-Mills gas at high temperature is estimated.

Barry J. Harrington and Harvey K. Shepard

1978-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Thermodynamics in Kaluza-Klein theories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The topological effects on thermodynamics are investigated for massless particles on a sphere and a product of two spheres.

Y. Tosa

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Stubbs discusses the astrophysical observations that show that the current picture of fundamental physics is far from complete.

Christopher Stubb

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrons and Nuclei: Fundamental Interactions and Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Examples are given of the usefulness of electrons in interaction with nuclei for probing fundamental interactions and structure

Ernest M. Henley

1998-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

First law of thermodynamics in IR modified Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the first law of thermodynamics in IR modified Ho?ava-Lifshitz spacetime. Based on the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, we obtain the integral formula and the differential formula of the first law of thermodynamics for the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole by treating ? as a new state parameter and redefining a mass that is just equal to MADM obtained by Myung [32] if we take ?=3?/8.

Mengjie Wang; Jiliang Jing; Chikun Ding; Songbai Chen

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

First law of thermodynamics in IR modified Horava-Lifshitz gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the first law of thermodynamics in IR modified Horava-Lifshitz spacetime. Based on the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, we obtain the integral formula and the differential formula of the first law of thermodynamics for the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole by treating {omega} as a new state parameter and redefining a mass that is just equal to M{sub ADM} obtained by Myung [32] if we take {alpha}=3{pi}/8.

Wang Mengjie; Jing Jiliang; Ding Chikun; Chen Songbai [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Dynamic Stability and Thermodynamic Characterization in an Enzymatic Reaction at the Single Molecule Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we study, at the single molecular level, the thermodynamic and dynamic characteristics of an enzymatic reaction comprising a rate limiting step. We investigate how the stability of the enzyme-state stationary probability distribution, the reaction velocity, and its efficiency of energy conversion depend on the system parameters. We employ in this study a recently introduced formalism for performing a multiscale thermodynamic analysis in continuous-time discrete-state stochastic systems.

Moisés Santillán

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

260

Second law of thermodynamics for macroscopic mechanics cou pled to thermodynamic degrees of freedom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Second law of thermodynamics for macroscopic mechanics cou­ pled to thermodynamic degrees Subject Classification (2000): 82C05, 82C03, 80A10. Keywords: Second law of thermodynamics, Maximum work principle. 1 Introduction The second law of thermodynamics is one of the most important principles

Maes, Christian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... CLAUSIUS' supposed deduction of the second law from the ordinary equations of dynamics in the form has been discussed at length by ... form has been discussed at length by Messrs. Larmor and Bryan in their Report on Thermodynamics for the British Association. They accept the deduction on condition that the system be ...

S. H. BURBURY

1893-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.

D. K. Sinclair

2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

Systematic analysis of transverse momentum distribution and non-extensive thermodynamics theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic analysis of transverse momentum distribution of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic p+p and A+A collisions is presented. We investigate the effective temperature and the entropic parameter from the non-extensive thermodynamic theory of strong interaction. We conclude that the existence of a limiting effective temperature and of a limiting entropic parameter is in accordance with experimental data.

Sena, I.; Deppman, A. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

265

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni #12;Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass

Berning, Torsten

266

ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1262 ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: LONG-TERM FATE thermodynamic and kinetic data is available with regard to the formation of these mixed metal precipitate phases to six months from the initial addition of aqueous nickel. Additionally, we have determined thermodynamic

Sparks, Donald L.

267

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

Firoozabadi, Abbas

268

Fundamental studies of polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Fundamentals of specular neutron reflectometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An introduction to the methodology of neutron reflectometry is given in which the fundamental aspects regarding the actual performance of specular reflection measurements and subsequent analysis of the data are described. The application of this technique to the determination of interfacial structure or composition in thin film and multilayer materials of interest in the fields of magnetism, superconductivity, polymer science, electrochemistry, and biology is illustrated by specific examples. The microscopic information provided by neutron reflectivity which complements that obtained by other probes is emphasized, in particular information which is obtainable because of the inherent isotopic (most notably in the case of hydrogenous materials) or magnetic moment (both magnitude and orientation) sensitivity of the neutron.

Majkrzak, C.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Straight way to Thermo-Statistics, Phase Transitions, Second Law of Thermodynamics, but without Thermodynamic Limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boltzmann's principle S(E,N,V)=k\\ln W relates the entropy to the geometric area e^{S(E,N,V)} of the manifold of constant energy in the N-body phase space. From the principle all thermodynamics and especially all phenomena of phase transitions and critical phenomena can be deduced. The topology of the curvature matrix C(E,N) (Hessian) of S(E,N) determines regions of pure phases, regions of phase separation, and (multi-)critical points and lines. Thus, C(E,N) describes all kind of phase-transitions with all their flavor. They are linked to convex (upwards bending) intruders of S(E,N), here the canonical ensemble defined by the Laplace transform to the intensive variables becomes non-local and violates the basic conservation laws (it mixes widely different conserved quantities). Thus Statistical Mechanics becomes a geometric theory addressing the whole ensemble or the manifold of all points in phase space which are consistent with the few macroscopic conserved control parameters. Moreover, this interpretation leads to a straight derivation of irreversibility and the Second Law of Thermodynamics out of the time-reversible microscopic mechanical dynamics. It is the whole ensemble that spreads irreversibly over the accessible phase space not the single N-body trajectory. This is all possible without invoking the thermodynamic limit, extensivity, or concavity of S(E,N,V) and also without invoking any cosmological constraints. It is further shown that non-extensive Hamiltonian systems at equilibrium are described by Boltzmann's principle and not by Tsallis non-extensive statistics.

D. H. E. Gross

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

271

Thermodynamical properties of dark energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the thermodynamical properties of dark energy. Assuming that the dark energy temperature T{approx}a{sup -n} and considering that the volume of the Universe enveloped by the apparent horizon relates to the temperature, we have derived the dark energy entropy. For dark energy with constant equation of state w>-1 and the generalized Chaplygin gas, the derived entropy can be positive and satisfy the entropy bound. The total entropy, including those of dark energy, the thermal radiation, and the apparent horizon, satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, for the phantom with constant equation of state, the positivity of entropy, the entropy bound, and the generalized second law cannot be satisfied simultaneously.

Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Wang Anzhong [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China) and CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Thermodynamics with Continuous Information Flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a unified thermodynamic formalism describing information transfers in autonomous as well as nonautonomous systems described by stochastic thermodynamics. We demonstrate how information is continuously generated in an auxiliary system and then transferred to a relevant system that can utilize it to fuel otherwise impossible processes. Indeed, while the joint system satisfies the second law, the entropy balance for the relevant system is modified by an information term related to the mutual information rate between the two systems. We show that many important results previously derived for nonautonomous Maxwell demons can be recovered from our formalism and use a cycle decomposition to analyze the continuous information flow in autonomous systems operating at a steady state. A model system is used to illustrate our findings.

Jordan M. Horowitz and Massimiliano Esposito

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermodynamics of a dusty plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, we develop the thermodynamics of a dusty plasma and give an equation of state for two cases: (a) when the dust forms a stationary background and the charge on the grain does not vary and (b) when the dust charge fluctuates either due to the fluctuations in the electron and ion number densities or due to the dust density variation. Application of the results to the various space plasma situations has been indicated.

B. P. Pandey

2004-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

274

Breaking information-thermodynamics link  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The information-thermodynamics link is revisited, going back to the analysis of Szilard's engine. It is argued that instead of equivalence rather complementarity of physical entropy and information theoretical one is a correct concept. Famous Landauer's formula for a minimal cost of information processing is replaced by a new one which takes into account accuracy and stability of information encoding. Two recent experiments illustrating the information-energy conversion are critically discussed.

Robert Alicki

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

Burra G. Sidharth

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Thermodynamics of random copolymer melts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a mean-field thermodynamic analysis of AB random copolymer melts with (backbone) composition correlations that reflect realistic polymerization conditions. Depending on the strength and sign of these correlations, multiple homogeneous phases, periodic mesophases, or disordered mesophases are possible. We identify an isotropic Lifshitz point and the critical lines that emerge from it. Our results should facilitate the design of new copolymeric materials.

Glenn H. Fredrickson and Scott T. Milner

1991-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

277

Thermodynamics of feedback controlled systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We compute the entropy reduction in feedback controlled systems due to the repeated operation of the controller. This was the lacking ingredient to establish the thermodynamics of these systems, and in particular of Maxwell’s demons. We illustrate some of the consequences of our general results by deriving the maximum work that can be extracted from isothermal feedback controlled systems. As a case example, we finally study a simple system that performs an isothermal information-fueled particle pumping.

F. J. Cao and M. Feito

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

278

Thermodynamics near the correlation volume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I present and test three simple thermodynamic fluctuation rules which may in some cases hold for subsystems of infinite systems with volumes less than the correlation volume. Tests at volumes near the correlation volume are made in the two-dimensional square ferromagnetic Ising model by Monte Carlo simulation. Fluctuations into the metastable and spinodal regions are discussed. Aside from difficulties apparently resulting from the small volumes used in the simulations, the rules are found to work well.

George Ruppeiner

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Available energy via nonequilibrium thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic macroscopic relations involving the concept of available energy are derived from the local equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The available energy is that part of a system’s energy which can be converted into useful work. The model used describes a mixture of heat conducting compressible inviscid chemically reacting fluids in a gravitational field. Integration of the local equations yields instructive derivations of basic available energy relations for closed systems continuous flow arrangements and for diffusive mixing or separation processes.

E. L. Woollett

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Stars in other universes: stellar structure with different fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with possible variations in the laws of physics, this paper explores the parameter space of fundamental constants that allows for the existence of stars. To make this problem tractable, we develop a semi-analytical stellar structure model that allows for physical understanding of these stars with unconventional parameters, as well as a means to survey the relevant parameter space. In this work, the most important quantities that determine stellar properties-and are allowed to vary-are the gravitational constant G, the fine structure constant {alpha} and a composite parameter C that determines nuclear reaction rates. Working within this model, we delineate the portion of parameter space that allows for the existence of stars. Our main finding is that a sizable fraction of the parameter space (roughly one-fourth) provides the values necessary for stellar objects to operate through sustained nuclear fusion. As a result, the set of parameters necessary to support stars are not particularly rare. In addition, we briefly consider the possibility that unconventional stars (e.g. black holes, dark matter stars) play the role filled by stars in our universe and constrain the allowed parameter space.

Adams, Fred C, E-mail: fca@umich.edu [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

Randall L. Headrick

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

282

The microcanonical thermodynamics of finite systems: The microscopic origin of condensation and phase separations, and the conditions for heat flow from lower to higher temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microcanonical thermodynamics [D. H. E. Gross Microcanonical Thermodynamics Phase Transitions in “Small” Systems (World Scientific Singapore 2001)] allows the application of statistical mechanics both to finite and even small systems and also to the largest self-gravitating ones. However one must reconsider the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics especially its key quantity entropy. Whereas in conventional thermostatistics the homogeneity and extensivity of the system and the concavity of its entropy are central conditions these fail for the systems considered here. For example at phase separation the entropy S ( E ) is necessarily convex to make e S ( E ) ? E ? T bimodal in E . Particularly as inhomogeneities and surface effects cannot be scaled away one must be careful with the standard arguments of splitting a system into two subsystems or bringing two systems into thermal contact with energy or particle exchange. Not only the volume part of the entropy must be considered; the addition of any other external constraint [A. Wehrl Rev. Mod. Phys.50 221 (1978)] such as a dividing surface or the enforcement of gradients of the energy or particle profile reduce the entropy. As will be shown here when removing such constraints in regions of a negative heat capacity the system may even relax under a flow of heat (energy) against a temperature slope. Thus the Clausius formulation of the second law: “Heat always flows from hot to cold ” can be violated. Temperature is not a necessary or fundamental control parameter of thermostatistics. However the second law is still satisfied and the total Boltzmannentropy increases. In the final sections of this paper the general microscopic mechanism leading to condensation and to the convexity of the microcanonical entropy at phase separation is sketched. Also the microscopic conditions for the existence (or nonexistence) of a critical end point of the phase separation are discussed. This is explained for the liquid-gas and the solid-liquidtransition.

D. H. E. Gross; J. F. Kenney

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Validity of Thermodynamical Laws in Dark Energy Filled Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have considered the flat FRW model of the universe which is filled with only dark energy. The general descriptions of first and second laws of thermodynamics are investigated on the apparent horizon and event horizon of the universe. We have assumed the equation of state of three different types of dark energy models. We have examined the validity of first and second laws of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons for these dark energies. For these dark energy models, it has been found that on the apparent horizon, first and second laws are always valid. On the event horizon, the laws are break down for dark energy models 1 and 2. For model 3, first law cannot be satisfied on the event horizon, but second law may be satisfied at the late stage of the evolution of the universe and so the validity of second law on the event horizon depends on the values of the parameters only.

Samarpita Bhattacharya; Ujjal Debnath

2010-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermodynamics of Evolving Lorentzian Wormhole at Apparent and Event Horizons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the $r$ - direction and in the $T$ - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function $b(r)$ is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.

Ujjal Debnath; Mubasher Jamil; R. Myrzakulov; M. Akbar

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed lattice spacing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed scales on the lattice, where we vary temperature by changing the temporal lattice size N_t=(Ta_t)^{-1}. In the fixed scale approach, finite temperature simulations are performed on common lattice spacings and spatial volumes. Consequently, we can isolate thermal effects in observables from other uncertainties, such as lattice artifact, renormalization factor, and spatial volume effect. Furthermore, in the EOS calculations, the fixed scale approach is able to reduce computational costs for zero temperature subtraction and parameter search to find lines of constant physics, which are demanding in full QCD simulations. As a test of the approach, we study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory on isotropic and anisotropic lattices. In addition to the equation of state, we calculate the critical temperature and the static quark free energy at a fixed scale.

T. Umeda; S. Ejiri; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

286

Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma << H$ the process is negligible and as should be expected it also vanishes (regardless of the value of $\\Gamma$) in the absence of gravitation. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution function has the same functional form of equilibrium with the evolution laws corrected by the particle production process. The macroscopic temperature evo...

Lima, J A S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...

288

Fundamentals of Laser-Material Interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The following chapter illustrates the basic physical processes occurring during laser-material interaction. It considers fundamentals of electrodynamics in relation to electron–phonon interaction, electromagne...

Ettore Carpene; Daniel Höche; Peter Schaaf

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermodynamic Volumes for AdS-Taub-NUT and AdS-Taub-Bolt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS_4 with an S^3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

Clifford V. Johnson

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

Geometric description of BTZ black holes thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the properties of the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states of the Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole in (2+1)-gravity. We use the formalism of geometrothermodynamics to introduce in the space of equilibrium states a $2-$dimensional thermodynamic metric whose curvature is non-vanishing, indicating the presence of thermodynamic interaction, and free of singularities, indicating the absence of phase transitions. Similar results are obtained for generalizations of the BTZ black hole which include a Chern-Simons term and a dilatonic field. Small logarithmic corrections of the entropy turn out to be represented by small corrections of the thermodynamic curvature, reinforcing the idea that thermodynamic curvature is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.

Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Definition: Thermodynamic cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermodynamic cycle Thermodynamic cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermodynamic cycle A process in which a fluid (water, air, ammonia, etc) successively changes state (from a liquid to a gas and back to a liquid) for the purpose of producing or transferring energy.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A thermodynamic cycle consists of a collection of thermodynamic processes transferring heat and work, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables, eventually returning a system to its initial state. In the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its surroundings, therefore acting as a heat engine. State quantities depend only on the thermodynamic state, and cumulative variation of such properties adds up to zero during a cycle. Process quantities (or

292

CH E 2421 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics I CH E 3322 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics PHYS 4312 Nuclear and Particle Physics Other Engineering Electives #12;CH E 2421 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics I CH E 3322 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics II CH E 3330 Engineering Materials Science CH E 4342 Polymer Physics

Zhang, Yuanlin

293

5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics, Spring 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This subject deals primarily with equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems, basic thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium of reactions in gas and solution phase, and rates of chemical reactions.

Bawendi, Moungi Gabriel, 1961-

294

Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics ... It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry. ...

Edgar F. Westrum Jr.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Documents & Publications Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions...

296

Thermodynamics of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we consider our universe as inhomogeneous spherically symmetric Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Model and analyze the thermodynamics of this model of the universe. The trapping horizon is calculated and is found to coincide with the apparent horizon. The Einstein field equations are shown to be equivalent with the unified first law of thermodynamics. Finally assuming the first law of thermodynamics validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is examined at the apparent horizon for the perfect fluid and at the event horizon for holographic dark energy.

Subenoy Chakraborty; Nairwita Mazumder; Ritabrata Biswas

2010-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

297

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING SUPPLIED-REFERENCE HANDBOOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING SUPPLIED-REFERENCE HANDBOOK National Council of Examiners-1-932613-37-7 Printed in the United States of America April 2010 Revised #12;PREFACE The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE NQRZOHGJH FRYHULQJ WKH UHPDLQGHU RI UHTXLUHG GHJUHH FRXUVHZRUN The FE Supplied-Reference Handbook LV WKH RQO

Ahmad, Sajjad

298

GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934-FALL 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934- FALL 2013 School of Forest Resources and ConservationGulf Coast Research _________________________________________________________________________________ GIS Fundamentals Description: This course introduces geographic information systems to Geomatics practical skills needed in many applications. Students learn basic GIS data modeling and managing concepts

Watson, Craig A.

299

Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

Gorte, Raymond J.

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T{sub 0}/{radical}1 - v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived.

Veitsman, E. V. [Research and Production Enterprise Tekhnolazer (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ev-veitsman@mail.ru

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Thermodynamics of tubelike flexible polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we present the general phase behavior of short tubelike flexible polymers. The geometric thickness constraint is implemented through the concept of the global radius of curvature. We use sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling methods to simulate small bead-stick polymer models with Lennard-Jones interaction among non-bonded monomers. We analyze energetic fluctuations and structural quantities to classify conformational pseudophases. We find that the tube thickness influences the thermodynamic behavior of simple tubelike polymers significantly, i.e., for given temperature, the formation of secondary structures strongly depends on the tube thickness.

Thomas Vogel; Thomas Neuhaus; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

302

Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.

Deniz Olgu Devecio?lu and Özgür Sar?o?lu

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Thermodynamics of tubelike flexible polymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, we discuss the general phase behavior of short tubelike flexible polymers. The geometric thickness constraint is implemented through the concept of the global radius of curvature. We use sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling methods to simulate small bead-stick polymer models with Lennard-Jones interaction among nonbonded monomers. We analyze energetic fluctuations and structural quantities to classify conformational pseudophases. We find that the tube thickness influences the thermodynamic behavior of simple tubelike polymers significantly, i.e., for a given temperature, the formation of secondary structures strongly depends on the tube thickness.

Thomas Vogel; Thomas Neuhaus; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

304

Black hole thermodynamics and quintessence: No inconsistency via the inclusion of the missing P-V terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The early literature on black hole thermodynamics ignored the $P$-$V$ term which has led to inconsistencies in the thermodynamic treatments of some black holes. Once the missing $P$-$V$ term introduced, it has become custom to introduce it only in problems where there is a negative cosmological constant. This practice is inherited from cosmological approaches which consider the quantity $-\\Lambda/8\\pi$ as the constant pressure due to a cosmological fluid. However, the notions of pressure and thermodynamic volume in black hole thermodynamics are very different from their counterparts in classical thermodynamics. From this point of view, there is a priori no compelling reason to not extend this notion of pressure and associate a partial pressure with each "external" density $8\\pi T_{t}{}^{t}$. In this work we associate a partial pressure with a variable mass parameter as well as with each $tt$-component of the effective stress-energy tensor $T_{\\text{eff}\\,\\mu}{}^{\

Mustapha Azreg-Aïnou

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

Black hole thermodynamics and quintessence: No inconsistency via the inclusion of the missing P-V terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The early literature on black hole thermodynamics ignored the $P$-$V$ term which has led to inconsistencies in the thermodynamic treatments of some black holes. Once the missing $P$-$V$ term introduced, it has become custom to introduce it only in problems where there is a negative cosmological constant. This practice is inherited from cosmological approaches which consider the quantity $-\\Lambda/8\\pi$ as the constant pressure due to a cosmological fluid. However, the notions of pressure and thermodynamic volume in black hole thermodynamics are very different from their counterparts in classical thermodynamics. From this point of view, there is a priori no compelling reason to not extend this notion of pressure and associate a partial pressure with each "external" density $8\\pi T_{t}{}^{t}$. In this work we associate a partial pressure with a variable mass parameter as well as with each $tt$-component of the effective stress-energy tensor $T_{\\text{eff}\\,\\mu}{}^{\

Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Fundamental Properties of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary results of an extensive study of the fundamental properties of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Coma cluster. Our study will combine HST surface photometry with ground-based UBRIJK photometry and optical spectroscopy. The combined data set will be used to investigate the intrinsic correlations among global parameters in cluster dEs, including the Fundamental Plane, the color-magnitude relation, the Faber-Jackson and Kormendy relation, and velocity dispersion versus line strength indices. These empirical correlations have provided important constraints to theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution for "normal" elliptical galaxies. Although dEs are the most abundant galaxy population in clusters their properties remain, however, largely unknown. Our study aims to provide an essential reference for testing current theories on the formation and evolution of dEs in clusters, and understanding their relation to more massive elliptical galaxies.

Rafael Guzman; Alister W. Graham; Ana Matkovic; Ileana Vass; Javier Gorgas; Nicolas Cardiel

2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

307

Energy & Society Energy Units and Fundamentals Energy Units and Fundamentals of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy & Society Energy Units and Fundamentals 1 Toolkit 1: Energy Units and Fundamentals of Quantitative Analysis #12;Energy & Society Energy Units and Fundamentals 2 Table of Contents 1. Key Concepts: Force, Work, Energy & Power 3 2. Orders of Magnitude & Scientific Notation 6 2.1. Orders

Kammen, Daniel M.

308

Velocity Distributions from Nonextensive Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is no accepted mechanism that explains the equilibrium structures that form in collisionless cosmological N-body simulations. Recent work has identified nonextensive thermodynamics as an innovative approach to the problem. The distribution function that results from adopting this framework has the same form as for polytropes, but the polytropic index is now related to the degree of nonextensiveness. In particular, the nonextensive approach can mimic the equilibrium structure of dark matter density profiles found in simulations. We extend the investigation of this approach to the velocity structures expected from nonextensive thermodynamics. We find that the nonextensive and simulated N-body rms-velocity distributions do not match one another. The nonextensive rms-velocity profile is either monotonically decreasing or displays little radial variation, each of which disagrees with the rms-velocity distributions seen in simulations. We conclude that the currently discussed nonextensive models require further modifications in order to corroborate dark matter halo simulations. (adapted from TeX)

Eric I. Barnes; Liliya L. R. Williams; Arif Babul; Julianne J. Dalcanton

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

309

Is mixing a thermodynamic process?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixing processes exist with positive entropy change and negative free energy change. However the idea that the i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y of the mixing processes is responsible for the so?called free energy and entropy of mixing is faulty. The mixing as well as the demixing processes may be associated with either reversible or irreversible phenomena depending on the particular conditions. For ideal gases the word ‘‘mixing’’ in the terms ‘‘mixing entropy’’ and ‘‘mixing free energy’’ may sometimes be used d e s c r i p t i v e l y but never c a u s a t i v e l y. The quantity ?? N i R?ln?X i usually referred to as ‘‘mixing entropy ’’ has nothing to do with the mixing phenomenon. Therefore the terms ‘‘mixing entropy’’ and ‘‘mixing free energy’’ are essentially misconceptions. In fact it is shown that the process of mixing of ideal gases has by itself no relevance to any thermodynamic quantity. Therefore in a thermodynamical sense it is a nonprocess. The concepts of assimilation and deassimilation are introduced. It is shown that the ‘‘deassimilation process is essentially irreversible.’’ This should replace the traditional principle that ‘‘the mixing process is essentially irreversible.’’

A. Ben?Naim

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Thermodynamics of inequalities: from precariousness to economic stratification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasingly large social and economic inequalities are observed throughout the world. Theorists after Pareto have studied this phenomenon in terms of the tail structure of the wealth distribution at a given time. Unfortunately, this approach leaves unaddressed the dynamics of inequalities in non-equilibrium situations, e.g. under redistribution policies. Here we introduce a thermodynamical theory of inequalities based on the analogy between economic stratification and statistical entropy. Within this framework we identify the combination of upward mobility with precariousness as a fundamental driver of inequality. We formalize this statement by a "second-law" inequality constraining the growth of inequalities over time. Our method can be generalized to gain insight into the dynamics of inequalities in any Markovian model of socioeconomic interactions.

Smerlak, Matteo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Continuum mechanics beyond the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mechanics beyond the second law of thermodynamics M. Ostoja-Starzewski 1...thermoviscous fluid|second law of thermodynamics|fluctuation theorem|submartingale...developed subject to the second law of thermodynamics, requiring a non-negative...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Mathematical Structure of the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The essence of the second law of classical thermodynamics is the `entropy principle' which asserts the existence of an additive and extensive entropy function, S, that is defined for all equilibrium states of thermodynamic systems and whose increase characterizes the possible state changes under adiabatic conditions. It is one of the few really fundamental physical laws (in the sense that no deviation, however tiny, is permitted) and its consequences are far reaching. This principle is independent of models, statistical mechanical or otherwise, and can be understood without recourse to Carnot cycles, ideal gases and other assumptions about such things as `heat', `temperature', `reversible processes', etc., as is usually done. Also the well known formula of statistical mechanics, S = -\\sum p log p, is not needed for the derivation of the entropy principle. This contribution is partly a summary of our joint work (Physics Reports, Vol. 310, 1--96 (1999)) where the existence and uniqueness of S is proved to be a consequence of certain basic properties of the relation of adiabatic accessibility among equilibrium states. We also present some open problems and suggest directions for further study.

Elliott H. Lieb; Jakob Yngvason

2002-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

Thermodynamics of Protein Folding Erik Sandelin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics of Protein Folding and Design Erik Sandelin Department of Theoretical Physics Lund Sölvegatan 14A 223 62 LUND September 2000 Erik Sandelin Thermodynamics of Protein Folding and Design The protein folding and protein design problems are addressed, using coarse-grained models with only two types

Sandelin, Erik

314

Thermodynamics of the sine-Gordon field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We comment on a recently published paper of Gupta and Sutherland on the thermodynamics of the sine-Gordon chain. We present a short alternative derivation of the various thermodynamic functions in the high-and low-temperature limits. While our mathematical results essentially agree with theirs, we propose a different physical interpretation.

J. F. Currie; M. B. Fogel; F. L. Palmer

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermodynamics in Birmingham : Prof. F. K. Bannister  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... PROF. F. K. BANNISTER has been appointed to a newly created chair of thermodynamics in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the University of Birmingham. The chair has ... chair has been created in connexion with the organization of the new graduate school in thermodynamics, and Prof. Bannister will be in charge of this school under Prof. G. ...

1952-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermodynamics for Chemists and Chemical Engineers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AN understanding of thermodynamics is essential for all who are concerned with quantitative aspects of chemical processes, and ... its concepts too abstract for rapid assimilation. A major difficulty is that the link between thermodynamics and the familiar and easily comprehended molecular theory is statistical mechanics, and most teachers, ...

1956-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermodynamics of dual conformal field theories for Kerr-AdS black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently Gibbons et al. in [G. W. Gibbons et al. Class. Quant. Grav. 22, 1503 (2005)] defined a set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes with the maximal number of rotation parameters in arbitrary dimension. This set of conserved quantities is defined with respect to a frame which is nonrotating at infinity. On the other hand, there is another set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes, defined by Hawking et al. in [Hawking et al. Phys. Rev. D 59, 064005 (1999)], which is measured relative to a frame rotating at infinity. Gibbons et al. explicitly showed that the quantities defined by them satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, while those quantities defined by Hawking et al. do not obey the first law. In this paper we discuss thermodynamics of dual CFTs to the Kerr-AdS black holes by mapping the bulk thermodynamic quantities to the boundary of the AdS space. We find that thermodynamic quantities of dual CFTs satisfy the first law of thermodynamics and Cardy-Verlinde formula only when these thermodynamic quantities result from the set of bulk quantities given by Hawking et al.. We discuss the implication of our results.

Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Pang Dawei [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Understanding the thermodynamic inefficiencies in combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermodynamic inefficiencies associated with any energy conversion process are expressed by the exergy destruction and the exergy losses associated with the process. Combustion processes exhibit very high thermodynamic inefficiencies caused by chemical reaction, heat transfer, friction, and mixing. In this paper, we discuss how to estimate the thermodynamic inefficiencies resulting from each one of these sources. The thermodynamic evaluation can be conducted with the aid of either a conventional exergetic analysis or an advanced one. The latter allows estimation of the potential for improvement of the process being considered and demonstrates the interactions among the components of the system in which combustion takes place. The paper discusses how advanced exergy-based evaluations can be used to reduce the thermodynamic inefficiencies, costs, and environmental impacts associated with energy conversion systems including combustion processes.

George Tsatsaronis; Tatiana Morosuk; Daniela Koch; Max Sorgenfrei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Past and Future Blurring at Fundamental Length Scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We obtain the {kappa}-deformed versions of the retarded and advanced Green functions and show that their causality properties are blurred in a time interval of the order of a length parameter q=1/(2{kappa}). The functions also indicate a smearing of the light cone. These results favor the interpretation of q as a fundamental length scale below which the concept of a point in space-time should be substituted by the concept of a fuzzy region of radius q, as proposed long ago by Heisenberg.

Neves, M. J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Farina, C.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Abstract: Solid-state reversible...

322

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from On-the-Fly ab initio DFT-D Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics...

323

Thermodynamics Student Guide (6 Activities) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Student Guide (6 Activities) Thermodynamics Student Guide (6 Activities) Information about Thermodynamics, six student activities on energy basics for grades 5-8 and 9-12....

324

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

325

Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...

326

Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

327

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

328

Fundamental Physics Highlights | Neutron Science | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fundamental Physics Fundamental Physics SHARE Fundamental Physics Highlights 1-3 of 3 Results Neutron experiments give unprecedented look at quantum oscillations October 23, 2012 - Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found that nitrogen atoms in the compound uranium nitride exhibit unexpected, distinct vibrations that form a nearly ideal realization of a physics textbook model known as the isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator. Beam Line 13 Fuels Discovery Fever for Fundamental Physicists June 01, 2011 - Kucuker Dogan (left) and Matthew Musgrave prepare a helium-3 cooling cell that is used to measure the angle at which the neutron beam strikes the liquid hydrogen sample. Fast Proton Hopping in Ice (Ih) Confirmed by Quasi-Elastic Neutron

329

FUNDAMENTALS OF HEALTHCARE FINANCE LOUIS C. GAPENSKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 HSA 5174 FUNDAMENTALS OF HEALTHCARE FINANCE LOUIS C. GAPENSKI SPRING 2013 COURSE SYLLABUS TIME with the University of Florida policy on academic integrity as contained in the Graduate Student Handbook. Cheating

Kane, Andrew S.

330

FUNDAMENTALS OF HEALTHCARE FINANCE LOUIS C. GAPENSKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 HSA 5174 FUNDAMENTALS OF HEALTHCARE FINANCE LOUIS C. GAPENSKI SPRING 2012 COURSE SYLLABUS TIME with the University of Florida policy on academic integrity as contained in the Graduate Student Handbook. Cheating

Kane, Andrew S.

331

Fundamental Ideas of Mathematics Instructor: Sam Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Math 225 Fundamental Ideas of Mathematics Syllabus Fall 2013 Instructor: Sam Smith Office: Barbelin 228, 610-660-1559, smith@sju.edu Office Hours: Tue, Thur 12:00-2:00 or by appointment. Text: Chartrand

Smith, Sam

332

Nondestructive Evaluation of Uranium: Fundamentals and Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various forms of elastic and electronic wave mechanics are essential to the application ... shall take this opportunity to describe the necessary fundamentals of waves and impart an understanding of...

Jonathan Poncelow; David L. Olson; Cameron Howard…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter reviews the fundamental characteristics and basic applications of the silicon ... provides us with a highly integrated platform for electronic–photonic convergence. For the practical achievement of ....

Koji Yamada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Simple thermodynamics of jet engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to analyze the behavior of an ideal jet engine. Simple analytical expressions for the thermal efficiency the overall efficiency and the reduced thrust are derived. We show that the thermal efficiency depends only on the compression ratio r and on the velocity of the aircraft. The other two performance measures depend also on the ratio of the temperature at the turbine to the inlet temperature in the engine T 3 / T i . An analysis of these expressions shows that it is not possible to choose an optimal set of values of r and T 3 / T i that maximize both the overall efficiency and thrust. We study how irreversibilities in the compressor and the turbine decrease the overall efficiency of jet engines and show that this effect is more pronounced for smaller T 3 / T i .

Pedro Patrício; José M. Tavares

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermodynamics of decaying vacuum cosmologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic behavior of decaying vacuum cosmologies is investigated within a manifestly covariant formulation. Such a process corresponds to a continuous, irreversible energy flow from the vacuum component to the created matter constituents. It is shown that if the specific entropy per particle remains constant during the process, the equilibrium relations are preserved. In particular, if the vacuum decays into photons, the energy density ? and average number density of photons n scale with the temperature as ??T4 and n?T3. The temperature law is determined and a generalized Planckian-type form of the spectrum, which is preserved in the course of the evolution, is also proposed. Some consequences of these results for decaying vacuum FRW-type cosmologies as well as for models with "adiabatic" photon creation are discussed.

J. A. S. Lima

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Thermodynamics of FeSi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that a simple model involving two narrow (?500 K) peaks in the density of states (DOS) at the edges of a narrow (?1000 K) gap can account for the observed anomalies in the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, thermal expansion, and elastic response of FeSi. We also show that the resistivity of FeSi, including the metal-insulator ‘‘transition’’ at about 300 K, is well described by this model. Recent band-structure calculations, although predicting the correct value for the semiconducting gap, are unable to account for the narrow peaks in the DOS needed to explain the thermodynamics. We conclude that, given the available alternatives, a Kondo insulator description—involving an extreme renormalization of the noninteracting bands—is most appropriate for FeSi.

D. Mandrus; J. L. Sarrao; A. Migliori; J. D. Thompson; Z. Fisk

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics ... Thermodynamics ...

M. H. Everdell

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Generalized second law of thermodynamics in QCD ghost f(G) gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering power-law for of scale factor in a flat FRW universe we reported a reconstruction scheme for $f(G)$ gravity based on QCD ghost dark energy. We reconstructed the effective equation of state parameter and observed "quintessence" behavior of the equation of state parameter. Furthermore, considering dynamical apparent horizon as the enveloping horizon of the universe we have observed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is valid for this reconstructed $f(G)$ gravity.

Chattopadhyay, Surajit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Generalized second law of thermodynamics in QCD ghost f(G) gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering power-law for of scale factor in a flat FRW universe we reported a reconstruction scheme for $f(G)$ gravity based on QCD ghost dark energy. We reconstructed the effective equation of state parameter and observed "quintessence" behavior of the equation of state parameter. Furthermore, considering dynamical apparent horizon as the enveloping horizon of the universe we have observed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is valid for this reconstructed $f(G)$ gravity.

Surajit Chattopadhyay

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

340

Thermodynamic evaluation of solar integration into a natural gas combined cycle power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The term integrated solar combined-cycle (ISCC) has been used to define the combination of solar thermal energy into a natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant. Based on a detailed thermodynamic cycle model for a reference ISCC plant, the impact of solar addition is thoroughly evaluated for a wide range of input parameters such as solar thermal input and ambient temperature. It is shown that solar hybridization into an NGCC plant may give rise to a substantial benefit from a thermodynamic point of view. The work here also indicates that a significant solar contribution may be achieved in an ISCC plant, thus implying substantial fuel savings and environmental benefits.

Guangdong Zhu; Ty Neises; Craig Turchi; Robin Bedilion

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thermodynamics of Peptide Aggregation Processes. An Analysis from Perspectives of Three Statistical Ensembles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We employ a mesoscopic model for studying aggregation processes of protein-like hydrophobic-polar heteropolymers. By means of multicanonical Monte Carlo computer simulations, we find strong indications that peptide aggregation is a phase separation process, in which the microcanonical entropy exhibits a convex intruder due to nonnegligible surface effects of the small systems. We analyze thermodynamic properties of the conformational transitions accompanying the aggregation process from the multicanonical, canonical, and microcanonical perspective. It turns out that the microcanonical description is particularly advantageous as it allows for unraveling details of the phase-separation transition in the thermodynamic region, where the temperature is not a suitable external control parameter anymore.

Christoph Junghans; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

342

Finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine cycle. A lumped-parameter thermodynamic model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. The mathematical formulation of this model is based on mass and energy balances with associated heat transfer rate equations. These governing equations are formulated into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically to obtain the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. Close inspection of the governing equations reveals that the time to complete on cycle, {tau} and the engine time constant, {tau}{sub c} always appear together in a dimensionless ratio. This ratio, {tau}/{tau}{sub c}, is defined here as the Finite-Time Parameter, FTP. The effects of FTP upon power output and efficiency, are studied. The results show that there exists an optimum power output for a given engine design, based on engine speed and heat-transfer contact time. The results also provide an engineering evaluation procedure to improve the efficiency and power output of Stirling engines.

Ibrahim, O.M. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Ladas, H.G. [Environmental Engineering Corp., North Kingstown, RI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles Patents · Resources with Additional Information · Wigner Honored "[Eugene P.] Wigner's great contribution to science, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, was his insight into the fundamental mathematics and physics of quantum mechanics. He applied and extended the mathematical theory of groups to the quantum world of the atom; specifically, he used group theory to organize the quantum energy levels of electrons in atoms in a way that is now standard. With that mathematical approach to the atom, Wigner became one of the first to apprehend the deep implications of symmetry, which has since emerged as one, if not the, key principle of 20th-century theoretical physics. ... Eugene P. Wigner

344

Thermodynamics of high-temperature nuclear fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for performing a thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature nuclear fuel using the ASTA computer program is substantiated. Calculations of the chemical composition and pressure of the gas phase of...

I. A. Belov; A. S. Ivanov

345

Thermodynamical interpretation of gravity in braneworld scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in the various braneworld scenarios. First, we show that the Friedmann equations can be written directly in the form of the first law of thermodynamics, dE = T{sub h}dS{sub h}+WdV, at apparent horizon on the brane, regardless of whether there is the intrinsic curvature term on the brane or a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. This procedure leads to extract an entropy expression in terms of horizon geometry associated with the apparent horizon. Then, we examine the time evolution of the total entropy, including the derived entropy of the apparent horizon and the entropy of the matter fields inside the apparent horizon. We find that the derived entropy of the apparent horizon on the brane satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics in braneworld scenarios. These results further support the idea that gravitation on a macroscopic scale is a manifestation of thermodynamics.

Sheykhi, Ahmad, E-mail: sheykhi@mail.uk.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Centenary of the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is almost exactly a hundred years since what is now known as the second law of ... of thermodynamics was formulated. The honour of first making the general statement that "heat cannot of ...

J. A. V. Butler

1950-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

347

Thermodynamics of Eastern Mediterranean Rainfall Variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This note focuses on thermodynamic changes caused by Eastern Mediterranean (EM) subsidence anomalies. Subsidence anomalies are shown to modulate EM-wide stability with respect to moist ascent. Additionally, convective available potential energy (...

Gidon Eshel; Brian F. Farrell

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

QCD Thermodynamics on the Lattice: Recent Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I give a brief introduction to the goals, challenges, and technical difficulties of lattice QCD thermodynamics and present some recent results from the HotQCD collaboration for the crossover temperature, equation of state, and other observables.

Carleton DeTar

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Thermodynamics of radiation-balanced lasing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Athermal lasers dispose of their waste heat in the form of spontaneous fluorescence (i.e., by laser cooling) to avoid warming the medium. The thermodynamics of this process is...

Mungan, Carl E

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Linear Thermodynamics of Rodlike DNA Filtration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear thermodynamics transportation theory is employed to study filtration of rodlike DNA molecules. Using the repeated nanoarray consisting of alternate deep and shallow regions, it is demonstrated that the complex ...

Li, Zirui

351

Thermodynamics and the measure of entanglement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We point out formal correspondences between thermodynamics and entanglement. By applying them to previous work, we show that entropy of entanglement is the unique measure of entanglement for pure states.

Sandu Popescu and Daniel Rohrlich

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Thermodynamics of daylight-pumped lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We cast the problem of very-low-threshold, daylight-pumped lasers in a general thermodynamic framework. We calculate that the requirements to reach threshold are that the Stokes shift...

Roxlo, C B; Yablonovitch, Eli

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the thermodynamic stability of the EC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence-depen- dent free energy fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (ii) changes in the associated DNA­RNA hybrid; and (iii) changes

Chen, Kuang-Yu

354

Thermodynamics of multiferroic spin chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The minimal model to describe many spin-chain materials with ferroelectric properties is the Heisenberg model with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor coupling J1 and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2. Here we study the thermodynamics of this model using a density-matrix algorithm applied to transfer matrices. We find that the incommensurate spin-spin correlations—crucial for the ferroelectric properties and the analog of the classical spiral pitch angle—depend not only on the ratio J2/|J1| but also strongly on temperature. We study small easy-plane anisotropies which can stabilize a vector chiral order as well as the finite-temperature signatures of multipolar phases, stable at finite magnetic field. Furthermore, we fit the susceptibilities of LiCuVO4, LiCu2O2, and Li2ZrCuO4. Contrary to the literature, we find that for LiCuVO4 the best fit is obtained with J2?90?K and J2/|J1|?0.5 and show that these values are consistent with the observed spin incommensurability. Finally, we discuss our findings concerning the incommensurate spin-spin correlations and multipolar orders in relation to future experiments on these compounds.

J. Sirker

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

355

Modeling of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Modeling of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer Simulation and Field Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Modeling of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer Simulation and Field Applications Abstract This article attempts to critically evaluate the present state of the art of geothermal reservoir simulation. Methodological aspects of geothermal reservoir modeling are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on flow in fractured media. We then examine some applications of numerical simulation to studies of reservoir dynamics, well test design and analysis, and modeling of specific fields. Tangible impacts of reservoir simulation

356

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

* Chemical Dynamics * Chemical Dynamics * Solar Conversion Fundamental Interactions flame photosynthesis icon Chemical Dynamics Work focuses on theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics of chemcial reactions in the gas phase, with a particular emphasis on reactions that are important to understanding combusion. Solar Conversion Work focuses on developing a fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in biological photosynthesis and establishing principles for the design of biomimetic systems for solar energy conversion. Current funding for this work comes primarily from the Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Divisions. April 2011

357

Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

Stubbs, Christopher (Harvard) [Harvard

2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

358

DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thermodynamic restrictions on mechanosynthesis of strontium titanate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical potential phase stability diagrams were calculated from relevant thermodynamic properties and used to predict the thermodynamic driving force under prospective conditions of room temperature mechanosynthesis. One analysed the dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure of evolving gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, as expected on using strontium peroxide or strontium carbonate as precursor reactants for the alkali earth component. Thermodynamic calculations were also obtained for changes in titania precursor reactants, including thermodynamic predictions for reactivity of strontium carbonate with amorphous titania. Experimental evidence showed that strontium titanate can be obtained by mechanosynthesis of strontium carbonate+anatase mixtures, due to previous amorphization under high energy milling. Ability to perform mechanosynthesis with less energetic milling depends on the suitable choice of alternative precursor reactants, which meet the thermodynamic requirements without previous amorphization; this was demonstrated by mechanosynthesis from anatase+strontium peroxide mixtures. - Graphical abstract: X-Ray diffractograms of the starting TiO{sub 2} (anatase)+SrCO{sub 3} mixture and after mechanical activation at 650 rpm, for 1, 2, and 7 h. Different symbols are used to identify reflections ascribed to anatase (diamonds), SrCO{sub 3} (squares) and SrTiO{sub 3} (triangles). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of thermodynamic driving force for room temperature mechanosynthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic calculations for changes in titania precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental support for thermodynamic predictions.

Monteiro, J.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, A.A.L. [Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo (Portugal); Antunes, I. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fagg, D.P., E-mail: duncan@ua.pt [Centro de Tecnologia Mecanica e Automacao, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Frade, J.R. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermodynamics of interacting holographic dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermodynamics of a scheme of dark matter-dark energy interaction is studied considering a holographic model for the dark energy in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We obtain a total entropy rate for a general horizon and study the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics. In addition, we study two horizons related to the Ricci and Ricci-like model and its effect on an interacting system.

Arevalo, Fabiola; Pena, Francisco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thermodynamics of (2+1)-flavor QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the status of our QCD thermodynamics project. It is performed on the QCDOC machine at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the APEnext machine at Bielefeld University. Using a 2+1 flavor formulation of QCD at almost realistic quark masses we calculated several thermodynamical quantities. In this proceeding we show the susceptibilites of the chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop, the static quark potential and the spatial string tension.

C. Schmidt; T. Umeda

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

General Approach for Deriving Reference Distribution Functions for Systems out of Equilibrium by Statistical Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general approach for deriving the expression of reference (density of) distribution functions, F^0, by statistical thermodynamics and the definition of local equilibrium conditions is illustrated. Even though, this procedure may be adopted for a system subjected to an arbitrary number of thermodynamic forces, as a concrete example of application, we analyze the case of a system submitted to three independent thermodynamic forces and the local equilibrium corresponds to the configuration of minimum entropy production condition and the maximum entropy principle. In this limit case, we show that the derived expression of distribution function is more general than that one, which is currently used for fitting the numerical steady-state solution obtained by simulating the Ion Cyclotron Radiation Heating (ICRH) FAST-plasmas and for describing various scenarios of tokamak plasmas. Through kinetic theory, we fixed the free parameters linking them with the external energy sources. The inverse problem has also been a...

Sonnino, Giorgio; Tlidi, Mustapha; Peeters, Philippe; Steinbrecher, György; Milovanov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system.

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Using ARM TWP Nauru Observations to Evaluate a Simple Thermodynamic Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using ARM TWP Nauru Observations to Evaluate a Simple Thermodynamic Model Using ARM TWP Nauru Observations to Evaluate a Simple Thermodynamic Model of the Subcloud Layer Under Fair-Weather Cumulus Conditions Albrecht, Bruce University of Miami Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Modeling Marine boundary layer clouds are fundamental in regulating the vertical structure of water vapor and entropy in the lowest 2 km of the Earth's atmosphere. The observations from the ARM TWP-Nauru site provide a unique opportunity to study these clouds and the associated boundary layer structure. In this study an atmospheric mixed layer representation of the subcloud layer for application in fair-weather cumulus regimes is used to develop a diagnostic model of the near surface temperature and moisture associated with a given surface temperature and wind speed. This model

366

A violation of the uncertainty principle implies a violation of the second law of thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uncertainty relations state that there exist certain incompatible measurements, to which the outcomes cannot be simultaneously predicted. While the exact incompatibility of quantum measurements dictated by such uncertainty relations can be inferred from the mathematical formalism of quantum theory, the question remains whether there is any more fundamental reason for the uncertainty relations to have this exact form. What, if any, would be the operational consequences if we were able to go beyond any of these uncertainty relations? We give a strong argument that justifies uncertainty relations in quantum theory by showing that violating them implies that it is also possible to violate the second law of thermodynamics. More precisely, we show that violating the uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics leads to a thermodynamic cycle with positive net work gain, which is very unlikely to exist in nature.

Esther Hänggi; Stephanie Wehner

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL RESERVOIR SIMULATION DONALD WCongressCatalogingin PublicationData Peaceman, Donald W Fundamentals of numerical reservoir simulation. (develrpents in petroleum

Santos, Juan

368

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation...

369

First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamental...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

370

Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for HCCI Engines Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for...

371

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...

372

Fundamental Properties and Processes of Energetic Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with reactive an non-reactive potentials14, statistical thermodynamics15,16, micromechanics, solid mechanics and fluid dynamics allowing for reactions. Although the theory of explosions in gas phase is well developed17,18, for a condensed detonating...25,70. It is around these years when the first aim towards modeling of the chemistry in complex molecules using a Hartree-Fock method71, and the use of reactive force fields for molecular dynamics simulations was also established72. Some gas phase...

Ojeda Mota, Oscar Ulises

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti Spring 2012 Radio astronomy provides a very different view of the universe than optical astronomy. Radio astronomers and optical astronomers use astronomy. Radio astronomers talk about sources of radio emission. Cas A is a strong source, for example

Ellingson, Steven W.

374

Fundamental issues in subzero PEMFC startup and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental issues in subzero PEMFC startup and operation Jeremy P. Meyers February 1, 2005. saturation capillary pressure (Pgas ­ Pliq) Sketch of hysteresis in catalyst layer · Can freeze issue 450 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Cathode exit temperature Minimumstoichw/oiceformation 150 kPa exit 120

375

Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory: Fundamentals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present fundamentals of a prequantum model with hidden variables of the classical field type. In some sense this is the comeback of classical wave mechanics. Our approach also can be considered as incorporation of quantum mechanics into classical signal theory. All quantum averages (including correlations of entangled systems) can be represented as classical signal averages and correlations.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe, S-35195 (Sweden)

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

376

ccsd00000531 Early Cosmology and Fundamental Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, open problems and future perspectives in connection with dark energy and string theory are overviewed. Contents I. The history of the universe 1 II. Fundamental Physics 2 III. Essentials of Cosmology 3 IV and Outlook 13 References 14 I. THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE The history of the universe is a history

377

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL FUNDAMENTALS OF MEDICINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................TBA Fundamentals of Medicine Year II Ends: Fri, March 27, 2015 Reading Period: Mon, Mar 30 ­ Fri, Apr 24, 2015 PCE, 2015 PCE Year II May Rotation: May 4 ­ May 31, 2015 PCE Year II June Rotation: June 1 ­ June 28, 2015

Datta, Sandeep Robert

378

AUTONOMOUS CONTROL SYSTEMS: ARCHITECTURE AND FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WP7 2:00 AUTONOMOUS CONTROL SYSTEMS: ARCHITECTURE AND FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES PJ. Antsaklis, KLM PassinD Dqt ofEecuical an Cmnpua Enge Univasity ofNotr Due Notr Dame, IN14655 ABSTRACT Autonomous control Autonomous control systems must perform well under signifit uncertainties in te plant and the envionment

Antsaklis, Panos

379

Fundamental Mechanisms of Transient States in Materials Quantified...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dynamics of phase transformation nucleation and growth, microstructure, and thermodynamics in nanoscale systems evolving on nanosecond to microsecond time scales using time...

380

Thermodynamic Relationships for Bulk Crystalline and Liquid Phases in the Phase-Field Crystal Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present thermodynamic relationships between the free energy of the phase-field crystal (PFC) model and thermodynamic state variables for bulk phases under hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is derived based on the thermodynamic formalism for crystalline solids of Larch\\'e and Cahn [Larch\\'e and Cahn, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, 1051 (1973)]. We apply the relationship to examine the thermodynamic processes associated with varying the input parameters of the PFC model: temperature, lattice spacing, and the average value of the PFC order parameter, $\\bar{n}$. The equilibrium conditions between bulk crystalline solid and liquid phases are imposed on the thermodynamic relationships for the PFC model to obtain a procedure for determining solid-liquid phase coexistence. The resulting procedure is found to be in agreement with the method commonly used in the PFC community, justifying the use of the common-tangent construction to determine solid-liquid phase coexistence in the PFC model. Finally, we apply the procedure to an eighth-order-fit (EOF) PFC model that has been parameterized to body-centered-cubic ($bcc$) Fe [Jaatinen et al., Physical Review E 80, 031602 (2009)] to demonstrate the procedure as well as to develop physical intuition about the PFC input parameters. We demonstrate that the EOF-PFC model parameterization does not predict stable $bcc$ structures with positive vacancy densities. This result suggests an alternative parameterization of the PFC model, which requires the primary peak position of the two-body direct correlation function to shift as a function of $\\bar{n}$.

Victor W. L. Chan; Nirand Pisutha-Arnond; Katsuyo Thornton

2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - approaching thermodynamic property Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: approaching thermodynamic property Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 AME 327: Thermodynamics I CATALOG DATA Summary: in engineering thermodynamics. The course uses the...

382

Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals (Eshbach, Ovid W., ed.)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals (Eshbach, Ovid W., ed.) ... Volume I of Wiley Engineering Handbook Series. ...

W. T. Read

1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fundamentals Explain High Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: One can use a simple model to deal with price/fundamental relationships. This one predicts monthly average WTI price as a function of OECD total petroleum stock deviations from the normal levels. The graph shows the model as it begins predicting prices in 1992. It shows how well the model has predicted not only the direction, but the magnitude of prices over this 8+ year period. While the model is simple and not perfect, it does predict the overall trends and, in particular, the recent rise in prices. It also shows that prices may have over-shot the fundamental balance for a while -- at least partially due to speculative concerns over Mideast tensions, winter supply adequacy, and Iraq's export policies. Prices moved lower in December, and even undershot briefly the

384

Fundamental & Applied Bioenergy | Clean Energy | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bioenergy Bioenergy SHARE Fundamental and Applied Bioenergy Steven Brown (left) and Shihui Yang have developed a microbial strain with an improved ability to convert wood products to biofuel as part of research within the DOE BioEnergy Science Center.Source: ORNL News article ORNL researchers are investigating the biological mechanisms underlying production of biofuels so that those mechanisms can be improved and used to develop a new generation of efficient bioenergy strategies that will reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and help curb carbon emissions. Fundamental and applied bioenergy research at ORNL includes studies conducted within the BioEnergy Science Center and the following research areas: Bioconversion Science and Technology Plant-Microbe Interfaces

385

Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma gravitation. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution function has the same functional form of equilibrium with the evolution laws corrected by the particle production process. The macroscopic temperature evolution law is also kinetically derived for massive and massless particles. The present approach points to the possibility of an exact (semi-classical) quantum-gravitational kinetic treatment by incorporating back-reaction effects in the cosmic background.

J. A. S. Lima; I. P. Baranov

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

386

Design of a robust superhydrophobic surface: thermodynamic and kinetic analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is a widely pursued topic.While many investigations are limited to applications with high impact velocities (for raindrops of the order of a few m/s), the essence of robustness is yet to be analyzed for applications involving quasi-static liquid transfer.To achieve robustness with high impact velocities, the surface parameters (geometrical details, chemistry) have to be selected from a narrow range of permissible values, which often entail additional manufacturing costs.From the dual perspectives of thermodynamics and mechanics, we analyze the significance of robustness for quasi-static drop impact, and present the range of permissible surface characteristics.For surfaces with a Youngs contact angle greater than 90{\\deg} and square micropillar geometry, we show that robustness can be enforced when an intermediate wetting state (sagged state) impedes transition to a wetted state (Wenzel state).From the standpoint of mechanics, we use available scientific data to prove that a surface with any topology must withstand a pressure of 117 Pa to be robust.Finally, permissible values of surface characteristics are determined, which ensure robustness with thermodynamics (formation of sagged state) and mechanics (withstanding 117 Pa).

Anjishnu Sarkar; Anne-Marie Kietzig

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

387

DOE fundamentals handbook: Mechanical science. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information on diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Fundamental Proximity Effects in Focused electron Beam Induced Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental proximity effects for electron beam induced deposition processes on nonflat surfaces were studied experimentally and via simulation. Two specific effects were elucidated and exploited to considerably increase the volumetric growth rate of this nanoscale direct write method: (1) increasing the scanning electron pitch to the scale of the lateral electron straggle increased the volumetric growth rate by 250% by enhancing the effective forward scattered, backscattered, and secondary electron coefficients as well as by strong recollection effects of adjacent features; and (2) strategic patterning sequences are introduced to reduce precursor depletion effects which increase volumetric growth rates by more than 90%, demonstrating the strong influence of patterning parameters on the final performance of this powerful direct write technique.

Plank, Harald [Graz University of Technology; Smith, Daryl [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Haber, Thomas [Graz University of Technology; Rack, Philip D [ORNL; Hofer, Ferdinand [Graz University of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Simple thermodynamic diagrams for real refrigeration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of real irreversible cooling and refrigeration systems (chillers) can be summarized in simple rectangular temperature-entropy diagrams in analogy to classic pedagogical examples for idealized reversible devices. The key to translating complex dissipative losses into this graphical framework is the process average temperature—a factor that can be calculated from nonintrusive experimental measurements for converting entropy production into lost work. An uncomplicated thermodynamic model is used to transform the governing chiller performance equations into an easily-interpreted graph. Examples based upon actual data from commercial work-driven (reciprocating) and heat-driven (absorption) chillers are presented and are used to highlight the predominance of internal dissipation in determining chiller efficiency. With the thermodynamic diagram representation the relative roles of each irreversibility source as well as the reversible and endoreversible limits become transparent.

J. M. Gordon; K. C. Ng; H. T. Chua

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

The Rectified Second Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general form of the rectified second law is further applied to a broad class of quasi-static irreverisble (QSI) processes, for which all of the thermodynamic functions of both the system and surroundings remain continuously well-defined, thus facilitating excess entropy measurements by integrating exact differential functions along QSI paths. ... It is instructive to recall that the discovery of this profound principle of nature originally emerged from the practical concerns of nineteenth century industrialists who desired to increase the efficiency of steam engines.1 Although the second law of thermodynamics may be stated in a myriad of ways, in the Introduction to his famous paper On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances2 Gibbs quoted Clausius' remarkably concise statement of the first and second laws of thermodynamics (as translated from German): ...

Dor Ben-Amotz; J. M. Honig

2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

393

Towards a 'Thermodynamics' of Active Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-propulsion allows living systems to display unusual collective behavior. Unlike passive systems in thermal equilibrium, active matter systems are not constrained by conventional thermodynamic laws. A question arises however as to what extent, if any, can concepts from classical thermodynamics be applied to nonequilibrium systems like active matter. Here we use the new swim pressure perspective to develop a simple theory for predicting phase separation in active matter. Using purely mechanical arguments we generate a phase diagram with a spinodal and critical point, and define a nonequilibrium chemical potential to interpret the "binodal." We provide a generalization of thermodynamic concepts like the free energy and temperature for nonequilibrium active systems. Our theory agrees with existing simulation data both qualitatively and quantitatively and may provide a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of nonequilibrium active systems.

Sho C. Takatori; John F. Brady

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermodynamics of pairing in mesoscopic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using numerical and analytical methods implemented for different models we conduct a systematic study of thermodynamic properties of pairing correlation in mesoscopic nuclear systems. Various quantities are calculated and analyzed using the exact solution of pairing. An in-depth comparison of canonical, grand canonical, and microcanonical ensemble is conducted. The nature of the pairing phase transition in a small system is of a particular interest. We discuss the onset of discontinuity in the thermodynamic variables, fluctuations, and evolution of zeros of the canonical and grand canonical partition functions in the complex plane. The behavior of the Invariant Correlational Entropy is also studied in the transitional region of interest. The change in the character of the phase transition due to the presence of magnetic field is discussed along with studies of superconducting thermodynamics.

Tony Sumaryada; Alexander Volya

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloys reveal fundamental Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

team Catalyst fundamentals Catalyst development... fundamentals: experimental Catalyst fundamentals: modeling 12;HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATALYST Project... HIGHLY DISPERSED...

396

Thermodynamic relations for DNA phase transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The force induced unzipping transition of a double stranded DNA is considered from a purely thermodynamic point of view. This analysis provides us with a set of relations that can be used to test microscopic theories and experiments. The thermodynamic approach is based on the hypothesis of impenetrability of the force in the zipped state. The melting and the unzipping transitions are considered in the same framework and compared with the existing statistical model results. The analysis is then extended to a possible continuous unzipping transition.

Poulomi Sadhukhan; Somendra M. Bhattacharjee

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

The thermodynamics of a gravitating vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present days of modern cosmology it is assumed that the main ingredient to cosmic energy presently is vacuum energy with an energy density $\\epsilon_\\mathrm{vac}$ that is constant over the cosmic evolution. In this paper here we show, however, that this assumption of constant vacuum energy density is unphysical, since it conflicts with the requirements of cosmic thermodynamics. We start from the total vacuum energy including the negatively valued gravitational binding energy and show that cosmic thermodynamics then requires that the cosmic vacuum energy density can only vary with cosmic scale $R=R(t)$ according to $\\epsilon _\\mathrm{vac}\\sim R^{-\

M. Heyl; H. J. Fahr; M. Siewert

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

Thermodynamics of nuclei in thermal contact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of a dinuclear system are studied with the methods of statistical mechanics. A schematic model calculation shows that the excitation-energy transfer proceeds in energy steps of considerable amount which are subject to large fluctuations. As a consequence, thermal averaging is strong enough to assure the application of thermodynamical methods for describing the energy exchange between the two nuclei in contact. In particular, thermal averaging justifies the definition of a nuclear temperature. The division of excitation energy in thermal equilibrium is derived for several analytical descriptions of the level density.

Karl-Heinz Schmidt and Beatriz Jurado

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Fluctuations and the second law of thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUCTUATIONS AND THE SEL'OND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS A Thesis by JACK BOAZ DENUR Submitted to the Graduate College of Ter. as ARM Uniuersity in part~a& fulfillment of the reouirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major... and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (August 1976) Jack Boaz Denur, Associate of Science, El Centro Junior College; B. S. , University of Texas at Arlington Chairman of Advisory Committee: R. E. Allen We show that the average fluctuation in the Helmholtz...

Denur, Jack Boaz

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Nonlinear Electrodynamics in $f(T)$ Gravity and Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the nonlinear electrodynamics in the framework of $f(T)$ gravity for FRW universe along with dust matter, magnetic and torsion contributions. We evaluate the equation of state and deceleration parameters to explore the accelerated expansion of the universe. The validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics for Hubble and event horizons is also investigated in this scenario. For this purpose, we assume pole-like and power-law forms of scale factor and construct $f(T)$ models. The graphical behavior of the cosmological parameters versus smaller values of redshift $z$ represent the accelerated expansion of the universe. It turns out that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds for all values of $z$ with event horizon for power-law scale factor whereas it holds in a specific range of $z$ with Hubble horizon for power-law and both horizons in pole-like scale factors.

Sharif, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Nonlinear Electrodynamics in $f(T)$ Gravity and Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the nonlinear electrodynamics in the framework of $f(T)$ gravity for FRW universe along with dust matter, magnetic and torsion contributions. We evaluate the equation of state and deceleration parameters to explore the accelerated expansion of the universe. The validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics for Hubble and event horizons is also investigated in this scenario. For this purpose, we assume pole-like and power-law forms of scale factor and construct $f(T)$ models. The graphical behavior of the cosmological parameters versus smaller values of redshift $z$ represent the accelerated expansion of the universe. It turns out that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds for all values of $z$ with event horizon for power-law scale factor whereas it holds in a specific range of $z$ with Hubble horizon for power-law and both horizons in pole-like scale factors.

M. Sharif; Shamaila Rani

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

403

Irreversible work and inner friction in quantum thermodynamic processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the thermodynamics of closed quantum systems driven out of equilibrium by a change in a control parameter and undergoing a unitary process. We compare the work actually done on the system with the one that would be performed along ideal adiabatic and isothermal transformations. The comparison with the latter leads to the introduction of irreversible work, while that with the former leads to the introduction of inner friction. We show that these two quantities can be treated on equal footing, as both can be linked with the heat exchanged in thermalization processes and both can be expressed as relative entropies. Furthermore, we show that a specific fluctuation relation for the entropy production associated with the inner friction exists, which allows the inner friction to be written in terms of its cumulants.

F. Plastina; A. Alecce; T. J. G. Apollaro; G. Falcone; G. Francica; F. Galve; N. Lo Gullo; R. Zambrini

2014-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

404

Cosmological imprint of the second law of thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the evolution of the universe in the presence of inflaton, matter, radiation and holographic dark energy. The time evolution of the scale factor is obtained by solving the Friedmann equation of the universe with a good approximation. We present two independent ways which determine the value of the dark energy constant d{approx}1 from the observational data. The two ways are measuring the deceleration parameter and measuring a universal constant depending only on d. The universal constant is given by a dimensionless combination of three scale factors at the equipartition times of radiation-matter, radiation-dark energy and matter-dark energy. We also discuss that the second law of thermodynamics determines the point of time when the dark-energy-dominated era begins in the universe.

Kim, Hyeong-Chan [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Weon [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongnyangni 2-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongnyangni 2-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jungjai, E-mail: hyeongchan@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: scikid@kias.re.kr, E-mail: jjlee@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Daejin University, Pocheon 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Daejin University, Pocheon 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cosmological Imprint of the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the evolution of the universe in the presence of inflaton, matter, radiation, and holographic dark energy. The time evolution of the scale factor is obtained by solving the Friedmann equation of the universe with a good approximation. We present two independent ways which determine the value of the dark energy constant $d\\sim 1$ from the observational data. The two ways are measuring the deceleration parameter and measuring a universal constant depending only on $d$. The universal constant is given by a dimensionless combination of three scale factors at the equipartition times of radiation-matter, radiation-dark energy, and matter-dark energy. We also discuss that the second law of thermodynamics determines the point of time when the dark energy dominated era begins in the universe.

Hyeong-Chan Kim; Jae-Weon Lee; Jungjai Lee

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Thermodynamics Laws from The Law of Stable Equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and the Two Property Rule are derived from the Law of Stable Equilibrium. The treatment is simpler ... Haywood (2). It is aimed at thermodynamics courses for engineerin...

P. H. Brazier

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

12.480 Thermodynamics for Geoscientists, Spring 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Principles of thermodynamics are used to infer the physical conditions of formation and modification of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Includes phase equilibria of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems and thermodynamic ...

Grove, Timothy L.

409

Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in non-flat universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present paper we consider the interacting holographic model of dark energy to investigate the validity of the generalized second laws of thermodynamics in non-flat (closed) universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon named $L$. We show that for $L$ as the system's IR cut-off the generalized second law is respected for the special range of the deceleration parameter.

M. R. Setare

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Thermodynamics second law and $?=-1$ crossing(s) in interacting holographic dark energy model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By the assumption that the thermodynamics second law is valid, we study the possibility of $\\omega=-1$ crossing in interacting holographic dark energy model. Depending on the choice of the horizon and the interaction, the transition from quintessence to phantom regime and subsequently from phantom to quintessence phase may be possible. The second transition avoids the big rip singularity. We compute the dark energy density at transition time and show that by choosing appropriate parameters we can alleviate the coincidence problem.

H. Mohseni Sadjadi; M. Honardoost

2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

411

A thermodynamic motivation for dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is argued that the discovery of cosmic acceleration could have been anticipated on thermodynamic grounds, namely, the generalized second law and the approach to equilibrium at large scale factor. Therefore, the existence of dark energy -or equivalently, some modified gravity theory- should have been expected. In general, cosmological models that satisfy the above criteria show compatibility with observational data.

Ninfa Radicella; Diego Pavón

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermodynamical identities---a systematic approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a systematic approach to thermodynamical identities and illustrate the power of these methods by displaying Mathematica notebooks to deal with a large variety of such identities. In concrete examples these can involve rather tedious, not to way impossible, computations when done by hand.

J. B. Cooper

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

413

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of gravitational screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Einstein gravity equations projected on a timelike surface, which represents the time evolution of what we call a gravitational screen. We show that such a screen possesses a surface tension and an internal energy, and that the Einstein equations reduce to the thermodynamic equations of a viscous bubble. We also provide a complete dictionary between gravitational and thermodynamical variables. In the non-viscous cases there are three thermodynamic equations which characterise a bubble dynamics: These are the first law, the Marangoni flow equation and the Young-Laplace equation. In all three equations the surface tension plays a central role: In the first law it appears as a work term per unit area, in the Marangoni flow its gradient drives a force, and in the Young-Laplace equation it contributes to a pressure proportional to the surface curvature. The gravity equations appear as a natural generalization of these bubble equations when the bubble itself is viscous and dynamical. In particular, it shows that the mechanism of entropy production for the viscous bubble is mapped onto the production of gravitational waves. We also review the relationship between surface tension and temperature, and discuss the usual black-hole thermodynamics from this point of view.

Laurent Freidel; Yuki Yokokura

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

Thermodynamics Teacher and Student Guides (6 Activities)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a hands-on laboratory unit exploring the concepts of heat and movement. Teachers set up six laboratory stations that will introduce students to the basic concepts of thermodynamics, including atomic structure, atomic and molecular motion, states of matter, heat transfer, thermal expansion, specific heat, and heats of fusion and vaporization. It also includes a unit exam and teacher demonstrations.

415

Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass Tad W. Patzek 1 and David Pimentel 2 1 Department #12;3 Biomass from Tropical Tree Plantations 14 3.1 Scope of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Environmental Impacts of Industrial Biomass Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

416

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ã?rsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2

Salamon, Peter

417

First law of black Saturn thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

First law of black Saturn thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.

Marek Rogatko

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

First law of p-brane thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a charged p-brane. The general setting for our investigations is (n+p+1)-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with (p+2) strength form fields.

Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

First law of p-brane thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a charged p-brane. The general setting for our investigations is (n+p+1)-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with (p+2) strength form fields.

Marek Rogatko

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

QCD thermodynamics with dynamical overlap fermions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study QCD thermodynamics using two flavors of dynamical overlap fermions with quark masses corresponding to a pion mass of 350 MeV. We determine several observables on N_t=6 and 8 lattices. All our runs are performed with fixed global topology. Our results are compared with staggered ones and a nice agreement is found.

S. Borsanyi; Y. Delgado; S. Durr; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; S. Krieg; T. Lippert; D. Nogradi; K. K. Szabo

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

Thermodynamics of nuclei in thermal contact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behaviour of a di-nuclear system in the regime of strong pairing correlations is studied with the methods of statistical mechanics. It is shown that the thermal averaging is strong enough to assure the application of thermodynamical methods to the energy exchange between the two nuclei in contact. In particular, thermal averaging justifies the definition of a nuclear temperature.

Karl-Heinz Schmidt; Beatriz Jurado

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

423

Continuity and boundary conditions in thermodynamics: From Carnot's efficiency to efficiencies at maximum power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[...] By the beginning of the 20th century, the principles of thermodynamics were summarized into the so-called four laws, which were, as it turns out, definitive negative answers to the doomed quests for perpetual motion machines. As a matter of fact, one result of Sadi Carnot's work was precisely that the heat-to-work conversion process is fundamentally limited; as such, it is considered as a first version of the second law of thermodynamics. Although it was derived from Carnot's unrealistic model, the upper bound on the thermodynamic conversion efficiency, known as the Carnot efficiency, became a paradigm as the next target after the failure of the perpetual motion ideal. In the 1950's, Jacques Yvon published a conference paper containing the necessary ingredients for a new class of models, and even a formula, not so different from that of Carnot's efficiency, which later would become the new efficiency reference. Yvon's first analysis [...] went fairly unnoticed for twenty years, until Frank Curzon and Bo...

Ouerdane, Henni; Goupil, Christophe; Lecoeur, Philippe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A modified LandauDevonshire thermodynamic potential for strontium titanate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modified Landau­Devonshire thermodynamic potential for strontium titanate G. Sheng, Y. L. Li, J Landau­Devonshire thermodynamic potential for strontium titanate G. Sheng,1,a Y. L. Li,2 J. X. Zhang,1,b of the Landau energy coefficients and report a modified thermodynamic potential for bulk strontium titanate

Chen, Long-Qing

425

SYMPOSIUM ON: THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: STATUS AND CHALLENGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 SYMPOSIUM ON: THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: STATUS AND CHALLENGES THE 92ND ANNUAL MEETING efforts at clarification, including this one. The Laws of Thermodynamics have much wider, including, Second Law of Thermodynamics. PACS: 05.90.+m #12;2 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Reasoning Open Issues

Kostic, Milivoje M.

426

THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS35116 FIGURE 3-46  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lIb THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS3·5116 FIGURE 3-46 Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can. The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the conservation of energy principle, provides a sound basis observa- tions, the first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed

Kammen, Daniel M.

427

Artificial Life, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Artificial Life, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity John R. Woodward, Amin parasitic behavior. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system. In section III we examine entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. In section IV we examine

Woodward, John

428

THE SECOND LAW OF NONEQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS: HOW FAST TIME FLIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE SECOND LAW OF NONEQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS: HOW FAST TIME FLIES PHIL ATTARD School References I. INTRODUCTION The Second Law of Equilibrium Thermodynamics may be stated: The entropy increases for nonequilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics based on such a law written in a form analogous

Attard, Phil

429

Thermodynamics and Structure of Peptide-Aggregates at Membrane Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics and Structure of Peptide- Aggregates at Membrane Surfaces INAUGURALDISSERTATION zur. Introduction 01 1.1 ­ Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation 01 1.2 ­ Formation of Protein Aggregates 03 1 and P-glycoprotein: Connecting Thermodynamics and Membrane Structure with Functional Activity 23 3

Quake, Stephen R.

430

Concept of time in the general law of thermodynamics as the basis of the thermodynamics of the nonequilibrium state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical formulation is proposed for the general law of thermodynamics in the form of relations defining the...(n))=0 associates the thermodynamic time and the potential ? of the nonequilibrium state. Parti...

V. N. Maslov

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Thermodynamics of resonances and blurred particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exact and approximate expressions for thermodynamic characteristics of heated matter, which consists of particles with finite mass-widths, are constructed. They are expressed in terms of Fermi/Bose distributions and spectral functions, rather than in terms of more complicated combinations between real and imaginary parts of the self-energies of different particle species. Therefore thermodynamically consistent approximate treatment of systems of particles with finite mass-widths can be performed, provided spectral functions of particle species are known. Approximation of the free resonance gas at low densities is studied. Simple ansatz for the energy dependence of the spectral function is suggested that allows to fulfill thermodynamical consistency conditions. On examples it is shown that a simple description of dense systems of interacting particle species can be constructed, provided some species can be treated in the quasiparticle approximation and others as particles with widths. The interaction affects quasiparticle contributions, whereas particles with widths can be treated as free. Example is considered of a hot gas of heavy fermions strongly interacting with light bosons, both species with zero chemical potentials. The density of blurred fermions is dramatically increased for high temperatures compared to the standard Boltzmann value. The system consists of boson quasiparticles (with effective masses) interacting with fermion -- antifermion blurs. In thermodynamical values interaction terms partially compensate each other. Thereby, in case of a very strong coupling between species thermodynamical quantities of the system, like the energy, pressure and entropy, prove to be such as for the quasi-ideal gas mixture of quasi-free fermion blurs and quasi-free bosons.

D. N. Voskresensky

2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

Measuring Densities of Solids and Liquids Using Magnetic Levitation: Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring Densities of Solids and Liquids Using Magnetic Levitation: Fundamentals ... This article also describes the fundamental limitations of this technique. ... The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook; CRC Press and IEEE Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1999. ...

Katherine A. Mirica; Sergey S. Shevkoplyas; Scott T. Phillips; Malancha Gupta; George M. Whitesides

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fundamental clusters in spatial 2×2 games  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...holds but equation (17) does not, does the central site protect...apply: 764 Ch. Hauert Fundamental clusters in spatial 2...note that the reverse does not necessarily hold...powerful approximations to fundamental clusters. 3. CLUSTER...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Partial derivative games in thermodynamics: A cognitive task analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task analysis for understanding expert performance and show how the epistemic games framework can be used as a tool for this type of analysis, with thermodynamics as an example. Second, through this analysis, we identify several issues related to thermodynamics that are relevant to future research into student understanding and learning of the mathematics of thermodynamics.

Mary Bridget Kustusch; David Roundy; Tevian Dray; Corinne A. Manogue

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

SECTION I: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS AND ASTROPHYSIC...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS AND ASTROPHYSICS Double Folding Analysis of 6Li Elastic and Inelastic Scattering on 116Sn ......

436

Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group.… (more)

O'Bannon, Andrew Hill, 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

The singular terms in the fundamental matrix of crystal optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...D) has one and only one fundamental solution E(R(D)) with...Here, we suppose that R pr does not contain multiple factors...D) has one and only one fundamental matrix , i.e. P(D)E...system P ad(D) and the fundamental solution E(Q(D)) of...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The determination of best values of the fundamental physical constants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Discussion Meeting Issue The fundamental constants of physics, precision...calls to mind an axiom of the fundamental constants field, namely...uncertainties.) Although it does not ensure that an unsuspected...uncertainty of interest in the fundamental constants field at that time...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

An experimental test of a fundamental food web motif  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Here we have identified a fundamental food web motif, a generalist...structures, it remains that the fundamental unit underlying this hierarchical...motif we studied here, it does importantly suggest that our...Representative food web showing the fundamental food web module of a generalist...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

G. Fiorentini; L. Okun; M. Vysotsky

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A study of generalized second law of thermodynamics in modified f(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work investigates the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in modi?ed f(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity proposed by Chaichian et al (2010) [Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 185021], which is invariant under foliation-preserving di?eomorphisms. It has been observed that the equation of state parameter behaves like quintessence (w > -1). We study the thermodynamics of the apparent, event and particle horizons in this modified gravity. We observe that under this gravity, the time derivative of total entropy stays at positive level and hence the generalized second law is validated.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Rahul Ghosh

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation Poulomi Sannigrahi 1,2 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 10.1 Introduction With the rise in global energy demand and environmental concerns about the use of fossil fuels, the need for rapid development of alternative fuels from sustainable, non-food sources is now well acknowledged. The effective utilization of low-cost high-volume agricultural and forest biomass for the production of transporta- tion fuels and bio-based materials will play a vital role in addressing this concern [1]. The processing of lignocellulosic biomass, especially from mixed agricultural and forest sources with varying composition,

443

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tranter shock tube tranter shock tube A shock tube for high temperature studies of chemical reaction kinetics. Overview The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the elementary chemical reactions, non-reactive energy transfer processes, and coupled kinetics processes involved in combustion. The basic scientific approach is to combine a theoretical effort in the energetics, dynamics, and kinetics of chemical reactions with an experimental effort in thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics. Both the theoretical and experimental components of the program are vertically integrated to span a wide range of phenomena relevant to the study of chemical reactivity. This integrated approach produces synergy that results from the strong interaction between the theoretical and experimental efforts. Taken as a

444

3 - Fundamentals of contact mechanics and friction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The subjects of contact and friction are introduced here in the context of friction–vibration interactions. The chapter begins with a brief presentation of the fundamentals of contact mechanics and friction phenomena, and continues with an examination of classic formulations and laws of contact and friction. The various steps involved in contact and friction analysis of an engineering system are outlined, and essential definitions and concepts of contact and friction are introduced. There follows a presentation of the detailed contact and friction analysis, which can be used for the analysis of general contact and friction phenomena encountered in dealing with friction–vibration interaction problems. The comprehensive treatment of interface contact and friction from macro-to micro-level are presented.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Poroelasticity: parameters reviewed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......pressure parameter), storage parameters, the Darcy...the variability of the storage coefficient as function...effects associated with the long-term compaction of sedimentary...underground nuclear waste storage, exploitation of geothermal......

H.-J. Kümpel

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

A. S. Bakai

2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

447

Laws of thermodynamics and game theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a game theory approach and a new extremal problem, Gibbs formula is proved in a most simple and general way for the classical mechanics case. A corresponding conjecture on the asymptotics of the classical entropy is formulated. For the ordinary quantum mechanics case, the third law of thermodynamics is derived. Some results on the number of ground states and residual entropy are obtained rigorously.

Lev Sakhnovich

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

448

Quantum dynamics in the thermodynamic limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The description of spontaneous symmetry breaking that underlies the connection between classically ordered objects in the thermodynamic limit and their individual quantum-mechanical building blocks is one of the cornerstones of modern condensed-matter theory and has found applications in many different areas of physics. The theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, however, is inherently an equilibrium theory, which does not address the dynamics of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we will use the example of a particular antiferromagnetic model system to show that the presence of a so-called thin spectrum of collective excitations with vanishing energy - one of the well-known characteristic properties shared by all symmetry-breaking objects - can allow these objects to also spontaneously break time-translation symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, that limit is found to be able, not only to reduce quantum-mechanical equilibrium averages to their classical counterparts, but also to turn individual-state quantum dynamics into classical physics. In the process, we find that the dynamical description of spontaneous symmetry breaking can also be used to shed some light on the possible origins of Born's rule. We conclude by describing an experiment on a condensate of exciton polaritons which could potentially be used to experimentally test the proposed mechanism.

Wezel, Jasper van [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

An engineer-oriented optimisation of Stirling engine cycle with finite-size finite-speed of revolution thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Finite-time thermodynamics takes into account exo-irreversibilities which are not managed by reversible thermodynamics, especially reservoir-to-gas temperature gaps. In today's works, thermodynamicists use the working gas mass as the main imposed parameter. In this paper, the study of the Stirling engine cycle is carried out with a motorist-oriented viewpoint: instead of the working gas mass, the reference parameters are those linked to engineering constraints; they are the maximum pressure, the maximum volume, the extreme temperatures and the overall thermal conductance; the adjustable parameters are the volumetric compression ratio, the hot-to-cold conductance ratio and the regenerator efficiency. Analytical normalised expressions of the operating characteristics of the engine, such as power, work, efficiency, speed and their optima are set up. Classical results of analytical optimisation are found back and new ones are established, leading to new conclusions. Some dimensionless and dimensional numbers are put into evidence.

Lavinia Grosu; Pierre Rochelle; Nadia Martaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Steady-state nonequilibrium temperature gradients in hydrogen gas–metal systems: challenging the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Differences in gas reaction rates between disparate surfaces have been proposed as a means to achieve steady-state pressure and temperature gradients within a single blackbody cavity, thereby challenging the second law of thermodynamics (Sheehan 1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 6660; Sheehan 2001 Phys. Lett. A 280 185; Capek and Sheehan 2005 Challenges to the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Theory and Experiment) (Fundamental Theories of Physics Series vol 146) (Dordrecht: Springer)). This paper reports on laboratory tests of this hypothesis; specifically, molecular hydrogen is found to dissociate preferentially on rhenium surfaces versus tungsten at identical elevated temperatures and reduced pressures (T ? 2100 K; ). Steady-state nonequilibrium H/H2 ratios over the surfaces suggest that temperature gradients could be maintained under blackbody cavity conditions. Preliminary results from bimetallic blackbody cavity experiments are discussed.

D P Sheehan; J T Garamella; D J Mallin; W F Sheehan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Thermodynamic Branch in the Chemical System Response to External Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper gives an account of a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic branch as a path of the chemical system deviation from its isolated thermodynamic equilibrium under an external impact. For a combination of direct and reverse reactions in the same chemical system, full thermodynamic branch is presented by an S-shaped curve, whose ends asymptotically achieve appropriate initial states, which, in turn, are logistic ends of the opposite reactions. The slope tangents of the steepest parts of the curves, the areas of the maximum rate of the shift growth vs. the external thermodynamic force, occurred to be directly proportional to the force and, simultaneously, linearly proportional to the thermodynamic equivalent of chemical reaction, which is the ratio between the amount in moles of any reaction participant, transformed in an isolated system, along the reaction way from its initial state to thermodynamic equilibrium, to its stoichiometric coefficient. The found linearity is valid for arbitrary combination of the stoichiometric coefficients in a reaction of compound synthesis from chemical elements like aA+bB=AaBb, and confirms the exclusive role of the thermodynamic equivalent of transformation as the chemical system characteristic of robustness and irreversibility. Results of this work allow for quantitative evaluation of the chemical system shift from thermodynamic equilibrium along thermodynamic branch and its rate vs. the shifting force. Such an investigation became possible due to the development of discrete thermodynamics of chemical equilibria.

B. Zilbergleyt

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Diagnostics based on thermodynamic analysis of performance of steam turbines: case histories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to describe some types of failures which have occurred with the ENEL stock of fossil-fuel steam turbines over the last 5--7 years. This paper also presents the corresponding thermodynamic analysis of turbine parameters which permitted failure diagnosis and pre-scheduled opening of the turbine. The examined failures concern: in-service rupture of the bell seal retainer nut between the SH steam inlet sleeves and the inner HP/IP cylinder, on turbines with a main steam inlet system with bell seals; incorrect assembly of pressure seal rings between steam inlet sleeves and the inner cylinder on turbines with a main steam inlet system with pressure seal rings during a scheduled outage; and steam flow path restriction in IP turbine inlet. Thermodynamic failure analysis and the subsequent analysis of turbine damage (mechanical and financial) enabled condition-based maintenance operations to be carried out.

Tirone, G.; Arrighi, L.; Bonifacino, L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke theory with quadratic scalar field potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.

Dehghani, M. H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fundamental Scientific Problems in Magnetic Recording  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic data storage technology is presently leading the high tech industry in advancing device integration--doubling the storage density every 12 months. To continue these advancements and to achieve terra bit per inch squared recording densities, new approaches to store and access data will be needed in about 3-5 years. In this project, collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) at University of Alabama (UA), Imago Scientific Instruments, and Seagate Technologies, was undertaken to address the fundamental scientific problems confronted by the industry in meeting the upcoming challenges. The areas that were the focus of this study were to: (1) develop atom probe tomography for atomic scale imaging of magnetic heterostructures used in magnetic data storage technology; (2) develop a first principles based tools for the study of exchange bias aimed at finding new anti-ferromagnetic materials to reduce the thickness of the pinning layer in the read head; (3) develop high moment magnetic materials and tools to study magnetic switching in nanostructures aimed at developing improved writers of high anisotropy magnetic storage media.

Schulthess, T.C.; Miller, M.K.

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

456

Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed. The Post Scriptum shows that several basic features of modern cosmology naturally appear in a SU(2) spinorial description of space-time without any need for matter, relativity or standard gravitation. New possible effects related to the spinorial space-time structure can also be foreseen. Similarly, the existence of spin-1/2 particles can be naturally related to physics beyond Planck scale and to a possible pre-Big Bang era.

Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

457

Fundamental properties of nearby single early B-type stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental parameters of a sample of 26 apparently slowly-rotating single early B-type stars in the solar neighbourhood are presented and compared to high-precision data from detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The data are used to discuss the evolutionary status of the stars in context of the most recent Geneva grid of models. Evolutionary masses plus radii and luminosities are determined to better than typically 5%, 10%, and 20% uncertainty, respectively, facilitating the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships to be recovered with a similar precision as derived from DEBs. Good agreement between evolutionary and spectroscopic masses is found. Absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes are derived to typically 0.15-0.20mag uncertainty. Metallicities are constrained to better than 15-20% uncertainty and tight constraints on evolutionary ages of the stars are provided. Signatures of mixing with CN-cycled material are found in 1/3 of the sample stars. Typically, these are consistent with the amount predic...

Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Generalized second law of thermodynamics in warped DGP braneworld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics on the $(n-1)$-dimensional brane embedded in the $(n+1)$-dimensional bulk. We examine the evolution of the apparent horizon entropy extracted through relation between gravitational equation and the first law of thermodynamics together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. We find that the apparent horizon entropy extracted through connection between gravity and the first law of thermodynamics satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics. This result holds regardless of whether there is the intrinsic curvature term on the brane or a cosmological constant in the bulk. The observed satisfaction of the generalized second law provides further support on the thermodynamical interpretation of gravity based on the profound connection between gravity and thermodynamics.

Ahmad Sheykhi; Bin Wang

2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Continuum Thermodynamics of the SU(N) Gauge Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermodynamics of the deconfined phase of the SU(N) gauge theory is studied. Careful study is made of the approach to the continuum limit. The latent heat of the deconfinement transition is studied, for the theories with 3, 4 and 6 colors. Continuum estimates of various thermodynamic quantities are studied, and the approach to conformality investigated. The bulk thermodynamic quantities at different N are compared, to investigate the validity of 't Hooft scaling at these values of N.

Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Cosmological parameters are dressed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the context of the averaging problem in relativistic cosmology, we provide a key to the interpretation of cosmological parameters by taking into account the actual inhomogeneous geometry of the Universe. We discuss the relation between `bare' cosmological parameters determining the cosmological model, and the parameters interpreted by observers with a ``Friedmannian bias'', which are `dressed' by the smoothed-out geometrical inhomogeneities of the surveyed spatial region.

Thomas Buchert; Mauro Carfora

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Performance bounds on matched-field methods for source localization and estimation of ocean environmental parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Matched-field methods concern estimation of source location and/or ocean environmental parameters by exploiting full wave modeling of acoustic waveguide propagation. Typical estimation performance demonstrates two fundamental ...

Xu, Wen, 1967-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Study of Electromagnetic Parameters of Space Weather, Micro-Satellite “Chibis-M”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma-wave experiment on the micro-satellite “Chibis-M” is aimed at the ... – atmosphere connections and the parameters of space weather. Specific fundamental problem is the search for...–1 to 10–3...s. (3) Stud...

Stanislav Klimov; Denis Novikov…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines Discusses engine technology enablers that help achieve overall system integration...

466

Thermodynamic Model for Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

areas are important in controlling the rate of mass and energy transfer between fluid phases in porous media. We present a modified thermodynamically based model (TBM) to...

467

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

468

Chemical-Looping Combustion With Gaseous Fuels: Thermodynamic Parametric Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This communication reports the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the reactions involved in a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process using methane, ethane and ... energy minimization technique determining t...

Mohammad M. Hossain

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

470

BE.011J Statistical Thermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems, Spring 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course provides an introduction to the physical chemistry of biological systems. Topics include: connection of macroscopic thermodynamic properties to microscopic molecular properties using statistical mechanics, ...

Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

471

3.205 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laws of thermodynamics applied to materials and materials processes. Solution theory. Equilibrium diagrams. Overview of fluid transport processes. Kinetics of processes that occur in materials, including diffusion, phase ...

Allen, Samuel M.

472

Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical Limitations to Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (AdamThermodynamic Limit of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. Appl.efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion in multigap

Abrams, Zeev R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford...

474

The Conservation of Weight and the Laws of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN NATURE of May 15, Lord Rayleigh uses the laws of ... of thermodynamics to prove the conservation of weight. In regard to the doctrine of the conservation ...

A. N. M.

1902-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

475

The first law of thermodynamics for auxetic materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The author has shown previously that the first law of thermodynamics must be modified for materials with negative thermal expansion and for auxetic materials. In this paper, those earlier results have been developed and improved and a paradox stemming from the previous findings has been solved. It is shown that in thermodynamic equations, the motive force of the process must be written on the left-hand side and its effect must be written on the right-hand side. Consequently, the first law of thermodynamics for heat exchange and compression has different signs. This result is of importance for the entire field of thermodynamics.

I.A. Stepanov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Thermodynamics of Friedmann Equation and Masslike Function in General Braneworld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the generalized procedure proposed by \\emph{Wu et al}\\cite{wu} recently, we construct the first law of thermodynamics on apparent horizon in a general braneworld model with curvature correction terms on the brane and in the bulk, respectively. The explicit entropy formulary of apparent horizon in the general braneworld is worked out. We also discuss the masslike function which associated with a new type first law of thermodynamics of the general braneworld in detail. We analyze the difference between the conventional thermodynamics and the new type thermodynamics on apparent horizon. At last, the discussions about the physical meanings of the masslike function have also been given.

Tao Zhu; Ji-Rong Ren; Shu-Fan Mo

2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including...

478

Thermodynamics and structure of fluids physisorbed on nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The thermodynamics and structure of atoms and molecules physically adsorbed (physisorbed) onto cylindrical surfaces at low temperatures is studied theoretically for two systems: classical argon… (more)

Urban, Nathan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF PROCESSES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM CARBONACEOUS FUEL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research work presents the thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production using steam methane reforming process at different conditions. The model is developed using HSC 4.1… (more)

Kaini, Bhanu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria of Carbon Dioxide/Polymer Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A theoretical approach, the SAFT (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) equation of state, is adapted and extended to understand the thermodynamics and phase equilibria of systems… (more)

Colina, Coray M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fundamental thermodynamic parameters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Quantum Computing The fundamental goal of Science is to explain/predict natural phenomena using simple models. For example, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1 Quantum Computing The fundamental goal of Science is to explain/predict natural phenomena involve O(n) parameters, and not, say#5 n ). This requirement seems so natural and obvious that it is hardly discussed. On the other hand, the behaviour of nature at microscopic levels seems to defy

Ranade, Abhiram G.

483

Model for Configurational Thermodynamics in Ionic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a formalism to model configurational thermodynamics in ionic systems with multiple anion and cation species. Because cations and anions can be partitioned into two interacting sublattices that do not exchange species, the dimensionality of configuration space is significantly reduced. The result is a model applicable to many important problems in ionic systems. Here we show that the effect of an order-disorder transition in one sublattice on the other depends on how the symmetry is changed through the transition, as well as on the strength of the interactions.

P. D. Tepesch; G. D. Garbulsky; G. Ceder

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

484

The thermodynamic properties of some aminophosphonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the activity of the species. The activity of a substance is related to its molality by the product a. = v. m. i where y. is the activitv coefficient of species i. Since the activity of water in dilute solutions can be con- sidered to be constant... "B (4) e + mH+ mOH VHB it is apparent that (4) is of the form of a straight line. The activity coefficients, y~ and yB-, are related to the ionic strength of the solution. This suggests that the thermodynamic ionization constant must be obtained...

Austin, James Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

485

Chapter 9 - The Third Law of Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter discusses the third law of thermodynamics. The historical development of the Nernst heat theorem, which is the forerunner of the third law, is described first. The third law is presented and its consequences are discussed. The different possible contributions to the entropy of a material (e.g., configurational, electronic, isotopic, magnetic, nuclear, order–disorder, Schottky, thermal) are also described. The calculation of absolute entropies from heat capacity data is described and the Gibbs function is introduced. The use of the third law for computing Gibbs free energies of reaction from calorimetric data is illustrated with worked examples.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Thermodynamics of Few-Particle Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the wide class of few-particle systems that have some analog of the thermodynamic laws. These systems are characterized by the distributions that are determined by the Hamiltonian and satisfy the Liouville equation. Few-particle systems of this class are described by a non-holonomic constraint: the power of non-potential forces is directly proportional to the velocity of the elementary phase volume change. The coefficient of this proportionality is determined by the Hamiltonian. In the general case, the examples of the few-particle systems of this class are the constant temperature systems, canonical-dissipative systems, and Fermi-Bose classical systems.

Vasily E. Tarasov

2007-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

487

Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

R. Y. Chiao

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

488

Recent Progress in Lattice QCD Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This review gives a critical assessment of the current state of lattice simulations of QCD thermodynamics and what it teaches us about hot hadronic matter. It outlines briefly lattice methods for studying QCD at nonzero temperature and zero baryon number density with particular emphasis on assessing and reducing cutoff effects. It discusses a variety of difficulties with methods for determining the transition temperature. It uses results reported recently in the literature and at this conference for illustration, especially those from a major study carried out by the HotQCD collaboration.

Carleton DeTar

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

489

Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 mineral sequestration in basaltic rocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interestKeywords: Thermodynamic dataset CO2–water– basaltABSTRACT A thermodynamic dataset describing 36 mineral

Aradottir, E.S.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

CYBERSECURITY FUNDAMENTALS FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS Shirley Radack, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CYBERSECURITY FUNDAMENTALS FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security and Technology (NIST) recently issued a new guide that tailors basic information on cybersecurity to the specific

491

A fundamental study on hybrid geothermal energy systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) This thesis focuses on a fundamental study of hybrid geothermal energy systems, in which geothermal energy is hybridised… (more)

Zhou, Cheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

The fundamental solution of the unidirectional pulse propagation equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fundamental solution of a variant of the three-dimensional wave equation known as “unidirectional pulse propagation equation” (UPPE) and its paraxial approximation is obtained. It is shown that the fundamental solution can be presented as a projection of a fundamental solution of the wave equation to some functional subspace. We discuss the degree of equivalence of the UPPE and the wave equation in this respect. In particular, we show that the UPPE, in contrast to the common belief, describes wave propagation in both longitudinal and temporal directions, and, thereby, its fundamental solution possesses a non-causal character.

Babushkin, I. [Institute of Mathematics, Humboldt University, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)] [Institute of Mathematics, Humboldt University, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Bergé, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Ensuring Project Success - The Fundamental Art of Managing the...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Success - The Fundamental Art of Managing the Interfaces August 2009 Presenter: Jeff Smith, Deputy for Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Track 8-3 Topics Covered: Oak...

494

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties deer12kamp.pdf More Documents...

495

Photons, Electrons and Holes: Fundamentals of Photocatalysis with Semiconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although not all the heterogeneous photocatalysts are semiconductors, this type of solids represents, by far, the most representative and widely investigated photoactive materials. For that reason, the fundamentals

Juan Manuel Coronado

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

ME 326 Thermodynamics ABET EC2000 syllabus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) 7. Gas power cycles: Otto, Diesel, Combined, Brayton (3 classes) 8. Vapor power and refrigeration engineering and science fundamentals to real problems. e 2. Ability to formulate and solve open processes, introduction to ideal power cycles. Prerequisites(s): Chemistry 301, Mathematics 408D

Ben-Yakar, Adela

497

Weyl's principle, cosmic time and quantum fundamentalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the necessary physical underpinnings for setting up the cosmological standard model with a global cosmic time parameter. In particular, we discuss the role of Weyl's principle which asserts that cosmic matter moves according to certain regularity requirements. After a brief historical introduction to Weyl's principle we argue that although the principle is often not explicitly mentioned in modern standard texts on cosmology, it is implicitly assumed and is, in fact, necessary for a physically well-defined notion of cosmic time. We finally point out that Weyl's principle might be in conflict with the wide-spread idea that the universe at some very early stage can be described exclusively in terms of quantum theory.

Svend E. Rugh; Henrik Zinkernagel

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

498

Weyl's principle, cosmic time and quantum fundamentalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the necessary physical underpinnings for setting up the cosmological standard model with a global cosmic time parameter. In particular, we discuss the role of Weyl's principle which asserts that cosmic matter moves according to certain regularity requirements. After a brief historical introduction to Weyl's principle we argue that although the principle is often not explicitly mentioned in modern standard texts on cosmology, it is implicitly assumed and is, in fact, necessary for a physically well-defined notion of cosmic time. We finally point out that Weyl's principle might be in conflict with the wide-spread idea that the universe at some very early stage can be described exclusively in terms of quantum theory.

Rugh, Svend E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Canonical formalism, fundamental equation, and generalized thermomechanics for irreversible fluids with heat transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Lagrangian with dissipative (e.g., Onsager’s) potentials is constructed for the field description of irreversible heat-conducting fluids, off local equilibrium. Extremum conditions of action yield Clebsch representations of temperature, chemical potential, velocities, and generalized momenta, including a thermal momentum introduced recently [R. L. Selinger and F. R. S. Whitham, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 302, 1 (1968); S. Sieniutycz and R. S. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 40, 348 (1989)]. The basic question asked is ‘‘To what extent may irreversibility, represented by a given form of the entropy source, influence the analytical form of the conservation laws for the energy and momentum?’’ Nöther’s energy for a fluid with heat flow is obtained, which leads to a fundamental equation and extended Hamiltonian dynamics obeying the second law of thermodynamics. While in the case of the Onsager potentials this energy coincides numerically with the classical energy E, it contains an extra term (vanishing along the path) still contributing to an irreversible evolution. Components of the energy-momentum tensor preserve all terms regarded standardly as ‘‘irreversible’’ (heat, tangential stresses, etc.) generalized to the case when thermodynamics includes the state gradients and the so-called thermal phase, which we introduce here. This variable, the Lagrange multiplier of the entropy generation balance, is crucial for consistent treatment of irreversible processes via an action formalism. We conclude with the hypothesis that embedding the first and second laws in the context of the extremal behavior of action under irreversible conditions may imply accretion of an additional term to the classical energy.

Stanislaw Sieniutycz and R. Stephen Berry

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems, and molecular machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics like work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power, can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones like molecular motors, and heat engines like thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.

Udo Seifert

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z