Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics
Walid K. Abou Salem; Juerg Froehlich
2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.
Fundamental limitations for quantum and nano thermodynamics
Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim
2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit - when the number of particles becomes very large. Here, we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime - at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transformations, and as special cases, find two free energies: one that quantifies the deterministically extractable work from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other that quantifies the reverse process. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from nonequilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences. This implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale. As one application of these methods, we analyse the efficiency of small heat engines and find that they are irreversible during the adiabatic stages of the cycle.
FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARCTURUS
Ramirez, I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Allende Prieto, C., E-mail: ivan@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
We derive a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters and abundances of 17 elements for the red giant star Arcturus: T{sub eff} = 4286 {+-} 30 K, log g = 1.66 {+-} 0.05, and [Fe/H] = -0.52 {+-} 0.04. The effective temperature was determined using model atmosphere fits to the observed spectral energy distribution from the blue to the mid-infrared (0.44 to 10 {mu}m). The surface gravity was calculated using the trigonometric parallax of the star and stellar evolution models. A differential abundance analysis relative to the solar spectrum allowed us to derive iron abundances from equivalent width measurements of 37 Fe I and 9 Fe II lines, unblended in the spectra of both Arcturus and the Sun; the [Fe/H] value adopted is derived from Fe I lines. We also determine the mass, radius, and age of Arcturus: M = 1.08 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun }, R = 25.4 {+-} 0.2 R{sub Sun }, and {tau} = 7.1{sup +1.5}{sub -1.2} Gyr. Finally, abundances of the following elements are measured from an equivalent width analysis of atomic features: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. We find the chemical composition of Arcturus typical of that of a local thick-disk star, consistent with its kinematics.
Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms - Final Report
Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandra
2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials.
Primordial nucleosynthesis as a probe of fundamental physics parameters
Thomas Dent; Steffen Stern; Christof Wetterich
2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the effect of variation of fundamental couplings and mass scales on primordial nucleosynthesis in a systematic way. The first step establishes the response of primordial element abundances to the variation of a large number of nuclear physics parameters, including nuclear binding energies. We find a strong influence of the n-p mass difference (for the 4He abundance), of the nucleon mass (for deuterium) and of A=3,4,7 binding energies (for 3He, 6Li and 7Li). A second step relates the nuclear parameters to the parameters of the Standard Model of particle physics. The deuterium, and, above all, 7Li abundances depend strongly on the average light quark mass hat{m} \\equiv (m_u+m_d)/2. We calculate the behaviour of abundances when variations of fundamental parameters obey relations arising from grand unification. We also discuss the possibility of a substantial shift in the lithium abundance while the deuterium and 4He abundances are only weakly affected.
Synthesis, characterization, and thermodynamic parameters of vanadium dioxide
Qi Ji [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Dalian Life Science College, Dalian Nationalities University, 18 Laohe West Road, Dalian 116600 (China); Ning Guiling [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Lin Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)
2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
A novel process was developed for synthesizing pure thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) by thermal reduction of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in ammonia gas. The process of thermal reduction of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was optimized by both experiments and modeling of thermodynamic parameters. The product VO{sub 2} was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results indicated that pure thermochromic VO{sub 2} crystal particles were successfully synthesized. The phase transition temperature of the VO{sub 2} is approximately 342.6 K and the enthalpy of phase transition is 44.90 J/g.
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
. * : TID-267 11-P2 '4 ' Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements Solutions to Problems Donald R. Olander Department - of Nuclear Engineering University of Cacfornia,...
Non-extensivity Parameter of Thermodynamical Model of Hadronic Interactions at LHC energies
Tadeusz Wibig
2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
The LHC measurements above SPS and Tevatron energies give the opportunity to test predictions of non-extensive thermodynamical picture of hadronic interaction to examine measured transverse momenta distributions for new interaction energy range. We determined Tsallis model non-extensivity parameter for the hadronization process before short-lived particles decayed and distort the initial p_t distribution. We have shown that it follows exactly smooth rise determined at lower energies below present LHC record. The shape of the q parameter energy dependence is consistent with expectations and the evidence of the asymptotic limit may be seen.
Thermal equation of state and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of beryllium metal
Zhang, Jianzhong, E-mail: jzhang@lanl.gov; Zhu, Jinlong [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Velisavljevic, Nenad [Dynamic and Energetic Materials Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States)
2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
We conducted in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray experiments on beryllium metal at pressures up to 7.9?GPa and temperatures up to 1373?K. A complete pressure (P)–volume (V)–temperature (T) equation of state (EOS) is determined based on the experiment, which includes temperature derivatives of elastic bulk modulus (at both constant pressure and constant volume) and pressure dependence of thermal expansivity. From this EOS, we calculate thermal pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter as a function of temperature. Above ?600?K, our results show notable deviation from theoretical predictions using the quasiharmonic and local-density approximations, indicating that the free energy calculations need to be further improved within the current scheme of approximations.
Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths
Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin
2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.
Sai Venkata Ramana, A., E-mail: asaivenk@barc.gov.in [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids.
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
MSE 3050, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials, Leonid Zhigilei Review of classical thermodynamics Fundamental Laws, Properties and Processes (1) First Law - Energy Balance Thermodynamic functions material in any other textbook on thermodynamics #12;MSE 3050, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials
Carlos Allende Prieto; David L. Lambert
1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
The Hipparcos mission has made it possible to constrain the positions of nearby field stars in the colour-magnitude diagram with very high accuracy. These positions can be compared with the predictions of stellar evolutionary calculations to provide information on the basic parameters of the stars: masses, radii, effective temperatures, ages, and chemical composition. The degeneracy between mass, age, and metallicity is not so large as to prevent a reliable estimate of masses, radii and effective temperatures, at least for stars of solar metallicity. The evolutionary models of Bertelli et al. (1994) predict those parameters finely, and furthermore, the applied transformation from the theoretical (log g-Teff) to the observational (Mv-B-V) plane is precise enough to derive radii with an uncertainty of ~ 6%, masses within ~ 8%, and Teffs within ~ 2% for a certain range of the stellar parameters. This is demonstrated by means of comparison with the measurements in eclipsing binaries and the InfraRed Flux Method. The application of the interpolation procedure in the theoretical isochrones to the stars within 100 pc from the Sun observed with Hipparcos provides estimates for 17,219 stars
Sang-Yoon Kim; Woochang Lim
2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
We are interested in characterization of population synchronization of bursting neurons which exhibit both the slow bursting and the fast spiking timescales, in contrast to spiking neurons. Population synchronization may be well visualized in the raster plot of neural spikes which can be obtained in experiments. The instantaneous population firing rate (IPFR) $R(t)$, which may be directly obtained from the raster plot of spikes, is often used as a realistic collective quantity describing population behaviors in both the computational and the experimental neuroscience. For the case of spiking neurons, realistic thermodynamic order parameter and statistical-mechanical spiking measure, based on $R(t)$, were introduced in our recent work to make practical characterization of spike synchronization. Here, we separate the slow bursting and the fast spiking timescales via frequency filtering, and extend the thermodynamic order parameter and the statistical-mechanical measure to the case of bursting neurons. Consequently, it is shown in explicit examples that both the order parameters and the statistical-mechanical measures may be effectively used to characterize the burst and spike synchronizations of bursting neurons.
Fundamental Parameters and Abundances of Metal-Poor Stars: The SDSS Standard BD +17 4708
I. Ramirez; C. Allende Prieto; S. Redfield; D. L. Lambert
2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
The atmospheric parameters and iron abundance of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectrophotometric standard star BD +17 4708 are critically examined using up-to-date Kurucz model atmospheres, LTE line formation calculations, and reliable atomic data. We find Teff = 6141+-50 K, log g = 3.87+-0.08, and [Fe/H]=-1.74+-0.09. The line-of-sight interstellar reddening, bolometric flux, limb-darkened angular diameter, stellar mass, and the abundances of Mg, Si, and Ca are also obtained. This star is a unique example of a moderately metal-poor star for which the effective temperature can be accurately constrained from the observed spectral energy distribution (corrected for reddening). Such analysis leads to a value that is higher than most spectroscopic results previously reported in the literature (~5950 K). We find that the ionization balance of Fe lines is satisfied only if a low Teff (~5950 K) is adopted. With our preferred Teff (6141 K), the mean iron abundance we obtain from the FeII lines is lower by about 0.15 dex than that from the FeI lines, and therefore, the discrepancy between the mean iron abundance from FeI and FeII lines cannot be explained by overionization by UV photons as the main non-LTE effect. We also comment on non-LTE effects and the importance of inelastic collisions with neutral H atoms in the determination of oxygen abundances in metal-poor stars from the 777 nm OI triplet. (Abridged)
Energy and Centrality Dependence of Chemical Freeze-out Thermodynamics parameters
N. Yu; F. Liu; K. Wu
2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
Driven by the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the RHIC, researches and discussions on the QCD phase diagram have flourished recently. In order to provide a reference from microscopic transport models, we performed a systematic analysis, using a multiphase transport (AMPT) model for the particle yields and a statistical model (THERMUS) for the thermal fit, for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}}$=7.7-200 GeV. It is found that at a fixed collision centrality the chemical freeze-out parameter, temperature $T_{\\text{ch}}$, increases with collision energy and somehow saturates at certain values of $T_{\\text{ch}}$ in collisions near $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}}$=10 GeV, indicating the limiting temperature in hadronic interactions; meanwhile the baryon chemical potential $\\mu_B$ decrease with the collision energy. The saturation temperature is also found to be dependent on partonic interaction. At a given collision energy, it is found that both $T_{\\text{ch}}$ and $\\mu_B$ decrease towards more peripheral collisions in the grand canonical approach. The energy and centrality dependence of other chemical freeze-out parameters, strangeness chemical potential $\\mu_S$, strangeness undersaturation factor $\\gamma_S$, and the volume of the fireball $V$ are also presented in this paper. The chemical potential ratio $\\mu_s/\\mu_B$ is also compared with lattice QCD calculation. The AMPT default model gives better descriptions on both the particle yields and the chemical freeze-out parameters than those from the AMPT string-melting model.
McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van Loon, J. Th. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Babler, B.; Meade, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Block, M.; Misselt, K., E-mail: iain.mcdonald-2@manchester.ac.uk [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States)
2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611{sup +213}{sub -200} pc and age as 12 {+-} 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor {omega} Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of {approx}1000 L{sub sun}, becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L{sub sun}. Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.
Algorithmic Thermodynamics John C. Baez
Tomkins, Andrew
Algorithmic Thermodynamics John C. Baez Department of Mathematics, University of California in statistical mechanics. This viewpoint allows us to apply many techniques developed for use in thermodynamics and chemical potential. We derive an analogue of the fundamental thermodynamic relation dE = TdS - PdV + Âµd
Thermodynamics Henri J.F. Jansen
Jansen, Henri J. F.
Thermodynamics Henri J.F. Jansen Department of Physics Oregon State University August 19, 2010 #12;II #12;Contents PART I. Thermodynamics Fundamentals 1 1 Basic Thermodynamics. 3 1.1 Introduction of Thermodynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.4 First law: Energy
Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky
Berdichevsky, Victor
Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky Mechanical thermodynamic parameters, entropy of microstructure and temperature of microstruc- ture. It was claimed that there is "one more law of thermodynamics": entropy of microstructure must decay in isolated thermodynamic stable
Montana State University EMEC320 Thermodynamics I1 EMEC 320: THERMODYNAMICS I
Dyer, Bill
Montana State University EMEC320 Thermodynamics I1 EMEC 320: THERMODYNAMICS I (UPDATED AUG 27, 2011 thermodynamic concepts, first and second laws, open and closed systems, properties of ideal and real substances.E. and Borgnakke, C. ISBN 0-471-15232-3 "Fundamentals of Thermodynamics" COORDINATING INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Sarah Codd
The Thermodynamics of Energy Conservation
Witte, L. C.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is part of a session dealing with the fundamentals of energy conservation. The paper is intended to be a tutorial for engineers who have not been trained in thermodynamics, or have not practiced recently and ...
How fundamental are fundamental constants?
M. J. Duff
2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.
How fundamental are fundamental constants?
Duff, M J
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might...
NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes
Kreinovich, Vladik
NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes: Applications to Astronomy and to Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nondestructive testing, aerospace structures 1. SEMIOTIC SHAPES IN ASTRONOMY: FORMULATION by using the fundamental physical ideas of symmetry and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. 2. MAIN PHYSICAL
Thermodynamics -Past, Present and Future Werner Ebeling
Ebeling, Werner
Thermodynamics - Past, Present and Future Werner Ebeling Institute of Physics, Humboldt, Clausius, Nernst and Einstein. We underline the key role of thermodynamic ideas in the scientific fundamental laws Thermodynamics as a branch of science was established in the 19th century by Sadi Carnot
THERMODYNAMICS Molecular Simulation of Multicomponent Reaction
Lisal, Martin
THERMODYNAMICS Molecular Simulation of Multicomponent Reaction and Phase Equilibria in MTBE Ternary System Martin Lisal´ E. Hala Laboratory of Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals N1G 2W1, Canada Ivo Nezbeda E. Hala Laboratory of Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemical Process
Ronnie Kosloff
2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations. We claim that inconsistency is the result of faulty analysis pointing to flaws in approximations.
Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials
Glasser, Leslie, E-mail: l.glasser@curtin.edu.au
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy, lattice energy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy values are available.
Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system
Reynier, Yvan (Meylan, FR); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA)
2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.
Christian Frønsdal
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics, when formulated as a dynamic action principle, allows a simple and effective integration into the General Theory of Gravitation.
EMEC 320: THERMODYNAMICS I Updated: June 27, 2012
Maxwell, Bruce D.
EMEC 320: THERMODYNAMICS I Updated: June 27, 2012 CATALOG DATA: Spring, 3 cr. Basic thermodynamic., Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, 7th ed., Wiley, ISBN 0-470-04192-7 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Sarah Codd, 201 Roberts Hall of thermodynamics to engineering problems involving closed and open systems. · effectively apply and understand
Thermodynamics of Fractal Universe
Ahmad Sheykhi; Zeinab Teimoori; Bin Wang
2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in a fractal universe. We find that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation of the fractal universe in the form of the entropy balance relation $ \\delta Q=T_h d{S_h}$, where $ \\delta Q $ and $ T_{h} $ are the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the apparent horizon. We find that the entropy $S_h$ consists two terms, the first one which obeys the usual area law and the second part which is the entropy production term due to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fractal universe. This shows that in a fractal universe, a treatment with nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime may be needed. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the framework of fractal universe. When the temperature of the apparent horizon and the matter fields inside the horizon are equal, i.e. $T=T_h$, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled provided the deceleration and the equation of state parameters ranges either as $-1 \\leq q thermodynamics can be secured in a fractal universe by suitably choosing the fractal parameter $\\beta$.
The Thermodynamics of Energy Conservation
Witte, L. C.
THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ENERGY CONSERVAXION LARRY C. WITTE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON HOUSTON, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper is part of a session dealing with the fundamentals of energy conservation. The paper... is intended to be a tutorial for engineers who have not been trained in ther modynamics, or have not practiced recently and need some refresher material. The first and second laws of thermodynamics will be reviewed in this paper from the context of how...
Mohsen Alishahiha; Davood Allahbakhshi; Ali Naseh
2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
We study entanglement entropy for an excited state by making use of the proposed holographic description of the entanglement entropy. For a sufficiently small entangling region and with reasonable identifications we find an equation between entanglement entropy and energy which is reminiscent of the first law of thermodynamics. We then suggest four statements which might be thought of as four laws of entanglement thermodynamics.
Krebs, M. E.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FUNDAMENTAL DESICCANTS MARK E. KREBS Gas Utllizatlon Engineer Southern Unlon Gas Company Austln. Texas ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the mainstream HVAC and facility management community with the technical concepts... for traditional HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems. Control air impurity level required for health and/or process requirements Dust. pollen, bacteria, viruses and radon gas are naturally occurring impurities in the air we breath. Air may...
Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation
Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto
2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.
ChE 210A M. F. Doherty Thermodynamics
Bigelow, Stephen
ChE 210A M. F. Doherty Thermodynamics Instructor: Michael F. Doherty (mfd@engineering.ucsb.edu, 893 is an introduction to the fundamentals of classical and statistical thermodynamics. We focus on equilibrium are formulated using either classical or statistical thermodynamics, and these methods have found wide
Thermodynamics of Statistical Inference by Cells Alex H. Lang,1,*
Mora, Thierry
Thermodynamics of Statistical Inference by Cells Alex H. Lang,1,* Charles K. Fisher,1 Thierry Mora June 2014; published 3 October 2014) The deep connection between thermodynamics, computation that thermodynamics also places fundamental constraints on statistical estimation and learning. To do so, we
Friedmann Thermodynamics and the Geometry of the Universe
Selcuk S. Bayin
2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent article we have introduced Friedmann thermodynamics, where certain geometric parameters in Friedmann models are treated like their thermodynamic counterparts (temperature, entropy, Gibbs potential etc.). This model has the advantage of allowing us to determine the geometry of the universe by thermodynamic stability arguments. In this article we review connections between thermodynamics, geometry and cosmology.
Sai Vinjanampathy; Janet Anders
2015-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum thermodynamics is an emerging research field aiming to extend standard thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical physics to ensembles of sizes well below the thermodynamic limit, in non-equilibrium situations, and with the full inclusion of quantum effects. Fuelled by experimental advances and the potential of future nanoscale applications this research effort is pursued by scientists with different backgrounds, including statistical physics, many-body theory, mesoscopic physics and quantum information theory, who bring various tools and methods to the field. A multitude of theoretical questions are being addressed ranging from issues of thermalisation of quantum systems and various definitions of "work", to the efficiency and power of quantum engines. This overview provides a perspective on a selection of these current trends accessible to postgraduate students and researchers alike.
Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures
Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin
2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z
The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jinwoo, Lee
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Lee Jinwoo; Hajime Tanaka
2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Thermodynamics of error correction
Pablo Sartori; Simone Pigolotti
2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and dissipated work of the process. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics, hence its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.
M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems
Bahrami, Majid
M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems Solving thermodynamic problems for common parameters that are needed in solving thermodynamics problems. The user should consult the Cengel.S., adiabatic, no work, PE = 0 Turbine Compressor Pump Flow energy (T, P) to work Work to flow energy (T, P
Z. Fodor
2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
Recent results on QCD thermodynamics are presented. The nature of the T>0 transition is determined, which turns out to be an analytic cross-over. The absolute scale for this transition is calculated. The temperature dependent static potential is given. The results were obtained by using a Symanzik improved gauge and stout-link improved fermionic action. In order to approach the continuum limit four different sets of lattice spacings were used with temporal extensions N_t=4, 6, 8 and 10 (they correspond to lattice spacings a \\sim 0.3, 0.2, 0.15 and 0.12 fm). A new technique is presented, which --in contrast to earlier methods-- enables one to determine the equation of state at very large temperatures.
Adsorption Thermodynamics and Intrinsic Activation Parameters for
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Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Matsueda, Hiroaki
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of ...
Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Hiroaki Matsueda
2015-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of the entropy.
Thermodynamic cost of creating correlations
Marcus Huber; Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Paul Skrzypczyk; Claude Klöckl; Nicolas Brunner; Antonio Acín
2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the fundamental limitations imposed by thermodynamics for creating correlations. Considering a collection of initially uncorrelated thermal quantum systems, we ask how much classical and quantum correlations can be obtained via a cyclic Hamiltonian process. We derive bounds on both the mutual information and entanglement of formation, as a function of the temperature of the systems and the available energy. While for a finite number of systems there is a maximal temperature allowing for the creation of entanglement, we show that genuine multipartite entanglement---the strongest form of entanglement in multipartite systems---can be created at any temperature when sufficiently many systems are considered. This approach may find applications, e.g. in quantum information processing, for physical platforms in which thermodynamic considerations cannot be ignored.
Thermodynamics of an accelerated expanding universe
Bin Wang; Yungui Gong; Elcio Abdalla
2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the laws of thermodynamics in an accelerating universe driven by dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state. In the case we consider that the physically relevant part of the Universe is that envelopped by the dynamical apparent horizon, we have shown that both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. On the other hand, if the boundary of the Universe is considered to be the cosmological event horizon the thermodynamical description based on the definitions of boundary entropy and temperature breaks down. No parameter redefinition can rescue the thermodynamics laws from such a fate, rendering the cosmological event horizon unphysical from the point of view of the laws of thermodynamics.
THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF SINTERING
Pask, J.A.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
E. Hoge and Joseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics of So:!.id StateJoseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics and Geometric Considerations8419 r- ,y / ( /)~; - - I THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF
Rigorous and General Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy
Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini
2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
The physical foundations of a variety of emerging technologies --- ranging from the applications of quantum entanglement in quantum information to the applications of nonequilibrium bulk and interface phenomena in microfluidics, biology, materials science, energy engineering, etc. --- require understanding thermodynamic entropy beyond the equilibrium realm of its traditional definition. This paper presents a rigorous logical scheme that provides a generalized definition of entropy free of the usual unnecessary assumptions which constrain the theory to the equilibrium domain. The scheme is based on carefully worded operative definitions for all the fundamental concepts employed, including those of system, property, state, isolated system, environment, process, separable system, system uncorrelated from its environment, and parameters of a system. The treatment considers also systems with movable internal walls and/or semipermeable walls, with chemical reactions and/or external force fields, and with small numbers of particles. The definition of reversible process is revised by introducing the new concept of scenario. The definition of entropy involves neither the concept of heat nor that of quasistatic process; it applies to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. The role of correlations on the domain of definition and on the additivity of energy and entropy is discussed: it is proved that energy is defined and additive for all separable systems, while entropy is defined and additive only for separable systems uncorrelated from their environment; decorrelation entropy is defined. The definitions of energy and entropy are extended rigorously to open systems. Finally, to complete the discussion, the existence of the fundamental relation for stable equilibrium states is proved, in our context, for both closed and open systems.
Student Code Number: Thermodynamics
Feeny, Brian
Student Code Number: Thermodynamics Ph.D. Qualifying Exam Department of Mechanical Engineering;Thermodynamics Qualifier January 2013 Problem 1 Air is compressed in an axial-flow compressor operating at steady of exergy destruction within the compressor, in kJ per kg of air flowing. #12;Thermodynamics Qualifier
Cambridge, University of
I Masters thesis Thermodynamics of Solutes in Cementite Using First-Principles Calculations JangFirst-PrinciplesCalculations Jang,JaeHoon #12;III cementite Thermodynamics of Solutes in Cementite Using First-Principles Calculations #12;IV Thermodynamics of Solutes in Cementite Using First-Principles Calculations By Jang, Jae
Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics
Russell, Lynn
1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http
Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition
Russell, Lynn
1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature
Kostic, Milivoje M.
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: STATUS AND CHALLENGES San Diego, California, USA 14 15 June 2011 The First Law of energy conservation was even known (Joule 1843) and long before Thermodynamic concepts were, including this one. The Laws of Thermodynamics have much wider, including philosophical significance
Virginia Tech
Spring 2014 Thermodynamics - 1 Consider an insulated (adiabatic) piston and cylinder arrangement. Confirm this statement using the second law of thermodynamics. (b) (20) She now wants to calculate the work done by the air on the piston by using the first law of thermodynamics. Do this. Draw a T
Computational Reality X Thermodynamics
Berlin,Technische Universität
Computational Reality X Thermodynamics B. Emek Abali @ LKM - TU Berlin Abstract After solving energy density. This is actually a branch of thermodynamics, though this question never gets its full answer in a thermodynamics' class. Here we will show one possibility of deriving the energy formulation
Particle Production and Universal Thermodynamics
Subhajit Saha; Subenoy Chakraborty
2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work, particle creation mechanism has been employed to the Universe as a thermodynamical system. The Universe is considered to be a spatially flat FRW model and cosmic fluid is chosen as a perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state -- $p = (\\gamma -1)\\rho$. By proper choice of the particle creation rate, expressions for the entropy and temperature have been determined at various stages of evolution of the Universe. Finally, using the deceleration parameter $q$ as a function of the redshift parameter $z$ based on recent observations, the particle creation rate has been evaluated and its variation at different epochs have been shown graphically.
Particle Production and Universal Thermodynamics
Subhajit Saha; Subenoy Chakraborty
2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work, particle creation mechanism is employed to the Universe as a thermodynamical system. The universe is considered to be spatially flat FRW model and cosmic fluid is chosen as perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state: p=(\\gamma -1)\\rho . By proper choice of the particle creation rate, entropy and temperature will be determined at various stages of evolution of the Universe. Finally, using the deceleration parameter as a function of the redshift parameter based on recent observations, particle creation rate will be evaluated and its variation at different epochs will be shown graphically.
Duality, Residues, Fundamental class
2011-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
May 22, 2011 ... Duality, Residues, Fundamental class. Joseph Lipman. Purdue University. Department of Mathematics lipman@math.purdue.edu. May 22 ...
Thermodynamic entropy is the Noether invariant
Sasa, Shin-ichi
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study a classical many-particle system with an external control represented by a time dependent parameter in a Lagrangian. We show that thermodynamic entropy of the system is the Noether invariant associated with a symmetry for an infinitesimal non-uniform time translation $t\\to t+\\eta\\hbar \\beta$, where $\\eta$ is a small parameter, $\\hbar$ is the Planck constant, $\\beta$ is the inverse temperature that depends on the energy, and trajectories in the phase space are restricted to those consistent with quasi-static processes in thermodynamics.
Fundamental Equation of State for Deuterium
Richardson, I. A.; Leachman, J. W., E-mail: jacob.leachman@wsu.edu [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 642920, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Lemmon, E. W. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
World utilization of deuterium is anticipated to increase with the rise of fusion-energy machines such as ITER and NIF. We present a new fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of fluid deuterium. Differences between thermodynamic properties of orthodeuterium, normal deuterium, and paradeuterium are described. Separate ideal-gas functions were fitted for these separable forms together with a single real-fluid residual function. The equation of state is valid from the melting line to a maximum pressure of 2000 MPa and an upper temperature limit of 600 K, corresponding to available experimental measurements. The uncertainty in predicted density is 0.5% over the valid temperature range and pressures up to 300 MPa. The uncertainties of vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities are 2% and 3%, respectively, while speed-of-sound values are accurate to within 1% in the liquid phase.
Fundamentals of Ceramic Processing
New South Wales, University of
MATS3002 Fundamentals of Ceramic Processing Course Outline Session 1, 2015 School of Materials and Engineering and is intended to teach students the fundamentals of ceramic materials and their processing and the importance of processing in determining the composition- microstructure-property relationships for ceramic
Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING
Rhoads, James
Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management
Thermodynamics and scale relativity
Robert Carroll
2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).
Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics
Christopher W. Stubbs
2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.
The Fundamental Plane of Quasars
Timothy S. Hamilton; Stefano Casertano; David A. Turnshek
2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from an archival study of 70 medium-redshift QSOs observed with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The QSOs have magnitudes M_V < -23 (total nuclear plus host light) and redshifts 0.06 < z < 0.46. A close relationship between QSO host and nucleus is found by examining multiple parameters at once. A principal components analysis shows that 3 nuclear and host properties are related in a kind of fundamental plane: nuclear luminosity and the size and effective surface magnitude of the bulge. Using optical nuclear luminosity, this relationship explains 95.9% of the variance in the overall sample, while 94.9% of the variance is accounted for if we use x-ray nuclear luminosity. The form of this QSO fundamental plane shows similarities to the well-studied fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies, and we examine the possible relationship between them as well as the difficulties involved in establishing this connection. The key to the relationship might lie in the fueling mechanism of the central black hole.
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber Office Hall--Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics
First Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics
Winokur, Michael
First Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Eth =W +Q Thermal energy Eth : Microscopic. #12;First Law of Thermodynamics Work W done on a gas is (area under the pV curve) W = - pdV = Vi Vf - tools First Law of Thermodynamics An adiabatic process is one for which Q = 0. Fast process but still
Big bang nucleosynthesis as a probe of fundamental "constants"
Thomas Dent; Steffen Stern
2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the earliest sensitive probe of the values of many fundamental particle physics parameters. We have found the leading linear dependences of primordial abundances on all relevant parameters of the standard BBN code, including binding energies and nuclear reaction rates. This enables us to set limits on possible variations of fundamental parameters. We find that 7Li is expected to be significantly more sensitive than other species to many fundamental parameters, a result which also holds for variations of coupling strengths in grand unified (GUT) models. Our work also indicates which areas of nuclear theory need further development if the values of ``constants'' are to be more accurately probed.
From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics?
Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen
From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics? Dresden, 22.11.2004 Jochen Gemmer Universit¨at Osnabr to thermodynamical behavior · Quantum approach to thermodynamical behavior · The route to equilibrium · Summary of thermodynamical behavior entirely on the basis of Hamilton models and Schr¨odinger-type quantum dynamics. · define
Pauli problem in thermodynamics
Artur E. Ruuge
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic analogue of the Pauli problem (reconstruction of a wavefunction from the position and momentum distributions) is formulated. The coordinates of a quantum system are replaced by the inverse absolute temperature and other intensive quantities, and the Planck constant is replaced by the Boltzmann constant multiplied by two. A new natural mathematical generalization of the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory is suggested and sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the thermodynamic Pauli problem are obtained.
Extensivity and Relativistic Thermodynamics
J. Dunning-Davies
2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
The mathematical properties associated with the widely accepted concept of the extensivity of many of the common thermodynamic variables are examined and some of their consequences considered. The possible conflict between some of these and currently accepted results of special relativistic thermodynamics is highlighted. Although several questions are raised, answers are not advanced as this seems an area demanding calm, widespread reflection which could conceivably lead to radical revision of part, or parts, of theoretical physics.
Thermodynamics of N-dimensional quantum walks
Alejandro Romanelli; Raul Donangelo; Renato Portugal; Franklin L. Marquezino
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
The entanglement between the position and coin state of a $N$-dimensional quantum walker is shown to lead to a thermodynamic theory. The entropy, in this thermodynamics, is associated to the reduced density operator for the evolution of chirality, taking a partial trace over positions. From the asymptotic reduced density matrix it is possible to define thermodynamic quantities, such as the asymptotic entanglement entropy, temperature, Helmholz free energy, etc. We study in detail the case of a $2$-dimensional quantum walk, in the case of two different initial conditions: a non-separable coin-position initial state, and a separable one. The resulting entanglement temperature is presented as function of the parameters of the system and those of the initial conditions.
Black Hole Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity
Jonas R. Mureika; John W. Moffat; Mir Faizal
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the thermodynamics of a non-rotating and rotating black hole in a modified theory of gravity that includes scalar and vector modifications to general relativity, which results in a modified gravitational constant $G = G_N(1+\\alpha)$ and a new gravitational charge $Q = \\sqrt{\\alpha G_N}M$. The influence of the parameter $\\alpha$ alters the non-rotating black hole's lifetime, temperature and entropy profiles from the standard Schwarzschild case. The thermodynamics of a rotating black hole is analyzed and it is shown to possess stable, cold remnants. The thermodynamic properties of a vacuum solution regular at $r=0$ are investigated and the solution without a horizon called a "gray hole" is not expected to possess an information loss problem.
EWONAP Procurement Fundamentals
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
HUD's Eastern Woodlands Office of Native American Programs in collaboration with the Seminole Tribe of Florida Native Learning Center invites you to attend the Procurement Fundamentals training instructed by Vince Franco, Compliance & Resource Development Director of the Native Learning Center in Atlanta, Georgia on September 8-9, 2014.
Mirkin, Sergei
DNA Topology: Fundamentals Sergei M Mirkin, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA Topological characteristics of DNA and specifically DNA supercoiling influence all major DNA transactions in living cells. DNA supercoiling induces the formation of unusual secondary structure by specific DNA
Thermodynamic Origin of the Cardassian Universe
Chao-Jun Feng; Xin-Zhou Li; Xian-Yong Shen
2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
In the Cadassian universe, one can explain the acceleration of the universe without introducing dark energy component. However, the dynamical equations of this model can not be directly obtained from the action principle. Recently, works on the relation between thermodynamics and gravity indicates that gravity force may not be the fundamental force. In this paper, we study the thermodynamics of the Cardassian universe, and regard it as the origin of this cosmological model. We find that the corresponding entropy obeys ordinary area law when the area of the trapping horizon is small, while it becomes a constant when area is going to be large in the original and modified polytropic Cardassian model, and it has a maximum value in the exponential one. It seems that the Cardassian universe only contains finite information according to the holographic principle, which states that all the information in the bulk should be encoded in the boundary of the bulk.
Masses of Fundamental Particles
Hidezumi Terazawa
2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
In the original paper entitled, "Masses of Fundamental Particles"(arXiv:1109.3705v5, 10 Feb 2012), not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs boson, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite models of quarks and leptons successfully. In this addendum entitled, "Higgs Boson Mass in the Minimal Unified Subquark Model", it is emphasized that the Higgs boson mass is predicted to be about 130Gev in the minimal unified subquark model, which agrees well with the experimental values of 125-126GeV recently found by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC.
Description of quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes requires constraints beyond free energy
Matteo Lostaglio; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph
2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies have developed fundamental limitations on nanoscale thermodynamics, in terms of a set of independent free energy relations. Here we show that free energy relations cannot properly describe quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes. By casting time-asymmetry as a quantifiable, fundamental resource of a quantum state we arrive at an additional, independent set of thermodynamic constraints that naturally extend the existing ones. These asymmetry relations reveal that the traditional Szilard engine argument does not extend automatically to quantum coherences, but instead only relational coherences in a multipartite scenario can contribute to thermodynamic work. We find that coherence transformations are always irreversible. Our results also reveal additional structural parallels between thermodynamics and the theory of entanglement.
From Thermodynamics to the Bound on Viscosity
Shahar Hod
2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics may shed much light on the mysterious Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) bound on the ratio of viscosity to entropy density. In particular, we obtain the lower bound $\\eta/s +O(\\eta^3/s^3)\\geq 1/4\\pi$. Furthermore, for conformal field theories we obtain a new fundamental bound on the value of the relaxation coefficient $\\tau_{\\pi}$ of causal hydrodynamics, which has been the focus of much recent attention: $(\\tau_{\\pi}T)^2\\geq {{(\\sqrt{3}-1)}/{2\\pi^2}}$.
Thermodynamics of Ideal Gas in Cosmology
Ying-Qiu Gu
2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
The equation of state and the state functions for the gravitational source are necessary conditions for solving cosmological model and stellar structure. The usual treatments are directly based on the laws of thermodynamics, and the physical meanings of some concepts are obscure. This letter show that, we can actually derive all explicit fundamental state functions for the ideal gas in the context of cosmology via rigorous dynamical and statistical calculation. These relations have clear physical meanings, and are valid in both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic cases. Some features of the equation of state are important for a stable structure of a star with huge mass.
Thermodynamics of electroweak matter
A. Gynther
2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a PhD thesis, also containing the articles hep-ph/0303019, hep-ph/0510375 and hep-ph/0512177. We provide a short history of the research of electroweak thermodynamics and a brief introduction to the theory as well as to the necessary theoretical tools needed to work at finite temperatures. We then review computations regarding the pressure of electroweak matter at high temperatures (the full expression of the perturbative expansion of the pressure is given in the appendix) and the electroweak phase diagram at finite chemical potentials. Finally, we compare electroweak and QCD thermodynamics.
Jeremy Dunning-Davies; David Sands
2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
For a long time now, confusion has existed in the minds of many over the meaning of various concepts in thermodynamics. Recently, this point has been brought to people's attention by two articles appearing on the well-known archive (arxiv) web site. The content of these two pieces serves to illustrate many of the problems and has occasioned the construction of this answer to at least some of them. The position of the axiom proposed by Carath\\'eodory is central in this matter and here its position is clarified and secured within the framework of thermodynamics. In particular, its relation to the First Law is examined and justified.
Thermodynamics in the Viscous Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Assuming that the matter filling the background geometry in the Early Universe was a free gas and no phase transitions took place, we discuss the thermodynamics of this closed system using classical approaches. We found that essential cosmological quantities, such as the Hubble parameter $H$, the scaling factor $a$ and the curvature parameter $k$, can be derived from this simple model. The results are compatible with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and Einstein field equations. Including finite bulk viscosity coefficient leads to important changes in the cosmological quantities. Accordingly, our picture about evolution of the Universe and its astrophysical consequences seems to be a subject of radical revision. We found that $k$ strongly depends on thermodynamics of the cosmic background matter. The time scale, at which negative curvature might take place, depends on the relation between the matter content and the total energy. Using quantum and statistical approaches, we introduced expressions for $H$ a...
Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health
Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T
2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.
Thermodynamical description of the ghost dark energy model
Honarvaryan, M; Moradpour, H
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we point out thermodynamical description of ghost dark energy and its generalization to the early universe. Thereinafter, we find expressions for the entropy changes of these dark energy candidates. In addition, considering thermal fluctuations, thermodynamics of the dark energy component interacting with a dark matter sector is addressed. {We will also find the effects of considering the coincidence problem on the mutual interaction between the dark sectors, and thus the equation of state parameter of dark energy.} Finally, we derive a relation between the mutual interaction of the dark components of the universe, accelerated with the either ghost dark energy or its generalization, and the thermodynamic fluctuations.
Hessian matrix, specific heats, Nambu brackets, and thermodynamic geometry
Seyed Ali Hosseini Mansoori; Behrouz Mirza; Mohamadreza Fazel
2015-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
As an extension to our earlier work \\cite{Mirza2}, we employ the Nambu brackets to prove that the divergences of heat capacities correspond to their counterparts in thermodynamic geometry. We also obtain a simple representation for the conformal transformations that connect different thermodynamics metrics to each other. Using our bracket approach, we obtain interesting exact relations between the Hessian matrix with any number of parameters and specific heat capacities. Finally, we employ this approach to investigate some thermodynamic properties of the Meyers-Perry black holes with three spins.
Zeroth Law compatibility of non-additive thermodynamics
T. S. Biró; P. Ván
2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
Non-extensive thermodynamics was criticized among others by stating that the Zeroth Law cannot be satisfied with non-additive composition rules. In this paper we determine the general functional form of those non-additive composition rules which are compatible with the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics. We find that this general form is additive for the formal logarithms of the original quantities and the familiar relations of thermodynamics apply to these. Our result offers a possible solution to the longstanding problem about equilibrium between extensive and non-extensive systems or systems with different non-extensivity parameters.
Mathematical thermodynamics of fluids Eduard Feireisl
KrejcÃ, Pavel
Mathematical thermodynamics of fluids Eduard Feireisl Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Sciences Agreement 320078 CIME courses, Cetraro 29 June - 4 July 2015 Eduard Feireisl Thermodynamics of fluids #12 Thermodynamics of fluids #12;Fluids at equilibrium Thermodynamic state variables mass density
Characterization of Fundamental Particles
Ben J Baten
2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
This report provides an alternative to the Standard Model of particle physics. The model described here is based on results from Quantum Field Mechanics, according to which all fundamental particles and interactions originate from the interaction of two pre-space/pre-time protofields. In contrast with the Standard Model, (virtual) interaction-particles are absent in the description of any of the four fundamental interactions. Electrons perform a single quantum beat process while mesons and baryons have, respectively, two and three bound quantum beat processes. Quantum Field Mechanics suggests that the charge of an electron and positron can be identified with the two possible phases of a quantum beat process as observed in the electromagnetic protofield. This report assumes that short-range binding interaction between quantum beat processes has a masking effect on the externally observable charge of hadrons. Using this assumption, the internal structure of particles is derived from their known particle charges and relative masses. The particle structures are used to obtain the so-called charge-quantum phase law. The fractional charge of quantum beat processes inside a particle is deduced by rewriting the charge-quantum phase law in terms of a linear combination of charge contributions of individual constituent quantum beat processes. Strangeness and isospin are mathematically defined in terms of the quantum beat phases of sets of particles of the same type. Application of conservation laws to particle processes leads to relations between quantum phase, strangeness and isospin.
Sparks, Donald L.
Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters
Thermodynamics Review and Relations
- ing systems. 1Reif, p91 2Reif, p91 3Reif, p122 First Law The internal energy of an isolated system the efficiency of steam engine. Only macroscopic continues states of matter are con- sidered. Thermodynamics enables quantities defined from energy and geometry to be simply related. An understanding
2, 15151615, 2005 Thermodynamic
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
- tions of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized proteins as a func- tion of temperature and T at high temperature were taken from the recent literature, which ensures an internally consistent revision, pressure, composition and intra- and extracellular chemical potentials of O2, H2, NH3, H2PO4 and CO2. 1516
Thermodynamics and gravitational collapse
Daniele Malafarina; Pankaj S. Joshi
2011-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
It is known now that a typical gravitational collapse in general relativity, evolving from regular initial data and under physically reasonable conditions would end in either a black hole or a naked singularity final state. An important question that needs to be answered in this connection is, whether the analogues of the laws of thermodynamics, as formulated for relativistic horizons are respected by the dynamical spacetimes for collapse that end in the formation of a naked singularity. We investigate here the thermodynamical behaviour of the dynamical horizons that form in spherically symmetric gravitational collapse and we show that the first and second laws of black hole thermodynamics, as extended to dynamical spacetimes in a suitable manner, are not violated whether the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. We then make a distinction between the naked singularities that result from gravitational collapse, and those that exist in solutions of Einstein equations in vacuum axially symmetric and stationary spacetimes, and discuss their connection with thermodynamics in view of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the validity of the third law of black hole mechanics.
Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion...
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Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037) Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037)...
Thermodynamics CHE 361, 4 credits
Fuchs, Alan
Thermodynamics CHE 361, 4 credits Spring Semester 2006 Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00 12:15PM, LME Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics", Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. Prerequisites Calculus III (Math 283 of this course, students will understand the first and second laws, PVT properties of fluids, thermodynamic
Phenomenological thermodynamics in a nutshell
Neumaier, Arnold
Phenomenological thermodynamics in a nutshell Arnold Neumaier FakultÂ¨at fÂ¨ur Mathematik, Universit of phenomeno- logical equilibrium thermodynamics for single-phase systems in the absence of chemical reactions-known thermodynamics book the basic concepts by means of a few postulates from which every- thing else follows. His
Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics
P. Ván
2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.
Fundamental Physics Explored with High Intensity Laser
T. Tajima; K. Homma
2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
Over the last Century the method of particle acceleration to high energies has become the prime approach to explore the fundamental nature of matter in laboratory. It appears that the latest search of the contemporary accelerator based on the colliders shows a sign of saturation (or at least a slow-down) in increasing its energy and other necessary parameters to extend this frontier. We suggest two pronged approach enabled by the recent progress in high intensity lasers.
Contact Symmetries and Hamiltonian Thermodynamics
A. Bravetti; C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; F. Nettel
2015-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher's Information Matrix. In this work we analyze several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.
Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas
Yun Soo Myung
2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).
Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics
Jerome Perez
2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.
Classical QGP : IV. Thermodynamics
Sungtae Cho; Ismail Zahed
2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
We construct the equation of a state of the classical QGP valid for all values of Gamma=V/K, the ratio of the mean Coulomb to kinetic energy. By enforcing the Gibbs relations, we derive the pertinent pressure and entropy densities for all Gamma. For the case of an SU(2) classical gluonic plasma our results compare well with lattice simulations. We show that the strongly coupled component of the classical QGP contributes significantly to the bulk thermodynamics across T_c.
Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation
Chung, T.H.
1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.
A dissipation bound for thermodynamic control
Machta, Benjamin B
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Biological and engineered systems operate by coupling function to the transfer of heat and/or particles down a thermal or chemical gradient. In idealized \\textit{deterministically} driven systems, thermodynamic control can be exerted reversibly, with no entropy production, as long as the rate of the protocol is made slow compared to the equilibration time of the system. Here we consider \\textit{fully realizable, entropically driven} systems where the control parameters themselves obey rules that are reversible and that acquire directionality in time solely through dissipation. We show that when such a system moves in a directed way through thermodynamic space, it must produce entropy that is on average larger than its generalized displacement as measured by the Fisher information metric. This distance measure is sub-extensive but cannot be made small by slowing the rate of the protocol.
Thermodynamics of free Domain Wall fermions
R. V. Gavai; Sayantan Sharma
2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
Studying various thermodynamic quantities for the free domain wall fermions for both finite and infinite fifth dimensional extent N_5, we find that the lattice corrections are minimum for $N_T\\geq10$ for both energy density and susceptibility, for its irrelevant parameter M in the range 1.45-1.50. The correction terms are, however, quite large for small lattice sizes of $N_T\\leq8$. We propose modifications of the domain wall operator, as well as the overlap operator, to reduce the finite cut-off effects to within 10% of the continuum results of the thermodynamic quantities for the currently used N_T=6-8 lattices. Incorporating chemical potential, we show that \\mu^2 divergences are absent for a large class of such domain wall fermion actions although the chiral symmetry is broken for $\\mu\
Thermodynamics and Spectroscopy of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by Quintessence
R Tharanath; V C Kuriakose
2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamic and spectroscopic behaviour of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence are studied. We have derived the thermodynamic quantities and studied their behaviour for different values of quintessence parameter. We put the background space-time into the Kruskal-like coordinate to find the period with respect to Elucidean time. Also assuming that the adiabatic invariant obeys Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule, detailed study of area spectrum and entropy spectrum have been done for special cases of the quintessece state parameter. We find that the spectra are equally spaced.
Thermodynamics of scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling
Yumei Huang; Yungui Gong; Dicong Liang; Zhu Yi
2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we show that the unified first law on the apparent horizon is equivalent to the Friedmann equation for the scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling. The second law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon is also satisfied. The results support a deep and fundamental connection between gravitation, thermodynamics and quantum theory.
Thermodynamics of scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling
Huang, Yumei; Liang, Dicong; Yi, Zhu
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we show that the unified first law on the apparent horizon is equivalent to the Friedmann equation for the scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling. The second law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon is also satisfied. The results support a deep and fundamental connection between gravitation, thermodynamics and quantum theory.
Entropy In The Present And Early Universe: New Small Parameters And Dark Energy Problem
A. E. Shalyt-Margolin
2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
It is demonstrated that entropy and its density play a significant role in solving the problem of the vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) of the Universe and hence the dark energy problem. Taking this in mind, two most popular models for dark energy - Holographic Dark Energy Model and Agegraphic Dark Energy Model - are analyzed. It is shown that the fundamental quantities in the first of these models may be expressed in terms of a new small dimensionless parameter. It is revealed that this parameter is naturally occurring in High Energy Gravitational Thermodynamics and Gravitational Holography (UV-limit). On this basis the possibility of a new approach to the problem of Quantum Gravity is discussed. Besides, the results obtained on the uncertainty relation of the pair "cosmological constant - volume of space-time", where the cosmological constant is a dynamic quantity, are reconsidered and generalized up to the Generalized Uncertainty Relation.
Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging
O'Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.
2003-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some other system parameter permits the construction of whole new classes of devices with greatly expanded capabilities compared to conventional approaches. These ''tailored edge-ray'' designs have dramatically broadened the range of geometries in which nonimaging optics can provide a significant performance improvement. Considerable progress continues to be made in furthering the incorporation of nonimaging secondaries into practical high concentration and ultra-high concentration solar collector systems. In parallel with the continuing development of nonimaging geometrical optics, our group has been working to develop an understanding of certain fundamental physical optics concepts in the same context. In particular, our study of the behavior of classical radiance in nonimaging systems, has revealed some fundamentally important new understandings that we have pursued both theoretically and experimentally. The field is still relatively new and is rapidly gaining widespread recognition because it fuels many industrial applications. Because of this, during the final years of the project, our group at Chicago has been working more closely with a team of industrial scientists from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) at first informally, and later more formally, beginning in 1998, under a formal program initiated by the Department of Energy and incrementally funded through this existing grant. This collaboration has been very fruitful and has led to new conceptual breakthroughs which have provided the foundation for further exciting growth. Many of these concepts are described in some detail in the report.
Thermodynamic Stability of Nanobubbles
Phil Attard
2015-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The observed stability of nanobubbles contradicts the well-known result in classical nucleation theory, that the critical radius is both microscopic and thermodynamically unstable. Here nanoscopic stability is shown to be the combined result of two non-classical mechanisms. It is shown that the surface tension decreases with increasing supersaturation, and that this gives a nanoscopic critical radius. Whilst neither a free spherical bubble nor a hemispherical bubble mobile on an hydrophobic surface are stable, it is shown that an immobilized hemispherical bubble with a pinned contact rim is stable and that the total entropy is a maximum at the critical radius.
Thermodynamic analysis of universes with the initial and final de-Sitter eras
Moradpour, H; Ghasemi, A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Our aim is studying the thermodynamics of cosmological models including initial and final de-Sitter eras. For this propose, bearing Cai-Kim temperature in mind, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dark energy candidate with variable energy density, and show that the state parameter of this dark energy candidate should obey the $\\omega_D\
Thermodynamic analysis of universes with the initial and final de-Sitter eras
H. Moradpour; M. T. Mohammadi Sabet; A. Ghasemi
2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
Our aim is studying the thermodynamics of cosmological models including initial and final de-Sitter eras. For this propose, bearing Cai-Kim temperature in mind, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dark energy candidate with variable energy density, and show that the state parameter of this dark energy candidate should obey the $\\omega_D\
CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 -CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB
Kounaves, Samuel P.
CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS FALL, 2015 (4/9/2015) CHEM 0001-01 & 0001-02 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry chemistry, and chemistry of selected elements. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one
Thermodynamics of cuticular transpiration Allen G. Gibbs *
Ahmad, Sajjad
Review Thermodynamics of cuticular transpiration§ Allen G. Gibbs * School of Life Sciences, 4505 S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 4. Thermodynamics of transport processes Accepted 6 May 2011 Keywords: Cuticle Humidity Thermodynamics Transpiration Water vapor A B S T R A C
Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu
2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. And the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but are actually also found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.
THERMODYNAMICS Unified Model for Nonideal Multicomponent
Firoozabadi, Abbas
THERMODYNAMICS Unified Model for Nonideal Multicomponent Molecular Diffusion Coefficients Alana and a rigorous descrip- tion of mixture nonideality in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Molecular
Michaelian, K
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...
Thermodynamics of clusterized matter
Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli
2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.
Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
The Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop is a three-day workshop for tribes to understand how to manage the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process and implement the Council on...
Christoph Fritsch; Thomas Buchert
1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss implications of the fundamental plane parameters of clusters of galaxies derived from combined optical and X-ray data of a sample of 78 nearby clusters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of these parameters on the dynamical state of the cluster. We introduce a new concept of allocation of the fundamental plane of clusters derived from their intrinsic morphological properties, and put some theoretical implications of the existence of a fundamental plane into perspective.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Basak, Sayan; Nandi, Poulami; Sengupta, Gautam
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a 3+1 dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a charged massive scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
QCD Thermodynamics with Improved Actions
Karsch, Frithjof; Engels, J; Joswig, R; Laermann, E; Peikert, A; Petersson, B
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory has been analyzed with tree level and tadpole improved Symanzik actions. A comparison with the continuum extrapolated results for the standard Wilson action shows that improved actions lead to a drastic reduction of finite cut-off effects already on lattices with temporal extent $N_\\tau=4$. Results for the pressure, the critical temperature, surface tension and latent heat are presented. First results for the thermodynamics of four-flavour QCD with an improved staggered action are also presented. They indicate similarly large improvement factors for bulk thermodynamics.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Sayan Basak; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Poulami Nandi; Gautam Sengupta
2015-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up, through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a (3+1) dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a massive charged scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Sayan Basak; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Poulami Nandi; Gautam Sengupta
2015-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a 3+1 dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a charged massive scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
THE LANDAUER LIMIT AND THERMODYNAMICS OF
Baez, John
THE LANDAUER LIMIT AND THERMODYNAMICS OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS David H. Wolpert Santa Fe Institute1 v2 b) h 2R vv1 v2 c) h vv1 v2 R Thermodynamic cost to erase a bit - the minimal amount of entropy be thermodynamically reversible ... but if it is applied to known data, it is thermodynamically irreversible." #12;HEAT
Some topics in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics
Robert Carroll
2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
We sketch some connecting relations involving fractional and quantum calculi, fractal structure, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics.
ME 326 Thermodynamics ABET EC2000 syllabus
Ben-Yakar, Adela
ME 326 Thermodynamics Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 326 Thermodynamics Summer 2009 Required or Elective: Required 2008-2010 Catalog Data: Properties, heat and work, first and second laws, thermodynamic, and Physics 303K with a grade of at least C in each. Textbook(s): Thermodynamics: An Integrated Learning
Thermodynamics of regular black hole
Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park
2008-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.
On the Mathematics of Thermodynamics
J. B. Cooper; T. Russell
2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the mathematical structure of Gibbsian thermodynamics flows from the following simple elements: the state space of a thermodynamical substance is a measure space together with two orderings (corresponding to "warmer than" and "adiabatically accessible from") which satisfy certain plausible physical axioms and an area condition which was introduced by Paul Samuelson. We show how the basic identities of thermodynamics, in particular the Maxwell relations, follow and so the existence of energy, free energy, enthalpy and the Gibbs potential function. We also discuss some questions which we have not found dealt with in the literature, such as the amount of information required to reconstruct the equations of state of a substance and a systematic approach to thermodynamical identities.
Relativisticlike structure of classical thermodynamics
Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez; Alejandro Vazquez
2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze in the context of geometrothermodynamics a Legendre invariant metric structure in the equilibrium space of an ideal gas. We introduce the concept of thermodynamic geodesic as a succession of points, each corresponding to a state of equilibrium, so that the resulting curve represents a quasi-static process. A rigorous geometric structure is derived in which the thermodynamic geodesics at a given point split the equilibrium space into two disconnected regions separated by adiabatic geodesics. This resembles the causal structure of special relativity, which we use to introduce the concept of adiabatic cone for thermodynamic systems. This result might be interpreted as an alternative indication of the inter-relationship between relativistic physics and classical thermodynamics.
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23Tribal EnergyCatalyticPreparation andEnabling grapheneSciDAC ComputationalFinal\. * : TID-267 11-P2 '4
Exact equalities and thermodynamic relations for nonequilibrium steady states
Teruhisa S. Komatsu; Naoko Nakagawa; Shin-ichi Sasa; Hal Tasaki
2014-12-25T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermodynamic operations which bring a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) to another NESS in physical systems under nonequilibrium conditions. We model the system by a suitable Markov jump process, and treat thermodynamic operations as protocols according to which the external agent varies parameters of the Markov process. Then we prove, among other relations, a NESS version of the Jarzynski equality and the extended Clausius relation. The latter can be a starting point of thermodynamics for NESS. We also find that the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy has a microscopic representation in terms of symmetrized Shannon entropy in systems where the microscopic description of states involves "momenta". All the results in the present paper are mathematically rigorous.
Thermodynamics of Modified Chaplygin Gas and Tachyonic Field
Samarpita Bhattacharya; Ujjal Debnath
2010-12-26T23:59:59.000Z
Here we generalize the results of the work of ref. [10] in modified Chaplygin gas model and tachyonic field model. Here we have studied the thermodynamical behaviour and the equation of state in terms of volume and temperature for both models. We have used the solution and the corresponding equation of state of our previous work [12] for tachyonic field model. We have also studied the thermodynamical stability using thermal equation of state for the tachyonic field model and have shown that there is no critical points during thermodynamical expansion. The determination of $T_{*}$ due to expansion for the tachyonic field have been discussed by assuming some initial conditions. Here, the thermal quantities have been investigated using some reduced parameters.
Thermodynamics of topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes
Zangeneh, M Kord; Dehghani, M H
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we construct a new class of analytic topological Lifshitz black holes with constant curvature horizon in the presence of power-law Maxwell field in four and higher dimensions. We find that in order to obtain these exact Lifshitz solutions, we need a dilaton and at least three electromagnetic fields. Interestingly enough, we find that the reality of the charge of the electromagnetic field which is needed for having solutions with curved horizon rules out black holes with hyperbolic horizon. Next, we study the thermodynamics of these nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and flat horizons by calculating all the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions. Furthermore, we obtain a generalized Smarr formula and show that the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Finally, we perform a stability analysis in both canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We find that the solutions are thermally stable in a proper ranges of the metric parameters.
Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of fuel-vapor species from spectroscopic data
Green, D.W.
1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Measured spectroscopic data, estimated molecular parameters, and a densty-of-states model for electronic structure have been used to calculate thermodynamic functions for gaseous ThO, ThO/sub 2/, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, and PuO/sub 2/. Various methods for estimating parameters have been considered and numerically evaluated. The sensitivity of the calculated thermodynamic functions to molecular parameters has been examined quantitatively. New values of the standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15/sup 0/K have been derived from the best available ..delta..G/sup 0//sub f/ equations and the calculated thermodynamic functions. Estimates of the uncertainties have been made for measured and estimated data as well as for various mathematical and physical approximations. Tables of the thermodynamic functions to 6000/sup 0/K are recommended for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides.
Biodiversity, Entropy and Thermodynamics http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/bio info/
Baez, John
. In biodiversity studies, the entropy of an ecosystem is the expected amount of information we gain about 29, 2014 Biological and Bio-Inspired Information Theory BIRS #12;Shannon entropy S(p) = - n i=1 pi ln(pi ) is fundamental to thermodynamics and information theory. But it's also used to measure biodiversity, where pi
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber OÆce: Kerr Hall|Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates
Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
Thermodynamics for Fractal Statistics
Wellington da Cruz
1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider for an anyon gas its termodynamics properties taking into account the fractal statistics obtained by us recently. This approach describes the anyonic excitations in terms of equivalence classes labeled by fractal parameter or Hausdorff dimension $h$. An exact equation of state is obtained in the high-temperature and low-temperature limits, for gases with a constant density of states.
Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts...
Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education Energy...
REACHING AGREEMENT A Fundamental Task--
Schneider, Fred B.
REACHING AGREEMENT A Fundamental Task-- Even in Distributed Computer Systems by Fred B. Schneider consists of a collection of computers interconnected by communication channels. The computers are usually that will achieve ByzantineAgreement: Agreement. All nontraitorous generals execute the same action. Validity
References: Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals
Brass, Stefan
: Accessing and Changing Data. . Microsoft Jet Database Engine Programmer's Guide, 2nd Ed. (Part of MSDN7. SQL I 71 Part 7: SQL I References: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' (Sect. 8.2, 8.3.3, part of 8
Mehrbenutzerbetrieb Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals
Brass, Stefan
12. Updates in SQL / Mehrbenutzerbetrieb 12Â1 Teil 12: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, AddisonÂWesley, 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO
Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities
Morelos-Zaragoza, Robert H.
Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza Department of Electrical Engineering San Jose State University October 12, 2007 #12;Cognitive Radio - RHMZ - 2007 Slide 2 of 18 Outline 1. Software-defined radio (SDR) a) Black-box approach b) Components and attributes (Mitola) 2
Fundamental development of numerical and
Langendoen, Koen
with their application to aerospace and wind energy systems. At TU Delft we offer you a leading academic programme, innovative engineer and researcher. Aerodynamics and Wind Energy The MSc track in Aerodynamics and Wind Energy combines fundamental and applied research disciplines of aerospace and wind-power systems
Combining fundamental research of experimental
Langendoen, Koen
of it in the design of next generation wind turbines. At TU Delft we offer you a leading academic programme, innovative engineer and researcher. Aerodynamics and Wind Energy The MSc track in Aerodynamics and Wind Energy combines fundamental and applied research disciplines of aerospace an wind-power systems, focusing
Distinguished rheological models in the framework of a thermodynamical internal variable theory
Asszonyi, Cs; Ván, P
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present and analyze a thermodynamical theory of rheology with single internal variable. The universality of the model is ensured as long as the mesoscopic and/or microscopic background processes satisfy the applied thermodynamical principles, which are the second law, the basic balances and the existence of an additional-tensorial-state variable. The resulting model, which we suggest to call the Kluitenberg-Verh\\'as body, is the Poynting-Thomson-Zener body with an additional inertial element, or, in other words, is the extension of Jeffreys model to solids. We argue that this Kluitenberg-Verh\\'as body is the natural thermodynamical building block of rheology. An important feature of the presented methodology is that nontrivial inequality-type restrictions arise for the four parameters of the model. We compare these conditions and other aspects to those of other known thermodynamical approaches, like Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics or the original theory of Kluitenberg.
Distinguished rheological models in the framework of a thermodynamical internal variable theory
Cs. Asszonyi; T. Fülöp; P. Ván
2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present and analyze a thermodynamical theory of rheology with single internal variable. The universality of the model is ensured as long as the mesoscopic and/or microscopic background processes satisfy the applied thermodynamical principles, which are the second law, the basic balances and the existence of an additional-tensorial-state variable. The resulting model, which we suggest to call the Kluitenberg-Verh\\'as body, is the Poynting-Thomson-Zener body with an additional inertial element, or, in other words, is the extension of Jeffreys model to solids. We argue that this Kluitenberg-Verh\\'as body is the natural thermodynamical building block of rheology. An important feature of the presented methodology is that nontrivial inequality-type restrictions arise for the four parameters of the model. We compare these conditions and other aspects to those of other known thermodynamical approaches, like Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics or the original theory of Kluitenberg.
Conformal Gauge Transformations in Thermodynamics
A. Bravetti; C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; F. Nettel
2015-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we consider conformal gauge transformations of the geometric structure of thermodynamic fluctuation theory. In particular, we show that the Thermodynamic Phase Space is naturally endowed with a non-integrable connection, defined by all those processes that annihilate the Gibbs 1-form, i.e. reversible processes. Therefore the geometry of reversible processes is invariant under re-scalings, that is, it has a conformal gauge freedom. Interestingly, as a consequence of the non-integrability of the connection, its curvature is not invariant under conformal gauge transformations and, therefore, neither is the associated pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We argue that this is not surprising, since these two objects are associated with irreversible processes. Moreover, we provide the explicit form in which all the elements of the geometric structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space change under a conformal gauge transformation. As an example, we revisit the change of the thermodynamic representation and consider the resulting change between the two metrics on the Thermodynamic Phase Space which induce Weinhold's energy metric and Ruppeiner's entropy metric. As a by-product we obtain a proof of the well-known conformal relation between Weinhold's and Ruppeiner's metrics along the equilibrium directions. Finally, we find interesting properties of the almost para-contact structure and of its eigenvectors which may be of physical interest.
A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic...
Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes
Wanakule, Nisita Sidra
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2.3 REFERENCES Flory, P.J. , Thermodynamics of high polymerBlock Copolymer Thermodynamics - Theory And Experiment.on block copolymer thermodynamics by measuring the changes
Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells
Abrams, Zeev R.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and P.T. Landsberg, Thermodynamics and reciprocity of solar59. E. Yablonovitch, Thermodynamics of the fluorescentC. 139. E. Yablonovitch, Thermodynamics of the fluorescent
Thermodynamics of Nanoscale Calcium and Strontium Titanate Perovskites
Sahu, Sulata Kumari
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and A. Navrotsky, “Thermodynamics of Nanoscale Lead Titanate2007. A. Navrotsky, “Thermodynamics of Solid Electrolytesand Y. Fei, “The Thermodynamics of Ordered Perovskites on
Thermodynamics of Neptunium (V) Complexes with Phosphate at Elevated Temperatures
Xia, Yuanxian
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
VITORGE, H. WANNER, Chemical Thermodynamics of Neptunium andData Bank, Chemical Thermodynamics 4, Elsevier, New York 4.Thermodynamics of Neptunium (V) Complexes with Phosphate at
On the geometrical thermodynamics of chemical reactions
Manuel Santoro; Albert S. Benight
2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
The formal structure of geometrical thermodynamics is reviewed with particular emphasis on the geometry of equilibria submanifolds. On these submanifolds thermodynamic metrics are defined as the Hessian of thermodynamic potentials. Links between geometry and thermodynamics are explored for single and multiple component, closed and open systems. For multi-component closed and open systems the Gibbs free energy is employed as the thermodynamic potential to investigate the connection between geometry and thermodynamics. The Gibbs free energy is chosen for the analysis of multicomponent systems and, in particular, chemical reactions.
Thermodynamics of quantum photon spheres
M. C. Baldiotti; Walace S. Elias; C. Molina; Thiago S. Pereira
2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
Photon spheres, surfaces where massless particles are confined in closed orbits, are expected to be common astrophysical structures surrounding ultracompact objects. In this paper a semiclassical treatment of a photon sphere is proposed. We consider the quantum Maxwell field and derive its energy spectra. A thermodynamic approach for the quantum photon sphere is developed and explored. Within this treatment, an expression for the spectral energy density of the emitted radiation is presented. Our results suggest that photon spheres, when thermalized with their environment, have nonusual thermodynamic properties, which could lead to distinct observational signatures.
Horizon thermodynamics and composite metrics
Lorenzo Sindoni
2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the conditions under which the thermodynamic behaviour of gravity can be explained within an emergent gravity scenario, where the metric is defined as a composite operator. We show that due to the availability of a boundary of a boundary principle for the quantum effective action, Clausius-like relations can always be constructed. Hence, any true explanation of the thermodynamic nature of the metric tensor has to be referred to an equilibration process, associated to the presence of an H-theorem, possibly driven by decoherence induced by the pregeometric degrees of freedom, and their entanglement with the geometric ones.
The thermodynamics of creating correlations: Limitations and optimal protocols
David Edward Bruschi; Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Nicolai Friis; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber
2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z
We establish a rigorous connection between fundamental resource theories at the quantum scale. Correlations and entanglement constitute indispensable resources for numerous quantum information tasks. However, their establishment comes at the cost of energy, the resource of thermodynamics, and is limited by the initial entropy. Here, the optimal conversion of energy into correlations is investigated. Assuming the presence of a thermal bath, we establish general bounds for arbitrary systems and construct a protocol saturating them. The amount of correlations, quantified by the mutual information, can increase at most linearly with the available energy, and we determine where the linear regime breaks down. We further consider the generation of genuine quantum correlations, focusing on the fundamental constituents of our universe: fermions and bosons. For fermionic modes, we find the optimal entangling protocol. For bosonic modes, we show that while Gaussian operations can be outperformed in creating entanglement, their performance is optimal for high energies.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
Anosh Joseph; S. G. Rajeev
2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of co-dimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Optimal control in thermodynamic systems with sources of finite capacity
Kuznetsov, A.G.; Rudenko, A.V.; Tsirlin, A.M.
1985-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers problems of optimal control of thermodynamic processes of heat and mass transfer on contact of two systems. The control signal is a vector of the temperatures and concentrations of one system, the parameters of the second being variable at a rate proportional to the heat and material flows. The limiting efficiency of the heat machine is found when the cycle duration and source capacities are bounded.
Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health
Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T
2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.
Quantum measurement and its role in thermodynamics
Philipp Kammerlander; Janet Anders
2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
A central goal of the research effort in quantum thermodynamics is the extension of standard thermodynamics to include small-scale and quantum effects. Here we lay out consequences of seeing measurement, one of the central pillars of quantum theory, not merely as a mathematical projection but as a thermodynamic process. We uncover that measurement, a component of any experimental realisation, is accompanied by work and heat contributions and that these are distinct in classical and quantum thermodynamics. Implications are far-reaching, giving a thermodynamic interpretation to quantum coherence, extending the link between thermodynamics and information theory, and providing key input for the construction of a future quantum thermodynamic framework. Repercussions for existing quantum thermodynamic relations that omitted the role of measurement are discussed, including quantum work fluctuation relations and single-shot approaches.
Thermodynamic Efficiency of Heat Exchange Devices
Witte, L. C.; Shamsundar, N.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
irreversibilities. The reclamation of what was formerly 'waste heat' by using additional, or more efficient, equipment has become not only economically feasible, but sometimes essential. A thermodynamic efficiency based on the second law of thermodynamics...
Moisés Santillán
2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we study, at the single molecular level, the thermodynamic and dynamic characteristics of an enzymatic reaction comprising a rate limiting step. We investigate how the stability of the enzyme-state stationary probability distribution, the reaction velocity, and its efficiency of energy conversion depend on the system parameters. We employ in this study a recently introduced formalism for performing a multiscale thermodynamic analysis in continuous-time discrete-state stochastic systems.
Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics
Don N. Page
2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.
Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD
D. K. Sinclair
2007-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.
Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...
CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings
Sherrill, David
CHEM 6471 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings 9:35 10:55 am, Tuesday and Thursday of October 22-26 Textbooks Molecular Thermodynamics by D.A McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, University Science Books the laws of classical thermodynamics and some of their chemical applications. It also covers basic
Particles, maps and Irreversible Thermodynamics { I
Rondoni, Lamberto
Particles, maps and Irreversible Thermodynamics { I E. G. D. Cohen The Rockefeller University New Thermodynamics from deterministic dynamics. We #12;nd that these models do not posses the crucial property of local thermodynamic equilibrium, since they rep- resent noninteracting particles systems. Hence
Vibrational Thermodynamics of Materials Brent Fultz
Fultz, Brent
Vibrational Thermodynamics of Materials Brent Fultz California Institute of Technology, W. M. Keck Laboratory, Pasadena CA 91125 USA July 6, 2009 Abstract. The literature on vibrational thermodynamics of harmonic phonons in alloys are organized into thermodynamic models for unmixing and ordering
Thermodynamics and timeaverages October 13, 2004
Carati, Andrea
Thermodynamics and timeÂaverages A. Carati October 13, 2004 ABSTRACT For a dynamical system farÂaverages, and the main problem is then how to formulate an appropriate statistical thermodynamics. The com- mon answer: Thermodynamics and timeÂaverages Universit`a di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica Via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano
Thermodynamics and Mass Transport in Multicomponent,
Jellinek, Mark
Thermodynamics and Mass Transport in Multicomponent, Multiphase H2O Systems of Planetary Interest, cryogenic systems, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, clathrates, Mars, Enceladus, sound speed Abstract Heat of the noncondensible components can greatly alter the thermodynamic properties of the phases and their flow properties
Thermodynamics for single-molecule stretching experiments
Kjelstrup, Signe
Thermodynamics for single-molecule stretching experiments J.M. Rubi,a D. Bedeauxb and S. Kjelstrupb, Trondheim, 7491-Norway May 3, 2006 Abstract We show how to construct non-equilibrium thermodynamics for systems too small to be considered thermodynamically in a traditional sense. Through the use of a non
Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal PNJL Model
Weise, Wolfram
Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal PNJL Model Thomas Hell, Simon Rößner and Wolfram Weise Physik Th. Hell Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal NJL-type Model #12;Outline 1 The Nonlocal Nambu Approximation Dynamical Quark Mass 2 Thermodynamics of the Nonlocal PNJL Model Coupling Quarks and Polyakov Loop
Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal PNJL Model
Weise, Wolfram
Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal PNJL Model Thomas Hell, Simon Rößner and Wolfram Weise Physik Darmstadt, March 14th 2008 T. Hell Thermodynamics of a Nonlocal NJL-type Model #12;Outline 1 The Nonlocal Model Mean Field Approximation Dynamical Quark Mass 2 Thermodynamics of the Nonlocal PNJL Model Coupling
Thermodynamics of viscoelastic fluids: the temperature equation.
Wapperom, Peter
Thermodynamics of viscoelastic fluids: the temperature equation. Peter Wapperom Martien A. Hulsen and Hydrodynamics Rotterdamseweg 145 2628 AL Delft (The Netherlands) Abstract From the thermodynamics with internal. The well- known stress differential models that fit into the thermodynamic theory will be treated
Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in
Firoozabadi, Abbas
Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods
Conservation of Energy Thermodynamic Energy Equation
Hennon, Christopher C.
, is derived beginning with an alternative form of the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, the internal energy formConservation of Energy Thermodynamic Energy Equation The previous two sections dealt addresses the conservation of energy. The first law of thermodynamics, of which you should be very familiar
Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing
Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Nils B. Becker; Thomas E. Ouldridge; A. Mugler
2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this noise extrinsic to the cell as much as possible. These networks, however, are also stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, and then how downstream signaling pathways integrate the noise in the receptor state; we will discuss how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time together set a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes of resources---receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy---and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade-off between accuracy and energetic cost.
Holographic Viscosity of Fundamental Matter
David Mateos; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson
2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z
A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(N_c) gauge theory with a small number of flavours N_f viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s >= 1/4\\pi. The contribution of the fundamental matter eta_fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta_fund ~ lambda N_c N_f T^3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential.
Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems
Leigh R. Martin
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, “Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N’,N’-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.
From Rényi Relative Entropic Generalization to Quantum Thermodynamical Universality
Avijit Misra; Uttam Singh; Manabendra Nath Bera; A. K. Rajagopal
2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that the structure of thermodynamics is "form invariant", when it is derived using maximum entropy principle for various choices of entropy and even beyond equilibrium. By the form invariance of thermodynamics, it is meant that the form of the free energy (internal energy minus the temperature times entropy) remains unaltered when all the entities entering this relation are suitably defined. The useful ingredients for this are the equilibrium entropy associated with thermal density matrix and the relative entropy between an arbitrary density matrix and the thermal density matrix. To delineate the form invariance, we consider the quantum R\\'enyi entropic versions (indexed by a parameter $\\alpha$), i.e., R\\'enyi entropy with appropriate internal energy and equilibrium state defined for all $\\alpha$. These results reduce to the well-known Gibbs-von Neumann results when $\\alpha \\rightarrow 1$. Moreover, we show that the \\textit{universality} of the Carnot statement of the second law is the consequence of the form invariance of the free energy. Further, the Clausius inequality, which is the precursor to the Carnot cycle, is also shown to hold based on the known data processing inequalities for the traditional and the sandwiched R\\'enyi relative entropies. Thus, we find the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium state and its deviation from equilibrium together determine the thermodynamic laws.
FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Li, Baochun
FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. Key words. Wireless sensor networks, network capacity, network lifetime. 1. Introduction. When
Thermodynamics of the PNJL model
C. Ratti; S. Roessner; M. A. Thaler; W. Weise
2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
QCD thermodynamics is investigated by means of the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, in which quarks couple simultaneously to the chiral condensate and to a background temporal gauge field representing Polyakov loop dynamics. The behaviour of the Polyakov loop as a function of temperature is obtained by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. A Taylor series expansion of the pressure is performed. Pressure difference and quark number density are then evaluated up to sixth order in quark chemical potential, and compared to the corresponding lattice data. The validity of the Taylor expansion is discussed within our model, through a comparison between the full results and the truncated ones.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism
Burra G. Sidharth
2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.
Thermodynamical instability of black holes
V. V. Kiselev
2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
In contrast to Hawking radiation of black hole with a given spacetime structure, we consider a competitive transition due to a heat transfer from a hotter inner horizon to a colder outer horizon of Kerr black hole, that results in a stable thermodynamical state of extremal black hole. In this process, by supposing an emission of gravitational quanta, we calculate the mass of extremal black hole in the final state of transition.
Breaking information-thermodynamics link
Robert Alicki
2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
The information-thermodynamics link is revisited, going back to the analysis of Szilard's engine. It is argued that instead of equivalence rather complementarity of physical entropy and information theoretical one is a correct concept. Famous Landauer's formula for a minimal cost of information processing is replaced by a new one which takes into account accuracy and stability of information encoding. Two recent experiments illustrating the information-energy conversion are critically discussed.
Nuclear and fundamental physics instrumentation for the ANS project
Robinson, S.J. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Raman, S.; Arterburn, J.; McManamy, T.; Peretz, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faust, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Piotrowski, A.E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report summarizes work carried out during the period 1991-1995 in connection with the refinement of the concepts and detailed designs for nuclear and fundamental physics research instrumentation at the proposed Advanced Neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initially, emphasis was placed on refining the existing System Design Document (SDD-43) to detail more accurately the needs and interfaces of the instruments that are identified in the document. The conceptual designs of these instruments were also refined to reflect current thinking in the field of nuclear and fundamental physics. In particular, the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facility design was reconsidered in the light of the development of interest in radioactive ion beams within the nuclear physics community. The second stage of this work was to define those instrument parameters that would interface directly with the reactor systems so that these parameters could be considered for the ISOL facility and particularly for its associated ion source. Since two of these options involved ion sources internal to the long slant beam tube, these were studied in detail. In addition, preliminary work was done to identify the needs for the target holder and changing facility to be located in the tangential through-tube. Because many of the planned nuclear and fundamental physics instruments have similar needs in terms of detection apparatus, some progress was also made in defining the parameters for these detectors. 21 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.
Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory
J. A. S. Lima; I. P. Baranov
2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma production process. The macroscopic temperature evolution law is also kinetically derived for massive and massless particles. The present approach points to the possibility of an exact (semi-classical) quantum-gravitational kinetic treatment by incorporating back-reaction effects in the cosmic background.
Thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed lattice spacing
T. Umeda; S. Ejiri; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno
2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed scales on the lattice, where we vary temperature by changing the temporal lattice size N_t=(Ta_t)^{-1}. In the fixed scale approach, finite temperature simulations are performed on common lattice spacings and spatial volumes. Consequently, we can isolate thermal effects in observables from other uncertainties, such as lattice artifact, renormalization factor, and spatial volume effect. Furthermore, in the EOS calculations, the fixed scale approach is able to reduce computational costs for zero temperature subtraction and parameter search to find lines of constant physics, which are demanding in full QCD simulations. As a test of the approach, we study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory on isotropic and anisotropic lattices. In addition to the equation of state, we calculate the critical temperature and the static quark free energy at a fixed scale.
Thermodynamics of Evolving Lorentzian Wormhole at Apparent and Event Horizons
Ujjal Debnath; Mubasher Jamil; R. Myrzakulov; M. Akbar
2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the $r$ - direction and in the $T$ - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function $b(r)$ is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.
Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in $f(T,T_{G})$ gravity
Zubair, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An equilibrium picture of thermodynamics is discussed at the apparent horizon of FRW universe in $f(T,T_G)$ gravity, where $T$ represents the torsion invariant and $T_G$ is the teleparallel equivalent of the Gauss-Bonnet term. It is found that one can translate the Friedmann equations to the standard form of first law of thermodynamics. We discuss GSLT in the locality of assumption that temperature of matter inside the horizon is similar to that of horizon. Finally, we consider particular models in this theory and generate constraints on the coupling parameter for the validity of GSLT in terms of recent cosmic parameters and power law solutions.
Fourier expansions for a logarithmic fundamental solution of the polyharmonic equation
Howard S. Cohl
2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
In even-dimensional Euclidean space for integer powers of the Laplacian greater than or equal to the dimension divided by two, a fundamental solution for the polyharmonic equation has logarithmic behavior. We give two approaches for developing a Fourier expansion of this logarithmic fundamental solution. The first approach is algebraic and relies upon the construction of two-parameter polynomials. We describe some of the properties of these polynomials, and use them to derive the Fourier expansion for a logarithmic fundamental solution of the polyharmonic equation. The second approach depends on the computation of parameter derivatives of Fourier series for a power-law fundamental solution of the polyharmonic equation. The resulting Fourier series is given in terms of sums over associated Legendre functions of the first kind. We conclude by comparing the two approaches and giving the azimuthal Fourier series for a logarithmic fundamental solution of the polyharmonic equation in rotationally-invariant coordinate systems.
The Thermodynamics of Pizza The Thermodynamics of Pizza ES Institute
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of WntSupportB 18B()The FiveRevised -SandiaThe StrangeTheThermodynamics of
Stars In Other Universes: Stellar structure with different fundamental constants
Fred C. Adams
2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with possible variations in the laws of physics, this paper explores the parameter space of fundamental constants that allows for the existence of stars. To make this problem tractable, we develop a semi-analytical stellar structure model that allows for physical understanding of these stars with unconventional parameters, as well as a means to survey the relevant parameter space. In this work, the most important quantities that determine stellar properties -- and are allowed to vary -- are the gravitational constant $G$, the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, and a composite parameter $C$ that determines nuclear reaction rates. Working within this model, we delineate the portion of parameter space that allows for the existence of stars. Our main finding is that a sizable fraction of the parameter space (roughly one fourth) provides the values necessary for stellar objects to operate through sustained nuclear fusion. As a result, the set of parameters necessary to support stars are not particularly rare. In addition, we briefly consider the possibility that unconventional stars (e.g., black holes, dark matter stars) play the role filled by stars in our universe and constrain the allowed parameter space.
Geometric description of BTZ black holes thermodynamics
Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez
2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study the properties of the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states of the Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole in (2+1)-gravity. We use the formalism of geometrothermodynamics to introduce in the space of equilibrium states a $2-$dimensional thermodynamic metric whose curvature is non-vanishing, indicating the presence of thermodynamic interaction, and free of singularities, indicating the absence of phase transitions. Similar results are obtained for generalizations of the BTZ black hole which include a Chern-Simons term and a dilatonic field. Small logarithmic corrections of the entropy turn out to be represented by small corrections of the thermodynamic curvature, reinforcing the idea that thermodynamic curvature is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.
Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability
DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of RH up to a threshold value, depending on the coating chemistry. The mechanism for the adhesion increase beyond this threshold value is that the coupling agent reconfigures from a surface to a bulk phase (Chapter 3). To investigate the details of how the adhesion increase occurs, the authors developed the mechanics for adhesion hysteresis measurements. These revealed that near-crack tip compression is the underlying cause of the adhesion increase (Chapter 4). A vacuum deposition chamber for silane coupling agent deposition was constructed. Results indicate that vapor deposited coatings are less susceptible to degradation at high RH (Chapter 5). To address issues relating to surfaces in relative motion, a new test structure to measure friction was developed. In contrast to other surface micromachined friction test structures, uniform apparent pressure is applied in the frictional contact zone (Chapter 6). The test structure will enable friction studies over a large pressure and dynamic range. In this LDRD project, the authors established an infrastructure for MEMS adhesion and friction metrology. They then characterized in detail the performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic films under humid conditions, and determined mechanisms which limit this performance. These studies contribute to a fundamental understanding for MEMS reliability design rules. They also provide valuable data for MEMS packaging requirements.
Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037) C. Stuart Daw, Josh A. Pihl, A. Lou Qualls, V. Kalyana Chakravarthy, Johney B. Green, Jr.,...
Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use...
Thermodynamics of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Model
Subenoy Chakraborty; Nairwita Mazumder; Ritabrata Biswas
2010-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
Here we consider our universe as inhomogeneous spherically symmetric Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Model and analyze the thermodynamics of this model of the universe. The trapping horizon is calculated and is found to coincide with the apparent horizon. The Einstein field equations are shown to be equivalent with the unified first law of thermodynamics. Finally assuming the first law of thermodynamics validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is examined at the apparent horizon for the perfect fluid and at the event horizon for holographic dark energy.
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics
Philipp Kammerlander; Janet Anders
2015-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines and fridges to power plants and solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called "projections", that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Implications are far-reaching, adding a thermodynamic dimension to measurements performed in quantum thermodynamics experiments, and providing key input for the construction of a future quantum thermodynamic framework. Repercussions are discussed for quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches.
5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics, Spring 2007
Bawendi, Moungi Gabriel, 1961-
This subject deals primarily with equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems, basic thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium of reactions in gas and solution phase, and rates of chemical reactions.
Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness
Randall L. Headrick
2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.
Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts
Gorte, Raymond J.
2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z
The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.
Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes
Janet Anders; Vittorio Giovannetti
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.
Thermodynamics of tubelike flexible polymers
Thomas Vogel; Thomas Neuhaus; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke
2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we present the general phase behavior of short tubelike flexible polymers. The geometric thickness constraint is implemented through the concept of the global radius of curvature. We use sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling methods to simulate small bead-stick polymer models with Lennard-Jones interaction among non-bonded monomers. We analyze energetic fluctuations and structural quantities to classify conformational pseudophases. We find that the tube thickness influences the thermodynamic behavior of simple tubelike polymers significantly, i.e., for given temperature, the formation of secondary structures strongly depends on the tube thickness.
Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides
Leitnaker, J.M.
1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 6/, including UF/sub 4/ (solid and gas), U/sub 4/F/sub 17/ (solid), U/sub 2/F/sub 9/ (solid), UF/sub 5/ (solid and gas), U/sub 2/F/sub 10/ (gas), and UF/sub 6/ (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior.
Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment...
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Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment Embrittlement, under static load could be a result of the synergistic action of the HELP and decohesion...
Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced...
"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...
Office of Science (SC) Website
Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...
Time as a parameter of statistical ensemble
Sergei Viznyuk
2011-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
The notion of time is derived as a parameter of statistical ensemble representing the underlying system. Varying population numbers of microstates in statistical ensemble result in different expectation values corresponding to different times. We show a single parameter which equates to the notion of time is logarithm of the total number of microstates in statistical ensemble. We discuss the implications of proposed model for some topics of modern physics: Poincar\\'e recurrence theorem vs. Second Law of Thermodynamics, matter vs. anti-matter asymmetry of the universe, expansion of the universe, Big Bang.
Thermodynamics of reformulated automotive fuels
Zudkevitch, D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Murthy, A.K.S. [BOC Gases, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Gmehling, J. [Technische Chemie Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)
1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two methods for predicting Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) and initial vapor emissions of reformulated gasoline blends that contain one or more oxygenated compounds show excellent agreement with experimental data. In the first method, method A, D-86 distillation data for gasoline blends are used for predicting Rvp from a simulation of the mini dry vapor pressure equivalent (Dvpe) experiment. The other method, method B, relies on analytical information (PIANO analyses) of the base gasoline and uses classical thermodynamics for simulating the same Rvp equivalent (Rvpe) mini experiment. Method B also predicts composition and other properties for the fuel`s initial vapor emission. Method B, although complex, is more useful in that is can predict properties of blends without a D-86 distillation. An important aspect of method B is its capability to predict composition of initial vapor emissions from gasoline blends. Thus, it offers a powerful tool to planners of gasoline blending. Method B uses theoretically sound formulas, rigorous thermodynamic routines and uses data and correlations of physical properties that are in the public domain. Results indicate that predictions made with both methods agree very well with experimental values of Dvpe. Computer simulation methods were programmed and tested.
Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water
Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)
2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})
Thermodynamic characterization of new palladium alloy tritides
Hoelder, J.S.; Wermer, J.R.
1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
The decay of tritium in a metal tritide generates {sup 3}He in the lattice which tends to degrade the performance of the material over time. It is desired to develop a material which minimizes the tritium aging effects and may be tailored to a particular tritium processing application. Pd alloys with Ni and Co have been investigated, as Pd tritide is known to be resistant to tritium aging effects and alloying provides a means for adjusting the plateau pressure of the metal tritide. Sets of tritium desorption isotherms were acquired at temperatures between 273 and 338 K over the pressure range of 1 to 900 kPa. The thermodynamic parameters of {Delta}H and {Delta}S for the {beta}-{alpha} phase transition of the metal tritides were determined across the plateau regions of the P-C-T curves. The average values of {Delta}H (kJ/mol{center_dot}T) and {Delta}S (J/K/mol{center_dot}T) were found to be 15.8 and 50.1 for Pd(2.8 wt. %)Ni, 13.7 and 50.3 for Pd(5.2 wt. %)Ni, 15.9 and 51.3 for Pd(2.8 wt. %)Co, and 13.6 and 51.8 for Pd(5.2 wt. %)Co, respectively.
Out-of-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Quantum Optomechanical Systems
M. Brunelli; A. Xuereb; A. Ferraro; G. De Chiara; N. Kiesel; M. Paternostro
2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We address the out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics of an isolated quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device. We explore the dynamical response of the system when driven out of equilibrium by a sudden quench of the coupling parameter and compute analytically the full distribution of the work generated by the process. We consider linear and quadratic optomechanical coupling, where the cavity field is parametrically coupled to either the position or the square of the position of a mechanical oscillator, respectively. In the former case we find that the average work generated by the quench is zero, whilst the latter leads to a non-zero average value. Through fluctuations theorems we access the most relevant thermodynamical figures of merit, such as the free energy difference and the amount of irreversible work generated. We thus provide a full characterization of the out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics in the quantum regime for nonlinearly coupled bosonic modes. Our study is the first due step towards the construction and full quantum analysis of an optomechanical machine working fully out of equilibrium.
THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS
Anderson, T.J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
D.A. Stevenson, J. Chern. Thermodynamics, J.V. Smith, D.J.P. Bros, J. Chern. Thermodynamics, z, R. Hultgren, P.D.J.M. Prausnitz, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase
Negative specific heat in a thermodynamic model of multifragmentation
C. B. Das; S. Das Gupta; A. Z. Mekjiani
2003-05-02T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a soluble model of multifragmentation which is similar in spirit to many models which have been used to fit intermediate energy heavy ion collision data. In this model $c_v$ is always positive but for finite nuclei $c_p$ can be negative for some temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, negative values of $c_p$ can be obtained in canonical treatment. One does not need to use the microcanonical ensemble. Negative values for $c_p$ can persist for systems as large as 200 paticles but this depends upon parameters used in the model calculation. As expected, negative specific heats are absent in the thermodynamic limit.
Thermodynamics of Protein Folding Erik Sandelin
Sandelin, Erik
Thermodynamics of Protein Folding and Design Erik Sandelin Department of Theoretical Physics Lund Sölvegatan 14A 223 62 LUND September 2000 Erik Sandelin Thermodynamics of Protein Folding and Design The protein folding and protein design problems are addressed, using coarse-grained models with only two types
NUCLEAR THERMODYNAMIC DATABASE MOX-TDB
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
NUCLEAR THERMODYNAMIC DATABASE « MOX-TDB » Ba-Fe-La-O-Pu-Ru-Sr-U-Zr + Ar-H Version 2006-01 6 rue du hal-00160137,version1-5Jul2007 #12;MOX-TDB Nuclear Thermodynamic Database Version 2006-01 developed examined and rechecked before final conclusions are drawn. hal-00160137,version1-5Jul2007 #12;MOX
Hessian structures, Euler vector fields, and thermodynamics
M. Á. García-Ariza
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, a geometric structure which generalizes that of thermodynamics is presented; spaces of equilibrium states are portrayed as a particular case of the former. For this end, concepts like Euler vector field and extensive function, which are usual in thermodynamics, are introduced in a wider context.
Loop expansion in Yang-Mills thermodynamics
Ralf Hofmann
2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
We argue that a selfconsistent spatial coarse-graining, which involves interacting (anti)calorons of unit topological charge modulus, implies that real-time loop expansions of thermodynamical quantities in the deconfining phase of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills thermodynamics are, modulo 1PI resummations, determined by a finite number of connected bubble diagrams.
A linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach to optimization of thermoelectric devices
Ouerdane, H; Apertet, Y; Michot, A; Abbout, A
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Improvement of thermoelectric systems in terms of performance and range of applications relies on progress in materials science and optimization of device operation. In this chapter, we focuse on optimization by taking into account the interaction of the system with its environment. For this purpose, we consider the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator coupled to two temperature baths via heat exchangers characterized by a thermal resistance, and we analyze its working conditions. Our main message is that both electrical and thermal impedance matching conditions must be met for optimal device performance. Our analysis is fundamentally based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics using the force-flux formalism. An outlook on mesoscopic systems is also given.
GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934-FALL 2013
Hill, Jeffrey E.
GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934- FALL 2013 School of Forest Resources and ConservationGulf Coast Research _________________________________________________________________________________ GIS Fundamentals Description: This course introduces geographic information systems to Geomatics practical skills needed in many applications. Students learn basic GIS data modeling and managing concepts
Light particles A window to fundamental physics
Jaeckel, Joerg [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z
In these proceedings we illustrate that light, very weakly interacting particles can arise naturally from physics which is fundamentally connected to very high energy scales. Searching for them therefore may give us interesting new insights into the structure of fundamental physics. The prime example is the axion.
Thermodynamic and quantum bounds on nonlinear DC thermoelectric transport
Robert S. Whitney
2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
I consider the non-equilibrium DC transport of electrons through a quantum system with a thermoelectric response. This system may be any nanostructure or molecule modeled by the nonlinear scattering theory which includes Hartree-like electrostatic interactions exactly, and certain dynamic interaction effects (decoherence and relaxation) phenomenologically. This theory is believed to be a reasonable model when single-electron charging effects are negligible. I derive three fundamental bounds for such quantum systems coupled to multiple macroscopic reservoirs, one of which may be superconducting. These bounds affect nonlinear heating (such as Joule heating), work and entropy production. Two bounds correspond to the first law and second law of thermodynamics in classical physics. The third bound is quantum (wavelength dependent), and is as important as the thermodynamic ones in limiting the capabilities of mesoscopic heat-engines and refrigerators. The quantum bound also leads to Nernst's unattainability principle that the quantum system cannot cool a reservoir to absolute zero in a finite time, although it can get exponentially close.
The Mathematical Structure of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Elliott H. Lieb; Jakob Yngvason
2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
The essence of the second law of classical thermodynamics is the `entropy principle' which asserts the existence of an additive and extensive entropy function, S, that is defined for all equilibrium states of thermodynamic systems and whose increase characterizes the possible state changes under adiabatic conditions. It is one of the few really fundamental physical laws (in the sense that no deviation, however tiny, is permitted) and its consequences are far reaching. This principle is independent of models, statistical mechanical or otherwise, and can be understood without recourse to Carnot cycles, ideal gases and other assumptions about such things as `heat', `temperature', `reversible processes', etc., as is usually done. Also the well known formula of statistical mechanics, S = -\\sum p log p, is not needed for the derivation of the entropy principle. This contribution is partly a summary of our joint work (Physics Reports, Vol. 310, 1--96 (1999)) where the existence and uniqueness of S is proved to be a consequence of certain basic properties of the relation of adiabatic accessibility among equilibrium states. We also present some open problems and suggest directions for further study.
Supriya Pan; Subenoy Chakraborty
2015-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
The paper deals with non-equilibrium thermodynamics based on adiabatic particle creation mechanism with the motivation of considering it as an alternative choice to explain the recent observed accelerating phase of the universe. Using Friedmann equations, it is shown that the deceleration parameter ($q$) can be obtained from the knowledge of the particle production rate ($\\Gamma$). Motivated from thermodynamical point of view, cosmological solutions are evaluated for the particle creation rates in three cosmic phases, namely, inflation, matter dominated and present late time acceleration. The deceleration parameter ($q$) is expressed as a function of the redshift parameter ($z$), and its variation is presented graphically. Also, statefinder analysis has been presented graphically in three different phases of the universe. Finally, two non-interacting fluids with different particle creation rates are considered as cosmic substratum, and deceleration parameter ($q$) is evaluated. It is examined whether more than one transition of $q$ is possible or not by graphical representations.
Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...
Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...
Thermodynamics of Sorption and Distribution of Water in Nafion
Victoria, University of
Thermodynamics of Sorption and Distribution of Water in Nafion by Gwynn Johan Elfring B Thermodynamics of Sorption 20 2.1 System
Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Abstract: Solid-state reversible...
Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from On-the-Fly ab initio DFT-D Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics...
The Thermodynamics of Gaseous, Cuprous Chloride Monomer and Trimer
Brewer, Leo
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
No.W-7405-eng~48B TIiE THERMODYNAMICS OF GASEOUS" CUPROUSCu(s) + HCl::= I Thermodynamics of Vaporization to Monomeric
Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous Air...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous Air-Water Interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous...
Pathak, Dushyant
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and emission characteristics. The overall objective was to use...
Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories
Rischke, Dirk H
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze at a constant and calculable value in the ultraviolet, their values can even be made arbitrarily small for an appropriate choice of the ratio $N_c/N_f$ of fermion colours and flavours in the Veneziano limit. Thus, a perturbative treatment can be justified. We compute the pressure, entropy density, and thermal degrees of freedom of these theories to next-to-next-to-leading order in the coupling constants.
Thermodynamics of decaying vacuum cosmologies
Lima, J.A. [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)
1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamic behavior of decaying vacuum cosmologies is investigated within a manifestly covariant formulation. Such a process corresponds to a continuous, irreversible energy flow from the vacuum component to the created matter constituents. It is shown that if the specific entropy per particle remains constant during the process, the equilibrium relations are preserved. In particular, if the vacuum decays into photons, the energy density {rho} and average number density of photons {ital n} scale with the temperature as {rho}{approximately}{ital T}{sup 4} and {ital n}{approximately}{ital T}{sup 3}. The temperature law is determined and a generalized Planckian-type form of the spectrum, which is preserved in the course of the evolution, is also proposed. Some consequences of these results for decaying vacuum FRW-type cosmologies as well as for models with {open_quote}{open_quote}adiabatic{close_quote}{close_quote} photon creation are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental...
The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental Classification Guidance Review The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental...
Thermodynamics, Optical Properties and Coordination Modes of Np(V) with Dipicolinic Acid
Tian, Guoxin
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics, Optical Properties and Coordination Modes ofacid, complexation, thermodynamics, coordination mode 1.
Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds
Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goldak, J.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); DebRoy, T.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.
Thermodynamics for Single-Molecule Stretching Experiments J. M. Rubi,*, D. Bedeaux, and S. Kjelstrup
Kjelstrup, Signe
Thermodynamics for Single-Molecule Stretching Experiments J. M. Rubi,*, D. Bedeaux, and S to construct nonequilibrium thermodynamics for systems too small to be considered thermodynamically be viewed as a large thermodynamic system, we discuss the validity of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Hessian structures, Euler vector fields, and thermodynamics
M. Á. García-Ariza
2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, it is shown that the underlying geometric structure of thermodynamics is formed by two elements. The first one is a degenerate Hessian structure distinguished by the fact that its potentials are extensive functions. A suitable coordinate-free definition of the latter is presented, relying on a particular vector field which is proposed to be the second ingredient of the geometric structure of thermodynamics. This vector has the form of an Euler vector in certain coordinate charts that somehow generalize those formed by internal energy or entropy and deformation coordinates in the spaces of equilibrium states of thermodynamic systems. Intensive functions and Legendre transforms are reviewed under this approach.
On the dynamics and thermodynamics of small Markov-type material systems
Andrzej Trzesowski
2015-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
The collective properties of small material systems considered as semidynamical systems revealing the Markov-type irreversible evolution, are investigated. It is shown that these material systems admit their treatment as thermodynamic systems in diathermal and isothermal conditions. A kinetic equation describing statistical regularities of the Markov-type material systems and constrained by the compatibility condition with the first and second laws of thermodynamics and with the relaxation postulate, is proposed. The influence of external parameters on the Gibbs distribution of small material systems is discussed.
On the dynamics and thermodynamics of small Markov-type material systems
Andrzej Trzesowski
2015-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
The collective properties of small material systems considered as semidynamical systems revealing the Markov-type irreversible evolution, are investigated. It is shown that these material systems admit their treatment as thermodynamic systems in diathermal and isothermal conditions. A kinetic equation describing statistical regularities of the Markov-type material systems and constrained by the compatibility condition with the first and second laws of thermodynamics and with the relaxation postulate, is proposed. The influence of external parameters on the Gibbs distribution of small material systems is discussed.
On the dynamics and thermodynamics of small Markov-type material systems
Andrzej Trzesowski
2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
The collective properties of small material systems considered as semidynamical systems revealing the Markov-type irreversible evolution, are investigated. It is shown that these material systems admit their treatment as thermodynamic systems in diathermal and isothermal conditions. A kinetic equation describing statistical regularities of the Markov-type material systems and constrained by the compatibility condition with the first and second laws of thermodynamics and with the relaxation postulate, is proposed. The influence of external parameters on the Gibbs distribution of small material systems is discussed.
The laws of thermodynamics and information for emergent cosmology
Hashemi, M; Farahani, S Vasheghani
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The aim here is to provide a set of equations for cosmology in terms of information and thermodynamical parameters. The method we implement in order to describe the universe is a development of Padmanabhan\\rq{}s approach which is based on the fact that emergence of the cosmic space is provided by the evolution of the cosmic time. In this line we obtain the Friedmann equation or its equivalent the conservation law in terms of information by the implementation of Laundauer\\rq{}s principle or in other words the information loss/production rate. Hence, a self consistent description of the universe is provided in terms of thermodynamical parameters. This is due to the fact that in this work the role of information which is the most important actor of all times, has stepped in to cosmology. We provide a picture of the emergent cosmology merely based on the information theory. In addition, we introduce a novel entropy on the horizon, which can also generalize Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the asymptotic holographic...
Finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine
Ibrahim, O.M. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Ladas, H.G. [Environmental Engineering Corp., North Kingstown, RI (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine cycle. A lumped-parameter thermodynamic model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. The mathematical formulation of this model is based on mass and energy balances with associated heat transfer rate equations. These governing equations are formulated into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically to obtain the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. Close inspection of the governing equations reveals that the time to complete on cycle, {tau} and the engine time constant, {tau}{sub c} always appear together in a dimensionless ratio. This ratio, {tau}/{tau}{sub c}, is defined here as the Finite-Time Parameter, FTP. The effects of FTP upon power output and efficiency, are studied. The results show that there exists an optimum power output for a given engine design, based on engine speed and heat-transfer contact time. The results also provide an engineering evaluation procedure to improve the efficiency and power output of Stirling engines.
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts"
Roussos, George
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts" George Roussos ! g.roussos@dcs.bbk.ac.uk! #12;Session Overview" · The mobile computing paradigm ! · The ubiquitous computing paradigm! · Elements of mobile and ubiquitous computing! · Enabling technologies! · Computer science challenges! · Applications
Some Fundamental Limitations for Cognitive Radio
Sahai, Anant
' & $ % Some Fundamental Limitations for Cognitive Radio Anant Sahai Wireless Foundations, UCB EECS program November 1 at BWRC Cognitive Radio Workshop #12;' & $ % Outline 1. Why cognitive radios? 2 November 1 at BWRC Cognitive Radio Workshop #12;' & $ % Apparent spectrum allocations Â· Traditional
VARIOUS APPROACHES TO THERMODYNAMICS Peter Salamon
Salamon, Peter
-619-594-6746, salamon@sdsu.edu ABSTRACT The paper surveys classical and recent approaches to thermodynamic analysis as defining the mechanical engineers' topics of interest. Availability (exergy) is one such topic whose
Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes
Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold
2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely-positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorises the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorisation condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.
QCD Thermodynamics on the Lattice: Recent Results
Carleton DeTar
2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
I give a brief introduction to the goals, challenges, and technical difficulties of lattice QCD thermodynamics and present some recent results from the HotQCD collaboration for the crossover temperature, equation of state, and other observables.
Linear Thermodynamics of Rodlike DNA Filtration
Li, Zirui
Linear thermodynamics transportation theory is employed to study filtration of rodlike DNA molecules. Using the repeated nanoarray consisting of alternate deep and shallow regions, it is demonstrated that the complex ...
Thermodynamics in NJL-like models
A. V. Friesen; Yu. L. Kalinovsky; V. D. Toneev
2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamic behavior of conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models is compared. A particular attention is paid to the phase diagram in the ($T -\\mu$) plane.
Predicting Improved Chiller Performance Through Thermodynamic Modeling
Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents two case studies in which thermodynamic modeling was used to predict improved chiller performance. The model predicted the performance (COP and total energy consumption) of water-cooled centrifugal chillers as a function...
Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium
Fink, J.K.
1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.
Thermodynamics of (2+1)-flavor QCD
C. Schmidt; T. Umeda
2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the status of our QCD thermodynamics project. It is performed on the QCDOC machine at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the APEnext machine at Bielefeld University. Using a 2+1 flavor formulation of QCD at almost realistic quark masses we calculated several thermodynamical quantities. In this proceeding we show the susceptibilites of the chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop, the static quark potential and the spatial string tension.
Theory and practice in engineering thermodynamics
Polak, P.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The book is a new approach to engineering thermodynamics for students of mechanical engineering at diploma and degree levels. There is an explanation of the basic principles of thermodynamics, followed by several chapters illustrating these principles as applied to piston engines, the gas turbine, steam power, and refrigerators and heat pumps. The book aims to introduce some key features of theory and current practice in a way that students will find interesting.
Ch 15. Thermodynamics Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 1
Yoo, S. J. Ben
Ch 15. Thermodynamics Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 1 #12;I The First Law of ThermodynamicsI. The First Law of Thermodynamics Closed system: U=Q-Wy Q U Internal energy: all the energy of the moleculesgy gy for an ideal gas1B 2012 2 #12;Thermodynamic ProcessesThermodynamic Processes Isothermal: T=0, U=0, Q=W Adiabatic: Q
Thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories in systems driven by classical fluctuations
Adrian A. Budini
2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z
The large-deviation method can be used to study the measurement trajectories of open quantum systems. For optical arrangements this formalism allows to describe the long time properties of the (non-equilibrium) photon counting statistics in the context of a (equilibrium) thermodynamic approach defined in terms of dynamical phases and transitions between them in the trajectory space [J.P. Garrahan and I. Lesanovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160601 (2010)]. In this paper, we study the thermodynamic approach for fluorescent systems coupled to complex reservoirs that induce stochastic fluctuations in their dynamical parameters. In a fast modulation limit the thermodynamics corresponds to that of a Markovian two-level system. In a slow modulation limit, the thermodynamic properties are equivalent to those of a finite system that in an infinite-size limit is characterized by a first-order transition. The dynamical phases correspond to different intensity regimes, while the size of the system is measured by the transition rate of the bath fluctuations. As a function of a dimensionless intensive variable, the first and second derivative of the thermodynamic potential develop an abrupt change and a narrow peak respectively. Their scaling properties are consistent with a double-Gaussian probability distribution of the associated extensive variable.
Thermodynamics of effective Minkowski spacetime in self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterials
Smolyaninov, Igor I
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in gravitation theory indicate that the classic general relativity is an effective macroscopic theory which will be eventually replaced with a more fundamental theory based on thermodynamics of yet unknown microscopic degrees of freedom. Here we consider thermodynamics of an effective Minkowski spacetime which may be formed under the influence of external magnetic field in a cobalt ferrofluid. It appears that the extraordinary photons propagating inside the ferrofluid perceive thermal gradients in the ferrofluid as an effective gravitational field, which obeys the Newton law. Moreover, the effective Minkowski spacetime behaviour near the metric signature transition may mimic various cosmological Big Bang scenarios, which may be visualized directly using an optical microscope. Thus, some important features of the hypothetic microscopic theory of gravity are reproduced in the ferrofluid-based analogue model.
Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics
Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.
DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1
Not Available
1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.
Thermodynamic Relationships for Bulk Crystalline and Liquid Phases in the Phase-Field Crystal Model
Victor W. L. Chan; Nirand Pisutha-Arnond; Katsuyo Thornton
2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present thermodynamic relationships between the free energy of the phase-field crystal (PFC) model and thermodynamic state variables for bulk phases under hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is derived based on the thermodynamic formalism for crystalline solids of Larch\\'e and Cahn [Larch\\'e and Cahn, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, 1051 (1973)]. We apply the relationship to examine the thermodynamic processes associated with varying the input parameters of the PFC model: temperature, lattice spacing, and the average value of the PFC order parameter, $\\bar{n}$. The equilibrium conditions between bulk crystalline solid and liquid phases are imposed on the thermodynamic relationships for the PFC model to obtain a procedure for determining solid-liquid phase coexistence. The resulting procedure is found to be in agreement with the method commonly used in the PFC community, justifying the use of the common-tangent construction to determine solid-liquid phase coexistence in the PFC model. Finally, we apply the procedure to an eighth-order-fit (EOF) PFC model that has been parameterized to body-centered-cubic ($bcc$) Fe [Jaatinen et al., Physical Review E 80, 031602 (2009)] to demonstrate the procedure as well as to develop physical intuition about the PFC input parameters. We demonstrate that the EOF-PFC model parameterization does not predict stable $bcc$ structures with positive vacancy densities. This result suggests an alternative parameterization of the PFC model, which requires the primary peak position of the two-body direct correlation function to shift as a function of $\\bar{n}$.
Thermodynamic properties of a magnetically modulated graphene
SK Firoz Islam; Naveen K. Singh; Tarun Kanti Ghosh
2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
The effect of magnetic modulation on thermodynamic properties of a graphene monolayer in presence of a constant perpendicular magnetic field is reported here. One-dimensional spatial electric or magnetic modulation lifts the degeneracy of the Landau levels and converts into bands and their band width oscillates with magnetic field leading to Weiss-type oscillation in the thermodynamic properties. The effect of magnetic modulation on thermodynamic properties of a graphene sheet is studied and then compared with electrically modulated graphene and magnetically modulated conventional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). We observe Weiss-type and de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations at low and high magnetic field, respectively. There is a definite phase difference in Weiss-type oscillations in thermodynamic quantities of magnetically modulated graphene in compare to electrically modulated graphene. On the other hand, the phase remains same and amplitude of the oscillation is large when compared with the magnetically modulated 2DEG. Explicit asymptotic expressions of density of states and the Helmholtz free energy are provided to understand the phase and amplitude of the Weiss-type oscillations qualitatively. We also study thermodynamic properties when both electric and magnetic modulations are present. The Weiss-type oscillations still exist when the modulations are out-of-phase.
Thermodynamics of neptunium(V) fluoride and sulfate at elevated temperatures
Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rao, O. Tochiyama; “Chemical Thermodynamics of Compounds andUpdate on the chemical thermodynamics of uranium, neptunium,Thermodynamics of Neptunium(V) Fluoride and Sulfate at
THERMODYNAMICS OF LOW-TEMPERATURE (700-850oC) HOT CORROSION
Misra, A.K.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ref. 2). J. Lumsden, Thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures,R. Defay, Chemical thermodynamics, Longmans Green and Co. ,Electrochemical Society THERMODYNAMICS OF LOW-TEMPERATURE {
Correlating structure and thermodynamics of hydrophobicâ??hydrophilic ion pairs in water
Benjamin, Ilan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Correlating Structure and Thermodynamics of Hydrophobic-hydration structure and thermodynamics associated with thefunction) with the thermodynamics (potential of mean force
Silvester, Leonard F.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
09 THERMODYNAMICS OFELECI'ROLYTES. X'rights. r'-" e. ct THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X.Coefficient, Electrolyte, Thermodynamics v ~p , I J ! l
Thermodynamics and the role of allostery in the thrombin- thrombomodulin interaction
Beach, Muneera Aina
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
64 Chapter IV Using Thermodynamics to Probe the Allosteric81 Table 4.3. Thermodynamics of isotherms atOF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Thermodynamics and the Role of
Design of a robust superhydrophobic surface: thermodynamic and kinetic analysis
Anjishnu Sarkar; Anne-Marie Kietzig
2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
The design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is a widely pursued topic.While many investigations are limited to applications with high impact velocities (for raindrops of the order of a few m/s), the essence of robustness is yet to be analyzed for applications involving quasi-static liquid transfer.To achieve robustness with high impact velocities, the surface parameters (geometrical details, chemistry) have to be selected from a narrow range of permissible values, which often entail additional manufacturing costs.From the dual perspectives of thermodynamics and mechanics, we analyze the significance of robustness for quasi-static drop impact, and present the range of permissible surface characteristics.For surfaces with a Youngs contact angle greater than 90{\\deg} and square micropillar geometry, we show that robustness can be enforced when an intermediate wetting state (sagged state) impedes transition to a wetted state (Wenzel state).From the standpoint of mechanics, we use available scientific data to prove that a surface with any topology must withstand a pressure of 117 Pa to be robust.Finally, permissible values of surface characteristics are determined, which ensure robustness with thermodynamics (formation of sagged state) and mechanics (withstanding 117 Pa).
Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis
Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, 55080-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Graef, L.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão travessa R, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pavón, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Basilakos, Spyros, E-mail: jas.lima@iag.usp.br, E-mail: leilagraef@usp.br, E-mail: diego.pavon@uab.es, E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527, Athens (Greece)
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the Gibbons–Hawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current 'quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.
Thermodynamic Product Formula for Ho?ava Lifshitz Black Hole
Parthapratim Pradhan
2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the thermodynamic properties of inner and outer horizons in the background of Ho\\v{r}ava Lifshitz black hole. We compute the \\emph{horizon radii product, the surface area product, the entropy product, the surface temperature product, the Komar energy product and the specific heat product} for both the horizons of said black hole. We show that surface area product, entropy product and irreducible mass product are \\emph{universal} quantities, whereas the surface temperature product, Komar energy product and specific heat product are \\emph{not universal} quantities because they all are depends on mass parameter. We also observe that the \\emph{First law} of black hole thermodynamics and \\emph {Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem } relations do not hold for this black hole. The underlying reason behind this failure due to the scale invariance of the coupling constant. We further derive the \\emph{Smarr mass formula} and \\emph{Christodolou-Ruffini mass formula} for such black hole spacetime. Moreover we study the stability of such black hole by computing the specific heat for both the horizons. It has been observed that under certain condition the black hole possesses second order phase transition.
Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL
Santos, Juan
Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL RESERVOIR SIMULATION DONALD WCongressCatalogingin PublicationData Peaceman, Donald W Fundamentals of numerical reservoir simulation. (develrpents in petroleum
NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
(Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation from the U.S....
SciTech Connect: Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements You are accessing a document...
First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamental...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...
Lunar geophysics: The Moon's fundamental shape and paleomagnetism studies
Perera, Viranga
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tectonics. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics SANTA CRUZ Lunar geophysics: The Moon’s fundamental shapeViranga Perera Lunar geophysics: The Moon’s fundamental
Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fundamental Studies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...
Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...
Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier
J. L. Hewett; H. Weerts; R. Brock; J. N. Butler; B. C. K. Casey; J. Collar; A. de Gouvea; R. Essig; Y. Grossman; W. Haxton; J. A. Jaros; C. K. Jung; Z. T. Lu; K. Pitts; Z. Ligeti; J. R. Patterson; M. Ramsey-Musolf; J. L. Ritchie; A. Roodman; K. Scholberg; C. E. M. Wagner; G. P. Zeller; S. Aefsky; A. Afanasev; K. Agashe; C. Albright; J. Alonso; C. Ankenbrandt; M. Aoki; C. A. Arguelles; N. Arkani-Hamed; J. R. Armendariz; C. Armendariz-Picon; E. Arrieta Diaz; J. Asaadi; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; K. Bailey; O. Baker; B. Balantekin; B. Baller; M. Bass; B. Batell; J. Beacham; J. Behr; N. Berger; M. Bergevin; E. Berman; R. Bernstein; A. J. Bevan; M. Bishai; M. Blanke; S. Blessing; A. Blondel; T. Blum; G. Bock; A. Bodek; G. Bonvicini; F. Bossi; J. Boyce; R. Breedon; M. Breidenbach; S. J. Brice; R. A. Briere; S. Brodsky; C. Bromberg; A. Bross; T. E. Browder; D. A. Bryman; M. Buckley; R. Burnstein; E. Caden; P. Campana; R. Carlini; G. Carosi; C. Castromonte; R. Cenci; I. Chakaberia; M. C. Chen; C. H. Cheng; B. Choudhary; N. H. Christ; E. Christensen; M. E. Christy; T. E. Chupp; E. Church; D. B. Cline; T. E. Coan; P. Coloma; J. Comfort; L. Coney; J. Cooper; R. J. Cooper; R. Cowan; D. F. Cowen; D. Cronin-Hennessy; A. Datta; G. S. Davies; M. Demarteau; D. P. DeMille; A. Denig; R. Dermisek; A. Deshpande; M. S. Dewey; R. Dharmapalan; J. Dhooghe; M. R. Dietrich; M. Diwan; Z. Djurcic; S. Dobbs; M. Duraisamy; B. Dutta; H. Duyang; D. A. Dwyer; M. Eads; B. Echenard; S. R. Elliott; C. Escobar; J. Fajans; S. Farooq; C. Faroughy; J. E. Fast; B. Feinberg; J. Felde; G. Feldman; P. Fierlinger; P. Fileviez Perez; B. Filippone; P. Fisher; B. T. Flemming; K. T. Flood; R. Forty; M. J. Frank; A. Freyberger; A. Friedland; R. Gandhi; K. S. Ganezer; A. Garcia; F. G. Garcia; S. Gardner; L. Garrison; A. Gasparian; S. Geer; V. M. Gehman; T. Gershon; M. Gilchriese; C. Ginsberg; I. Gogoladze; M. Gonderinger; M. Goodman; H. Gould; M. Graham; P. W. Graham; R. Gran; J. Grange; G. Gratta; J. P. Green; H. Greenlee; R. C. Group; E. Guardincerri; V. Gudkov; R. Guenette; A. Haas; A. Hahn; T. Han; T. Handler; J. C. Hardy; R. Harnik; D. A. Harris; F. A. Harris; P. G. Harris; J. Hartnett; B. He; B. R. Heckel; K. M. Heeger; S. Henderson; D. Hertzog; R. Hill; E. A Hinds; D. G. Hitlin; R. J. Holt; N. Holtkamp; G. Horton-Smith; P. Huber; W. Huelsnitz; J. Imber; I. Irastorza; J. Jaeckel; I. Jaegle; C. James; A. Jawahery; D. Jensen; C. P. Jessop; B. Jones; H. Jostlein; T. Junk; A. L. Kagan; M. Kalita; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; G. Karagiorgi; A. Karle; T. Katori; B. Kayser; R. Kephart; S. Kettell; Y. K. Kim; M. Kirby; K. Kirch; J. Klein; J. Kneller; A. Kobach; M. Kohl; J. Kopp; M. Kordosky; W. Korsch; I. Kourbanis; A. D. Krisch; P. Krizan; A. S. Kronfeld; S. Kulkarni; K. S. Kumar; Y. Kuno; T. Kutter; T. Lachenmaier; M. Lamm; J. Lancaster; M. Lancaster; C. Lane; K. Lang; P. Langacker; S. Lazarevic; T. Le; K. Lee; K. T. Lesko; Y. Li; M. Lindgren; A. Lindner; J. Link; D. Lissauer; L. S. Littenberg; B. Littlejohn; C. Y. Liu; W. Loinaz; W. Lorenzon; W. C. Louis; J. Lozier; L. Ludovici; L. Lueking; C. Lunardini; D. B. MacFarlane; P. A. N. Machado; P. B. Mackenzie; J. Maloney; W. J. Marciano; W. Marsh; M. Marshak; J. W. Martin; C. Mauger; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; G. McLaughlin; D. McKeen; R. McKeown; B. T. Meadows; R. Mehdiyev; D. Melconian; H. Merkel; M. Messier; J. P. Miller; G. Mills; U. K. Minamisono; S. R. Mishra; I. Mocioiu; S. Moed Sher; R. N. Mohapatra; B. Monreal; C. D. Moore; J. G. Morfin; J. Mousseau; L. A. Moustakas; G. Mueller; P. Mueller; M. Muether; H. P. Mumm; C. Munger; H. Murayama; P. Nath; O. Naviliat-Cuncin; J. K. Nelson; D. Neuffer; J. S. Nico; A. Norman; D. Nygren; Y. Obayashi; T. P. O'Connor; Y. Okada; J. Olsen; L. Orozco; J. L. Orrell; J. Osta; B. Pahlka; J. Paley; V. Papadimitriou; M. Papucci; S. Parke; R. H. Parker; Z. Parsa; K. Partyka; A. Patch; J. C. Pati; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; G. Paz; G. N. Perdue; D. Perevalov; G. Perez; R. Petti; W. Pettus; A. Piepke; M. Pivovaroff; R. Plunkett; C. C. Polly; M. Pospelov; R. Povey; A. Prakesh; M. V. Purohit; S. Raby; J. L. Raaf; R. Rajendran; S. Rajendran; G. Rameika; R. Ramsey; A. Rashed; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Rebel; J. Redondo; P. Reimer; D. Reitzner; F. Ringer; A. Ringwald; S. Riordan; B. L. Roberts; D. A. Roberts; R. Robertson; F. Robicheaux; M. Rominsky; R. Roser; J. L. Rosner; C. Rott; P. Rubin; N. Saito; M. Sanchez; S. Sarkar; H. Schellman; B. Schmidt; M. Schmitt; D. W. Schmitz; J. Schneps; A. Schopper; P. Schuster; A. J. Schwartz; M. Schwarz; J. Seeman; Y. K. Semertzidis; K. K. Seth; Q. Shafi; P. Shanahan; R. Sharma; S. R. Sharpe; M. Shiozawa; V. Shiltsev; K. Sigurdson; P. Sikivie; J. Singh; D. Sivers; T. Skwarnicki; N. Smith; J. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Soderberg; Y. H. Song; A. Soni; P. Souder; A. Sousa; J. Spitz; M. Stancari; G. C. Stavenga; J. H. Steffen
2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.
Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier
Hewett, J L; Brock, R; Butler, J N; Casey, B C K; Collar, J; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Haxton, W; Jaros, J A; Jung, C K; Lu, Z T; Pitts, K; Ligeti, Z; Patterson, J R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J L; Roodman, A; Scholberg, K; Wagner, C E M; Zeller, G P; Aefsky, S; Afanasev, A; Agashe, K; Albright, C; Alonso, J; Ankenbrandt, C; Aoki, M; Arguelles, C A; Arkani-Hamed, N; Armendariz, J R; Armendariz-Picon, C; Diaz, E Arrieta; Asaadi, J; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Bailey, K; Baker, O; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Bass, M; Batell, B; Beacham, J; Behr, J; Berger, N; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Bernstein, R; Bevan, A J; Bishai, M; Blanke, M; Blessing, S; Blondel, A; Blum, T; Bock, G; Bodek, A; Bonvicini, G; Bossi, F; Boyce, J; Breedon, R; Breidenbach, M; Brice, S J; Briere, R A; Brodsky, S; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Buckley, M; Burnstein, R; Caden, E; Campana, P; Carlini, R; Carosi, G; Castromonte, C; Cenci, R; Chakaberia, I; Chen, M C; Cheng, C H; Choudhary, B; Christ, N H; Christensen, E; Christy, M E; Chupp, T E; Church, E; Cline, D B; Coan, T E; Coloma, P; Comfort, J; Coney, L; Cooper, J; Cooper, R J; Cowan, R; Cowen, D F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Davies, G S; Demarteau, M; DeMille, D P; Denig, A; Dermisek, R; Deshpande, A; Dewey, M S; Dharmapalan, R; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, M R; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; Dutta, B; Duyang, H; Dwyer, D A; Eads, M; Echenard, B; Elliott, S R; Escobar, C; Fajans, J; Farooq, S; Faroughy, C; Fast, J E; Feinberg, B; Felde, J; Feldman, G; Fierlinger, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Filippone, B; Fisher, P; Flemming, B T; Flood, K T; Forty, R; Frank, M J; Freyberger, A; Friedland, A; Gandhi, R; Ganezer, K S; Garcia, A; Garcia, F G; Gardner, S; Garrison, L; Gasparian, A; Geer, S; Gehman, V M; Gershon, T; Gilchriese, M; Ginsberg, C; Gogoladze, I; Gonderinger, M; Goodman, M; Gould, H; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Gran, R; Grange, J; Gratta, G; Green, J P; Greenlee, H; Guardincerri, E; Gudkov, V; Guenette, R; Haas, A; Hahn, A; Han, T; Handler, T; Hardy, J C; Harnik, R; Harris, D A; Harris, F A; Harris, P G; Hartnett, J; He, B; Heckel, B R; Heeger, K M; Henderson, S; Hertzog, D; Hill, R; Hinds, E A; Hitlin, D G; Holt, R J; Holtkamp, N; Horton-Smith, G; Huber, P; Huelsnitz, W; Imber, J; Irastorza, I; Jaeckel, J; Jaegle, I; James, C; Jawahery, A; Jensen, D; Jessop, C P; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kagan, A L; Kalita, M; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kephart, R; Kettell, S; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirch, K; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Kobach, A; Kohl, M; Kopp, J; Kordosky, M; Korsch, W; Kourbanis, I; Krisch, A D; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, K S; Kuno, Y; Kutter, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lamm, M; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lane, C; Lang, K; Langacker, P; Lazarevic, S; Le, T; Lee, K; Lesko, K T; Li, Y; Lindgren, M; Lindner, A; Link, J; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L S; Littlejohn, B; Liu, C Y; Loinaz, W; Lorenzon, W; Louis, W C; Lozier, J; Ludovici, L; Lueking, L; Lunardini, C; MacFarlane, D B; Machado, P A N; Mackenzie, P B; Maloney, J; Marciano, W J; Marsh, W; Marshak, M; Martin, J W; Mauger, C; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLaughlin, G; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Meadows, B T; Mehdiyev, R; Melconian, D; Merkel, H; Messier, M; Miller, J P; Mills, G; Minamisono, U K; Mishra, S R; Mocioiu, I; Sher, S Moed; Mohapatra, R N; Monreal, B; Moore, C D; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Moustakas, L A; Mueller, G; Mueller, P; Muether, M; Mumm, H P; Munger, C; Murayama, H; Nath, P; Naviliat-Cuncin, O; Nelson, J K; Neuffer, D; Nico, J S; Norman, A; Nygren, D; Obayashi, Y; O'Connor, T P; Okada, Y; Olsen, J; Orozco, L; Orrell, J L; Osta, J; Pahlka, B; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Papucci, M; Parke, S; Parker, R H; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Pati, J C; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Paz, G; Perdue, G N; Perevalov, D; Perez, G; Petti, R; Pettus, W; Piepke, A; Pivovaroff, M; Plunkett, R; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Povey, R; Prakesh, A; Purohit, M V; Raby, S; Raaf, J L; Rajendran, R; Rajendran, S; Rameika, G; Ramsey, R; Rashed, A; Ratcliff, B N; Rebel, B; Redondo, J; Reimer, P; Reitzner, D; Ringer, F; Ringwald, A; Riordan, S; Roberts, B L; Roberts, D A; Robertson, R; Robicheaux, F; Rominsky, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Rott, C; Rubin, P; Saito, N; Sanchez, M; Sarkar, S; Schellman, H; Schmidt, B; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, D W; Schneps, J; Schopper, A; Schuster, P; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, M; Seeman, J; Semertzidis, Y K; Seth, K K; Shafi, Q; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Sharpe, S R; Shiozawa, M; Shiltsev, V; Sigurdson, K; Sikivie, P; Singh, J; Sivers, D; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Song, Y H; Soni, A; Souder, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Stancari, M; Stavenga, G C; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Stoeckinger, D; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strassler, M; Sulai, I A; Sundrum, R; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Takeuchi, T; Tanedo, P
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts
Roussos, George
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts George Roussos g.roussos@dcs.bbk.ac.uk #12;Session Overview · The mobile computing paradigm · The ubiquitous computing paradigm · Elements of mobile and ubiquitous computing · Enabling technologies · Computer science challenges · Applications and their role #12
Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts
Roussos, George
1 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts George Roussos g.roussos@dcs.bbk.ac.uk Session Overview · The ubiquitous computing paradigm · Elements of ubiquitous computing · Applications and ubiquitous today · Computers camouflaged as non-computers, i.e. invisible computers · Mobile and ubiquitous
Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler
Brass, Stefan
10. Updates in SQL 10Â1 Teil 10: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, AddisonÂWesley , 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO
Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler
Brass, Stefan
7. Updates in SQL 7Â1 Teil 7: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, AddisonÂWesley , 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO
Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler
Brass, Stefan
10. Updates in SQL 10Â1 Teil 10: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, AddisonÂWesley, 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO
Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing M. Satyanarayanan
and level of technology, but are intrinsic to mobility. Together, they complicate the considerationsFundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing M. Satyanarayanan School of Computer Science Carnegie different about mobile computing?" The paper begins by describing a set of constraints intrinsic to mobile
Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges
Liu, Huan
Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges Mohammad Ali Abbasi, Huan Liu, and Reza Zafarani Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Arizona State University http://icdm2013.zafarani.net December 10, 2013 #12;2Social Media Mining Measures and Metrics 2Social Media Mining ICDM 2013 Tutorial
Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti
Ellingson, Steven W.
Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti Spring 2012 Radio astronomy provides a very different view of the universe than optical astronomy. Radio astronomers and optical astronomers use different terminology to describe their work. Here I present some basic concepts and terms of radio
Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications,
Sarpeshkar, Rahul
Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems to articulate information-based principles for ultra-low-power design that apply to biology or to electronics of ultra- low-power electronics and bioelectronics is shown in the figure below. Engineering can aid
Quantum Thermodynamic Cycles and quantum heat engines
H. T. Quan; Yu-xi Liu; C. P. Sun; Franco Nori
2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
In order to describe quantum heat engines, here we systematically study isothermal and isochoric processes for quantum thermodynamic cycles. Based on these results the quantum versions of both the Carnot heat engine and the Otto heat engine are defined without ambiguities. We also study the properties of quantum Carnot and Otto heat engines in comparison with their classical counterparts. Relations and mappings between these two quantum heat engines are also investigated by considering their respective quantum thermodynamic processes. In addition, we discuss the role of Maxwell's demon in quantum thermodynamic cycles. We find that there is no violation of the second law, even in the existence of such a demon, when the demon is included correctly as part of the working substance of the heat engine.
A microscopic perspective on stochastic thermodynamics
Bernhard Altaner; Jürgen Vollmer
2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We consider stochastic thermodynamics as a theory of statistical inference for experimentally observed fluctuating time-series. To that end, we introduce a general framework for quantifying the knowledge about the dynamical state of the system on two scales: a fine-grained or microscopic, deterministic and a coarse-grained or mesoscopic, stochastic level of description. For a generic model dynamics, we show how the mathematical expressions for fluctuating entropy changes used in Markovian stochastic thermodynamics emerge naturally. Our ideas are conceptional approaches towards (i) connecting entropy production and its fluctuation relations in deterministic and stochastic systems and (ii) providing a complementary information-theoretic picture to notions of entropy and entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics.
Towards a 'Thermodynamics' of Active Matter
Sho C. Takatori; John F. Brady
2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
Self-propulsion allows living systems to display unusual collective behavior. Unlike passive systems in thermal equilibrium, active matter systems are not constrained by conventional thermodynamic laws. A question arises however as to what extent, if any, can concepts from classical thermodynamics be applied to nonequilibrium systems like active matter. Here we use the new swim pressure perspective to develop a simple theory for predicting phase separation in active matter. Using purely mechanical arguments we generate a phase diagram with a spinodal and critical point, and define a nonequilibrium chemical potential to interpret the "binodal." We provide a generalization of thermodynamic concepts like the free energy and temperature for nonequilibrium active systems. Our theory agrees with existing simulation data both qualitatively and quantitatively and may provide a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of nonequilibrium active systems.
Thermodynamics of pairing in mesoscopic systems
Tony Sumaryada; Alexander Volya
2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
Using numerical and analytical methods implemented for different models we conduct a systematic study of thermodynamic properties of pairing correlation in mesoscopic nuclear systems. Various quantities are calculated and analyzed using the exact solution of pairing. An in-depth comparison of canonical, grand canonical, and microcanonical ensemble is conducted. The nature of the pairing phase transition in a small system is of a particular interest. We discuss the onset of discontinuity in the thermodynamic variables, fluctuations, and evolution of zeros of the canonical and grand canonical partition functions in the complex plane. The behavior of the Invariant Correlational Entropy is also studied in the transitional region of interest. The change in the character of the phase transition due to the presence of magnetic field is discussed along with studies of superconducting thermodynamics.
Baines, Ellyn K
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We measured the angular diameter of the exoplanet host star epsilon Eridani using the Navy Optical Interferometer. We determined its physical radius, effective temperature, and mass by combining our measurement with the star's parallax, photometry from the literature, and the Yonsei-Yale isochrones (Yi et al. 2001), respectively. We used the resulting stellar mass of 0.82 +/- 0.05 M_Sun plus the mass function from Benedict et al. (2006) to calculate the planet's mass, which is 1.53 +/- 0.22 M_Jupiter. Using our new effective temperature, we also estimated the extent of the habitable zone for the system.
Large Transverse Momenta and Tsallis Thermodynamics
Cleymans, J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The charged particle transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectra measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations in proton - proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV have been studied using Tsallis thermodynamics. A thermodynamically consistent form of the Tsallis distribution is used for fitting the transverse momentum spectra at mid-rapidity. It is found that the fits based on the proposed distribution provide an excellent description over 14 orders of magnitude with $p_T$ values up to 200 GeV/c.
Large Transverse Momenta and Tsallis Thermodynamics
J. Cleymans; M. D. Azmi
2015-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
The charged particle transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectra measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations in proton - proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV have been studied using Tsallis thermodynamics. A thermodynamically consistent form of the Tsallis distribution is used for fitting the transverse momentum spectra at mid-rapidity. It is found that the fits based on the proposed distribution provide an excellent description over 14 orders of magnitude with $p_T$ values up to 200 GeV/c.
Dissipative heat engine is thermodynamically inconsistent
A. M. Makarieva; V. G. Gorshkov
2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
A heat engine operating on the basis of the Carnot cycle is considered, where the mechanical work performed is dissipated within the engine at the temperature of the warmer isotherm and the resulting heat is added to the engine together with an external heat input. The resulting work performed by the engine per cycle is increased at the expense of dissipated work produced in the previous cycle. It is shown that such a dissipative heat engine is thermodynamically inconsistent violating the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The existing physical models employing the dissipative heat engine concept, in particular, the heat engine model of hurricane development, are physically invalid.
Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics
Andreas Reindl; Markus Bier; S. Dietrich
2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
Steven Carlip
2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
We have known for more than thirty years that black holes behave as thermodynamic systems, radiating as black bodies with characteristic temperatures and entropies. This behavior is not only interesting in its own right; it could also, through a statistical mechanical description, cast light on some of the deep problems of quantizing gravity. In these lectures, I review what we currently know about black hole thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, suggest a rather speculative "universal" characterization of the underlying states, and describe some key open questions.
The thermodynamics of a gravitating vacuum
M. Heyl; H. J. Fahr; M. Siewert
2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
In the present days of modern cosmology it is assumed that the main ingredient to cosmic energy presently is vacuum energy with an energy density $\\epsilon_\\mathrm{vac}$ that is constant over the cosmic evolution. In this paper here we show, however, that this assumption of constant vacuum energy density is unphysical, since it conflicts with the requirements of cosmic thermodynamics. We start from the total vacuum energy including the negatively valued gravitational binding energy and show that cosmic thermodynamics then requires that the cosmic vacuum energy density can only vary with cosmic scale $R=R(t)$ according to $\\epsilon _\\mathrm{vac}\\sim R^{-\
Thermodynamics of Dyonic Lifshitz Black Holes
Tobias Zingg
2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Black holes with asymptotic anisotropic scaling are conjectured to be gravity duals of condensed matter system close to quantum critical points with non-trivial dynamical exponent z at finite temperature. A holographic renormalization procedure is presented that allows thermodynamic potentials to be defined for objects with both electric and magnetic charge in such a way that standard thermodynamic relations hold. Black holes in asymptotic Lifshitz spacetimes can exhibit paramagnetic behavior at low temperature limit for certain values of the critical exponent z, whereas the behavior of AdS black holes is always diamagnetic.
Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks
A C Gutiérrez-Piñeres; C S Lopez-Monsalvo; H Quevedo
2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multi-fluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behaviour of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favour of a two-fluid model.
Hard-thermal-loop QED thermodynamics
Nan Su; Jens O. Andersen; Michael Strickland
2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
The weak-coupling expansion for thermodynamic quantities in thermal field theories is poorly convergent unless the coupling constant is tiny. We discuss the calculation of the free energy for a hot gas of electrons and photons to three-loop order using hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt). We show that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e ~ 2. The reorganization is gauge invariant by construction, and due to the cancellations among various contributions, we obtain a completely analytic result for the resummed thermodynamic potential at three loops.
Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow
Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki
2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.
Fluctuations and the second law of thermodynamics
Denur, Jack Boaz
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
concerned w 1th fluctuations in the Helmholtz free eneray of+ as a whole, A*, away from the min1mum poss1ble value, A*. We will assoc1ate fluctuations 1 n A* away from A" with fluctuations of some other thermodynam 1c property of + , X, away from X... uniform fluid ink is a high dens1ty Abel gas. As a third example, let the uniform fluid 1 n 4 be a substance at its critical po1nt, in thermodynamic equilibrium. In th1s case we have v (hf')N g p (4. 4) Thus, from (2. 7) we have (4. 5) Thus...
Elements of $\\mu$-calculus and thermodynamics of $\\mu$-Bose gas model
Rebesh, A P; Gavrilik, A M
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We review on and give some further details about the thermodynamical properties of the \\mu-Bose gas model (arXiv:1309.1363) introduced by us recently. This model was elaborated in connection with \\mu-deformed oscillators. Here, we present the necessary concepts and tools from the so-called \\mu-calculus. For the high temperatures, we obtain the virial expansion of the equation of state, as well as five virial coefficients. In the regime of low temperatures, the critical temperature of condensation is inferred. We also obtain the specific heat, internal energy, and entropy for a \\mu-Bose gas for both low and high temperatures. All thermodynamical functions depend on the deformation parameter \\mu. The dependences of the entropy and the specific heat on the deformation parameter are visualized.
Thermodynamics of Rotating Solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell Gravity and the Counterterm Method
Dehghani, M H; Shamirzaie, M
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the $(n+1)$-dimensional charged rotating solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters. By a suitable transformation, we show that these charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. Using the surface terms that make the action well-defined for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and the counterterm method for eliminating the divergences in action and conserved quantities, we compute finite action and conserved quantities of the solutions. We also compute temperature, entropy, charge, and electric potential of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, ...
Altaner, Bernhard; Vollmer, Jürgen
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Unlike macroscopic engines, the molecular machinery of living cells is strongly affected by fluctuations. Stochastic Thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model the random transitions between the chemical and configurational states of these biological macromolecules. A recently developed theoretical framework [Wachtel, Vollmer, Altaner: "Fluctuating Currents in Stochastic Thermodynamics I. Gauge Invariance of Asymptotic Statistics"] provides a simple algorithm for the determination of macroscopic currents and correlation integrals of arbitrary fluctuating currents. Here, we use it to discuss energy conversion and nonequilibrium response in different models for the molecular motor kinesin. Methodologically, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in dealing with parameter-dependent stochastic models. For the concrete biophysical problem our results reveal two interesting features in experimentally accessible parameter regions: The validity of a non-equilibrium Green--Kubo relation ...
Thermodynamics of the low density excluded volume hadron gas
Zalewski, Kacper
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the influence of the excluded volume of hadrons on macroscopic variables and thermal parameters of the hadron gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the low density approximation. Based solely on elementary thermodynamics we show that when the excluded volume grows at constant temperature, pressure, and number of particles, the overall volume increases just as much as the excluded volume, while the entropy and energy remain unchanged. The growth of the chemical potentials is equal to the work needed to create the respective excluded volumes. Consequently, the bulk density functions of a gas with excluded volume are expressed by the corresponding variables in a system of point particles with the shifted chemical potentials. Our results are fully consistent with the previous findings obtained upon applications of more advanced methods of statistical physics. A validity limit for the low density approximation is derived and discussed in the context of the hadron gas created in heavy ion c...
Irreversible work and inner friction in quantum thermodynamic processes
F. Plastina; A. Alecce; T. J. G. Apollaro; G. Falcone; G. Francica; F. Galve; N. Lo Gullo; R. Zambrini
2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the thermodynamics of closed quantum systems driven out of equilibrium by a change in a control parameter and undergoing a unitary process. We compare the work actually done on the system with the one that would be performed along ideal adiabatic and isothermal transformations. The comparison with the latter leads to the introduction of irreversible work, while that with the former leads to the introduction of inner friction. We show that these two quantities can be treated on equal footing, as both can be linked with the heat exchanged in thermalization processes and both can be expressed as relative entropies. Furthermore, we show that a specific fluctuation relation for the entropy production associated with the inner friction exists, which allows the inner friction to be written in terms of its cumulants.
Thermodynamics of the low density excluded volume hadron gas
Kacper Zalewski; Krzysztof Redlich
2015-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the influence of the excluded volume of hadrons on macroscopic variables and thermal parameters of the hadron gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the low density approximation. Based solely on elementary thermodynamics we show that when the excluded volume grows at constant temperature, pressure, and number of particles, the overall volume increases just as much as the excluded volume, while the entropy and energy remain unchanged. The growth of the chemical potentials is equal to the work needed to create the respective excluded volumes. Consequently, the bulk density functions of a gas with excluded volume are expressed by the corresponding variables in a system of point particles with the shifted chemical potentials. Our results are fully consistent with the previous findings obtained upon applications of more advanced methods of statistical physics. A validity limit for the low density approximation is derived and discussed in the context of the hadron gas created in heavy ion collisions.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System
Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the University of Massachusetts' Combined Heat and Power (CHP) District Heating System. Energy and exergy analyses are performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power...
http://w3.pppl.gov/~ Thermodynamics,
Zakharov, Leonid E.
web page: http://w3.pppl.gov/~ zakharov Thermodynamics, science and religion in fusion 1 Leonid E of the goal and with understanding how the second law of thermodynamics works in the scientific society
COURSE TITLE CREDITS A A 260 THERMODYNAMICS 4
COURSE TITLE CREDITS A A 260 THERMODYNAMICS 4 ARCH 310 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DRAWING I 3 ARCH 331 THERMODYNAMICS & CLOUD PROCESSES 3 ATM S 358 FUND ATMOS CHEMISTRY 3 ATM S 370 ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE & ANALYSIS 5
12.480 Thermodynamics for Geoscientists, Spring 2004
Grove, Timothy L.
Principles of thermodynamics are used to infer the physical conditions of formation and modification of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Includes phase equilibria of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems and thermodynamic ...
Strong laser fields as a probe for fundamental physics
Holger Gies
2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z
Upcoming high-intensity laser systems will be able to probe the quantum-induced nonlinear regime of electrodynamics. So far unobserved QED phenomena such as the discovery of a nonlinear response of the quantum vacuum to macroscopic electromagnetic fields can become accessible. In addition, such laser systems provide for a flexible tool for investigating fundamental physics. Primary goals consist in verifying so far unobserved QED phenomena. Moreover, strong-field experiments can search for new light but weakly interacting degrees of freedom and are thus complementary to accelerator-driven experiments. I review recent developments in this field, focusing on photon experiments in strong electromagnetic fields. The interaction of particle-physics candidates with photons and external fields can be parameterized by low-energy effective actions and typically predict characteristic optical signatures. I perform first estimates of the accessible new-physics parameter space of high-intensity laser facilities such as POLARIS and ELI.
Hydrogen Production: Fundamentals and Case Study Summaries (Presentation)
Harrison, K.; Remick, R.; Hoskin, A.; Martin, G.
2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
This presentation summarizes hydrogen production fundamentals and case studies, including hydrogen to wind case studies.
Trambak Bhattacharyya; Jean Cleymans; Arvind Khuntia; Pooja Pareek; Raghunath Sahoo
2015-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
We expand the Tsallis distribution in a Taylor series of powers of (q-1), where q is the Tsallis parameter, assuming q is very close to 1. This helps in studying the degree of deviation of transverse momentum spectra and other thermodynamic quantities from a thermalized Boltzmann distribution. After checking thermodynamic consistency, we provide analytical results for the Tsallis distribution in the presence of collective flow up to the first order of (q-1). The formulae are compared with the experimental data.
Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling with WRAP
Wurbs, Ralph A.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Essentially any configuration of stream tributaries and conveyance systems may be modeled. All reservoirs, diversions, return flows, hydropower plants, environmental instream flow requirements, and other system components are assigned control point... with WRAP by Ralph A. Wurbs Civil Engineering Department Texas A&M University TR-283 Texas Water Resources Institute College Station, Texas April 2005 Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling with WRAP Ralph A...
The factor 2 in fundamental physics
Peter Rowlands
2001-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
A brief history is given of the factor 2, starting in the most elementary considerations of geometry and kinematics of uniform acceleration, and moving to relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics. The basic argument is that in all the significant cases in which the factor 2 or 1/2 occurs in fundamental physics, whether classical, quantum or relativistic, the same physical operation is taking place.
D. H. E. Gross; J. F. Kenney
2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
Microcanonical thermodynamics allows the application of statistical mechanics both to finite and even small systems and also to the largest, self-gravitating ones. However, one must reconsider the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics especially its key quantity, entropy. Whereas in conventional thermostatistics, the homogeneity and extensivity of the system and the concavity of its entropy are central conditions, these fail for the systems considered here. For example, at phase separation, the entropy, S(E), is necessarily convex to make exp[S(E)-E/T] bimodal in E. Particularly, as inhomogeneities and surface effects cannot be scaled away, one must be careful with the standard arguments of splitting a system into two subsystems, or bringing two systems into thermal contact with energy or particle exchange. Not only the volume part of the entropy must be considered. As will be shown here, when removing constraints in regions of a negative heat capacity, the system may even relax under a flow of heat (energy) against a temperature slope. Thus the Clausius formulation of the second law: ``Heat always flows from hot to cold'', can be violated. Temperature is not a necessary or fundamental control parameter of thermostatistics. However, the second law is still satisfied and the total Boltzmann entropy increases. In the final sections of this paper, the general microscopic mechanism leading to condensation and to the convexity of the microcanonical entropy at phase separation is sketched. Also the microscopic conditions for the existence (or non-existence) of a critical end-point of the phase-separation are discussed. This is explained for the liquid-gas and the solid-liquid transition.
D. H. E. Gross
2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
Microcanonical Thermodynamics allows the application of Statistical Mechanics on one hand to closed finite and even small systems and on the other to the largest,self-gravitating ones. However, one has to reconsider the fundamental principles of Statistical Mechanics especially its key quantity, entropy. Whereas in conventional Thermostatistics the homogeneity and extensivity of the system and the concavity of its entropy S(E) are central conditions, these fail for the systems considered here. E.g. at phase separation the entropy S(E) is necessarily convex to make e^{S(E)-E/T} bimodal in E (the two coexisting phases). This is so even for normal macroscopic systems with short-range coupling. As inhomogeneities and surface effects in particular cannot be scaled away,one has to be careful with the standard arguments of splitting a system into two or bringing two systems into thermal contact. Not only the volume part of the entropy must be considered. When removing an external constraint in regions of a negative heat capacity, the system may even relax under a flow of heat (energy) against the temperature slope. Thus Clausius formulation of the Second Law: "Heat always flows from hot to cold" can be violated. Temperature is not a necessary or fundamental control parameter of Thermostatistics. In the final sections of this paper the general microscopic mechanism leading to condensation and to the convexity of the microcanonical entropy S(E) at phase separation is sketched. Also the microscopic conditions for the existence or non-existence of a critical end-point of the phase-separation are discussed. This is explained for the liquid--gas and the solid--liquid transition.
A thermodynamic switch for chromosome colocalization
M. Nicodemi; B. Panning; A. Prisco
2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
A general model for the early recognition and colocalization of homologous DNA sequences is proposed. We show, on a thermodynamic ground, how the distance between two homologous DNA sequences is spontaneously regulated by the concentration and affinity of diffusible mediators binding them, which act as a switch between two phases corresponding to independence or colocalization of pairing regions.
On phantom thermodynamics with negative temperature
Yun Soo Myung
2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the thermodynamic properties of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with dark energy fluids labelled by $\\omega=p/\\rhotemperature takes on negative values because in that case, there exists at least a condition of keeping physical values for $p$ and $\\rho$
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of gravitational screens
Laurent Freidel; Yuki Yokokura
2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Einstein gravity equations projected on a timelike surface, which represents the time evolution of what we call a gravitational screen. We show that such a screen possesses a surface tension and an internal energy, and that the Einstein equations reduce to the thermodynamic equations of a viscous bubble. We also provide a complete dictionary between gravitational and thermodynamical variables. In the non-viscous cases there are three thermodynamic equations which characterise a bubble dynamics: These are the first law, the Marangoni flow equation and the Young-Laplace equation. In all three equations the surface tension plays a central role: In the first law it appears as a work term per unit area, in the Marangoni flow its gradient drives a force, and in the Young-Laplace equation it contributes to a pressure proportional to the surface curvature. The gravity equations appear as a natural generalization of these bubble equations when the bubble itself is viscous and dynamical. In particular, it shows that the mechanism of entropy production for the viscous bubble is mapped onto the production of gravitational waves. We also review the relationship between surface tension and temperature, and discuss the usual black-hole thermodynamics from this point of view.
MICROSCOPIC DERIVATION OF AN ISOTHERMAL THERMODYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
they are one of the components of the Carnot cycle. As often in thermodynam- ics, they represent idealized an initial equilibrium to a new equilibrium given by the final tension applied. Quasistatic reversible), satisfy the Clausius inequality F1 - F0 W, with equality satisfied for reversible quasistatic
Chapter 8. Spontaneous Processes and Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Ihee, Hyotcherl
to drive that cycle · Carnot's conclusion: There is no device that can transfer heat from a colder of Thermodynamics · The efficiency: the ratio of work accomplished by the engine in a cycle to the heat invested equilibrium states i and j. 2. Select any convenient reversible path between them along which dqrev
Perturbative String Thermodynamics near Black Hole Horizons
Thomas G. Mertens; Henri Verschelde; Valentin I. Zakharov
2015-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work JHEP 1403 (2014) 086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of $\\alpha'$-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large $k$ limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in $g_s$) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.
Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass
Patzek, Tadeusz W.
Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass Tad W. Patzek 1 and David Pimentel 2 1 Department #12;3 Biomass from Tropical Tree Plantations 14 3.1 Scope of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Environmental Impacts of Industrial Biomass Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3
Generalised complex geometry in thermodynamical fluctuation theory
P. Fernandez de Cordoba; J. M. Isidro
2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
We present a brief overview of some key concepts in the theory of generalised complex manifolds. This new geometry interpolates, so to speak, between symplectic geometry and complex geometry. As such it provides an ideal framework to analyse thermodynamical fluctuation theory in the presence of gravitational fields.
Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen
Salamon, Peter
Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2
An Indicator to Evaluate the Thermodynamic Maturity
Kjelstrup, Signe
process units in the chemical and process industry (i.e., heat exchanger, chemical reactor, distillation column, and paper dry- ing machine). The proposed thermodynamic measure should be of interest, energy ef- ficiency problems in design and optimization of thermal and power systems (i.e., heat
Cyclic thermodynamic processes and entropy production
Liouvillean. We then show that the entropy production per cycle is (strictly) positive, a property that implies Carnot's formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. 1 Introduction During the past several, we make a contribution to this program by studying Carnot's for mulation of the second law
Chapter 7. Thermodynamic Processes and Thermochemistry
Ihee, Hyotcherl
. The gas is heated slowly, with the piston sliding freely to maintain the pressure of the gas close to 1 or pressure affect the extent of the reaction? · How can the conditions for the reaction be optimized, pressure #12;State · A thermodynamic state is a macroscopic condition of a system whose properties
The global approach to thermodynamics Frank Rioux
Rioux, Frank
S T , where TE is the thermal energy change of a reservoir at temperature T. Because the working substance | St. John's University St. Joseph, MN 56374 Thermodynamics: Energy conservation with an entropy-based limitation on energy utilization. Nick Herbert Cochran and Heron recently published an assessment of student
Physical Meteorology I: Thermodynamics (METR 3213)
Fedorovich, Evgeni
of energy and its role in the thermal regime of the atmosphere. Part II. Basic notions and equations. Gas and pressure reduction methods. Part III. First law of thermodynamics. Principle of conservation of energy, heat energy transport and transformations, interactions between different water phases
Perturbative String Thermodynamics near Black Hole Horizons
Thomas G. Mertens; Henri Verschelde; Valentin I. Zakharov
2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work JHEP 1403 (2014) 086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of $\\alpha'$-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large $k$ limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in $g_s$) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.
QCD thermodynamics with dynamical overlap fermions
S. Borsanyi; Y. Delgado; S. Durr; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; S. Krieg; T. Lippert; D. Nogradi; K. K. Szabo
2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z
We study QCD thermodynamics using two flavors of dynamical overlap fermions with quark masses corresponding to a pion mass of 350 MeV. We determine several observables on N_t=6 and 8 lattices. All our runs are performed with fixed global topology. Our results are compared with staggered ones and a nice agreement is found.
Thermodynamics of nuclei in thermal contact
Karl-Heinz Schmidt; Beatriz Jurado
2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
The behaviour of a di-nuclear system in the regime of strong pairing correlations is studied with the methods of statistical mechanics. It is shown that the thermal averaging is strong enough to assure the application of thermodynamical methods to the energy exchange between the two nuclei in contact. In particular, thermal averaging justifies the definition of a nuclear temperature.
INVESTIGATING THERMODYNAMICS OF VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORT
INVESTIGATING THERMODYNAMICS OF VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORT Wei Wu and Yangang Liu transport are investigated by using simple one-dimensional vertical energy balance models (i.e., radiative processes (i.e., one of the key processes for vertical atmospheric energy transport) on shaping the Earth
On thermodynamics of crystal plasticity V.L. Berdichevsky
Berdichevsky, Victor
On thermodynamics of crystal plasticity V.L. Berdichevsky Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State; Plasticity theory; Dislocation theory 1. Introduction Thermodynamics is a theory of the slow variables of very complex systems. The goals of thermodynamics of crystal plasticity are to identify the slow
Entanglement theory and the second law of thermodynamics
Loss, Daniel
ARTICLES Entanglement theory and the second law of thermodynamics FERNANDO G. S. L. BRAND~AO1 aim to draw from them formal analogies to the second law of thermodynamics; however, whereas relationship with thermodynamics may be established when considering all non-entangling transformations
The Thermodynamics of Confidentiality Pasquale Malacaria, Fabrizio Smeraldi
Smeraldi, Fabrizio
The Thermodynamics of Confidentiality Pasquale Malacaria, Fabrizio Smeraldi School of Electronic and the 2nd principle of thermodynamics. In particular we show that any deter- ministic computation, where constant and T the system temperature. By contrast, for probabilistic computations thermodynamic work can
Thermodynamics and Structure of Peptide-Aggregates at Membrane Surfaces
Quake, Stephen R.
Thermodynamics and Structure of Peptide- Aggregates at Membrane Surfaces INAUGURALDISSERTATION zur. Introduction 01 1.1 Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation 01 1.2 Formation of Protein Aggregates 03 1 and P-glycoprotein: Connecting Thermodynamics and Membrane Structure with Functional Activity 23 3
Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory
Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory A thesis submitted to the Tata Research, Mumbai December 2008 #12;ii #12;Synopsis In this work we study the thermodynamics of an interacting 4 theory in 4 space- time dimensions. The expressions for the thermodynamic quantities are worked
Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide
Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...
Ching, Dominic Wai Wah
1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the composition and of the orientation parameter y, The negative values of gG (Table V) obtained from this ex- pression indicate that the polymer dissolves in the solvents at this temperature. Third, the orientation parameter y that was determined did not vary... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subjects Chemical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL SOLUTION THERMODYNAMICS OF A TERNARY SOLVENT/POLYMER/SOLVENT SYSTEM BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis DOMINIC WAI WAH CHING Approved...
Thermodynamics of resonances and blurred particles
D. N. Voskresensky
2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Exact and approximate expressions for thermodynamic characteristics of heated matter, which consists of particles with finite mass-widths, are constructed. They are expressed in terms of Fermi/Bose distributions and spectral functions, rather than in terms of more complicated combinations between real and imaginary parts of the self-energies of different particle species. Therefore thermodynamically consistent approximate treatment of systems of particles with finite mass-widths can be performed, provided spectral functions of particle species are known. Approximation of the free resonance gas at low densities is studied. Simple ansatz for the energy dependence of the spectral function is suggested that allows to fulfill thermodynamical consistency conditions. On examples it is shown that a simple description of dense systems of interacting particle species can be constructed, provided some species can be treated in the quasiparticle approximation and others as particles with widths. The interaction affects quasiparticle contributions, whereas particles with widths can be treated as free. Example is considered of a hot gas of heavy fermions strongly interacting with light bosons, both species with zero chemical potentials. The density of blurred fermions is dramatically increased for high temperatures compared to the standard Boltzmann value. The system consists of boson quasiparticles (with effective masses) interacting with fermion -- antifermion blurs. In thermodynamical values interaction terms partially compensate each other. Thereby, in case of a very strong coupling between species thermodynamical quantities of the system, like the energy, pressure and entropy, prove to be such as for the quasi-ideal gas mixture of quasi-free fermion blurs and quasi-free bosons.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a g e October 20, 2014 Attn:Renewable Energy,DOE, NEPA, and YOU DOE, NEPA, and1/1-92 JUNE
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362Transmission: CommentsVirginia.The U.S. Energy Homes First DOEJohn|Department of1-92 JUNE1-92 JUNE
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362Transmission: CommentsVirginia.The U.S. Energy Homes First DOEJohn|Department of1-92 JUNE1-923-92
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Main Parameters APS Storage Ring Parameters M. Borland, G. Decker, L. Emery, W. Guo, K. Harkay, V. Sajaev, C.-Y. Yao Advanced Photon Source September 8, 2010 This document list the...
Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena
Brown, C.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Durham, M.D. (ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)); Sowa, W.A. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. (Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)); Mahaffey, W.A. (CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States))
1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)
Neutrino Physics: Fundamentals of Neutrino Oscillations
C. W. Kim
1996-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
In this lecture we review some of the basic properties of neutrinos, in particular their mass and the oscillation behavior. First we discuss how to describe the neutrino mass. Then, under the assumption that neutrinos are massive and mixed, the fundamentals of the neutrino oscillations are discussed with emphasis on subtle aspects which have been overlooked in the past. We then review the terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments in the framework of three generations of neutrinos with the standard mass hierarchy. Finally, a brief summary of the current status of the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems will be given.
Recreating Fundamental Effects in the Laboratory?
Ralf Schützhold
2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
This article provides a brief (non-exhaustive) overview of some possibilities for recreating fundamental effects which are relevant for black holes (and other gravitational scenarios) in the laboratory. Via suitable condensed matter analogues and other laboratory systems, it might be possible to model the Penrose process (superradiant scattering), the Unruh effect, Hawking radiation, the Eardley instability, black-hole lasers, cosmological particle creation, the Gibbons-Hawking effect, and the Schwinger mechanism. Apart from an experimental verification of these yet unobserved phenomena, the study of these laboratory systems might shed light onto the underlying ideas and problems and should therefore be interesting from a (quantum) gravity point of view as well.
Fundamental Symmetries of the Modified Anyonic Particle
Nejad, Salman Abarghouei; Monemzadeh, Majid
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We try to increase the fundamental symmetries of the anyonic particle with the help of the symplectic formalism of constrained systems and gauging the model. The main idea of this approach is based on the embedding of the model in an extended phase space. After the gauging process had done, we obtain generators of gauge transformations of the model. Finally, by extracting the corresponding Poisson structure of all constraints, we compare the effect of gauging on the the phase spaces, the number of physical degrees of freedom, and canonical structures of both primary and gauged models.
Fundamental measure theory of hydrated hydrocarbons
Victor F. Sokolov; Gennady N. Chuev
2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
To calculate the solvation of hydrophobic solutes we have developed the method based on the fundamental measure treatment of the density functional theory. This method allows us to carry out calculations of density profiles and the solvation energy for various hydrophobic molecules with a high accuracy. We have applied the method to the hydration of various hydrocarbons (linear, branched and cyclic). The calculations of the entropic and the enthalpic parts are also carried out. We have examined a question about temperature dependence of the entropy convergence. Finally, we have calculated the mean force potential between two large hydrophobic nanoparticles immersed in water.
Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines
René van Roij
2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce several Legendre transformations and Maxwell relations. We argue that one should distinguish between the differential capacity at constant ion number and at constant ion chemical potential, and derive a relation between them that resembles the standard relation between heat capacity at constant volume and constant pressure. Finally, we consider the probability distribution of the electrode charge at a given electrode potential, the standard deviation of which is given by the differential capacity.
Thermodynamic cycle in a cavity optomechanical system
Hou Ian
2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
A cavity optomechanical system is initiated by a radiation pressure of a cavity field onto a mirror element acting as a quantum resonator. This radiation pressure can control the thermodynamic character of the mirror to some extent, such as cooling its effective temperature. Here we show that by properly engineering the spectral density of a thermal heat bath that interacts with a quantum system, the evolution of the quantum system can be effectively turned on and off. Inside a cavity optomechanical system, when the heat bath is realized by a multi-mode oscillator modeling of the mirror, this on-off effect translates to infusion or extraction of heat energy in and out of the cavity field, facilitating a four-stroke thermodynamic cycle.
Thermodynamics of D-brane Probes
E. Kiritsis; T. R. Taylor
1999-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the dynamics and thermodynamics of particle and D-brane probes moving in non-extremal black hole/brane backgrounds. When a probe falls from asymptotic infinity to the horizon, it transforms its potential energy into heat, $TdS$, which is absorbed by the black hole in a way consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. We show that the same remains true in the near-horizon limit, for BPS probes only, with the BPS probe moving from AdS infinity to the horizon. This is a quantitative indication that the brane-probe reaching the horizon corresponds to thermalization in gauge theory. It is shown that this relation provides a way to reliably compute the entropy away from the extremal limit (towards the Schwarzschild limit).
Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics
H. Moradpour; S. Nasirimoghadam
2015-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.
Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics
Moradpour, H
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.
Identifying Functional Thermodynamics in Autonomous Maxwellian Ratchets
A. B. Boyd; D. Mandal; J. P. Crutchfield
2015-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a family of Maxwellian Demons for which correlations among information bearing degrees of freedom can be calculated exactly and in compact analytical form. This allows one to precisely determine Demon functional thermodynamic operating regimes, when previous methods either misclassify or simply fail due to approximations they invoke. These Demons are as functional as alternative candidates, behaving either as engines, lifting a mass against gravity by extracting energy from a single heat reservoir, or Landauer erasers, removing information from a sequence of binary symbols by consuming external work. In both cases, explicitly accounting for informational correlations leads to tight bounds on Demon performance, expressed as a refined Second Law of thermodynamics that relies on the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy.
Lattice QCD Thermodynamics with Physical Quark Masses
R. A. Soltz; C. DeTar; F. Karsch; Swagato Mukherjee; P. Vranas
2015-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
Over the past few years new physics methods and algorithms as well as the latest supercomputers have enabled the study of the QCD thermodynamic phase transition using lattice gauge theory numerical simulations with unprecedented control over systematic errors. This is largely a consequence of the ability to perform continuum extrapolations with physical quark masses. Here we review recent progress in lattice QCD thermodynamics, focussing mainly on results that benefit from the use of physical quark masses: the crossover temperature, the equation of state, and fluctuations of the quark number susceptibilities. In addition, we place a special emphasis on calculations that are directly relevant to the study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC.
Thermodynamics and dynamics of atomic selforganization in an optical cavity
Stefan Schütz; Simon B. Jäger; Giovanna Morigi
2015-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
Pattern formation of atoms in high-finesse optical resonators results from the mechanical forces of light associated with superradiant scattering into the cavity mode. It occurs when the laser intensity exceeds a threshold value, such that the pumping processes counteract the losses. We consider atoms driven by a laser and coupling with a mode of a standing-wave cavity and describe their dynamics with a Fokker-Planck equation, in which the atomic motion is semiclassical but the cavity field is a full quantum variable. The asymptotic state of the atoms is a thermal state, whose temperature is solely controlled by the detuning between the laser and the cavity frequency and by the cavity loss rate. From this result we derive the free energy and show that in the thermodynamic limit selforganization is a second-order phase transition. The order parameter is the field inside the resonator, to which one can associate a magnetization in analogy to ferromagnetism, the control field is the laser intensity, however the steady state is intrinsically out-of-equilibrium. In the symmetry-broken phase quantum noise induces jumps of the spatial density between two ordered patterns: We characterize the statistical properties of this temporal behaviour at steady state and show that the thermodynamic properties of the system can be extracted by detecting the light at the cavity output. The results of our analysis are in full agreement with previous studies, extend them by deriving a self-consistent theory which is valid also when the cavity field is in the shot-noise limit, and elucidate the nature of the selforganization transition.
Thermodynamics of quantum systems under dynamical control
D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Gershon Kurizki
2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
In this review the debated rapport between thermodynamics and quantum mechanics is addressed in the framework of the theory of periodically-driven/controlled quantum-thermodynamic machines. The basic model studied here is that of a two-level system (TLS), whose energy is periodically modulated while the system is coupled to thermal baths. When the modulation interval is short compared to the bath memory time, the system-bath correlations are affected, thereby causing cooling or heating of the TLS, depending on the interval. In steady state, a periodically-modulated TLS coupled to two distinct baths constitutes the simplest quantum heat machine (QHM) that may operate as either an engine or a refrigerator, depending on the modulation rate. We find their efficiency and power-output bounds and the conditions for attaining these bounds. An extension of this model to multilevel systems shows that the QHM power output can be boosted by the multilevel degeneracy. These results are used to scrutinize basic thermodynamic principles: (i) Externally-driven/modulated QHMs may attain the Carnot efficiency bound, but when the driving is done by a quantum device ("piston"), the efficiency strongly depends on its initial quantum state. Such dependence has been unknown thus far. (ii) The refrigeration rate effected by QHMs does not vanish as the temperature approaches absolute zero for certain quantized baths, e.g., magnons, thous challenging Nernst's unattainability principle. (iii) System-bath correlations allow more work extraction under periodic control than that expected from the Szilard-Landauer principle, provided the period is in the non-Markovian domain. Thus, dynamically-controlled QHMs may benefit from hitherto unexploited thermodynamic resources.
The second laws of quantum thermodynamics
Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Micha? Horodecki; Nelly Huei Ying Ng; Jonathan Oppenheim; Stephanie Wehner
2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
The second law of thermodynamics tells us which state transformations are so statistically unlikely that they are effectively forbidden. Its original formulation, due to Clausius, states that "Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time". The second law applies to systems composed of many particles interacting; however, we are seeing that one can make sense of thermodynamics in the regime where we only have a small number of particles interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are cyclic or very close to cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a very di?erent form than it does at the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on what state transformations are possible, but an entire family of constraints. In particular, we find a family of free energies which generalise the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. We further find that there are three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are not only relevant for small systems, but also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions, which only satisfy the ordinary second law on average. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics take on a simple form with the first law defining the class of thermal operations, the zeroeth law emerging as a unique condition ensuring the theory is nontrivial, and the remaining laws being a monotonicity property of our generalised free energies.
Laws of thermodynamics and game theory
Lev Sakhnovich
2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
Using a game theory approach and a new extremal problem, Gibbs formula is proved in a most simple and general way for the classical mechanics case. A corresponding conjecture on the asymptotics of the classical entropy is formulated. For the ordinary quantum mechanics case, the third law of thermodynamics is derived. Some results on the number of ground states and residual entropy are obtained rigorously.
Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics
A. S. Bakai
2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.
ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY
Korinko, P.
2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.
Focus Research Areas 1. Fundamental Accelerator Physics: Theory
Kemner, Ken
Focus Research Areas 1. Fundamental Accelerator Physics: Theory Importance Accelerator physics aspects. Pursuit of fundamental accelerator physics in this sense has contributed significantly to the advance of the accelerator physics knowledgebase during the last several decades, clarifying
Thermodynamic Branch in the Chemical System Response to External Impact
B. Zilbergleyt
2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
The paper gives an account of a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic branch as a path of the chemical system deviation from its isolated thermodynamic equilibrium under an external impact. For a combination of direct and reverse reactions in the same chemical system, full thermodynamic branch is presented by an S-shaped curve, whose ends asymptotically achieve appropriate initial states, which, in turn, are logistic ends of the opposite reactions. The slope tangents of the steepest parts of the curves, the areas of the maximum rate of the shift growth vs. the external thermodynamic force, occurred to be directly proportional to the force and, simultaneously, linearly proportional to the thermodynamic equivalent of chemical reaction, which is the ratio between the amount in moles of any reaction participant, transformed in an isolated system, along the reaction way from its initial state to thermodynamic equilibrium, to its stoichiometric coefficient. The found linearity is valid for arbitrary combination of the stoichiometric coefficients in a reaction of compound synthesis from chemical elements like aA+bB=AaBb, and confirms the exclusive role of the thermodynamic equivalent of transformation as the chemical system characteristic of robustness and irreversibility. Results of this work allow for quantitative evaluation of the chemical system shift from thermodynamic equilibrium along thermodynamic branch and its rate vs. the shifting force. Such an investigation became possible due to the development of discrete thermodynamics of chemical equilibria.
Numerical prediction of the thermodynamic properties of ternary Al-Ni-Hf alloys
Romanowska, Jolanta; Kotowski, S?awomir; Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana [Rzeszów University of Technology (Poland)
2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamic properties of ternary Al-Hf-Ni system, such as {sup ex}G, ?{sub Al}, ?{sub Ni} and ?{sub Zr} at 1373K were predicted on the basis of thermodynamic properties of binary systems included in the investigated ternary system. The idea of predicting {sup ex}G values was regarded as the calculation of excess Gibbs energy values inside a certain area (a Gibbs triangle) unless all boundary conditions, that is values of {sup ex}G on all legs of the triangle are known. {sup ex}G and L{sub ijk} ternary interaction parameters in the Muggianu extension of the Redlich-Kister formalism are calculated numerically using Wolfram Mathematica 9 software.
Torsion-balance probes of fundamental physics
E. G. Adelberger
2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
This white paper is submitted as part of Snowmass2013 (subgroup CF2). The extraordinary sensitivity of torsion-balances can be used to search for the ultra-feeble forces suggested by attempts to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions. The motivation, the results and their implications as well as the future prospects of this work are summarized. The experiments include tests of the universality of free fall (weak equivalence principle), probes of the short-distance behavior of gravity (inverse-square law tests for extra dimensions and exchange forces from new meV scale bosons), and Planck-scale tests of Lorentz invariance (preferred-frame effects, non-commutative geometries).
GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Lesson 10: Terrain Analyses
Butler, Christopher J.
GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Lesson 10: Terrain Analyses What You'll Learn: Basic if needed. You should read chapter 11 in the GIS Fundamentals textbook before starting. Data are located processing, using the ArcGIS Hydrology tools. 1 #12;GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Project1
Da Huang; Yue-Liang Wu
2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z
By applying the closed-time-path Green function formalism to the chiral dynamical model based on an effective Lagrangian of chiral quarks with the nonlinear-realized meson fields as bosonized auxiliary fields, we then arrive at a chiral thermodynamic model for the meson fields with finite temperature. Particular attention is paid to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and restoration from the dynamically generated effective composite Higgs potential of meson fields at finite temperature. It is shown that the minimal condition of the effective composite Higgs potential of meson fields leads to the thermodynamic gap equation at finite temperature, which enables us to investigate the critical behavior of the effective chiral thermodynamical model and to explore the QCD phase transition. After fixing the free parameters in the effective chiral Lagrangian at low energies with zero temperature, we determine the critical temperature of the chiral symmetry restoration and present a consistent prediction for the thermodynamical behavior of several physically interesting quantities, which include the vacuum expectation value $v_o(T)$, quark condensate $(T)$, pion decay constant $f_\\pi(T)$ and pion meson mass $m_{\\pi}(T)$. In particular, it is also shown that the thermodynamic scaling behavior of these quantities becomes the same near the critical point of phase transition.
Generalized second law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Abdolmaleki, A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Modified gravity and generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics are interesting topics in the modern cosmology. In this regard, we investigate the GSL of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity or f(G)-gravity. We consider a spatially FRW universe filled with the matter and radiation enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. For two viable f(G) models, we first numerically solve the set of differential equations governing the dynamics of f(G)-gravity. Then, we obtain the evolutions of the Hubble parameter, the Gauss-Bonnet curvature invariant term, the density and equation of state parameters as well as the deceleration parameter. In addition, we check the energy conditions for both models and finally examine the validity of the GSL. For the selected f(G) models, we conclude that both models have a stable de Sitter attractor. The equation of state parameters behave quite similar to those of the LCDM model in the radiation/matter dominat...
Thermodynamic Branch in the Chemical System Response to External Impact
Zilbergleyt, B
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The paper gives an account of a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic branch as a path of the chemical system deviation from its isolated thermodynamic equilibrium under an external impact. For a combination of direct and reverse reactions in the same chemical system, full thermodynamic branch is presented by an S-shaped curve, whose ends asymptotically achieve appropriate initial states, which, in turn, are logistic ends of the opposite reactions. The slope tangents of the steepest parts of the curves, the areas of the maximum rate of the shift growth vs. the external thermodynamic force, occurred to be directly proportional to the force and, simultaneously, linearly proportional to the thermodynamic equivalent of chemical reaction, which is the ratio between the amount in moles of any reaction participant, transformed in an isolated system, along the reaction way from its initial state to thermodynamic equilibrium, to its stoichiometric coefficient. The found linearity is valid for arbitrary combinati...
Thermodynamical description of the interacting new agegraphic dark energy
A. Sheykhi; M. R. Setare
2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the thermodynamical interpretation of the interaction between new agegraphic dark energy and dark matter in a non-flat universe. When new agegraphic dark energy and dark matter evolve separately, each of them remains in thermodynamic equilibrium. As soon as an interaction between them is taken into account, their thermodynamical interpretation changes by a stable thermal fluctuation. We obtain a relation between the interaction term of the dark components and this thermal fluctuation.
Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole
Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park
2007-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.
Continuum Thermodynamics of the SU(N) Gauge Theory
Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta
2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamics of the deconfined phase of the SU(N) gauge theory is studied. Careful study is made of the approach to the continuum limit. The latent heat of the deconfinement transition is studied, for the theories with 3, 4 and 6 colors. Continuum estimates of various thermodynamic quantities are studied, and the approach to conformality investigated. The bulk thermodynamic quantities at different N are compared, to investigate the validity of 't Hooft scaling at these values of N.
Subenoy Chakraborty; Subhajit Saha
2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
The paper deals with the mechanism of particle creation in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. The second order non-equilibrium thermodynamical prescription of Israel and Stewart has been presented with particle creation rate, treated as the dissipative effect. In the background of a flat FRW model, we assume the non-equilibrium thermodynamical process to be isentropic so that the entropy per particle does not change and consequently the dissipative pressure can be expressed linearly in terms of the particle creation rate. Here the dissipative pressure behaves as a dynamical variable having a non-linear inhomogeneous evolution equation and the entropy flow vector satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Further, using the Friedmann equations and by proper choice of the particle creation rate as a function of the Hubble parameter, it is possible to show (separately) a transition from the inflationary phase to the radiation era and also from matter dominated era to late time acceleration. Also, in analogy to analytic continuation, it is possible to show a continuous cosmic evolution from inflation to late time acceleration by adjusting the parameters. It is found that in the de Sitter phase, the comoving entropy increases exponentially with time, keeping entropy per particle unchanged. Subsequently, the above cosmological scenarios has been described from field theoretic point of view by introducing a scalar field having self interacting potential. Finally, we make an attempt to show the cosmological phenomenon of particle creation as Hawking radiation, particularly during the inflationary era.
BE.011J Statistical Thermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems, Spring 2004
Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly
This course provides an introduction to the physical chemistry of biological systems. Topics include: connection of macroscopic thermodynamic properties to microscopic molecular properties using statistical mechanics, ...
Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
More Documents & Publications Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Are There Practical Approaches for...
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including...
Thermodynamics of Friedmann Equation and Masslike Function in General Braneworld
Tao Zhu; Ji-Rong Ren; Shu-Fan Mo
2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
Using the generalized procedure proposed by \\emph{Wu et al}\\cite{wu} recently, we construct the first law of thermodynamics on apparent horizon in a general braneworld model with curvature correction terms on the brane and in the bulk, respectively. The explicit entropy formulary of apparent horizon in the general braneworld is worked out. We also discuss the masslike function which associated with a new type first law of thermodynamics of the general braneworld in detail. We analyze the difference between the conventional thermodynamics and the new type thermodynamics on apparent horizon. At last, the discussions about the physical meanings of the masslike function have also been given.
Entropy bounds in terms of the w parameter
Abreu, Gabriel; Visser, Matt
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a pair of recent articles [PRL 105 (2010) 041302 - arXiv:1005.1132; JHEP 1103 (2011) 056 - arXiv:1012.2867] two of the current authors have developed an entropy bound for equilibrium uncollapsed matter using only classical general relativity, basic thermodynamics, and the Unruh effect. An odd feature of that bound, S parameter to be <= 1. When equality holds, the entropy bound saturates at the value expected based on black hole thermodynamics. We also add some clarifying comments regarding the (net) positivity of the chemical potential. Overall, we find that even in the absence of any black hole region, we can nevertheless get arbitrarily close to the Bekenstein entropy.
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 19. The First Law of Thermodynamics
Yoo, S. J. Ben
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 19. The First Law of Thermodynamics #12;Liu UCD Phy9B 07 2 19-1. Thermodynamic Systems Thermodynamic system: A system that can interact (and exchange energy) with its surroundings Thermodynamic process: A process in which there are changes in the state of a thermodynamic system
Thermodynamics of metallic systems | The Ames Laboratory
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of WntSupportB 18B()The FiveRevisedThe visionThermodynamics of metallic
Thermodynamics of weakly measured quantum systems
Jose Joaquin Alonso; Eric Lutz; Alessandro Romito
2015-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superpositions of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
On QCD Thermodynamics with Improved Actions
Karsch, Frithjof
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss recent advances in the calculation of thermodynamic observables using improved actions. In particular, we discuss the calculation of the equation of state of the SU(3) gauge theory, the critical temperature in units of the string tension, the surface tension and the latent heat at the deconfinement transition. We also present first results from a calculation of the equation of state for four-flavour QCD using an O(a^2) improved staggered fermion action and discuss possible further improvements of the staggered fermion action.
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics
Habershon, Scott [Centre for Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Manolopoulos, David E. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)
2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Recent Progress in Lattice QCD Thermodynamics
Carleton DeTar
2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
This review gives a critical assessment of the current state of lattice simulations of QCD thermodynamics and what it teaches us about hot hadronic matter. It outlines briefly lattice methods for studying QCD at nonzero temperature and zero baryon number density with particular emphasis on assessing and reducing cutoff effects. It discusses a variety of difficulties with methods for determining the transition temperature. It uses results reported recently in the literature and at this conference for illustration, especially those from a major study carried out by the HotQCD collaboration.
Quark mass thresholds in QCD thermodynamics
M. Laine; Y. Schroder
2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss radiative corrections to how quark mass thresholds are crossed, as a function of the temperature, in basic thermodynamic observables such as the pressure, the energy and entropy densities, and the heat capacity of high temperature QCD. The indication from leading order that the charm quark plays a visible role at surprisingly low temperatures, is confirmed. We also sketch a way to obtain phenomenological estimates relevant for generic expansion rate computations at temperatures between the QCD and electroweak scales, pointing out where improvements over the current knowledge are particularly welcome.
Thermodynamics of Few-Particle Systems
Vasily E. Tarasov
2007-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the wide class of few-particle systems that have some analog of the thermodynamic laws. These systems are characterized by the distributions that are determined by the Hamiltonian and satisfy the Liouville equation. Few-particle systems of this class are described by a non-holonomic constraint: the power of non-potential forces is directly proportional to the velocity of the elementary phase volume change. The coefficient of this proportionality is determined by the Hamiltonian. In the general case, the examples of the few-particle systems of this class are the constant temperature systems, canonical-dissipative systems, and Fermi-Bose classical systems.
Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics
R. Y. Chiao
2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.
Low-temperature thermodynamics with quantum coherence
Varun Narasimhachar; Gilad Gour
2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
We find a new characterization of low-temperature processes, which we call "cooling processes", incorporating quantum coherence in the model of thermodynamics for the first time. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the feasibility of state transitions under cooling processes. We also rigorously confirm the intuitive robustness of coherence against low-temperature thermal noise. Additionally, we develop the low-temperature "Gibbs-preserving" model, and by comparing our results on the two models, we argue that the latter is a poor approximation to physical processes.
Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) by oxalate in aqueous solution at 10-70oC
Di Bernardo, Plinio
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
O. Tochiyama in Chemical Thermodynamics of Compounds andUpdate on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium,Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) with
Which Fundamental Constants for CMB and BAO?
Rich, James
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Cosmic Microwave Background using the three-scale framework of Hu et al. to derive the dependence of the CMB temperature anisotropy spectrum on the fundamental constants. We show that, as expected, the observed spectrum depends only on \\emph{dimensionless} combinations of the constants, and we emphasize the points that make this generally true for cosmological observations. Our analysis suggests that the CMB spectrum shape is mostly determined by $\\alpha^2m_e/m_p$ and the proton-CDM-particle mass ratio, $m_p/\\mchi$, with a sub-dominant dependence on $(G\\mchi m_e/\\hbar c)\\alpha^\\beta$ with $\\beta\\sim -7$. The distance to the last-scattering surface depends on $Gm_p\\mchi/\\hbar c$, so published CMB observational limits on time variations of the constants, besides making assumptions about the form of the dark-energy, implicitly assume the time-independence of this quantity. On the other hand, low-redshift $H_0$, BAO and large-scale structure data can be combined with the \\emph{shape} of the CMB spect...
Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards
Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)
1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters
Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus
2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.
Thermodynamics and Mass Transport in Multicomponent,
Manga, Michael
2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0084-6597/09/0530-0449$20.00 Key Words geothermal systems such as geysering in modern geothermal systems on Earth, paleofluid systems on Mars, and cryogenic ice-gas systems #12;INTRODUCTION: PLANETARY CONTEXT A fundamental observation on terrestrial H2O geothermal systems
A thermodynamic model of methyldiethanolamine-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}S-water
Posey, M.L.; Rochelle, G.T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) is one of the favored alkanolamines in acid gas treating. It is receiving increased use due to its lower heat of reaction and lower corrosivity compared to the other amines. The electrolyte-nonrandom two-liquid model has been used to represent the thermodynamic behavior of the system: methyldiethanolamine-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}S-water. The Data Regression System (DRS) of Aspen Plus was used to regress parameters of the model to experimental data. pH and conductivity data were utilized to supplement vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data and improve confidence in model predictions at low acid gas loadings. Predictions for the mixed acid gas systems can be accurately made from the single acid gas parameter sets without the need to regress additional parameters. VLE data were fit well and the calculated heat absorption matches calorimetric data.
Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas
JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar
2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.
Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems, and molecular machines
Udo Seifert
2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics like work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power, can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones like molecular motors, and heat engines like thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.
Conservation-dissipation formalism of irreversible thermodynamics
Yi Zhu; Liu Hong; Zaibao Yang; Wen-An Yong
2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a conservation-dissipation formalism (CDF) for coarse-grained descriptions of irreversible processes. This formalism is based on a stability criterion for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion ensures that non-equilibrium states tend to equilibrium in long time. As a systematic methodology, CDF provides a feasible procedure in choosing non-equilibrium state variables and determining their evolution equations. The equations derived in CDF have a unified elegant form. They are globally hyperbolic, allow a convenient definition of weak solutions, and are amenable to existing numerics. More importantly, CDF is a genuinely nonlinear formalism and works for systems far away from equilibrium. With this formalism, we formulate novel thermodynamics theories for heat conduction in rigid bodies and non-isothermal compressible Maxwell fluid flows as two typical examples. In these examples, the non-equilibrium variables are exactly the conjugate variables of the heat fluxes or stress tensors. The new theory generalizes Cattaneo's law or Maxwell's law in a regularized and nonlinear fashion.
Identifying Functional Thermodynamics in Autonomous Maxwellian Ratchets
A. B. Boyd; D. Mandal; J. P. Crutchfield
2015-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a family of Maxwellian Demons for which correlations among information bearing degrees of freedom can be calculated exactly and in compact analytical form. This allows one to precisely determine Demon functional thermodynamic operating regimes, when previous methods either misclassify or simply fail due to approximations they invoke. This reveals that these Demons are more functional than previous candidates. They too behave either as engines, lifting a mass against gravity by extracting energy from a single heat reservoir, or as Landauer erasers, consuming external work to remove information from a sequence of binary symbols by decreasing their individual uncertainty. Going beyond these, our Demon exhibits a new functionality that erases bits not by simply decreasing individual-symbol uncertainty, but by increasing inter-bit correlations (that is, by adding temporal order) while increasing single-symbol uncertainty. In all cases, but especially in the new erasure regime, exactly accounting for informational correlations leads to tight bounds on Demon performance, expressed as a refined Second Law of Thermodynamics that relies on the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dynamical processes and not on changes purely in system configurational entropy, as previously employed. We rigorously derive the new Second Law under minimal assumptions and so it applies quite broadly---for Demons with and without memory and input sequences that are correlated or not. We note that general Maxwellian Demons readily violate previously proposed, alternative such "laws", while ours still holds.
Molecular thermodynamics of polymer melts at interfaces
Theodorou, D.N.
1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A lattice model is developed for the prediction of structure and thermodynamic properties at free polymer melt surfaces and polymer melt/solid interfaces. Density variations in the interfacial region are taken into account by introducing voids in the lattice, in the spirit of the equation of state theory of Sanchez and Lacombe. Intramolecular energy (chain stiffness) effects are explicitly incorporated. The model is derived through a rigorous statistical mechanical and thermodynamic analysis, which is based on the concept of availability. Two cases are considered: ''full equilibrium,'' whereby the interfacial polymer is taken as free to exchange heat, work and mass with a bulk polymer phase at given temperature and pressure; and ''restricted equilibrium,'' whereby a thin polymer film is allowed to equilibrate locally in response to ambient temperature and pressure, but in which chains do not necessarily have the same chemical potential as in the unconstrained bulk. Techniques are developed for calculating surface tension, adhesion tension, density profiles, chain shape, bond orientation, as well as the distribution of segments of various orders in the interfacial region. 28 refs., 6 figs.
Vajda, Sandor
EK424 THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS (Spring 2015) Thermodynamics is the study in order to take place? We will study the thermodynamics of two types of processes: mechanical, or the chemical conversion of glucose into useful work), and a good understanding of thermodynamics is essential
Thermodynamics of Rotating Black Branes in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld Gravity
M. H. Dehghani; S. H. Hendi
2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
Considering both the Gauss-Bonnet and the Born-Infeld terms, which are on similar footing with regard to string corrections on the gravity side and electrodynamic side, we present a new class of rotating solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with $k$ rotation parameters in the presence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field. These solutions, which are asymptotically anti-de Sitter in the presence of cosmological constant, may be interpreted as black brane solutions with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or naked singularity provided the metric parameters are chosen suitably. We calculate the finite action and conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the Gauss-Bonnet parameter. We also compute the temperature, the angular velocities, the electric charge and the electric potential. Then, we calculate the entropy of the black brane through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation and show that it obeys the area law of entropy. We obtain a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy, the angular momenta and the charge, and show that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we perform a stability analysis in both the canonical and grand-canonical ensemble and show that the presence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field has no effect on the stability of the black branes, and they are stable in the whole phase space.
Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas
JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar
2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.
Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas
JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar
2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.
Thermodynamics of Apparent Horizon and Friedmann Equations in Big Bounce Universe
Molin Liu; Yuling Yang; Jianbo Lv; Lixin Xu
2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the thermodynamics of apparent horizon and Friedmann equations are studied in a big bounce universe typified by a non-singular big bounce, as opposed to a singular big bang. This cosmological model can describe radiation dominated early universe and matter dominated late universe in FRW model. Our calculational results show that Einstein gravitational field equations could be derived by the first law of thermodynamics and the fluid's continuity equation. The connections between thermodynamics and gravity are observed in big bounce universe. In the late stages of cold and hot universes, the apparent horizons are convergent and the time when apparent horizons begin to bounce essentially in agreement with that of universe's scalar factor. In the early stage of both cold and hot universes, we find there is only one geometry containing a 4D de Sitter universe with general state parameter. Furthermore, we also find the form of apparent horizon in early universe is strongly dependent on the extra dimension which suggests that the effect of extra dimension could be found in early universe.
Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system
Graves, Rhett David
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents a thermodynamic model for a screw chiller and cooling tower system for the purpose of developing an optimized control algorithm for the chiller plant. The thermodynamic chiller model is drawn from the thermodynamic models...
Thermodynamics of finite magnetic two-isomer systems Peter Borrmann, Heinrich Stamerjohanns,a)
Tománek, David
Thermodynamics of finite magnetic two-isomer systems Peter Borrmann, Heinrich Stamerjohanns Carlo simulations to investigate the thermodynamical behavior of aggregates consisting of few thermodynamically the nature of the transition between the ring and the chain ``phase.'' © 1999 American Institute
A thermodynamically consistent Ginzburg-Landau model for superfluid transition in liquid helium
Alessia Berti; Valeria Berti
2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we propose a thermodynamically consistent model for superfluid-normal phase transition in liquid helium, accounting for variations of temperature and density. The phase transition is described by means of an order parameter, according to the Ginzburg-Landau theory, emphasizing the analogies between superfluidity and superconductivity. The normal component of the velocity is assumed to be compressible and the usual phase diagram of liquid helium is recovered. Moreover, the continuity equation leads to a dependence between density and temperature in agreement with the experimental data.
VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA
Rudnyi, Evgenii B.
1 VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA Rudnyi E of thermodynamic properties of the vapor and the vaporization process, coupling pressure measurements. INTRODUCTION The vapor pressure of a substance is an important system property in many applications. Its value
23.10.2012 1 Level 2 thermodynamics
Zevenhoven, Ron
23.10.2012 1 Toolbox Level 2 thermodynamics Maria Zevenhoven #12;23.10.2012 2/37 First Grade: Thermodynamics Simple phase diagrams #12;23.10.2012 4/37 Calculating the melting behaviour of KCl-K2CO3 mixtures
EXTENDING THE PREDICTION OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF CLAY
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
EXTENDING THE PREDICTION OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF CLAY MINERALS TO THE TRAPPING OF TRACE The thermodynamic properties of clay minerals, which control the stability of these minerals in solution, are still are parameterised using a given set of minerals. For clay minerals, the latter are mainly composed by Si, Al, Fe
Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter at finite temperature
V. Soma; P. Bozek
2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
A self-consistent approach based on finite temperature Green's functions is used to investigate thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. The internal energy is derived from the diagrams associated to the interaction energy. Pressure and entropy up to T=20 MeV are obtained from the generating functional form of the thermodynamic potential.
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering 230 Thermodynamics Course Syllabus
Rothstein, Jonathan
cycles Refrigeration and heat pump systems Final Exam (Date and time TBA) Suggested Reading Chapter 1Mechanical and Industrial Engineering 230 Fall 2009 Thermodynamics Course Syllabus Date Week 1 (9 Introductory material Concepts of energy, work and heat transfer First Law of Thermodynamics Evaluating
On thermodynamically consistent schemes for phase field equations
Fife, Paul
and at the phase change front. A somewhat different approach of Charach and Zemel [2] combines bal- ance equationsOn thermodynamically consistent schemes for phase field equations C. Charach and P. C. Fife thermodynamics. The principal applications are to the solidification of a pure material and of a binary alloy
Notes on the Generalised Second Law of Thermodynamics
S. -T. Sung
1997-03-22T23:59:59.000Z
Several comments are given to previous proofs of the generalised second law of thermodynamics: black hole entropy plus ordinary matter entropy never decreases for a thermally closed system. Arguments in favour of its truism are given in the spirit of conventional thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics and the naked singularity in the Gamma-metric
K. Lochan; D. Malafarina; T. P. Singh
2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate a possible way of establishing a parallel between the third law of black hole mechanics, and the strong version of the third law of thermodynamics. We calculate the surface gravity and area for a naked singular null surface in the Gamma-metric and explain in what sense this behaviour violates thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory
Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta
2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.
The Frenkel Line: a direct experimental evidence for the new thermodynamic boundary
Bolmatov, Dima; Zav'yalov, D; Tkachev, S N; Cunsolo, A; Cai, Y Q
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Supercritical fluids play a significant role in elucidating fundamental aspects of liquid matter under extreme conditions. They have been extensively studied at pressures and temperatures relevant to various industrial applications. However, much less is known about the structural behaviour of supercritical fluids and no structural crossovers have been observed in static compression experiments in any temperature and pressure ranges beyond the critical point. The structure of supercritical state is currently perceived to be uniform everywhere on the phase diagram, and to change only in a monotonic way while moving along any pressure and temperature path beyond the critical point and its neighborhood. Conversely, we observe structural crossovers in a deeply supercritical sample through diffraction measurements in a diamond anvil cell and discover a new thermodynamic boundary on the pressure-temperature diagram. We explain the existence of these crossovers in the framework of the phonon theory of liquids using ...
Water under the Cover: Structures and Thermodynamics of Water Encapsulated by Graphene
Shuping Jiao; Zhiping Xu
2015-09-24T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding the phase behaviors of nanoconfined water has driven notable research interests recently. In this work, we examine the structures and thermodynamics of water encapsulated under a graphene cover. We find layered water structures up to ~1000 molecules, which is stabilized by the spatial confinement and pressure induced by the adhesion between graphene cover and substrate. For monolayer encapsulations, we identify both crystalline lattices and defects. Free energy analysis shows that these low- entropy orders are compensated by high formation energies. There exists an order- disorder transition for this condensed phase at ~480-490 K, with a sharp reduction in the number of hydrogen bonds and increase in the entropy. These findings offer fundamental understandings of the encapsulated water, and provide guidance for practical applications with its presence, for example, in the design of nanoelectronic devices.
COLLOQUIUM: Type II Solar Radio Bursts: From Fundamental Plasma...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
COLLOQUIUM: Type II Solar Radio Bursts: From Fundamental Plasma Physics to Space Weather Research Professor Iver Cairns University of Sydney - School of Physics Presentation:...
Angelica Garcia Gutierrez, Peter Baumann Modeling Fundamental Geo-Raster
Baumann, Peter
Angelica Garcia Gutierrez, Peter Baumann Modeling Fundamental Geo-Raster Operations with Array Angelica Garcia Gutierrez Peter Baumann School of Engineering and Science Jacobs University Bremen g
Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE...
Thermodynamic geometry of charged rotating BTZ black holes
Akbar, M. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Quevedo, H. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70543, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Saifullah, K. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Posgrado, CIIDET, AP 752, Queretaro, QRO 76000 (Mexico); Taj, S. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study the thermodynamics and the thermodynamic geometries of charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes in (2+1)-gravity. We investigate the thermodynamics of these systems within the context of the Weinhold and Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometries and the recently developed formalism of geometrothermodynamics. Considering the behavior of the heat capacity and the Hawking temperature, we show that Weinhold and Ruppeiner geometries cannot describe completely the thermodynamics of these black holes and of their limiting case of vanishing electric charge. In contrast, the Legendre invariance imposed on the metric in geometrothermodynamics allows one to describe the charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and their limiting cases in a consistent and invariant manner.
Thermodynamics in f(R,T) Theory of Gravity
M. Sharif; M. Zubair
2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
A non-equilibrium picture of thermodynamics is discussed at the apparent horizon of FRW universe in $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We take two forms of the energy-momentum tensor of dark components and demonstrate that equilibrium description of thermodynamics is not achievable in both cases. We check the validity of the first and second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. It is shown that the Friedmann equations can be expressed in the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_hdS'_h+T_hd_{\\jmath}S'=-dE'+W'dV$, where $d_{\\jmath}S'$ is the entropy production term. Finally, we conclude that the second law of thermodynamics holds both in phantom and non-phantom phases.
A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems
Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.
The thermodynamics for a hadronic gas of fireballs with internal color structures and chiral fields
Ismail Zakout; Carsten Greiner
2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamical partition function for a gas of color-singlet bags consisting of fundamental and adjoint particles in both $U(N_c)$ and $SU(N_c)$ group representations is reviewed in detail. The constituent particle species are assumed to satisfy various thermodynamical statistics. The gas of bags is probed to study the phase transition for a nuclear matter in the extreme conditions. These bags are interpreted as the Hagedorn states and they are the highly excited hadronic states which are produced below the phase transition point to the quark-gluon plasma. The hadronic density of states has the Gross-Witten critical point and exhibits a third order phase transition from a hadronic phase dominated by the discrete low-lying hadronic mass spectrum particles to another hadronic phase dominated by the continuous Hagedorn states. The Hagedorn threshold production is found just above the highest known experimental discrete low-lying hadronic mass spectrum. The subsequent Hagedorn phase undergoes a first order deconfinement phase transition to an explosive quark-gluon plasma. The role of the chiral phase transition in the phases of the discrete low-lying mass spectrum and the continuous Hagedorn mass spectrum is also considered. It is found crucial in the phase transition diagram. Alternate scenarios are briefly discussed for the Hagedorn gas undergoes a higher order phase transition through multi-processes of internal color-flavor structure modification.
Rui Wang; Zhen-Gang Wang
2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
Using the language of the Flory chi parameter, we develop a theory that unifies the treatment of the single-chain structure and the solution thermodynamics of polymers in poor solvents. The structure of a globule and its melting thermodynamics is examined using the self-consistent filed theory. Our results show that the chain conformation involves three states prior to the globule-to-coil transition: the fully-collapsed globule, the swollen globule and the molten globule, which are distinguished by the core density and the interfacial thickness. By examining the chain-length dependence of the melting of the swollen globule, we find universal scaling behavior in the chain properties near the Theta point. The information of density profile and free energy of the globule is used in the dilute solution thermodynamics to study the phase equilibrium of polymer solution. Our results show different scaling behavior of the solubility of polymers in the dilute solution compared to the F-H theory, both in the chi dependence and the chain-length dependence. From the perspectives of single chain structure and solution thermodynamics, our results verifies the consistency of the Theta point defined by different criteria in the limit of infinite chain length: the disappearance of the second viral coefficient, the abrupt change in chain size and the critical point in the phase diagram of the polymer solution. Our results show the value of chi at the Theta point is 0.5 (for the case of equal monomer and solvent volume), which coincides with the value predicted from the F-H theory.
Some Thermodynamic Properties of Colloidal Dispersions
de Thier, Pierre
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, some results are derived to describe the out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics of colloidal suspensions. These results are obtained assuming that the properties of the colloids essentially come from their surfaces which are unusually high in comparison to their volume. The dispersion, in the form of a variable, is introduced in such a way as to embody the various changes which could affect those systems. Explicit relations are deduced for the free enthalpy of dispersion which describe two separated phenomena: the peptization/coalescence and the suspension of a colloidal phase. An alternative to the Gibbs' adsorption equation allows to explain how a surface relaxes thanks to adsorptions. Finally, a link between conformational entropy changes and surface entropy production is discussed with the idea to be applied to the well known protein folding problem.
Stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction networks
Tim Schmiedl; Udo Seifert
2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z
For chemical reaction networks described by a master equation, we define energy and entropy on a stochastic trajectory and develop a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamic description along a single stochastic trajectory of reaction events. A first-law like energy balance relates internal energy, applied (chemical) work and dissipated heat for every single reaction. Entropy production along a single trajectory involves a sum over changes in the entropy of the network itself and the entropy of the medium. The latter is given by the exchanged heat identified through the first law. Total entropy production is constrained by an integral fluctuation theorem for networks arbitrarily driven by time-dependent rates and a detailed fluctuation theorem for networks in the steady state. Further exact relations like a generalized Jarzynski relation and a generalized Clausius inequality are discussed. We illustrate these results for a three-species cyclic reaction network which exhibits nonequilibrium steady states as well as transitions between different steady states.
Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories
Racker, Juan [CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Avenida Bustillo 9500 (8400), San Carlos De Bariloche (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Sisterna, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Vucetich, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)
2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light (c), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of c is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.
Thermodynamics and Luminosities of Rainbow Black Holes
Mu, Benrong; Yang, Haitang
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As a result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is \\textquotedblleft Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the \\textquotedblleft Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation" which is $E^{2}=m^{2}+p^{2}\\left[ 1-\\eta\\left( E/m_{p}\\right) ^{n}\\right] $ with $n>0$, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of $\\eta$ and $n$ in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with $\\etacompute lum...
Entanglement Production in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
V. Vedral
2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
We define and analyse the concept of entanglement production during the evolution of a general quantum mechanical dissipative system. While it is important to minimise entropy production in order to achieve thermodynamical efficiency, maximising the rate of change of entanglement is important in quantum information processing. Quantitative relations are obtained between entropy and entanglement productions, under specific assumptions detailed in the text. We apply these to the processes of dephasing and decay of correlations between two initially entangled qubits. Both the Master equation treatment as well as the higher Hilbert space analysis are presented. Our formalism is very general and contains as special cases many reported individual instance of entanglement dynamics, such as, for example, the recently discovered notion of the sudden death of entanglement.
Thermodynamics of pairing transition in hot nuclei
Lang Liu; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Peng-Wei Zhao
2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
The pairing correlations in hot nuclei $^{162}$Dy are investigated in terms of the thermodynamical properties by covariant density functional theory. The heat capacities $C_V$ are evaluated in the canonical ensemble theory and the paring correlations are treated by a shell-model-like approach, in which the particle number is conserved exactly. A S-shaped heat capacity curve, which agrees qualitatively with the experimental data, has been obtained and analyzed in details. It is found that the one-pair-broken states play crucial roles in the appearance of the S shape of the heat capacity curve. Moreover, due to the effect of the particle-number conservation, the pairing gap varies smoothly with the temperature, which indicates a gradual transition from the superfluid to the normal state.
Halogenation of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids. Thermodynamics Perspective
Chaban, Vitaly V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Imidazolium cations are promising for anion exchange membranes, and electrochemical applications and gas capture. They can be chemically modified in many ways including halogenation. Halogenation possibilities of the imidazole ring constitute a particular interest. This work investigates fluorination and chlorination reactions of all symmetrically non-equivalent sites of the imidazolium cation. Halogenation of all carbon atoms is thermodynamically permitted. Out of these, the most favorable site is the first methylene group of the alkyl chain. In turn, the least favorable site is carbon of the imidazole ring. Temperature dependence of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy at 1 bar is discussed. The reported results provide an important guidance in functionalization of ionic liquids in search of task-specific compounds.
Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories
Juan Racker; Pablo Sisterna; Hector Vucetich
2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light ($c$), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of $c$ is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.
Zevenhoven, Ron
/32 Irreversible thermodynamics, a.k.a. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (an introduction) Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi
Pavement Thickness Design Parameter
Pavement Thickness Design Parameter Impacts 2012 Municipal Streets Seminar November 14, 2012 Paul D. Wiegand, P.E. #12;Pavement Thickness Design · How do cities decide how thick to build their pavements;Pavement Thickness Design · Correct answer A data-based analysis! · Doesn't have to be difficult and time
Ris-R-1342(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural
Risø-R-1342(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades a Preproject Annex C - Fibre Transducer for Damage-F). The title of the summary report is: "Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine
DATA STEWARDSHIP--A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
DATA STEWARDSHIP--A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Clinton Foster, Jonathon Ross, Lesley Wyborn #12;Key points ·! Data stewardship-- a fundamental of science, and essential for community acceptance ·! Science outcomes are being contested - outcomes and data must be accessible ·! Stewardship
ON WAVELET FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS TO THE HEAT EQUATION ---HEATLETS
Soatto, Stefano
ON WAVELET FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS TO THE HEAT EQUATION --- HEATLETS JIANHONG SHEN AND GILBERT STRANG Abstract. We present an application of wavelet theory in partial differential equaÂ tions. We study the wavelet fundamental solutions to the heat equation. The heat evolution of an initial wavelet state
Ris-R-1336(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural
-shore wind turbines has tech- nical and economical potential. A cost-benefit analysis was developed, showingRisø-R-1336(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades) Fundamentals for Remote Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades - a Preproject Bent F. Sørensen
Selective coupling of optical energy into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium
Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate experimentally that optical wavefront shaping selectively couples light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium. The total energy density inside a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was probed by measuring the emitted fluorescent power of spheres that were randomly positioned inside the medium. The fluorescent power of an optimized incident wave front is observed to be enhanced compared to a non-optimized incident front. The observed enhancement increases with sample thickness. Based on diffusion theory, we derive a model wherein the distribution of energy density of wavefront-shaped light is described by the fundamental diffusion mode. The agreement between our model and the data is striking not in the least since there are no adjustable parameters. Enhanced total energy density is crucial to increase the efficiency of white LEDs, solar cells, and of random lasers, as well as to realize controlled illumination in biomedical optics.
A Synergy of Novel Experiments, Materials Science, Fundamental Physics, and Superconducting Magnets
Godeke, Arno
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fundamental Physics Superconducting Magnets Yields: Accuraterecord setting superconducting magnet systems ITER, NMRScience, Fundamental Physics, and Superconducting Magnets
Thermodynamical properties of graphene in noncommutative phase-space
Victor Santos; R. V. Maluf; C. A. S. Almeida
2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
We investigated the thermodynamic properties of graphene in a noncommutative phase-space in the presence of a constant magnetic field. In particular, we determined the behaviour of the main thermodynamical functions: the Helmholtz free energy, the mean energy, the entropy and the specific heat. The high temperature limit is worked out and the thermodynamic quantities, such as mean energy and specific heat, exhibit the same features as the commutative case. Possible connections with the results already established in the literature are discussed briefly.
The role of quantum information in thermodynamics --- a topical review
John Goold; Marcus Huber; Arnau Riera; Lídia del Rio; Paul Skrzypczyk
2015-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
This topical review article gives an overview of the interplay between quantum information theory and thermodynamics of quantum systems. We focus on several trending topics including the foundations of statistical mechanics, resource theories, entanglement in thermodynamic settings, fluctuation theorems and thermal machines. This is not a comprehensive review of the diverse field of quantum thermodynamics; rather, it is a convenient entry point for the thermo-curious information theorist. Furthermore this review should facilitate the unification and understanding of different interdisciplinary approaches emerging in research groups around the world.
Thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in generalized gravity theories
Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang
2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
We present a general procedure to construct the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and illustrate its validity by examining it in some extended gravity theories. Applying this procedure, we can describe the thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in Randall-Sundrum braneworld imbedded in a nontrivial bulk. We discuss the mass-like function which was used to link Friedmann equation to the first law of thermodynamics and obtain its special case which gives the generalized Misner-Sharp mass in Lovelock gravity.
A Study of Universal Thermodynamics in Brane World Scenario
Saugata Mitra; Subhajit Saha; Subenoy Chakraborty
2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
A study of Universal thermodynamics is done in the frame work of RSII brane model and DGP brane scenario. The Universe is chosen as FRW model bounded by apparent or event horizon. Assuming extended Hawking temperature on the horizon, the unified first law is examined for perfect fluid (with constant equation of state) and modified Chaplygin gas model. As a result there is a modification of Bekenstein entropy on the horizons. Further the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and thermodynamical equilibrium are also investigated.
Thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter from Lattice QCD
Heng-Tong Ding; Frithjof Karsch; Swagato Mukherjee
2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
We review results from lattice QCD calculations on the thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter with emphasis on input these calculations can provide to the exploration of the phase diagram and properties of hot and dense matter created in heavy ion experiments. This review is organized as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, 3) QCD phase diagram at high temperature, 4) Bulk thermodynamics, 5) Fluctuations of conserved charges, 6) Transport properties, 7) Open heavy flavors and heavy quarkonia, 8) QCD in external magnetic fields, 9) Summary.
The role of quantum information in thermodynamics --- a topical review
John Goold; Marcus Huber; Arnau Riera; Lídia del Rio; Paul Skrzypzyk
2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
This topical review article gives an overview of the interplay between quantum information theory and thermodynamics of quantum systems. We focus on several trending topics including the foundations of statistical mechanics, resource theories, entanglement in thermodynamic settings, fluctuation theorems and thermal machines. This is not a comprehensive review of the diverse field of quantum thermodynamics; rather, it is a convenient entry point for the thermo-curious information theorist. Furthermore this review should facilitate the unification and understanding of different interdisciplinary approaches emerging in research groups around the world.
Parameterizing the Deceleration Parameter
Diego Pavón; Ivan Duran; Sergio del Campo; Ramón Herrera
2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
We propose and constrain with the latest observational data three parameterizations of the deceleration parameter, valid from the matter era to the far future. They are well behaved and do not diverge at any redshift. On the other hand, they are model independent in the sense that in constructing them the only assumption made was that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic at large scales.
Thermodynamics of the six-vertex model in an L-shaped domain
Filippo Colomo; Andrei G. Pronko
2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the six-vertex model in an L-shaped domain of the square lattice, with domain wall boundary conditions. For free-fermion vertex weights the partition function can be expressed in terms of some Hankel determinant, or equivalently as a Coulomb gas with discrete measure and a non-polynomial potential with two hard walls. We use Coulomb gas methods to study the partition function in the thermodynamic limit. We obtain the free energy of the six-vertex model as a function of the parameters describing the geometry of the scaled L-shaped domain. Under variations of these parameters the system undergoes a third-order phase transition. The result can also be considered in the context of dimer models, for the perfect matchings of the Aztec diamond graph with a cut-off corner.
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 1
Bahrami, Majid
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur it satisfies both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. The second law also asserts that energy
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2004-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.
Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities
Lorenzo Fatibene; Mauro Francaviglia; Roberto Giambo'; Giulio Magli
2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Proceedings of the international Workshop on ``Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities``, that took place at the Department of Mathematics of the Politecnico of Milano from 13 to 15 May 2004.
OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS
Montgomery-Smith, Stephen
momenta. In [3], this work was used to simulate the Carnot cycle. This paper gives a slightly different Newtonian. For example, the motion is reversible, thus demonstrating that the second law of thermodynamics
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 COURSE OUTLINE
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 COURSE OUTLINE TOPIC READINGS 1 and probability theory can be found in Chapter 16 of Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, by Mary L
Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...
Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System
Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the University of Massachusetts' Combined Heat and Power (CHP) District Heating System. Energy and exergy analyses are performed based on the first and second laws of ...
Thermodynamic behavior of particular f(R,T)-gravity models
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Zubair, M., E-mail: mzubairkk@gmail.com [University of the Punjab Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in f(R, T) theory in the nonequilibrium description. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed for two particular models of the f(R, T) theory. The first law of thermodynamics is expressed in the form of the Clausius relation T{sub h} dS-circumflex{sub h} = {delta} Q , where {delta}Q is the energy flux across the horizon and dS-circumflex is the entropy production term. Furthermore, the conditions for the generalized second law of thermodynamics to be preserved are established with the constraints of positive temperature and attractive gravity. We illustrate our results for some concrete models in this theory.
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells
Harold Fellermann; Bernat Corominas-Murtra; Per Lyngs Hansen; John Hjort Ipsen; Ricard Solé; Steen Rasmussen
2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology.
Beyond heat baths II: Framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories
Nicole Yunger Halpern
2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family's structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilard's engine and Landauer's Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. This generalization expands the theories' potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.
Specific heat at constant volume in the thermodynamic model
C. B. Das; S. Das Gupta; A. Z. Mekjian
2003-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic model for multifragmentation which is frequently used appears to give very different values for specific heat at constant volume depending upon whether canonical or grand canonical ensemble is used. The cause for this discrepancy is analysed.
Thermodynamics of a non-commutative fermion gas
F G Scholtz; J Govaerts
2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
Building on the recent solution for the spectrum of the non-commutative well in two dimensions, the thermodynamics that follows from it is computed. In particular the focus is put on an ideal fermion gas confined to such a well. At low densities the thermodynamics is the same as for the commutative gas. However, at high densities the thermodynamics deviate strongly from the commutative gas due to the implied excluded area resulting from the non-commutativity. In particular there are extremal macroscopic states, characterized by area, number of particles and angular momentum, that correspond to a single microscopic state and thus have vanishing entropy. When the system size and excluded area are comparable, thermodynamic quantities, such as entropy, exhibit non-extensive features.
Thermodynamics of de Sitter Black Holes: Thermal Cosmological Constant
Yuichi Sekiwa
2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the thermodynamic properties associated with the black hole event horizon and the cosmological horizon for black hole solutions in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We examine thermodynamics of these horizons on the basis of the conserved charges according to Teitelboim's method. In particular, we have succeeded in deriving the generalized Smarr formula among thermodynamical quantities in a simple and natural way. We then show that cosmological constant must decrease when one takes into account the quantum effect. These observations have been obtained if and only if cosmological constant plays the role of a thermodynamical state variable. We also touch upon the relation between inflation of our universe and a phase transition of black holes.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirtA Journey Inside theFacebookTechnical Information StatutoryStewart PragerStorage Ring Parameters
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of Wnt Recognition by Frizzled5 StockpileStorage Ring Parameters Print
A Thermodynamic Discriminator for Carbon Nanomaterials
Tamoghna Bhattacharyaa; Anjan Kr. Dasgupta
2015-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Interaction between carbon nanomaterials and micellar substrates is studied. A notable observation is the dependence of nano-surface topology on thermodynamic signatures of the carbon nanomaterials e.g., single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and graphene. The disruption of the self assembly process while the micelles were converted to monomer has a unique character in presence of graphene. This unique behavior follows irrespective of whether the micelle forming monomer is anionic (Sodium dodecyl sulfate) or cationic(Cetrimonium bromide). The direct measurement of temperature(T) also indicates that T falls monotonically as the micelles are formed in presence of graphene, this being different in all other cases (SWNT and MWNT). The photon correlation studies indicated formation of smaller and well distributed micelles in contact with graphene,this being not the case with SWNT and MWNT. Importantly the free energy change corresponding to the micelle formation has same order of magnitude (-26 to -25 KJ/Mole), the enthalpy showing a nanosurface specific value that varies between -9 to +7 KJ /mole depending on the nature of the nanomaterial and that of the self assembling micellar monomer. The constancy of the free energy and surface dependent vaiations of enthalpy implies that an entropy enthalpy compensation (free energy being a linear combination of the two) is inevitable in the self assembly process. The micellar cooling induced by graphene further implies a possible potential of the nano-embedded self assembly in fields like energy harnessing and bioenergetic manipulations. .
The Bayesian Second Law of Thermodynamics
Bartolotta, Anthony; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We derive a generalization of the Second Law of Thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically-evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian Second Law can be written as $\\Delta H(\\rho_m, \\rho) + \\langle \\mathcal{Q}\\rangle_{F|m}\\geq 0$, where $\\Delta H(\\rho_m, \\rho)$ is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution $\\rho$ and the measurement-updated distribution $\\rho_m$, and $\\langle \\mathcal{Q}\\rangle_{F|m}$ is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the Second Law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, ...
Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides
Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, with have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure range 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.
Thermodynamics and Luminosities of Rainbow Black Holes
Benrong Mu; Peng Wang; Haitang Yang
2015-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As a result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is \\textquotedblleft Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the \\textquotedblleft Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation" which is $E^{2}=m^{2}+p^{2}\\left[ 1-\\eta\\left( E/m_{p}\\right) ^{n}\\right] $ with $n>0$, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of $\\eta$ and $n$ in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with $\\etacompute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of $\\eta$ and $n$.
Poker Cash Game: a Thermodynamic Description
Javarone, Marco Alberto
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Poker is one of the most popular card games, whose rational investigation represents also one of the major challenges in several scientific areas, spanning from information theory and artificial intelligence to game theory and statistical physics. In principle, several variants of Poker can be identified, although all of them make use of money to make the challenge meaningful and, moreover, can be played in two different formats: tournament and cash game. An important issue when dealing with Poker is its classification, i.e., as a `skill game' or as gambling. Nowadays, its classification still represents an open question, having a long list of implications (e.g., legal and healthcare) that vary from country to country. In this study, we analyze Poker challenges, considering the cash game format, in terms of thermodynamics systems. Notably, we propose a framework to represent a cash game Poker challenge that, although based on a simplified scenario, allows both to obtain useful information for rounders (i.e., ...
Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions
Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B
2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.
On the Quantum-Corrected Black Hole Thermodynamics
Kourosh Nozari; S. Hamid Mehdipour
2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Bekenstein-Hawking Black hole thermodynamics should be corrected to incorporate quantum gravitational effects. Generalized Uncertainty Principle(GUP) provides a perturbational framework to perform such modifications. In this paper we consider the most general form of GUP to find black holes thermodynamics in microcanonical ensemble. Our calculation shows that there is no logarithmic pre-factor in perturbational expansion of entropy. This feature will solve part of controversies in literatures regarding existence or vanishing of this pre-factor.
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver
2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c
Revised 6/5/13 CH369: Fundamentals of Biochemistry
1 Revised 6/5/13 CH369: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Summer 2013 Syllabus and Course Policies What is biochemistry? Biochemistry is a branch of science biochemistry is its own distinctive discipline with regard to its emphasis
Revised 9/28/2011 CH369: Fundamentals of Biochemistry
1 Revised 9/28/2011 CH369: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Spring 2012 Syllabus and Course Policies What is biochemistry? Study of the structure and properties down. "Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Biochemistry
Microscale combustion: Technology development and fundamental research Yiguang Ju a
Ju, Yiguang
of micro-thrusters, micro internal combustion engines, and micro chemical reactors summarized. ThirdlyReview Microscale combustion: Technology development and fundamental research Yiguang Ju a , Kaoru Maruta b,* a Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Fundamental Scratch Behavior of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Random Copolymers
Browning, Robert Lee
2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
The present study employs a standardized progressive load scratch test (ASTM D7027/ISO 19252) to investigate the fundamental physical and mechanistic origins of scratch deformation in styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) random copolymers. Previous findings...
The fundamental theorem of Galois theory Definition 1. A polynomial ...
2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
The fundamental theorem of Galois theory. Definition 1. A polynomial in K[X] (K a field) is separable if it has no multiple roots in any field containing K. An ...
3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science, Fall 2003
Marzari, Nicola
This subject describes the fundamentals of bonding, energetics, and structure that underpin materials science. From electrons to silicon to DNA: the role of electronic bonding in determining the energy, structure, and ...
Thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: thermal stability of Nariai black hole
Yun Soo Myung
2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization, and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization.
The energy balancing parameter
Walton R. Gutierrez
2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
A parameter method is introduced in order to estimate the relationship among the various variables of a system in equilibrium, where the potential energy functions are incompletely known or the quantum mechanical calculations very difficult. No formal proof of the method is given; instead, a sufficient number of valuable examples are shown to make the case for the method's usefulness in classical and quantum systems. The mathematical methods required are quite elementary: basic algebra and minimization of power functions. This method blends advantageously with a simple but powerful approximate method for quantum mechanics, sidestepping entirely formal operators and differential equations. It is applied to the derivation of various well-known results involving centrally symmetric potentials for a quantum particle such as the hydrogen-like atom, the elastic potential and other cases of interest. The same formulas provide estimates for previously unsolved cases. PACS: 03.65.-w 30.00.00