National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fundamental neutron physics

  1. Fundamental Physics with Cold Neutrons J. S. Nico,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fundamental Physics with Cold Neutrons J. S. Nico,1 G. L. Greene,2 F. E. Wietfeldt,3 and W. S physics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Low energy properties of nucleons and nuclei, such as weak interactions in n-A systems, low energy n-A scattering amplitudes, and the internal electro- magnetic structure

  2. I-Love-Q Relations in Neutron Stars and their Applications to Astrophysics, Gravitational Waves and Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes

    2013-09-09

    The exterior gravitational field of a slowly-rotating neutron star can be characterized by its multipole moments, the first few being the neutron star mass, moment of inertia, and quadrupole moment to quadratic order in spin. In principle, all of these quantities depend on the neutron star's internal structure, and thus, on unknown nuclear physics at supra-nuclear energy densities. We here find relations between the moment of inertia, the Love numbers and the quadrupole moment (I-Love-Q relations) that do not depend sensitively on the neutron star's internal structure. Three important consequences derive from these I-Love-Q relations. On an observational astrophysics front, the measurement of a single member of the I-Love-Q trio would automatically provide information about the other two, even when the latter may not be observationally accessible. On a gravitational wave front, the I-Love-Q relations break the degeneracy between the quadrupole moment and the neutron-star spins in binary inspiral waveforms, allowing second-generation ground-based detectors to determine the (dimensionless) averaged spin to $\\mathcal{O}(10)%$, given a sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio detection. On a fundamental physics front, the I-Love-Q relations allow for tests of General Relativity in the neutron-star strong-field that are both theory- and internal structure-independent. As an example, by combining gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations, one may constrain dynamical Chern-Simons gravity in the future by more than 6 orders of magnitude more stringently than Solar System and table-top constraints.

  3. DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS IN PHYSICS: FUNDAMENTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS IN PHYSICS: FUNDAMENTALS M. HILLERY Institute for Modern Optics, University of Physics Letters) 106, No. 3 (1984) 121--167. North-Holland, Amsterdam DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS IN PHYSICS. Introduction 123 4.1. Normal ordering 156 2. Wigner distribution 126 4.2. Symmetric ordering 158 2

  4. Hypernuclear Physics for Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich

    2008-01-24

    The role of hypernuclear physics for the physics of neutron stars is delineated. Hypernuclear potentials in dense matter control the hyperon composition of dense neutron star matter. The three-body interactions of nucleons and hyperons determine the stiffness of the neutron star equation of state and thereby the maximum neutron star mass. Two-body hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions give rise to hyperon pairing which exponentially suppresses cooling of neutron stars via the direct hyperon URCA processes. Non-mesonic weak reactions with hyperons in dense neutron star matter govern the gravitational wave emissions due to the r-mode instability of rotating neutron stars.

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS An Introduction to and Overview of Fundamentals of Physics 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosas-Ortiz, Jose Oscar

    FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS CONTENTS VOLUME I An Introduction to and Overview of Fundamentals 1. Introduction 2. Review of Different Areas of Physics 2.1. Basic Concepts in Physics 2.2. Physical Forgach, Department of Physics,Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), México 1. Introduction 2

  6. Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher W. Stubbs

    2007-12-18

    I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.

  7. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Chamel; P. Haensel

    2008-12-20

    The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  8. DOE fundamentals handbook: Nuclear physics and reactor theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of nuclear physics and reactor theory. The handbook includes information on atomic and nuclear physics; neutron characteristics; reactor theory and nuclear parameters; and the theory of reactor operation. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the scientific principles that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  9. DOE fundamentals handbook: Nuclear physics and reactor theory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of nuclear physics and reactor theory. The handbook includes information on atomic and nuclear physics; neutron characteristics; reactor theory and nuclear parameters; and the theory of reactor operation. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the scientific principles that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  10. DOE fundamentals handbook: Nuclear physics and reactor theory. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of nuclear physics and reactor theory. The handbook includes information on atomic and nuclear physics; neutron characteristics; reactor theory and nuclear parameters; and the theory of reactor operation. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the scientific principles that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  11. Fundamental Physical Constants: Looking from Different Angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savely G. Karshenboim

    2005-07-28

    We consider fundamental physical constants which are among a few of the most important pieces of information we have learned about Nature after its intensive centuries-long studies. We discuss their multifunctional role in modern physics including problems related to the art of measurement, natural and practical units, origin of the constants, their possible calculability and variability etc.

  12. The factor 2 in fundamental physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Rowlands

    2001-10-24

    A brief history is given of the factor 2, starting in the most elementary considerations of geometry and kinematics of uniform acceleration, and moving to relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics. The basic argument is that in all the significant cases in which the factor 2 or 1/2 occurs in fundamental physics, whether classical, quantum or relativistic, the same physical operation is taking place.

  13. Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for HCCI Engines Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for...

  14. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    2010-09-01

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  15. Physics 122 Fundamentals of Physics II Syllabus for Fall 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Physics 122 ­ Fundamentals of Physics II Syllabus for Fall 2012 Course description The second of a two-semester series in general physics. The course is a continuation of PHYS 121, and covers waves, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. This survey course, together with PHYS 121, generally

  16. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Hewett; H. Weerts; R. Brock; J. N. Butler; B. C. K. Casey; J. Collar; A. de Gouvea; R. Essig; Y. Grossman; W. Haxton; J. A. Jaros; C. K. Jung; Z. T. Lu; K. Pitts; Z. Ligeti; J. R. Patterson; M. Ramsey-Musolf; J. L. Ritchie; A. Roodman; K. Scholberg; C. E. M. Wagner; G. P. Zeller; S. Aefsky; A. Afanasev; K. Agashe; C. Albright; J. Alonso; C. Ankenbrandt; M. Aoki; C. A. Arguelles; N. Arkani-Hamed; J. R. Armendariz; C. Armendariz-Picon; E. Arrieta Diaz; J. Asaadi; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; K. Bailey; O. Baker; B. Balantekin; B. Baller; M. Bass; B. Batell; J. Beacham; J. Behr; N. Berger; M. Bergevin; E. Berman; R. Bernstein; A. J. Bevan; M. Bishai; M. Blanke; S. Blessing; A. Blondel; T. Blum; G. Bock; A. Bodek; G. Bonvicini; F. Bossi; J. Boyce; R. Breedon; M. Breidenbach; S. J. Brice; R. A. Briere; S. Brodsky; C. Bromberg; A. Bross; T. E. Browder; D. A. Bryman; M. Buckley; R. Burnstein; E. Caden; P. Campana; R. Carlini; G. Carosi; C. Castromonte; R. Cenci; I. Chakaberia; M. C. Chen; C. H. Cheng; B. Choudhary; N. H. Christ; E. Christensen; M. E. Christy; T. E. Chupp; E. Church; D. B. Cline; T. E. Coan; P. Coloma; J. Comfort; L. Coney; J. Cooper; R. J. Cooper; R. Cowan; D. F. Cowen; D. Cronin-Hennessy; A. Datta; G. S. Davies; M. Demarteau; D. P. DeMille; A. Denig; R. Dermisek; A. Deshpande; M. S. Dewey; R. Dharmapalan; J. Dhooghe; M. R. Dietrich; M. Diwan; Z. Djurcic; S. Dobbs; M. Duraisamy; B. Dutta; H. Duyang; D. A. Dwyer; M. Eads; B. Echenard; S. R. Elliott; C. Escobar; J. Fajans; S. Farooq; C. Faroughy; J. E. Fast; B. Feinberg; J. Felde; G. Feldman; P. Fierlinger; P. Fileviez Perez; B. Filippone; P. Fisher; B. T. Flemming; K. T. Flood; R. Forty; M. J. Frank; A. Freyberger; A. Friedland; R. Gandhi; K. S. Ganezer; A. Garcia; F. G. Garcia; S. Gardner; L. Garrison; A. Gasparian; S. Geer; V. M. Gehman; T. Gershon; M. Gilchriese; C. Ginsberg; I. Gogoladze; M. Gonderinger; M. Goodman; H. Gould; M. Graham; P. W. Graham; R. Gran; J. Grange; G. Gratta; J. P. Green; H. Greenlee; R. C. Group; E. Guardincerri; V. Gudkov; R. Guenette; A. Haas; A. Hahn; T. Han; T. Handler; J. C. Hardy; R. Harnik; D. A. Harris; F. A. Harris; P. G. Harris; J. Hartnett; B. He; B. R. Heckel; K. M. Heeger; S. Henderson; D. Hertzog; R. Hill; E. A Hinds; D. G. Hitlin; R. J. Holt; N. Holtkamp; G. Horton-Smith; P. Huber; W. Huelsnitz; J. Imber; I. Irastorza; J. Jaeckel; I. Jaegle; C. James; A. Jawahery; D. Jensen; C. P. Jessop; B. Jones; H. Jostlein; T. Junk; A. L. Kagan; M. Kalita; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; G. Karagiorgi; A. Karle; T. Katori; B. Kayser; R. Kephart; S. Kettell; Y. K. Kim; M. Kirby; K. Kirch; J. Klein; J. Kneller; A. Kobach; M. Kohl; J. Kopp; M. Kordosky; W. Korsch; I. Kourbanis; A. D. Krisch; P. Krizan; A. S. Kronfeld; S. Kulkarni; K. S. Kumar; Y. Kuno; T. Kutter; T. Lachenmaier; M. Lamm; J. Lancaster; M. Lancaster; C. Lane; K. Lang; P. Langacker; S. Lazarevic; T. Le; K. Lee; K. T. Lesko; Y. Li; M. Lindgren; A. Lindner; J. Link; D. Lissauer; L. S. Littenberg; B. Littlejohn; C. Y. Liu; W. Loinaz; W. Lorenzon; W. C. Louis; J. Lozier; L. Ludovici; L. Lueking; C. Lunardini; D. B. MacFarlane; P. A. N. Machado; P. B. Mackenzie; J. Maloney; W. J. Marciano; W. Marsh; M. Marshak; J. W. Martin; C. Mauger; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; G. McLaughlin; D. McKeen; R. McKeown; B. T. Meadows; R. Mehdiyev; D. Melconian; H. Merkel; M. Messier; J. P. Miller; G. Mills; U. K. Minamisono; S. R. Mishra; I. Mocioiu; S. Moed Sher; R. N. Mohapatra; B. Monreal; C. D. Moore; J. G. Morfin; J. Mousseau; L. A. Moustakas; G. Mueller; P. Mueller; M. Muether; H. P. Mumm; C. Munger; H. Murayama; P. Nath; O. Naviliat-Cuncin; J. K. Nelson; D. Neuffer; J. S. Nico; A. Norman; D. Nygren; Y. Obayashi; T. P. O'Connor; Y. Okada; J. Olsen; L. Orozco; J. L. Orrell; J. Osta; B. Pahlka; J. Paley; V. Papadimitriou; M. Papucci; S. Parke; R. H. Parker; Z. Parsa; K. Partyka; A. Patch; J. C. Pati; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; G. Paz; G. N. Perdue; D. Perevalov; G. Perez; R. Petti; W. Pettus; A. Piepke; M. Pivovaroff; R. Plunkett; C. C. Polly; M. Pospelov; R. Povey; A. Prakesh; M. V. Purohit; S. Raby; J. L. Raaf; R. Rajendran; S. Rajendran; G. Rameika; R. Ramsey; A. Rashed; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Rebel; J. Redondo; P. Reimer; D. Reitzner; F. Ringer; A. Ringwald; S. Riordan; B. L. Roberts; D. A. Roberts; R. Robertson; F. Robicheaux; M. Rominsky; R. Roser; J. L. Rosner; C. Rott; P. Rubin; N. Saito; M. Sanchez; S. Sarkar; H. Schellman; B. Schmidt; M. Schmitt; D. W. Schmitz; J. Schneps; A. Schopper; P. Schuster; A. J. Schwartz; M. Schwarz; J. Seeman; Y. K. Semertzidis; K. K. Seth; Q. Shafi; P. Shanahan; R. Sharma; S. R. Sharpe; M. Shiozawa; V. Shiltsev; K. Sigurdson; P. Sikivie; J. Singh; D. Sivers; T. Skwarnicki; N. Smith; J. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Soderberg; Y. H. Song; A. Soni; P. Souder; A. Sousa; J. Spitz; M. Stancari; G. C. Stavenga; J. H. Steffen

    2012-05-11

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  17. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewett, J L; Brock, R; Butler, J N; Casey, B C K; Collar, J; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Haxton, W; Jaros, J A; Jung, C K; Lu, Z T; Pitts, K; Ligeti, Z; Patterson, J R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J L; Roodman, A; Scholberg, K; Wagner, C E M; Zeller, G P; Aefsky, S; Afanasev, A; Agashe, K; Albright, C; Alonso, J; Ankenbrandt, C; Aoki, M; Arguelles, C A; Arkani-Hamed, N; Armendariz, J R; Armendariz-Picon, C; Diaz, E Arrieta; Asaadi, J; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Bailey, K; Baker, O; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Bass, M; Batell, B; Beacham, J; Behr, J; Berger, N; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Bernstein, R; Bevan, A J; Bishai, M; Blanke, M; Blessing, S; Blondel, A; Blum, T; Bock, G; Bodek, A; Bonvicini, G; Bossi, F; Boyce, J; Breedon, R; Breidenbach, M; Brice, S J; Briere, R A; Brodsky, S; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Buckley, M; Burnstein, R; Caden, E; Campana, P; Carlini, R; Carosi, G; Castromonte, C; Cenci, R; Chakaberia, I; Chen, M C; Cheng, C H; Choudhary, B; Christ, N H; Christensen, E; Christy, M E; Chupp, T E; Church, E; Cline, D B; Coan, T E; Coloma, P; Comfort, J; Coney, L; Cooper, J; Cooper, R J; Cowan, R; Cowen, D F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Davies, G S; Demarteau, M; DeMille, D P; Denig, A; Dermisek, R; Deshpande, A; Dewey, M S; Dharmapalan, R; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, M R; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; Dutta, B; Duyang, H; Dwyer, D A; Eads, M; Echenard, B; Elliott, S R; Escobar, C; Fajans, J; Farooq, S; Faroughy, C; Fast, J E; Feinberg, B; Felde, J; Feldman, G; Fierlinger, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Filippone, B; Fisher, P; Flemming, B T; Flood, K T; Forty, R; Frank, M J; Freyberger, A; Friedland, A; Gandhi, R; Ganezer, K S; Garcia, A; Garcia, F G; Gardner, S; Garrison, L; Gasparian, A; Geer, S; Gehman, V M; Gershon, T; Gilchriese, M; Ginsberg, C; Gogoladze, I; Gonderinger, M; Goodman, M; Gould, H; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Gran, R; Grange, J; Gratta, G; Green, J P; Greenlee, H; Guardincerri, E; Gudkov, V; Guenette, R; Haas, A; Hahn, A; Han, T; Handler, T; Hardy, J C; Harnik, R; Harris, D A; Harris, F A; Harris, P G; Hartnett, J; He, B; Heckel, B R; Heeger, K M; Henderson, S; Hertzog, D; Hill, R; Hinds, E A; Hitlin, D G; Holt, R J; Holtkamp, N; Horton-Smith, G; Huber, P; Huelsnitz, W; Imber, J; Irastorza, I; Jaeckel, J; Jaegle, I; James, C; Jawahery, A; Jensen, D; Jessop, C P; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kagan, A L; Kalita, M; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kephart, R; Kettell, S; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirch, K; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Kobach, A; Kohl, M; Kopp, J; Kordosky, M; Korsch, W; Kourbanis, I; Krisch, A D; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, K S; Kuno, Y; Kutter, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lamm, M; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lane, C; Lang, K; Langacker, P; Lazarevic, S; Le, T; Lee, K; Lesko, K T; Li, Y; Lindgren, M; Lindner, A; Link, J; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L S; Littlejohn, B; Liu, C Y; Loinaz, W; Lorenzon, W; Louis, W C; Lozier, J; Ludovici, L; Lueking, L; Lunardini, C; MacFarlane, D B; Machado, P A N; Mackenzie, P B; Maloney, J; Marciano, W J; Marsh, W; Marshak, M; Martin, J W; Mauger, C; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLaughlin, G; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Meadows, B T; Mehdiyev, R; Melconian, D; Merkel, H; Messier, M; Miller, J P; Mills, G; Minamisono, U K; Mishra, S R; Mocioiu, I; Sher, S Moed; Mohapatra, R N; Monreal, B; Moore, C D; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Moustakas, L A; Mueller, G; Mueller, P; Muether, M; Mumm, H P; Munger, C; Murayama, H; Nath, P; Naviliat-Cuncin, O; Nelson, J K; Neuffer, D; Nico, J S; Norman, A; Nygren, D; Obayashi, Y; O'Connor, T P; Okada, Y; Olsen, J; Orozco, L; Orrell, J L; Osta, J; Pahlka, B; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Papucci, M; Parke, S; Parker, R H; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Pati, J C; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Paz, G; Perdue, G N; Perevalov, D; Perez, G; Petti, R; Pettus, W; Piepke, A; Pivovaroff, M; Plunkett, R; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Povey, R; Prakesh, A; Purohit, M V; Raby, S; Raaf, J L; Rajendran, R; Rajendran, S; Rameika, G; Ramsey, R; Rashed, A; Ratcliff, B N; Rebel, B; Redondo, J; Reimer, P; Reitzner, D; Ringer, F; Ringwald, A; Riordan, S; Roberts, B L; Roberts, D A; Robertson, R; Robicheaux, F; Rominsky, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Rott, C; Rubin, P; Saito, N; Sanchez, M; Sarkar, S; Schellman, H; Schmidt, B; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, D W; Schneps, J; Schopper, A; Schuster, P; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, M; Seeman, J; Semertzidis, Y K; Seth, K K; Shafi, Q; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Sharpe, S R; Shiozawa, M; Shiltsev, V; Sigurdson, K; Sikivie, P; Singh, J; Sivers, D; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Song, Y H; Soni, A; Souder, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Stancari, M; Stavenga, G C; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Stoeckinger, D; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strassler, M; Sulai, I A; Sundrum, R; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Takeuchi, T; Tanedo, P

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  18. Russian Conference on Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russian Conference on Physics of Neutron Stars ABSTRACTS June 24­27, 2008 Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute Saint-Petersburg #12;#12;Russian Conference on PHYSICS OF NEUTRON STARS ABSTRACTS June 24­27, 2008 2008 #12;Preface The conference on Physics of Neutron Stars at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute

  19. Nuclear and fundamental physics instrumentation for the ANS project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.J. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Raman, S.; Arterburn, J.; McManamy, T.; Peretz, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faust, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Piotrowski, A.E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes work carried out during the period 1991-1995 in connection with the refinement of the concepts and detailed designs for nuclear and fundamental physics research instrumentation at the proposed Advanced Neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initially, emphasis was placed on refining the existing System Design Document (SDD-43) to detail more accurately the needs and interfaces of the instruments that are identified in the document. The conceptual designs of these instruments were also refined to reflect current thinking in the field of nuclear and fundamental physics. In particular, the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facility design was reconsidered in the light of the development of interest in radioactive ion beams within the nuclear physics community. The second stage of this work was to define those instrument parameters that would interface directly with the reactor systems so that these parameters could be considered for the ISOL facility and particularly for its associated ion source. Since two of these options involved ion sources internal to the long slant beam tube, these were studied in detail. In addition, preliminary work was done to identify the needs for the target holder and changing facility to be located in the tangential through-tube. Because many of the planned nuclear and fundamental physics instruments have similar needs in terms of detection apparatus, some progress was also made in defining the parameters for these detectors. 21 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Piekarewicz

    2009-01-28

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

  1. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  2. A Synergy of Novel Experiments, Materials Science, Fundamental Physics, and Superconducting Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godeke, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Physics Superconducting Magnets Yields: Accuraterecord setting superconducting magnet systems ITER, NMRScience, Fundamental Physics, and Superconducting Magnets

  3. Physics is the fundamental science: the study of matter and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICS Physics is the fundamental science: the study of matter and energy and of their interactions. Physics is the basis for all science and for all applied science and engineering. Physicists study everything from elementary particles to galaxies, from semiconductors to chaos. Because physics

  4. 22.05 Neutron Science and Reactor Physics, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, John A.

    This course introduces fundamental properties of the neutron. It covers reactions induced by neutrons, nuclear fission, slowing down of neutrons in infinite media, diffusion theory, the few-group approximation, point ...

  5. Torsion-balance probes of fundamental physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. G. Adelberger

    2013-08-14

    This white paper is submitted as part of Snowmass2013 (subgroup CF2). The extraordinary sensitivity of torsion-balances can be used to search for the ultra-feeble forces suggested by attempts to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions. The motivation, the results and their implications as well as the future prospects of this work are summarized. The experiments include tests of the universality of free fall (weak equivalence principle), probes of the short-distance behavior of gravity (inverse-square law tests for extra dimensions and exchange forces from new meV scale bosons), and Planck-scale tests of Lorentz invariance (preferred-frame effects, non-commutative geometries).

  6. Cosmic Acceleration, Dark Energy and Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael S. Turner; Dragan Huterer

    2007-06-26

    A web of interlocking observations has established that the expansion of the Universe is speeding up and not slowing, revealing the presence of some form of repulsive gravity. Within the context of general relativity the cause of cosmic acceleration is a highly elastic (p\\sim -rho), very smooth form of energy called ``dark energy'' accounting for about 75% of the Universe. The ``simplest'' explanation for dark energy is the zero-point energy density associated with the quantum vacuum; however, all estimates for its value are many orders-of-magnitude too large. Other ideas for dark energy include a very light scalar field or a tangled network of topological defects. An alternate explanation invokes gravitational physics beyond general relativity. Observations and experiments underway and more precise cosmological measurements and laboratory experiments planned for the next decade will test whether or not dark energy is the quantum energy of the vacuum or something more exotic, and whether or not general relativity can self consistently explain cosmic acceleration. Dark energy is the most conspicuous example of physics beyond the standard model and perhaps the most profound mystery in all of science.

  7. Strong laser fields as a probe for fundamental physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gies, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Upcoming high-intensity laser systems will be able to probe the quantum-induced nonlinear regime of electrodynamics. So far unobserved QED phenomena such as the discovery of a nonlinear response of the quantum vacuum to macroscopic electromagnetic fields can become accessible. In addition, such laser systems provide for a flexible tool for investigating fundamental physics. Primary goals consist in verifying so far unobserved QED phenomena. Moreover, strong-field experiments can search for new light but weakly interacting degrees of freedom and are thus complementary to accelerator-driven experiments. I review recent developments in this field, focusing on photon experiments in strong electromagnetic fields. The interaction of particle-physics candidates with photons and external fields can be parameterized by low-energy effective actions and typically predict characteristic optical signatures. I perform first estimates of the accessible new-physics parameter space of high-intensity laser facilities such as P...

  8. Early universe cosmology and tests of fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Albrecht, Joshua A. Frieman and Mark Trodden

    2002-03-04

    This is the report of the Working Group on Early Universe Cosmology and tests of Fundamental Physics, group P4.8 of the of the Snowmass 2001 conference. Here we summarize the impressive array of advances that have taken place in this field, and identify opportunities for even greater progress in the future. Topics include Dark Energy, Cosmic Acceleration, Inflation, Phase Transitions, Baryogenesis, and String/M-theory Cosmology. The introductory section gives an executive summary with six key open questions on which we can expect to make significant progress.

  9. Primordial nucleosynthesis as a probe of fundamental physics parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Dent; Steffen Stern; Christof Wetterich

    2007-08-10

    We analyze the effect of variation of fundamental couplings and mass scales on primordial nucleosynthesis in a systematic way. The first step establishes the response of primordial element abundances to the variation of a large number of nuclear physics parameters, including nuclear binding energies. We find a strong influence of the n-p mass difference (for the 4He abundance), of the nucleon mass (for deuterium) and of A=3,4,7 binding energies (for 3He, 6Li and 7Li). A second step relates the nuclear parameters to the parameters of the Standard Model of particle physics. The deuterium, and, above all, 7Li abundances depend strongly on the average light quark mass hat{m} \\equiv (m_u+m_d)/2. We calculate the behaviour of abundances when variations of fundamental parameters obey relations arising from grand unification. We also discuss the possibility of a substantial shift in the lithium abundance while the deuterium and 4He abundances are only weakly affected.

  10. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kastner, Marc A.

    Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design by Owen Dennis #12;Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design Copyright 2012 by Owen Dennis Miller #12;1 Abstract Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics

  11. Nuclear Physics: The Ultracold Neutron Source Kippen, Karen E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physics: The Ultracold Neutron Source Kippen, Karen E. Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clayton, Steven Los Alamos National Laboratory Los...

  12. Towards Understanding Fine-Tuning in Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Grant Edward

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental Forces Nobel Lecture 1979; S. Wein- berg, Conceptual Foundations of the Unified Theory of Weak and Electromagnetic

  13. Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Amendola; Stephen Appleby; David Bacon; Tessa Baker; Marco Baldi; Nicola Bartolo; Alain Blanchard; Camille Bonvin; Stefano Borgani; Enzo Branchini; Clare Burrage; Stefano Camera; Carmelita Carbone; Luciano Casarini; Mark Cropper; Claudia deRham; Cinzia di Porto; Anne Ealet; Pedro G. Ferreira; Fabio Finelli; Juan Garcia-Bellido; Tommaso Giannantonio; Luigi Guzzo; Alan Heavens; Lavinia Heisenberg; Catherine Heymans; Henk Hoekstra; Lukas Hollenstein; Rory Holmes; Ole Horst; Knud Jahnke; Thomas D. Kitching; Tomi Koivisto; Martin Kunz; Giuseppe La Vacca; Marisa March; Elisabetta Majerotto; Katarina Markovic; David Marsh; Federico Marulli; Richard Massey; Yannick Mellier; David F. Mota; Nelson Nunes; Will Percival; Valeria Pettorino; Cristiano Porciani; Claudia Quercellini; Justin Read; Massimiliano Rinaldi; Domenico Sapone; Roberto Scaramella; Constantinos Skordis; Fergus Simpson; Andy Taylor; Shaun Thomas; Roberto Trotta; Licia Verde; Filippo Vernizzi; Adrian Vollmer; Yun Wang; Jochen Weller; Tom Zlosnik

    2015-10-22

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the Universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  14. Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Amendola; Stephen Appleby; David Bacon; Tessa Baker; Marco Baldi; Nicola Bartolo; Alain Blanchard; Camille Bonvin; Stefano Borgani; Enzo Branchini; Clare Burrage; Stefano Camera; Carmelita Carbone; Luciano Casarini; Mark Cropper; Claudia deRham; Cinzia di Porto; Anne Ealet; Pedro G. Ferreira; Fabio Finelli; Juan Garcia-Bellido; Tommaso Giannantonio; Luigi Guzzo; Alan Heavens; Lavinia Heisenberg; Catherine Heymans; Henk Hoekstra; Lukas Hollenstein; Rory Holmes; Ole Horst; Knud Jahnke; Thomas D. Kitching; Tomi Koivisto; Martin Kunz; Giuseppe La Vacca; Marisa March; Elisabetta Majerotto; Katarina Markovic; David Marsh; Federico Marulli; Richard Massey; Yannick Mellier; David F. Mota; Nelson Nunes; Will Percival; Valeria Pettorino; Cristiano Porciani; Claudia Quercellini; Justin Read; Massimiliano Rinaldi; Domenico Sapone; Roberto Scaramella; Constantinos Skordis; Fergus Simpson; Andy Taylor; Shaun Thomas; Roberto Trotta; Licia Verde; Filippo Vernizzi; Adrian Vollmer; Yun Wang; Jochen Weller; Tom Zlosnik

    2012-06-06

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the Universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  15. Energy Response and Physical Reoperties of NTA* Personnel Neutron Dosimeter Nuclear Track Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Richard L.

    1961-01-01

    PHYSICAL PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETER PROPERTIES NUCLEAR OFOF NTA'." PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETER NUCLEAR TRACK FILMNEUTRON AND PHYSICA'L DOSIMETER Richard PROPERTIES NUCLEAR

  16. Neutron stars as laboratories for gravity physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deliduman, Cemsinan

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of neutron stars in R+?R² gravity model with perturbative method. We obtain mass-radius relations for four representative equations of state (EoS). We find that, for |?|~10? cm², the results differ substantially from the results of general relativity. The effects of modified gravity are seen as mimicking a stiff or soft EoS for neutron stars depending upon whether ? is negative or positive, respectively. Some of the soft EoS that are excluded within the framework of general relativity can be reconciled for certain values of ? of this order with the 2 solar mass neutron star recently observed. Indeed, if the EoS is ever established to be soft, modified gravity of the sort studied here may be required to explain neutron star masses as large as 2 M{sub ?}. The associated length scale ?(?)~10? cm is of the order of the the typical radius of neutron stars implying that this is the smallest value we could find by using neutron stars as a probe. We thus conclude that the true value of ? is most likely much smaller than 10? cm².

  17. Constraining fundamental physics with the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Challinor

    2006-06-22

    The temperature anisotropies and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provide a window back to the physics of the early universe. They encode the nature of the initial fluctuations and so can reveal much about the physical mechanism that led to their generation. In this contribution we review what we have learnt so far about early-universe physics from CMB observations, and what we hope to learn with a new generation of high-sensitivity, polarization-capable instruments.

  18. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Peter J; Taylor, Barry N

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment that takes into account all data available up to 31 December 2014. The recommended values may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.

  19. Natural Nuclear Reactor Oklo and Variation of Fundamental Constants Part 1: Computation of Neutronics of Fresh Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. V. Petrov; A. I. Nazarov; M. S. Onegin; V. Yu. Petrov; E. G. Sakhnovsky

    2005-09-15

    Using modern methods of reactor physics we have performed full-scale calculations of the natural reactor Oklo. For reliability we have used recent version of two Monte Carlo codes: Russian code MCU REA and world wide known code MCNP (USA). Both codes produce similar results. We have constructed a computer model of the reactor Oklo zone RZ2 which takes into account all details of design and composition. The calculations were performed for three fresh cores with different uranium contents. Multiplication factors, reactivities and neutron fluxes were calculated. We have estimated also the temperature and void effects for the fresh core. As would be expected, we have found for the fresh core a significant difference between reactor and Maxwell spectra, which was used before for averaging cross sections in the Oklo reactor. The averaged cross section of Sm-149 and its dependence on the shift of resonance position (due to variation of fundamental constants) are significantly different from previous results. Contrary to results of some previous papers we find no evidence for the change of the fine structure constant in the past and obtain new, most accurate limits on its variation with time: -4 10^{-17}year^{-1} < d alpha/dt/alpha < 3 10^{-17} year^{-1} A further improvement in the accuracy of the limits can be achieved by taking account of the core burnup. These calculations are in progress.

  20. COLLOQUIUM: Fundamental Physics and the LHC: A Progress Report | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplexPlasmaPhysicsPlasma Physics Lab 17,

  1. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  2. St. Petersburg Conference on Physics of Neutron Stars, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Koptsevich

    2001-06-24

    The Programme and Abstracts booklet of the sixth Conference on "Physics of Neutron Stars" held at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, on June 6 -- 8, 2001 is presented. The abstracts contain references to the web pages, LANL archive and published articles. More information on the Conference can be found at http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/astro/NS2001/index.html

  3. Cooling of isolated neutron stars as a probe of superdense matter physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooling of isolated neutron stars as a probe of superdense matter physics Alexander Kaminker a current state of cooling theory of isolated neutron stars. The main regulators of neutron star cooling are discussed. We outline the sensitivity of cooling models to equation of state of matter in the neutron star

  4. Neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  5. General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 36, No. 3, March 2004 ( C 2004) Experiments in Fundamental Physics Scheduled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibble, Kurt

    General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 36, No. 3, March 2004 ( C 2004) REVIEW Experiments in Fundamental Physics Scheduled and in Development for the ISS C. L¨ammerzahl,1 G. Ahlers,2 N. Ashby,3 M experiments in the area of Fundamental Physics that are either approved by ESA and NASA, or are currently

  6. What is Physics? Physics is the fundamental science, the study of matter and energy at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    in the first two years by a study of mechanics, waves, electricity and magnetism, optics, thermal physics with the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Management. BachelorofScience/BachelorofEducation Physics/ScienceEducation Calendar Year: 2008/2009 Faculty: Arts & Science/Education Advice From the Faculty of Education Choosing

  7. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 175101 (2013) Dynamic neutron scattering from conformational dynamics. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 175101 (2013) Dynamic neutron scattering from, a conformational dynamics theory of dynamical neutron and X-ray scattering is developed, follow- ing our previous spectroscopy (dynamic neutron scattering) probes time correlations on the sub pico- to microsec- ond timescales

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 25, NUMBER 7 Neutron scattering from paramagnetic bcc 'He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 25, NUMBER 7 Neutron scattering from paramagnetic bcc 'He 1 APRIL 1982 H is calculated using the self-consistent-phonon (SCP) theory for comparison with proposed neutron scattering excitations or critical scattering will be observable only at very small neutron energy transfers (-0.1 pev

  9. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 175102 (2013) Dynamic neutron scattering from conformational dynamics. II. Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 175102 (2013) Dynamic neutron scattering from; accepted 12 September 2013; published online 1 November 2013) Neutron scattering experiments directly probe.1063/1.4824071] I. INTRODUCTION Dynamic neutron scattering is a direct probe of the inter- nal, conformational

  10. Neutrinos: an Open Window on Fundamental Physics and the Evolution of the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascoli, Silvia (IPPP, Durham University) [IPPP, Durham University

    2010-08-18

    In the past ten years, a series of experiments has confirmed that neutrinos can oscillate between different types ('flavors') and have mass. These results are the first solid evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics, with profound implications for the Universe and the laws that govern it. Thanks to a broad experimental program, including accelerator- and reactor-based experiments such as MINOS, MiniBooNE, T2K, Double-CHOOZ, Daya Bay, NOvA, LBNE, and searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, we have just entered the 'precision era' in neutrino physics. I will review the status of experimental results, their implications for our understanding of neutrino properties, and the questions that must be addressed. I will give an overview of the exciting experimental program that is underway and I will discuss how neutrino physics will help in opening a new window on the fundamental laws of Nature, its fundamental constituents, and the evolution of the Universe.

  11. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Dark Matter, Cosmology, and Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory (HAWC) is designed to perform a synoptic survey of the TeV sky. The high energy coverage of the experiment will enable studies of fundamental physics beyond the Standard Model, and the large field of view of the detector will enable detailed studies of cosmologically significant backgrounds and magnetic fields. We describe the sensitivity of the full HAWC array to these phenomena in five contributions shown at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (July 2013).

  12. Gravitational Waves Notes, Issue #4 : "A Roadmap to Fundamental Physics from LISA EMRI Observations"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pau Amaro-Seoane; Bernard Schutz; Carlos F. Sopuerta

    2010-09-07

    GW Notes was born from the need for a journal where the distinct communities involved in gravitation wave research might gather. While these three communities - Astrophysics, General Relativity and Data Analysis - have made significant collaborative progress over recent years, we believe that it is indispensable to future advancement that they draw closer, and that they speak a common idiom. For this GW Notes issue we have approached Carlos F. Sopuerta to write the highlight article of this issue on his thoughts on fundamental physics with LISA.

  13. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-06-05

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the univ

  14. Fundamental constants and their variability in theories of High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Dent

    2008-02-12

    The Standard Model of particle physics and the theory of General Relativity (GR) currently provide a good description of almost all phenomena of particle physics and gravitation that have received controlled experimental tests. However, the Standard Model contains many a priori variable parameters whose values, and whose apparent (near-)constancy, have yet to receive a convincing theoretical explanation. At the same time, GR may now require to be extended or altered at the largest length scales, to account for the recent apparent accelerated cosmological expansion. In this introductory review I present theoretical aspects of the search for explanations of the values and possible variations of fundamental ``constants'', focusing on the possibility of unification of interactions. I also relate cosmological variations to modifications of gravity both locally and cosmologically.

  15. The Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway, a TeraGrid Science Gateway to Support the Spallation Neutron Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazhkudai, Sudharshan

    by a service oriented architecture for functional implementation. KEY WORDS: Portal, Neutron Scattering, TeraGrid, Science Gateway, Service Architecture, Grid 1. INTRODUCTION Neutron Science: Neutron scattering is used, earth science, and fundamental physics [3]. As a diagnostic tool, neutron scattering provides unique

  16. Neutron Physics at NIST 8th UCN Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    Measurement Neutron fluence is measured by counting gamma-rays from the reaction n+10B 4He+7Li + (478KeV) with a calibrated gamma detector and neutron calorimeter. Polarized 3-He Neutron Spin Analyzers A Spin Exchange: Silicon Mass Density of Thin Polymer Films Search for Quantum Entanglement in Liquid H2O-D2O Mixtures

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 83, 064612 (2011) Advanced Monte Carlo modeling of prompt fission neutrons for thermal and fast neutron-induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    owing to the multiple scattering from ambient neutrons and from energy cuts in the detection efficiencyPHYSICAL REVIEW C 83, 064612 (2011) Advanced Monte Carlo modeling of prompt fission neutrons for thermal and fast neutron-induced fission reactions on 239 Pu P. Talou,1,* B. Becker,2 T. Kawano,1 M. B

  18. Hand Held Neutron Detector Development for Physics and Security Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Caitlin E

    2013-10-04

    energy neutrons may penetrate through the shielding and cause nuclear recoils on the detector that may be mistaken for a WIMP interaction event. The purpose of this project was to create a detector that shields as well as tags incoming neutrons to measure...

  19. Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Geiger; L. Amand; A. Bertoldi; B. Canuel; W. Chaibi; C. Danquigny; I. Dutta; B. Fang; S. Gaffet; J. Gillot; D. Holleville; A. Landragin; M. Merzougui; I. Riou; D. Savoie; P. Bouyer

    2015-05-26

    The MIGA project aims at demonstrating precision measurements of gravity with cold atom sensors in a large scale instrument and at studying the associated powerful applications in geosciences and fundamental physics. The firt stage of the project (2013-2018) will consist in building a 300-meter long optical cavity to interrogate atom interferometers and will be based at the low noise underground laboratory LSBB based in Rustrel, France. The second stage of the project (2018-2023) will be dedicated to science runs and data analyses in order to probe the spatio-temporal structure of the local gravity field of the LSBB region, which represents a generic site of hydrological interest. MIGA will also assess future potential applications of atom interferometry to gravitational wave detection in the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz hardly covered by future long baseline optical interferometers. This paper presents the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the instrument and the motivation for the applications of MIGA in geosciences. Important results on new atom interferometry techniques developed at SYRTE in the context of MIGA and paving the way to precision gravity measurements are also reported.

  20. Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, R; Bertoldi, A; Canuel, B; Chaibi, W; Danquigny, C; Dutta, I; Fang, B; Gaffet, S; Gillot, J; Holleville, D; Landragin, A; Merzougui, M; Riou, I; Savoie, D; Bouyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The MIGA project aims at demonstrating precision measurements of gravity with cold atom sensors in a large scale instrument and at studying the associated powerful applications in geosciences and fundamental physics. The firt stage of the project (2013-2018) will consist in building a 300-meter long optical cavity to interrogate atom interferometers and will be based at the low noise underground laboratory LSBB based in Rustrel, France. The second stage of the project (2018-2023) will be dedicated to science runs and data analyses in order to probe the spatio-temporal structure of the local gravity field of the LSBB region, which represents a generic site of hydrological interest. MIGA will also assess future potential applications of atom interferometry to gravitational wave detection in the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz hardly covered by future long baseline optical interferometers. This paper presents the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the instrument and the motivation for the...

  1. Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Geiger; L. Amand; A. Bertoldi; B. Canuel; W. Chaibi; C. Danquigny; I. Dutta; B. Fang; S. Gaffet; J. Gillot; D. Holleville; A. Landragin; M. Merzougui; I. Riou; D. Savoie; P. Bouyer

    2015-10-27

    The MIGA project aims at demonstrating precision measurements of gravity with cold atom sensors in a large scale instrument and at studying the associated applications in geosciences and fundamental physics. The first stage of the project (2013-2018) will consist in building a 300-meter long optical cavity to interrogate atom interferometers and will be based at the low noise underground laboratory LSBB in Rustrel, France. The second stage of the project (2018-2023) will be dedicated to science runs and data analyses in order to probe the spatio-temporal structure of the local gravity field of the LSBB region, a site of high hydrological interest. MIGA will also assess future potential applications of atom interferometry to gravitational wave detection in the frequency band $\\sim 0.1-10$ Hz hardly covered by future long baseline optical interferometers. This paper presents the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the instrument and the motivation for the applications of MIGA in geosciences. Important results on new atom interferometry techniques developed at SYRTE in the context of MIGA and paving the way to precision gravity measurements are also reported.

  2. Neutron lifetime measurements using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; V. E. Varlamov; A. G. Kharitonov; A. K. Fomin; Yu. N. Pokotilovski; P. Geltenbort; I. A. Krasnoschekova; M. S. Lasakov; R. R. Taldaev; A. V. Vassiljev; O. M. Zherebtsov

    2009-02-02

    Our experiment using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the neutron lifetime is reviewed. Ultracold neutrons were trapped in a material bottle covered with perfluoropolyether. The neutron lifetime was deduced from comparison of UCN losses in the traps with different surface-to-volume ratios. The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. In this experiment, the UCN storage time is brought closer to the neutron lifetime than in any experiments before:the probability of UCN losses from the trap was only 1% of that for neutron beta decay. The neutron lifetime obtained,878.5+/-0.7stat+/-0.3sys s, is the most accurate experimental measurement to date.

  3. Physics of ion acceleration in the solar flare on 2005 September 7 determines c-ray and neutron production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by the neutron monitors at Mt. Chacaltaya and Mexico City and by the solar neutron telescopes at ChacaltayaPhysics of ion acceleration in the solar flare on 2005 September 7 determines c-ray and neutron-sur-Yvette, France g Konan University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-0000, Japan h Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 205440 (2012) Inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the quantum molecular dynamics of a H2 molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 205440 (2012) Inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the quantum transfer arising from the neutron scattering event has also been investigated. The -dependence spectra investigations using infrared (IR),3,13­15 inelastic neutron scattering (INS),3,16,17 and nuclear magnetic

  5. Neutron Electric Dipole Moments from Beyond the Standard Model Physics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switch for| SciTech Connect Neutron Electric

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS The effect of neutron and gamma radiation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS The effect of neutron and gamma radiation on magnet components Michael University of Technology Atominstitut, Vienna, Austria RESMM Workshop, Fermilab, 14 February 2012 #12;LOW. Hengstberger, R. Prokopec, M. Zehetmayer PhD students: T. Baumgartner, M. Chudy, J. Emhofer #12;LOW TEMPERATURE

  7. Centrifugal quantum states of neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; A. K. Petukhov; K. V. Protasov; A. Yu. Voronin

    2008-06-24

    We propose a method for observation of the quasi-stationary states of neutrons, localized near the curved mirror surface. The bounding effective well is formed by the centrifugal potential and the mirror Fermi-potential. This phenomenon is an example of an exactly solvable "quantum bouncer" problem that could be studied experimentally. It could provide a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, as well as quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects. We develop formalism, which describes quantitatively the neutron motion near the mirror surface. The effects of mirror roughness are taken into account.

  8. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    I The Physics of High-Efficiency Solar Cells 2 Luminescentint , on theoretical solar cell efficiency. The shortfall isjunction, flat-plate solar cell efficiency records over

  9. Fundamental Principles of Theoretical Physics and Concepts of Quantum Protectorate and Emergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Kuzemsky

    2012-03-14

    A concise survey of the advanced unifying ideas of modern physics, namely, spontaneous symmetry breaking, quasiaverages, quantum protectorate and emergence was presented. The interrelation of the concepts of symmetry breaking, quasiaverages and quantum protectorate was analyzed in the context of quantum theory and statistical physics. The main aim of this analysis was to demonstrate the connection and interrelation of these conceptual advances of the many-body physics and to try to show explicitly that those concepts, though different in details, have a certain common features. Some problems in the field of statistical physics of complex materials and systems e.g. foundation of the microscopic theory of magnetism and superconductivity were pointed in relation to these ideas.

  10. This major provides a solid foundation in both the biological sciences and the fundamental concepts of classical and quantum physics through a variety of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, Richard M.

    and Modern Physics PHYS 190: Physics Discovery Series Upper Division Requirements* BISC 320: MolecularThis major provides a solid foundation in both the biological sciences and the fundamental concepts of classical and quantum physics through a variety of tools that include abstract thought, experimentation

  11. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  12. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  13. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  14. Neutron Interferometry: Lessons in Experimental Quantum Mechanics Helmut Rauch and Samuel A. Werner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Jeffrey W.

    Neutron Interferometry: Lessons in Experimental Quantum Mechanics Helmut Rauch and Samuel A. Werner Today, 55, 52 (2002). The copious availability of thermalized neutrons makes them an ideal probe of choice for many fundamental physics investigations. A prime example is the field of neutron

  15. Fundamentals of Non-relativistic Collisionless Shock Physics: V. Acceleration of Charged Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Treumann; C. H. Jaroschek

    2008-06-25

    A comprehensive review is given of the various processes proposed for accelerating particles by shocks to high energies. These energies are limited by several bounds: the non-relativistic nature of the heliospheric collisionless shocks to which this review restricts, the finite size of these shocks, the finite width of the downstream region, and to the nature of turbulence. In general, collisionless shocks in the heliosphere cannot accelerate particles to very high energies. As a fundamental problem of the acceleration mechanism the injection of see particles is identified. Some mecchanisms for production of seed particles are invoked. Acceleration of electrons begins to uncover its nature. The following problems are covered in this chapter: 1. Introduction -- first and second order Fermi acceleration, 2. Accelerating ions when they are already fast, diffusive acceleration, convection diffusion equation, Lee's self-consistent quasilinear shock acceleration model, 3. Observations, 4. The injection problem, ion surfing, test particle simulations, self-consistent shock acceleration simulations, downstream leakage, trapped particle acceleration, 5. Accelerating electrons, Sonnerup-Wu mechanism, Hoshino's electron shock surfing on quasi-perpendicular shocks, quasiparallel shock surfing.

  16. The {beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 37}K as a multi-faceted probe of fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melconian, D.; Mehlman, M.; Behling, R. S.; Behr, J. A.; Gorelov, A.; Jackson, K. P.; Kong, T.; Pearson, M. R.; Ashery, D.; Shidling, P.

    2011-06-28

    Precision {beta} decay experiments represent an important and complimentary approach to high-energy searches for physics outside the ''Standard Model'', our current understanding of fundamental particles and their interactions. The mirror decay of {sup 37}K provides an excellent probe with which to search for new physics. The ft value of this (as well as other T = 1/2 mirror transitions) can be used to provide a measurement of the value of the V{sub ud} element of the CKM mass-mixing matrix, complementing the value obtained from superallowed pure Fermi decays. In addition, the polarized angular distribution parameters are sensitive to a variety of possible new physics: the {beta} and {nu} asymmetries can be used to search for right-handed currents in the charged weak interaction, and their energy-dependences are sensitive to second-class currents forbidden in the Standard Model. Time-reversal symmetry can also be tested by a precision measurement of the triple-vector correlation between the initial nuclear spin and the momenta of the leptons. An overview of the variety of physics that can be probed using laser-cooled {sup 37}K and the techniques used to perform the precision measurements is presented.

  17. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Duff

    2014-12-17

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

  18. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duff, M J

    2014-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might...

  19. Neutron beta-decay, Standard Model and cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov

    2007-02-09

    The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. The neutron lifetime recently obtained, 878.5 +/- 0.7stat +/- 0.3sys s, is the most accurate one to date. The new result for the neutron lifetime differs from the world average value by 6.5 standard deviations. The impact of the new result on testing of Standard Model and on data analysis for the primordial nucleosynthesis model is scrutinized.

  20. arXiv:0711.0150v1[gr-qc]1Nov2007 Space-based research in fundamental physics and quantum technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    technologies Slava G. Turyshev, Ulf E. Israelsson, Michael Shao, Nan Yu Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current

  1. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Christophe; Linda J. Spilker; John D. Anderson; Nicolas André; Sami W. Asmar; Jonathan Aurnou; Don Banfield; Antonella Barucci; Orfeu Bertolami; Robert Bingham; Patrick Brown; Baptiste Cecconi; Jean-Michel Courty; Hansjörg Dittus; Leigh N. Fletcher; Bernard Foulon; Frederico Francisco; Paulo J. S. Gil; Karl-Heinz Glassmeier; Will Grundy; Candice Hansen; Jörn Helbert; Ravit Helled; Hauke Hussmann; Brahim Lamine; Claus Lämmerzahl; Laurent Lamy; Rolland Lehoucq; Benjamin Lenoir; Agnès Levy; Glenn Orton; Jorge Páramos; Joël Poncy; Frank Postberg; Sergei V. Progrebenko; Kim R. Reh; Serge Reynaud; Clélia Robert; Etienne Samain; Joachim Saur; Kunio M. Sayanagi; Nicole Schmitz; Hanns Selig; Frank Sohl; Thomas R. Spilker; Ralf Srama; Katrin Stephan; Pierre Touboul; Peter Wolf

    2012-06-17

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and found four rings and evidence of ring arcs above Neptune. Benefiting from a greatly improved instrumentation, it will result in a striking advance in the study of the farthest planet of the Solar System. Furthermore, OSS will provide a unique opportunity to visit a selected Kuiper Belt object subsequent to the passage of the Neptunian system. It will consolidate the hypothesis of the origin of Triton as a KBO captured by Neptune, and improve our knowledge on the formation of the Solar system. The probe will embark instruments allowing precise tracking of the probe during cruise. It allows to perform the best controlled experiment for testing, in deep space, the General Relativity, on which is based all the models of Solar system formation. OSS is proposed as an international cooperation between ESA and NASA, giving the capability for ESA to launch an M-class mission towards the farthest planet of the Solar system, and to a Kuiper Belt object. The proposed mission profile would allow to deliver a 500 kg class spacecraft. The design of the probe is mainly constrained by the deep space gravity test in order to minimise the perturbation of the accelerometer measurement.

  2. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 562 (2006) 401406 Generating a multi-line neutron beam using an electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 562 (2006) 401­406 Generating a multi-line neutron beam using an electron Linac and a U-filter R. Moreha,b,Ã, R.C. Blockb , Y. Danonb a Physics with the steady-state filtered neutron beams obtained using nuclear reactors [1­4]. The filter materials used

  3. Solvent contribution to the stability of a physical gel characterized by quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvie Spagnoli; Isabelle Morfin; Miguel A. Gonzalez; Pierre Carcabal; Marie Plazanet

    2015-02-05

    The dynamics of a physical gel, namely the Low Molecular Mass Organic Gelator {\\textit Methyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-$\\alpha$ -D-mannopyranoside ($\\alpha$-manno)} in water and toluene are probed by neutron scattering. Using high gelator concentrations, we were able to determine, on a timescale from a few ps to 1 ns, the number of solvent molecules that are immobilised by the rigid network formed by the gelators. We found that only few toluene molecules per gelator participate to the network which is formed by hydrogen bonding between the gelators' sugar moieties. In water, however, the interactions leading to the gel formations are weaker, involving dipolar, hydrophobic or $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions and hydrogen bonds are formed between the gelators and the surrounding water. Therefore, around 10 to 14 water molecules per gelator are immobilised by the presence of the network. This study shows that neutron scattering can give valuable information about the behaviour of solvent confined in a molecular gel.

  4. Faculty of Science The study of physics allows us to understand how the universe works--from the fundamental forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Introductory Physics I and II General Chemistry I and II Linear Algebra I, Differential Calculus, and IntegralFaculty of Science Physics The study of physics allows us to understand how the universe works future technologies and provides a deeper insight into nature. www.uwindsor.ca/physics Our physics

  5. NEUTRON ELECTRIC-DIPOLE MOMENT, ULTRACOLD NEUTRONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEUTRON ELECTRIC-DIPOLE MOMENT, ULTRACOLD NEUTRONS AND POLARIZED 3He R. GOLUB~and Steve K REPORTS (Review Section of Physics Letters) 237, No. 1(1994)1--62. PHYSICS REPORTS North-Holland Neutron electric-dipole moment, ultracold neutrons and polarized 3He R. Goluba and Steve K. Lamoreauxb a

  6. Physics of Neutron Interactions with 238 U: New Developments and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    on the 238 U nucleus with the aim of improving our knowl- edge of neutron scattering. The reaction model and inelastically scattered neutrons. Improvement of scattering cross sections in existing libraries is discussed. I meeting on "Inelas- tic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Ma- jor Actinides in the Fast Neutron

  7. Standard Practice for Application and Analysis of Nuclear Research Emulsions for Fast Neutron Dosimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Nuclear Research Emulsions (NRE) have a long and illustrious history of applications in the physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences (1,2) . In the physical sciences, NRE experiments have led to many fundamental discoveries in such diverse disciplines as nuclear physics, cosmic ray physics and high energy physics. In the applied physical sciences, NRE have been used in neutron physics experiments in both fission and fusion reactor environments (3-6). Numerous NRE neutron experiments can be found in other applied disciplines, such as nuclear engineering, environmental monitoring and health physics. Given the breadth of NRE applications, there exist many textbooks and handbooks that provide considerable detail on the techniques used in the NRE method. As a consequence, this practice will be restricted to the application of the NRE method for neutron measurements in reactor physics and nuclear engineering with particular emphasis on neutron dosimetry in benchmark fields (see Matrix E706). 1...

  8. On Discrete Physics: a Perfect Deterministic Structure for Reality - And "The Mathematical Derivation of the Laws of the Fundamental Forces of Nature"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramin Zahedi

    2015-11-11

    In part I (pp. 1-10) of this article, I provide an analysis and overview of some notable definitions, works and thoughts concerning discrete physics (a.k.a. digital philosophy, digital physics or digital cosmology) that propose finite, discrete and deterministic characteristics for the physical world. Particular attention is given to theories which suggest cellular automata, as the basis of a (or the only) perfect mathematical deterministic model for the physical reality. In part II (the main part, pp.11-104, Ref. [37]) of this article, I've presented a new algebraic matrix approach based on the theory of Rings (including the Integral Domains). On the basis of this approach, by linearization (and simultaneous parameterization) followed by quantization of the relativistic energy-momentum relation, a unique set of tensor field equations are derived. These tensor equations are shown to correspond to the general forms of equations of motion of all the fundamental fields of physics, including the laws of the fundamental forces of nature (i.e. gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear field equations), the relativistic particle wave-equations, and their generalizations. Notably, this result is primarily mathematical, assuming the relativistic energy-momentum is discrete (that is a basic and primary quantum mechanical assumption). In particular, the general theory of relativity is shown to be obtained by quantization of the special theory of relativity. Moreover, through a systematic procedure, using the tensor field equations derived and also assuming a basic discrete symmetry of physics (i.e. parity symmetry of the free particle fields), I've also shown that the universe cannot have more than four space-time dimensions (including the absence of two space-time dimensions). Subsequently, an argument for asymmetry of the left-handed and right-handed (interacting) particles is presented.

  9. Comments to "Comparison of two experiments on radiative neutron decay" by R.U.Khafizov et al., published in Physics of Atomic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Kuznetsov

    2010-06-22

    Some critical comments and remarks on the article "Comparison of two experiments on radiative neutron decay" by R.U.Khafizov et al., published in Physics of Atomic Nuclei.

  10. The Extreme Physics Explorer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis

    2006-08-25

    Some tests of fundamental physics - the equation of state at supra-nuclear densities, the metric in strong gravity, the effect of magnetic fields above the quantum critical value - can only be measured using compact astrophysical objects: neutron stars and black holes. The Extreme Physics Explorer is a modest sized (~500 kg) mission that would carry a high resolution (R ~300) X-ray spectrometer and a sensitive X-ray polarimeter, both with high time resolution (~5 ?s) capability, at the focus of a large area (~5 sq.m), low resolution (HPD~1 arcmin) X-ray mirror. This instrumentation would enable new classes of tests of fundamental physics using neutron stars and black holes as cosmic laboratories.

  11. The neutron star mass distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiziltan, B; Kottas, A; De Yoreo, M; Thorsett, SE

    2013-01-01

    Science Library, Vol. 326, Neutron Stars 1 : Equation ofBlack holes, white dwarfs, and neutron stars: The physics ofPhys. Rev. , 55, 364 The Neutron Star Mass Distribution van

  12. A thesis submitted to Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Fundamental Research, Mumbai for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics by Argha Banerjee Department of Theoretical Physics Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Mumbai November 2010 #12;2 #12;Acknowledgements I of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Candidate: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date

  13. Fellowship Announcement Graduate School "Symmetry Breaking" One of the key ideas in modern physics is the realization that symmetries are of fundamental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaus, Boris

    Vanderhaeghen, Hartmut Wittig) Experimental Nuclear Physics (Achim Denig, Concettina Sfienti) What we offer Particle Physics Hadron and Nuclear Physics Atomic Physics Nuclear Chemistry Quantum Field Theory

  14. Results from the Commissioning of the n-TOF Spallation Neutron Source at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borcea, C; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; García-Muñoz, G; Haefner, P; Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Lacoste, V; Radermacher, E; Saldaña, F; Vlachoudis, V; Zanini, L; Rubbia, Carlo; Buoni, S; Dangendorf, V; Nolte, R; Weierganz, M

    2003-01-01

    The new neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF) has been built at CERN and is now operational. The facility is intended for the measurement of neutron induced cross sections of relevance to Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and to fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by spallation of the 20 GeV/c proton beam, delivered by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), on a massive target of pure lead. A measuring station is placed at about 185 m from the neutron producing target, allowing high-resolution measurements. The facility was successfully commissioned with two campaigns of measurements, in Nov. 2000 and Apr. 2001. The main interest was concentrated in the physical parameters of the installation (neutron flux and resolution function), along with the target behavior and various safety-related aspects. These measurements confirmed the expectations from Monte Carlo simulations of the facility, thus allowing to initiate the foreseen physics program.

  15. Configuration Spaces in Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2015-05-13

    I consider configuration spaces for $N$-body problems, gauge theories and for GR in both geometrodynamical and Ashtekar variables forms, including minisuperspace and inhomogeneous perturbations thereabout in the former case. These include many interesting spaces of shapes (with and without whichever of local or global notions of scale). In considering reduced configuration spaces, stratified manifolds arise. Three strategies to deal with these are `excise', `unfold' and `accept'. I show that spaces of triangles arising from various interpretations of 3-body problems already serve as model arena for all three. I furthermore argue in favour of the `accept' strategy on relational grounds. Sheaf methods then become relevant in this case, as does the stratifold construct that pairs some well-behaved stratified manifolds with sheaves. I apply arguing against `excise' and `unfold' to GR's superspace and thin sandwich, and to the removal of collinear configurations in mechanics. Non-redundant configurations are also useful in providing more accurate names for various spaces and theories. I also cover notions of distance between shapes, that some perturbative midisuperspace configuration spaces are simple and similar to minisuperspace ones, and similarities between CS (conformal superspace) and CS + V (including the global spatial volume).

  16. Optimization of the Ballistic Guide Design for the SNS FNPB 8.9 A Neutron Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeyasu M. Ito; Christopher B. Crawford; Geoffrey L. Greene

    2006-04-28

    The optimization of the ballistic guide design for the SNS Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline 8.9 A line is described. With a careful tuning of the shape of the curve for the tapered section and the width of the straight section, this optimization resulted in more than 75% increase in the neutron flux exiting the 33 m long guide over a straight m=3.5 guide with the same length.

  17. Civil Engineering students learn to apply mathematics, physical sciences, and fundamentals of engineering mechanics to research, plan, design, construct, manage, and maintain one-of-a-kind infrastructure systems such as roads, airports, tunnels, bridges,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Civil Engineering students learn to apply mathematics, physical sciences, and fundamentals.S. WANT TO LEARN MORE? Take: Engineering Analysis 205-2; Civ Env 216 Join: American Society of Civil Brandis, `15 RECENT ALUMNUS The NU Civil Engineering program develops your skillset to differentiate you

  18. Lunar geophysics: The Moon's fundamental shape and paleomagnetism studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, Viranga

    2014-01-01

    Tectonics.   Reviews  of  Geophysics  and  Space   Physics  SANTA CRUZ Lunar geophysics: The Moon’s fundamental shapeViranga Perera Lunar geophysics: The Moon’s fundamental

  19. Measurements of ultracold neutron lifetimes in solid deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Morris; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; B. W. Filippone; P. Geltenbort; R. E. Hill; M. Hino; S. Hoedl; G. E. Hogan; T. M. Ito; T. Kawai; K. Kirch; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; L. J. Marek; J. W. Martin; R. N. Mortensen; A. Pichlmaier; A. Saunders; S. J. Seestrom; D. Smith; W. Teasdale; B. Tipton; M. Utsuro; A. R. Young; J. Yuan

    2001-09-28

    We present the first measurements of the survival time of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in solid deuterium SD2. This critical parameter provides a fundamental limitation to the effectiveness of superthermal UCN sources that utilize solid ortho-deuterium as the source material. Superthermal UCN sources offer orders of magnitude improvement in the available densities of UCNs, and are of great importance to fundamental particle-physics experiments such as searches for a static electric dipole moment and lifetime measurements of the free neutron. These measurements are performed utilizing a SD2 source coupled to a spallation source of neutrons, providing a demonstration of UCN production in this geometry and permitting systematic studies of the influence of thermal up-scatter and contamination with para-deuterium on the UCN survival time.

  20. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Physics 20300

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmann, Peter

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Syllabus Physics 20300 General Physics Designation: Required Undergraduate Catalog description: For majors in the life sciences (biology, medicine, dentistry, psychology, physical therapy) and for liberal arts students. Fundamental ideas and laws of physics from mechanics to modern

  1. NEUTRON INTERFEROMETRY Neutron Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Louis

    #12;NEUTRON INTERFEROMETRY #12;#12;Neutron Interferometry Lessons in Experimental Quantum Mechanics of the modern quantum mechanical literature. Neutron interferometry is a mature technique in experimental of many isotopes is given in Chapter 3. Very accurate measurements of the neutron scattering lengths

  2. Snowmass Cosmic Frontiers 6 (CF6) Working Group Summary --The Bright Side of the Cosmic Frontier: Cosmic Probes of Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. J. Beatty; A. E. Nelson; A. Olinto; G. Sinnis; A. U. Abeysekara; L. A. Anchordoqui; T. Aramaki; J. Belz; J. H. Buckley; K. Byrum; R. Cameron; M-C. Chen; K. Clark; A. Connolly; D. Cowen; T. DeYoung; P. von Doetinchem J. Dumm; M. Errando; G. Farrar; F. Ferrer; L. Fortson; S. Funk; D. Grant; S. Griffiths; A. Groß; C. Hailey; C. Hogan; J. Holder; B. Humensky; P. Kaaret; S. R. Klein; H. Krawczynski; F. Krennrich; K. Krings; J. Krizmanic; A. Kusenko; J. T. Linnemann; J. H. MacGibbon; J. Matthews; A. McCann; J. Mitchell; R. Mukherjee; D. Nitz; R. A. Ong; M. Orr; N. Otte; T. Paul; E. Resconi; M. A. Sanchez-Conde; P. Sokolsky; F. Stecker; D. Stump; I. Taboada; G. B. Thomson; K. Tollefson; P. von Doetinchem; T. Ukwatta; J. Vandenbroucke; V. Vasileiou; V. V. Vassileiv; T. J. Weiler; D. A. Williams; A. Weinstein; M. Wood; B. Zitzer

    2013-10-25

    Report of the CF6 Working Group at Snowmass 2013. Topics addressed include ultra-high energy cosmic rays, neutrinos, gamma rays, baryogenesis, and experiments probing the fundamental nature of spacetime.

  3. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. II. The (n,n{sup '}) cross section of {sup 187}Os at 30 keV neutron energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosconi, M.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2010-07-15

    The inelastic neutron-scattering cross section of {sup 187}Os has been determined in a time-of-flight experiment at the Karlsruhe 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. An almost monoenergetic beam of 30-keV neutrons was produced at the threshold of the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Information on the inelastic channel is required for reliable calculations of the so-called stellar enhancement factor, by which the laboratory cross section of {sup 187}Os must be corrected in order to account for the thermal population of low-lying excited states at the temperatures of s-process nucleosynthesis, in particular of the important state at 9.75 keV. This correction represents a crucial step in the interpretation of the {sup 187}Os/{sup 187}Re pair as a cosmochronometer.

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 014607 (2010) Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    , and Nuclear Engineering, NES 1-25, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180, USA 2 Los Alamos National Lab, Los; published 19 January 2010) A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy are necessary for accurate, detailed neutronics calculations for new

  5. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  6. 2009 International Conference on Neutron Scattering (ICNS 2009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopal Rao, PhD; Donna Gillespie

    2010-08-05

    The ICNS provides a focal point for the worldwide neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as �¢����would-be�¢��� neutron users. The International Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as an international user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ICNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. Each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, ANL, HFIR and SNS), along with their international counterparts, has an opportunity to exchange information with each other and to update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities.

  7. The Neutron Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. E. Wietfeldt

    2014-11-13

    The decay of the free neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino is the prototype semileptonic weak decay and the simplest example of nuclear beta decay. The nucleon vector and axial vector weak coupling constants G_V and G_A determine the neutron lifetime as well as the strengths of weak interaction processes involving free neutrons and protons that are important in astrophysics, cosmology, solar physics and neutrino detection. In combination with a neutron decay angular correlation measurement, the neutron lifetime can be used to determine the first element of the CKM matrix Vud. Unfortunately the two main experimental methods for measuring the neutron lifetime currently disagree by almost 4 sigma. I will present a brief review of the status of the neutron lifetime and prospects for the future.

  8. Characterization of Fundamental Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben J Baten

    2009-05-25

    This report provides an alternative to the Standard Model of particle physics. The model described here is based on results from Quantum Field Mechanics, according to which all fundamental particles and interactions originate from the interaction of two pre-space/pre-time protofields. In contrast with the Standard Model, (virtual) interaction-particles are absent in the description of any of the four fundamental interactions. Electrons perform a single quantum beat process while mesons and baryons have, respectively, two and three bound quantum beat processes. Quantum Field Mechanics suggests that the charge of an electron and positron can be identified with the two possible phases of a quantum beat process as observed in the electromagnetic protofield. This report assumes that short-range binding interaction between quantum beat processes has a masking effect on the externally observable charge of hadrons. Using this assumption, the internal structure of particles is derived from their known particle charges and relative masses. The particle structures are used to obtain the so-called charge-quantum phase law. The fractional charge of quantum beat processes inside a particle is deduced by rewriting the charge-quantum phase law in terms of a linear combination of charge contributions of individual constituent quantum beat processes. Strangeness and isospin are mathematically defined in terms of the quantum beat phases of sets of particles of the same type. Application of conservation laws to particle processes leads to relations between quantum phase, strangeness and isospin.

  9. Neutron Detection Efficiency of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Neutron Detection Efficiency of the CLAS12 Detector M. Moog and G. Gilfoyle University Of Richmond - Department of Physics Software We simulated the neutron detection efficiency of the forward time of flight scintillators for quasielastic electron-neutron scattering using a series of software packages. Elastic

  10. Neutron Electric Dipole Moments from Beyond the Standard Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron Electric Dipole Moments from Beyond the Standard Model Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Electric Dipole Moments from Beyond the Standard Model...

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 86, 024612 (2012) Neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering as a probe of neutron density distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    provides a theoretically appealing way to measure the neutron part of nuclear form factors. Using an expansion of form factors into moments, we show that neutrinos from stopped pi- ons can probe not only of various nuclear energy functionals. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.024612 PACS number(s): 25.30.Pt, 21.10.Gv, 21

  12. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local organization and planning assistance. Additional logistical support is being provided this year through a partnership with the conferencing office of the Materials Research Society (MRS). The ACNS, targeting the entire potential neutron North American user community, complements the annual NIST, ANL and LANSCE neutron and scattering schools which give hands-on experience primarily to graduate students who anticipate using neutron scattering in their thesis research. The summer schools are promoted at the ACNS and represent a natural path for students to take after being inspired by the activities of the ACNS.

  13. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group (PDG) Organizations American Institute of Physics (AIP) American Physical Society (APS) Institute of Physics (IOP) SPIE - International society for optics and photonics Top...

  14. Neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  15. 2008 NIST Center for Neutron Research Accomplishments and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Nanda, et al. NEUTRON PHYSICS 24 Precision Measurement of the Spin-Dependent Neutron­ Helium-3 for Rapid Detection of Neutrons, A. K.Thompson, et al. 50 Visualizing Nanoscale Magnetism in 3D

  16. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - A class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025: 2010 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claus Braxmaier; Hansjörg Dittus; Bernard Foulon; Ertan Göklü; Catia Grimani; Jian Guo; Sven Herrmann; Claus Lämmerzahl; Wei-Tou Ni; Achim Peters; Benny Rievers; Étienne Samain; Hanns Selig; Diana Shaul; Drazen Svehla; Pierre Touboul; Gang Wang; An-Ming Wu; Alexander F. Zakharov

    2011-04-01

    This paper on ASTROD I is based on our 2010 proposal submitted for the ESA call for class-M mission proposals, and is a sequel and an update to our previous paper [Experimental Astronomy 23 (2009) 491-527; designated as Paper I] which was based on our last proposal submitted for the 2007 ESA call. In this paper, we present our orbit selection with one Venus swing-by together with orbit simulation. In Paper I, our orbit choice is with two Venus swing-bys. The present choice takes shorter time (about 250 days) to reach the opposite side of the Sun. We also present a preliminary design of the optical bench, and elaborate on the solar physics goals with the radiation monitor payload. We discuss telescope size, trade-offs of drag-free sensitivities, thermal issues and present an outlook. ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test General Relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over 3 orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, thereby probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals.

  17. Duality, Residues, Fundamental class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-22

    May 22, 2011 ... Duality, Residues, Fundamental class. Joseph Lipman. Purdue University. Department of Mathematics lipman@math.purdue.edu. May 22 ...

  18. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - A class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025: 2010 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braxmaier, Claus; Foulon, Bernard; Göklü, Ertan; Grimani, Catia; Guo, Jian; Herrmann, Sven; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ni, Wei-Tou; Peters, Achim; Rievers, Benny; Samain, Étienne; Selig, Hanns; Shaul, Diana; Svehla, Drazen; Touboul, Pierre; Wang, Gang; Wu, An-Ming; Zakharov, Alexander F

    2011-01-01

    This paper on ASTROD I is based on our 2010 proposal submitted for the ESA call for class-M mission proposals, and is a sequel and an update to our previous paper [Experimental Astronomy 23 (2009) 491-527; designated as Paper I] which was based on our last proposal submitted for the 2007 ESA call. In this paper, we present our orbit selection with one Venus swing-by together with orbit simulation. In Paper I, our orbit choice is with two Venus swing-bys. The present choice takes shorter time (about 250 days) to reach the opposite side of the Sun. We also present a preliminary design of the optical bench, and elaborate on the solar physics goals with the radiation monitor payload. We discuss telescope size, trade-offs of drag-free sensitivities, thermal issues and present an outlook. ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test General Relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over 3 orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and ...

  19. Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

  20. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Physics Our science answers questions about the nature of the universe and delivers solutions for national security concerns. Contact Us Division Leader Doug Fulton Deputy...

  1. Crystal chemistry of three-component white dwarfs and neutron star crusts: phase stability, phase stratification, and physical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engstrom, T A; Crespi, V H

    2015-01-01

    A systematic search for multicomponent crystal structures is carried out for five different ternary systems of nuclei in a polarizable background of electrons, representative of accreted neutron star crusts and some white dwarfs. Candidate structures are "bred" by a genetic algorithm, and optimized at constant pressure under the assumption of linear response (Thomas-Fermi) charge screening. Subsequent phase equilibria calculations reveal eight distinct crystal structures in the $T=0$ bulk phase diagrams, five of which are complicated multinary structures not before predicted in the context of compact object astrophysics. Frequent instances of geometrically similar but compositionally distinct phases give insight into structural preferences of systems with pairwise Yukawa interactions, including and extending to the regime of low density colloidal suspensions made in a laboratory. As an application of these main results, we self-consistently couple the phase stability problem to the equations for a self-gravit...

  2. Reactor physics methods, models, and applications used to support the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehin, J.C.; Worley, B.A.; Renier, J.P.; Wemple, C.A.; Jahshan, S.N.; Ryskammp, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the neutronics analysis performed during 1991 and 1992 in support of characterization of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). The methods used in the analysis, parametric studies, and key results supporting the design and safety evaluations of the conceptual design are presented. The analysis approach used during the conceptual design phase followed the same approach used in early ANS evaluations: (1) a strong reliance on Monte Carlo theory for beginning-of-cycle reactor performance calculations and (2) a reliance on few-group diffusion theory for reactor fuel cycle analysis and for evaluation of reactor performance at specific time steps over the fuel cycle. The Monte Carlo analysis was carried out using the MCNP continuous-energy code, and the few- group diffusion theory calculations were performed using the VENTURE and PDQ code systems. The MCNP code was used primarily for its capability to model the reflector components in realistic geometries as well as the inherent circumvention of cross-section processing requirements and use of energy-collapsed cross sections. The MCNP code was used for evaluations of reflector component reactivity effects and of heat loads in these components. The code was also used as a benchmark comparison against the diffusion-theory estimates of key reactor parameters such as region fluxes, control rod worths, reactivity coefficients, and material worths. The VENTURE and PDQ codes were used to provide independent evaluations of burnup effects, power distributions, and small perturbation worths. The performance and safety calculations performed over the subject time period are summarized, and key results are provided. The key results include flux and power distributions over the fuel cycle, silicon production rates, fuel burnup rates, component reactivities, control rod worths, component heat loads, shutdown reactivity margins, reactivity coefficients, and isotope production rates.

  3. Static Response of Neutron Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buraczynski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully non-perturbative microscopic Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.

  4. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 566 (2006) 598608 The number distribution of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    2006-01-01

    of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a multiplying sample Andreas Enqvista,�, Imre Pa´ zsita , Sara is an analytical derivation of the full probability distribution of the number of neutrons and photons generated. With the introduction of a modified factorial moment of the number of neutrons and gamma photons generated in fission

  5. Why gravity is fundamental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan Gao

    2011-07-16

    It is argued that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime described by general relativity.

  6. Neutron-Anti-Neutron Oscillation: Theory and Phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Mohapatra

    2009-02-05

    The discovery of neutrino masses has provided strong hints in favor of the possibility that B-L symmetry is an intimate feature of physics beyond the standard model. I discuss how important information about this symmetry as well as other scenarios for TeV scale new physics can be obtained from the baryon number violating process, neutron-anti-neutron oscillation. This article presents an overview of different aspects of neutron-anti-neutron oscillation and is divided into the following parts : (i) the phenomenon; (ii) the physics, (iii) plausible models and (iv) applications to cosmology. In particular, it is argued how the discovery of $n-\\bar{n}$ oscillation can significantly affect our thinking about simple grand unified theory paradigms for physics beyond the standard model, elucidate the nature of forces behind neutrino mass and provide a new microphysical view of the origin of matter in the universe.

  7. Neutron guide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Geoffrey L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  8. EWONAP Procurement Fundamentals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HUD's Eastern Woodlands Office of Native American Programs in collaboration with the Seminole Tribe of Florida Native Learning Center invites you to attend the Procurement Fundamentals training instructed by Vince Franco, Compliance & Resource Development Director of the Native Learning Center in Atlanta, Georgia on September 8-9, 2014.

  9. Neutron Scattering Studies of Vortex Matter in Type-II Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinsheng Ling

    2012-02-02

    The proposed program is an experimental study of the fundamental properties of Abrikosov vortex matter in type-II superconductors. Most superconducting materials used in applications such as MRI are type II and their transport properties are determined by the interplay between random pinning, interaction and thermal fluctuation effects in the vortex state. Given the technological importance of these materials, a fundamental understanding of the vortex matter is necessary. The vortex lines in type-II superconductors also form a useful model system for fundamental studies of a number of important issues in condensed matter physics, such as the presence of a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the presence of random pinning. Recent advances in neutron scattering facilities such as the major upgrade of the NIST cold source and the Spallation Neutron Source are providing unprecedented opportunities in addressing some of the longstanding issues in vortex physics. The core component of the proposed program is to use small angle neutron scattering and Bitter decoration experiments to provide the most stringent test of the Bragg glass theory by measuring the structure factor in both the real and reciprocal spaces. The proposed experiments include a neutron reflectometry experiment to measure the precise Q-dependence of the structure factor of the vortex lattice in the Bragg glass state. A second set of SANS experiments will be on a shear-strained Nb single crystal for testing a recently proposed theory of the stability of Bragg glass. The objective is to artificially create a set of parallel grain boundaries into a Nb single crystal and use SANS to measure the vortex matter diffraction pattern as a function of the changing angle between the applied magnetic field to the grain boundaries. The intrinsic merits of the proposed work are a new fundamental understanding of type-II superconductors on which superconducting technology is based, and a firm understanding of phases and phase transitions in condensed matter systems with random pinning. The broader impact of the program includes the training of future generation of neutron scientists, and further development of neutron scattering and complementary techniques for studies of superconducting materials. The graduate and undergraduate students participating in this project will learn the state-of-the-art neutron scattering techniques, acquire a wide range of materials research experiences, and participate in the frontier research of superconductivity. This should best prepare the students for future careers in academia, industry, or government.

  10. The Proton Beams for the New Time-of-Flight Neutron Facility at the CERN-PS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappi, R; Métral, G

    2000-01-01

    The experimental determination of neutron cross sections in fission and capture reactions as a function of the neutron energy is of primary importance in nuclear physics. Recent developments at CERN and elsewhere have shown that many fields of research and development, such as the design of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental nuclear physics, dosimetry for radiological protection and therapy, would benefit from a better knowledge of neutron cross sections. A neutron facility at the CERN-PS has been proposed with the aim of carrying out a systematic and high resolution study of neutron cross sections through Time-Of-Flight (n-TOF) measurement. The facility requires a high intensity proton beam (about 0.7x1013 particles/bunch) distributed in a short bunch (about 25 ns total length) to produce the neutrons by means of a spallation process in a lead target. To achieve these characteristics, a number of complex beam gymnastics have to be performed. All...

  11. Neutron Scattering Tutorials | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron Scattering Tutorials SHARE Neutron Scattering Tutorials The following lectures were presented at the 2011 and 2010 National School on Neutron & X-Ray Scattering. This...

  12. NEUTRONS AND 2 D ADSORBED PHASES. NEUTRON SCATTERING FROM 36ArAND 4HeFILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NEUTRONS AND 2 D ADSORBED PHASES. NEUTRON SCATTERING FROM 36ArAND 4HeFILMS K. CARNEIRO Physics. - The technique of neutron scattering is well established as a unique tool to investigate the details technique to physisorbed phases is quite natural. But on the other hand since neutron scattering, compared

  13. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  14. Interfacial Magnetism in Complex Oxide Heterostructures Probed by Neutrons and X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaohua; Ke, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic complex-oxide heterostructures are of keen interest because a wealth of phenomena at the interface of dissimilar materials can give rise to fundamentally new physics and potentially valuable functionalities. Altered magnetization, novel magnetic coupling and emergent interfacial magnetism at the epitaxial layered-oxide interfaces have all been intensively investigated, which shapes our understanding on how to utilize those materials, particularly for spintronics. Neutron and x-ray based techniques have played a decisive role in characterizing interfacial magnetic structures and clarifying the underlying physics in this rapidly developing field. Here we review some recent experimental results, with an emphasis on those studied via polarized neutron reflectometery and polarized x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We conclude with some perspectives.

  15. Quantum states of neutrons in the gravitational and centrifugal potentials in a new GRANIT spectrometer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    We will discuss the scientific program to be studied in a new gravitational spectrometer GRANIT in a broad context of quantum states (quantum behaviour) of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in gravitational [1] and centrifugal [2] potentials, as well as applications of these phenomena/spectrometer to various domains of physics, ranging from studies of fundamental short-range interactions and symmetries to neutron quantum optics and reflectometry using UCN. All these topics, as well as related instrumental and methodical developments have been discussed during dedicated GRANIT-2010 Workshop [3]. The GRANIT spectrometer has been recently installed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France [4] and could become operational in near future. 1. V.V. Nesvizhevsky et al (2002), Nature 415, 297. 2. V.V. Nesvizhevsky et al (2010), Nature Physics 6, 114. 3. GRANIT-2010, Les Houches, 14-19 february 2010. 4. M. Kreuz et al (2009), NIM 611, 326.

  16. Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hot neutron star in generalized thermo-statistics K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract The hot neutron star (NS) is investigated for the ...rst time in the generalized thermo-statistics. The study of neutron star (NS) is an important subject in nuclear physics and astro- physics. The equation

  17. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids).

  18. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems.

  19. Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | Center for GasPhysics Physics Print Because a

  20. Prospects for fusion neutron NPLs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petra, M.; Miley, G.H.; Batyrbekov, E.; Jassby, D.L.; McArthur, D. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois, 100 NEL, 103 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2984 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    To date, nuclear pumped lasers (NPLs) have been driven by neutrons from pulsed research fission reactors. However, future applications using either a Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) neutron source or an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) source appear attractive. One unique combination proposed earlier would use a neutron feedback NPL driver in an ICF power plant. 14-MeV D-T neutrons (and 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons) provide a unique opportunity for a neutron recoil pumped NPL. Alternatively, these neutrons can be thermalized to provide thermal-neutron induced reactions for pumping. Initial experience with a fusion-pumped NPL can possibly be obtained using the D-T burn experiments in progress/planning at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak devices or at the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) high-gain ICF target experimental facility. With neutron fluxes presently available, peak thermalized fluxes at a test laser in the shield region could exceed 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. Several low-threshold NPLs might be utilized in such an experiment, including the He-Ne-H{sub 2} NPL and the Ar-Xe NPL. Experimental set-ups for both the tokamak and the NIF will be described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 432 (1999) 403}409 Measurement of the thermal and fast neutron #ux in a research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    1999-01-01

    the neutron converter material to measure neu- trons of various energies, such as fast, thermal and epithermal positions, such as between the fuel plates of an MTR-type reactor. At the same time, its sensitive volume

  2. Neutron tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Reijonen, Jani (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  3. Design and Simulation of a Boron-loaded Neutron Spectrometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Thomas

    2012-10-19

    The measurement of the distribution of kinetic energy carried by neutron particles is of interest to the health physics and radiation protection industry. Neutron particle spectral fluence is essential to the calculation of absorbed dose, equivalent...

  4. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B?+?n?????+?{sup 7}Li, with ? and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T?=?8?K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40?mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  5. Fundamental Scratch Behavior of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Random Copolymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, Robert Lee

    2011-10-21

    The present study employs a standardized progressive load scratch test (ASTM D7027/ISO 19252) to investigate the fundamental physical and mechanistic origins of scratch deformation in styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) random ...

  6. Fundamentals of Ceramic Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    in the manufacture of the each of the main classes of ceramic products from the initial raw materials through the composition-microstructure-property relationships for ceramic materials. 3. Understand the raw materials used to manufacture ceramic products, the chemical and physical material changes that take place when manufacturing

  7. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  8. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  9. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  10. Neutron Tomography and Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egbert, Hal; Walker, Ronald; Flocchini, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kevin Shields, “Optimization of neutron tomography for rapidNEUTRON TOMOGRAPHY AND SPACE Hal Egbert, Ronald Walker, R.industrial applications[1]. Neutron Computed Tomography was

  11. Engineering Physics University of Saskatchewan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Engineering Physics at the University of Saskatchewan Professor Adam Bouras adam.bourassa@usask. #12;What is Engineering Physics? A bridge between engineering and pure science Physics + Engineering + Mathematics Fundamental physics and math combined with engineering and problem solving analytical

  12. Dynamic Properties of Materials: Phonons from Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, Elizabeth Ruth

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of fundamental material properties can be obtained through the study of atomic vibrations, performed experimentally with neutron scattering techniques and coupled with the two powerful new computational methodologies I have...

  13. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  14. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul D. Lasky

    2015-08-26

    Neutron stars are excellent emitters of gravitational waves. Squeezing matter beyond nuclear densities invites exotic physical processes, many of which violently transfer large amounts of mass at relativistic velocities, disrupting spacetime and generating copious quantities of gravitational radiation. I review mechanisms for generating gravitational waves with neutron stars. This includes gravitational waves from radio and millisecond pulsars, magnetars, accreting systems and newly born neutron stars, with mechanisms including magnetic and thermoelastic deformations, various stellar oscillation modes and core superfluid turbulence. I also focus on what physics can be learnt from a gravitational wave detection, and where additional research is required to fully understand the dominant physical processes at play.

  15. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasky, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Neutron stars are excellent emitters of gravitational waves. Squeezing matter beyond nuclear densities invites exotic physical processes, many of which violently transfer large amounts of mass at relativistic velocities, disrupting spacetime and generating copious quantities of gravitational radiation. I review mechanisms for generating gravitational waves with neutron stars. This includes gravitational waves from radio and millisecond pulsars, magnetars, accreting systems and newly born neutron stars, with mechanisms including magnetic and thermoelastic deformations, various stellar oscillation modes and core superfluid turbulence. I also focus on what physics can be learnt from a gravitational wave detection, and where additional research is required to fully understand the dominant physical processes at play.

  16. Fundamentals of plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forslund, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing size and speed of modern computers, the incredibly complex nonlinear properties of plasmas in the laboratory and in space are being successfully explored in increasing depth. Of particular importance have been numerical simulation techniques involving finite size particles on a discrete mesh. After discussing the importance of this means of understanding a variety of nonlinear plasma phenomena, we describe the basic elements of particle-in-cell simulation and their limitations and advantages. The differencing techniques, stability and accuracy issues, data management and optimization issues are discussed by means of a simple example of a particle-in-cell code. Recent advances in simulation methods allowing large space and time scales to be treated with minimal sacrifice in physics are reviewed. Various examples of nonlinear processes successfully studied by plasma simulation will be given.

  17. Neutron Repulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2011-02-08

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding how: a.) The Sun generates and releases neutrinos, energy and solar-wind hydrogen and helium; b.) An inhabitable planet formed and life evolved around an ordinary-looking star; c.) Continuous climate change - induced by cyclic changes in gravitational interactions of the Sun's energetic core with planets - has favored survival by adaptation.

  18. Cyclotrons to Make Neutrons & Radioactive Targets for SBSS at...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Cyclotrons to Make Neutrons & Radioactive Targets for SBSS at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear...

  19. Nuclear Theory Helps Forecast Neutron Star Temperatures | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nuclear Theory Helps Forecast Neutron Star Temperatures Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear...

  20. Introduction to theory and analysis of resolved (and unresolved) neutron resonances via SAMMY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, N.M.

    1998-07-01

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two distinct purposes: first, they provide insight into the nature of matter, thus assisting in the understanding of fundamental physics; second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, and for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this paper, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular technique used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher-energy regions.

  1. Research on fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-19

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  2. Neutron Scattering User Program | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Program SHARE Neutron Scattering Can Benefit Your Research Neutron scattering has applications in almost every technical and scientific field, from biology and chemistry to...

  3. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum and Zirconium Neutron Total Cross Section Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum;-1746- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011 Fig. 2. Experimental setup showing

  4. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 55, No. 4, October 2009, pp. 13891393 Measurements of the Neutron Scattering Spectrum from 238

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 55, No. 4, October 2009, pp. 13891393 Measurements electron current of 60 µA . The pulsed electron beam im- -1389- #12;-1390- Journal of the Korean Physical

  5. Design and performance considerations for perforated semiconductor thermal-neutron detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    Design and performance considerations for perforated semiconductor thermal-neutron detectors J neutron detectors Solid state neutron detectors a b s t r a c t Perforated silicon structures backfilled. Although many perforated structures are possible, there are three fundamental designs that are studied

  6. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Horowitz

    2013-03-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  7. Fundamentals of gas measurement II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to- day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the gas purchase or sales contracts or transportation agreements.

  8. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  9. Fundamental Symmetries of the Modified Anyonic Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejad, Salman Abarghouei; Monemzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    We try to increase the fundamental symmetries of the anyonic particle with the help of the symplectic formalism of constrained systems and gauging the model. The main idea of this approach is based on the embedding of the model in an extended phase space. After the gauging process had done, we obtain generators of gauge transformations of the model. Finally, by extracting the corresponding Poisson structure of all constraints, we compare the effect of gauging on the the phase spaces, the number of physical degrees of freedom, and canonical structures of both primary and gauged models.

  10. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Durham, M.D. (ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)); Sowa, W.A. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. (Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)); Mahaffey, W.A. (CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  11. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  13. Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tribal Energy NEPA Fundamentals Workshop is a three-day workshop for tribes to understand how to manage the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process and implement the Council on...

  14. Big bang nucleosynthesis as a probe of fundamental "constants"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Dent; Steffen Stern

    2007-10-25

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the earliest sensitive probe of the values of many fundamental particle physics parameters. We have found the leading linear dependences of primordial abundances on all relevant parameters of the standard BBN code, including binding energies and nuclear reaction rates. This enables us to set limits on possible variations of fundamental parameters. We find that 7Li is expected to be significantly more sensitive than other species to many fundamental parameters, a result which also holds for variations of coupling strengths in grand unified (GUT) models. Our work also indicates which areas of nuclear theory need further development if the values of ``constants'' are to be more accurately probed.

  15. LA DIFFUSION DES NEUTRONS Physique des Solides, Universit Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , topographie de Lang aux neutrons. Abstract. 2014 The physical basis of the scattering of neutrons is discussed. In particular, the energy spectrum of the inelastically scattered neutrons may be determined experimentally. The possibilities of the neutron scattering due to their weak absorption coefficient in matter

  16. NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyerl, Albert

    NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP BY ASHISH M. DESAI determination of the neutron lifetime has an impact on particle physics and cosmology. We report progress towards a measurement of the neutron lifetime using an accordion-like storage trap. Ultracold neutrons

  17. "Doublet", Neutron and Neutron stars --- An essay on Landau and Neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renxin Xu

    2011-03-02

    The concept of extremely dense matter at supra-nuclear density was first speculated by L. Landau in the beginning of 1930s when neutron was just discovered. A historical review on these issues not only explains the interaction between micro and cosmic physics, but also has profound implications for scientific innovation. It is surely meaningful in realistic physics education to look back to this history. (The review was published in Chinese.)

  18. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Adam; C. Naya; J. Sanchez-Guillen; R. Vazquez; A. Wereszczynski

    2015-02-26

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather natural proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide excellent results as well as some new perspectives for the description of bulk properties of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is a few solar masses, the precise value depending on the precise values of the model parameters, and the resulting neutron star radius is of the order of 10 km.

  19. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 582 (2007) 629637 Monte Carlo and analytical models of neutron detection with organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 582 (2007) 629­637 Monte Carlo and analytical materials in applications such as nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and basic physics research unfolding, which have a variety of applications, including nuclear nonproliferation and homeland security

  20. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  1. Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber Office Hall--Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics

  2. Fundamental

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom the Building to the

  3. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  4. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 562 (2006) 380388 Modeling solid-state boron carbide low energy neutron detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 562 (2006) 380­388 Modeling solid-state boron Available online 10 March 2006 Abstract Two independent techniques for modeling boron-based solid

  5. Physics Division News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons (pdf) Trident Laser Facility High-energy-density Plasma Physics (pdf) MagViz, Ultra-low-field MRI (pdf) From Brains to Baggage: A New Take on MRI (pdf) More news about...

  6. Probing Dark Energy models with neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Pignol

    2015-03-11

    There is a deep connection between cosmology -- the science of the infinitely large --and particle physics -- the science of the infinitely small. This connection is particularly manifest in neutron particle physics. Basic properties of the neutron -- its Electric Dipole Moment and its lifetime -- are intertwined with baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis in the early Universe. I will cover this topic in the first part, that will also serve as an introduction (or rather a quick recap) of neutron physics and Big Bang cosmology. Then, the rest of the manuscript will be devoted to a new idea: using neutrons to probe models of Dark Energy. In the second part, I will present the chameleon theory: a light scalar field accounting for the late accelerated expansion of the Universe, which interacts with matter in such a way that it does not mediate a fifth force between macroscopic bodies. However, neutrons can alleviate the chameleon mechanism and reveal the presence of the scalar field with properly designed experiments. In the third part, I will describe a recent experiment performed with a neutron interferometer at the Institut Laue Langevin that sets already interesting constraints on the chameleon theory. Last, the chameleon field can be probed by measuring the quantum states of neutrons bouncing over a mirror. In the fourth part I will present the status and prospects of the GRANIT experiment at the ILL.

  7. Probing Dark Energy models with neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Pignol

    2015-09-16

    There is a deep connection between cosmology -- the science of the infinitely large --and particle physics -- the science of the infinitely small. This connection is particularly manifest in neutron particle physics. Basic properties of the neutron -- its Electric Dipole Moment and its lifetime -- are intertwined with baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis in the early Universe. I will cover this topic in the first part, that will also serve as an introduction (or rather a quick recap) of neutron physics and Big Bang cosmology. Then, the rest of the manuscript will be devoted to a new idea: using neutrons to probe models of Dark Energy. In the second part, I will present the chameleon theory: a light scalar field accounting for the late accelerated expansion of the Universe, which interacts with matter in such a way that it does not mediate a fifth force between macroscopic bodies. However, neutrons can alleviate the chameleon mechanism and reveal the presence of the scalar field with properly designed experiments. In the third part, I will describe a recent experiment performed with a neutron interferometer at the Institut Laue Langevin that sets already interesting constraints on the chameleon theory. Last, the chameleon field can be probed by measuring the quantum states of neutrons bouncing over a mirror. In the fourth part I will present the status and prospects of the GRANIT experiment at the ILL.

  8. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  9. SHARP Neutronics Expanded

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SHARP neutronics module, PROTEUS, includes neutron and gamma transport solvers and cross-section processing tools as well as the capability for depletion and fuel cycle analysis.

  10. Instruments | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer CG-2 GP-SANS - General-Purpose Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer 4A MR - Magnetism Reflectometer CG-3 Bio-SANS -...

  11. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmann, Peter

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus Physics 20700 General Physics Designation: Elective./Sem. Prerequisites: Pre- or coreq.: Math 20200 for Physics 20700. (Required for all students in the Physical Sciences, Engineering and Computer Science.) Textbook and other suggested material: "Fundamentals of Physics 9th Edition

  12. Physics 100B General Physics II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    and Magnetic fields, Currents and circuits, Electromagnetic fields, Optics, Special Theory of Relativity an understanding and appreciation of the fundamental laws of electricity, magnetism and modern physics. At the end, Quantum Theory, Atomic physics, Nuclear Physics, and Elementary particles. (Chapters 19-31) Requirement

  13. Combining fundamental research of experimental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    . Profile courses: Kite Power and Propulsion, Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity, Wind Turbine Design and Site of it in the design of next generation wind turbines. At TU Delft we offer you a leading academic programme Energy combines fundamental and applied research disciplines of aerospace an wind-power systems, focusing

  14. Fundamental development of numerical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Power and Propulsion, Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity, Wind Turbine Design and Site Conditions for Wind Energy combines fundamental and applied research disciplines of aerospace and wind-power systems aerodynamics · Be familiar with the design of wind tunnel experiments, and have experience with modern

  15. Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelos-Zaragoza, Robert H.

    Cognitive Radio: Fundamentals and Opportunities Robert H. Morelos-Zaragoza Department of Electrical Engineering San Jose State University October 12, 2007 #12;Cognitive Radio - RHMZ - 2007 Slide 2 of 18 Outline 1. Software-defined radio (SDR) a) Black-box approach b) Components and attributes (Mitola) 2

  16. Mehrbenutzerbetrieb Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    12. Updates in SQL / Mehrbenutzerbetrieb 12­1 Teil 12: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, Addison­Wesley, 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO

  17. References: Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    7. SQL I 7­1 Part 7: SQL I References: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' (Sect. 8.2, 8.3.3, part of 8. . Date/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, Addison­Wesley , 1997. . Date: A Guide

  18. What are Neutrons? | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What are Neutrons SHARE What are Neutrons? Visualization of An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. a...

  19. Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education Energy Literacy:...

  20. Sub-Barrier Fusion Cross-Sections of Neutron-Rich Light Nuclei Indiana University, GANIL, Western Michigan Univ., Michigan State Univ.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    . Horowitz) Physics Motivations: Neutron Star Crust Fusion Dynamics EOS The crust of an accreting neutron star is a unique environment for pycnonuclear (density driven) fusion of neutron-rich light nuclei of neutron star merger is influenced by EOS. #12;IU: Sub-Barrier Fusion Cross-Sections of Neutron-Rich Light

  1. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D: APPLIED PHYSICS J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 (2006) 49614968 doi:10.1088/0022-3727/39/23/010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    -state neutron detectors based on planar B-rich capture layers A D Harken and B W Robertson Department 2006 Published 17 November 2006 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysD/39/4961 Abstract Solid-state neutron thermal neutron detection efficiencies of any solid-state neutron detectors. A simple physical model

  2. The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliki Kalogera; Gordon Baym

    1996-08-11

    Observational identification of black holes as members of binary systems requires the knowledge of the upper limit on the gravitational mass of a neutron star. We use modern equations of state for neutron star matter, fitted to experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and the properties of light nuclei, to calculate, within the framework of Rhoades & Ruffini (1974), the minimum upper limit on a neutron star mass. Regarding the equation of state as valid up to twice nuclear matter saturation density, rho_{nm}, we obtain a secure upper bound on the neutron star mass equal to 2.9 solar masses. We also find that in order to reach the lowest possible upper bound of 2.2 solar masses, we need understand the physical properties of neutron matter up to a density of about 4 times rho_{nm}.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE: ...................................................................................... EAS B9014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    and Physics 20700 and 20800 Textbook (required): Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey (2nd editionFUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE% Students will write a term paper, linking a topic learned in class with either (a) their own research or (b

  4. Semiconductor Fundamentals tlu@math.pku.edu.cn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tiao

    physics to solid materials. More specifically, we are interested in semiconductor crystals. Crystals. Such a structure yields a periodic potential throughout the material. #12;Introduction Two properties of crystalsSemiconductor Fundamentals tlu@math.pku.edu.cn :http://dsec.pku.edu.cn/~tlu :http

  5. Study of levitating nanoparticles using ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; A. Yu. Voronin; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

    2012-05-07

    Physical adsorption of atoms, molecules and clusters on surface is known. It is linked to many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Usually the studies of adsorption are limited to the particle sizes of up to ~10^2-10^3 atoms. Following a general formalism, we apply it to even larger objects and discover qualitatively new phenomena. A large particle is bound to surface in a deep and broad potential well formed by van der Waals/ Casimir-Polder forces. The well depth is significantly larger than the characteristic thermal energy. Nanoparticles in high-excited bound states form two-dimensional gas of objects quasi-freely traveling along surface. A particularly interesting prediction is small-energy-transfer scattering of UCN on solid/ liquid surfaces covered by such levitating nanoparticles/ nano-droplets. The change in UCN energy is due to the Doppler shift induced by UCN collisions with nanoparticles; the energy change is about as small as the UCN initial energy. We compare theoretical estimations of our model to all relevant existing data and state that they agree quite well. As our theoretical formalism provides robust predictions and the experimental data are rather precise, we conclude that the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon of small heating of UCN in traps is due to their collisions with such levitating nanoparticles. Moreover, this new phenomenon might be relevant to the striking contradiction between results of the neutron lifetime measurements with smallest reported uncertainties as it might cause major false effects in these experiments; thus it affects fundamental conclusions concerning precision checks of unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, cosmology, astrophysics. Dedicated measurements of UCN up-scattering on specially prepared surfaces and nanoparticles levitating above them might provide a unique method to study surface potentials.

  6. Neutrostriction in Neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. K. Ignatovich

    2006-06-29

    It is demonstrated that not only gravity, but also neutrostriction forces due to optical potential created by coherent elastic neutron-neutron scattering can hold a neutron star together. The latter forces can be stronger than gravitational ones. The effect of these forces on mass, radius and structure of the neutron star is estimated.

  7. Fundamental limitations for quantum and nano thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2014-10-25

    The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit - when the number of particles becomes very large. Here, we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime - at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transformations, and as special cases, find two free energies: one that quantifies the deterministically extractable work from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other that quantifies the reverse process. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from nonequilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences. This implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale. As one application of these methods, we analyse the efficiency of small heat engines and find that they are irreversible during the adiabatic stages of the cycle.

  8. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  9. Neutron-Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in a Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kerbikov; O. Lychkovskiy

    2008-06-01

    We calculate the rate of neutron-mirror-neutron oscillations for ultracold neutrons trapped in a storage vessel. Recent experimental bounds on the oscillation time are discussed.

  10. Physics Based on Physical Monism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seong-Dong Kim

    2006-03-22

    Based on a physical monism, which holds that the matter and space are classified by not a difference of their kind but a difference of magnitude of their density, I derive the most fundamental equation of motion, which is capable of providing a deeper physical understanding than the known physics. For example, this equation answers to the substantive reason of movement, and Newton's second law, which has been regarded as the definition of force, is derived in a substantive level from this equation. Further, the relativistic energy-mass formula is generalized to include the potential energy term, and the Lorentz force and Maxwell equations are newly derived.

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 022505 (2015) Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gratta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    , Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland 16 Lawrence

  12. Offered Fall Semester: Biological Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Offered Fall Semester: Biological Physics Physics 466 / Physics 566 (conjoint) provides a fundamental physical understanding of the operation of cells, biomolecules and molecular machines. MWF 4:10-5:00pm, Webster 11 (3 cr) Instructor: Fred Gittes, Clinical Professor of Physics and Astronomy: gittes

  13. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  14. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Nils B. Becker; Thomas E. Ouldridge; A. Mugler

    2015-05-25

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this noise extrinsic to the cell as much as possible. These networks, however, are also stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, and then how downstream signaling pathways integrate the noise in the receptor state; we will discuss how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time together set a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes of resources---receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy---and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade-off between accuracy and energetic cost.

  15. Fundamental Interactions - Research - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServicesAmesFourFromFuel CellFullFundamental

  16. From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Jha

    2009-02-02

    Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

  17. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, Stephen H. (East Syracuse, NY)

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  18. programme in MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?umer, Slobodan

    CODEX Doctoral programme in MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS Ljubljana, August 2008 #12;FMF UL, Phys.....................................................................................4 3. Fundamental objectives of the doctoral study programme mathematics and physics and general Subprogramme Mathematics....................................................................13 11.2 Mobility

  19. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  20. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  1. Neutron streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-05-14

    Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

  2. Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    247 Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for NCT V. Belov1 , S. Fadeev1, Russia Summary Neutron producing targets for novel accelerator based neutron source [1, 2] are presented Neutron producing target is one of the main elements of proposed accelerator based facility for neutron

  3. FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. In addition to presenting the general results with respect to the maximum sustainable throughput of wireless

  4. Protons and Neutrons for Testing at LBNL | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Protons and Neutrons for Testing at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of...

  5. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  6. Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shekhar, Prashant; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are nano-engineered media with designed properties beyond those available in nature with applications in all aspects of materials science. In particular, metamaterials have shown promise for next generation of optical materials with electromagnetic responses that cannot be obtained from conventional media. We review the fundamental properties of metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and present the various applications where such media offer potential for transformative impact. These artificial materials support unique bulk electromagnetic states which can tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. We present a unified view of current research in the field of hyperbolic metamaterials such as sub-wavelength imaging and broadband photonic density of states engineering. The review introduces the concepts central to the theory of hyperbolic media as well as nanofabrication and characterization details essential to experimentalists. Finally, we outline the challenges in the area and offer a...

  7. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  8. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  9. Dose equivalent neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Richard V. (Pleasanton, CA); Hankins, Dale E. (Livermore, CA); Tomasino, Luigi (Rome, IT); Gomaa, Mohamed A. M. (Heliopolis, EG)

    1983-01-01

    A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurements indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer containing conversion material such as .sup.6 Li and .sup.10 B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet. The density of conversion material in the radiator layer is of an amount which is chosen so that the density of tracks produced in the detecting sheet is proportional to the biological damage done by neutrons, regardless of whether the tracks are produced as the result of moderate energy neutrons striking the radiator layer or as the result of higher energy neutrons striking the sheet of track etch material.

  10. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  11. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1985-06-19

    A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

  12. Characterization of a ballistic supermirror neutron guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Abele; D. Dubbers; H. Haese; M. Klein; A. Knoepfler; M. Kreuz; T. Lauer; B. Maerkisch; D. Mund; V. Nesvizhevsky; A. Petoukhov; C. Schmidt; M. Schumann; T. Soldner

    2005-10-26

    We describe the beam characteristics of the first ballistic supermirror neutron guide H113 that feeds the neutron user facility for particle physics PF1B of the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (ILL). At present, the neutron capture flux density of H113 at its 20x6cm2 exit window is 1.35x10^10/cm^2/s, and will soon be raised to above 2x10^10/cm^2/s. Beam divergence is no larger than beam divergence from a conventional Ni coated guide. A model is developed that permits rapid calculation of beam profiles and absolute event rates from such a beam. We propose a procedure that permits inter-comparability of the main features of beams emitted from ballistic or conventional neutron guides.

  13. Short Papers___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Estimating the Fundamental Matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Estimating the Fundamental Matrix via Constrained Least-Squares: A Convex Approach Graziano Chesi, AndreaÐIn this paper, a new method for the estimation of the fundamental matrix from point correspondences is presented on the fundamental matrix. It is shown how this nonconvex optimization problem can be solved avoiding local minima

  14. "Using fundamental chemical physics principles to guide the design and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    & Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 434.982.5671 Wadley Research Group Our research group morphing and thermal management. The group's research in thermal and environmental barrier coating systems with multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coatings. · A recently published paper in IJIE has discovered

  15. Caltech announces discovery in fundamental physics | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N

  16. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | More fundamental particles and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergyfeature photo featureParticleDark

  17. Simulation of a D-T Neutron Source for Neutron Scattering Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, T.P.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.L.; Leung, K.-N.

    2003-01-01

    T Neutron Source for Neutron Scattering Experiments T.P. Louor cold neutrons for neutron scattering experiments. Thisto simulate a neutron scattering setup and to estimate

  18. More about neutron - mirror neutron oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurab Berezhiani

    2009-11-12

    It was pointed out recently that oscillation of the neutron $n$ into mirror neutron $n'$, a sterile twin of the neutron with exactly the same mass, could be a very fast process with the the baryon number violation, even faster than the neutron decay itself. This process is sensitive to the magnetic fields and it could be observed by comparing the neutron lose rates in the UCN storage chambers for different magnetic backgrounds. We calculate the probability of $n-n'$ oscillation in the case when a mirror magnetic field $\\vec{B}'$ is non-zero and show that in this case it can be suppressed or resonantly enhanced by applying the ordinary magnetic field $\\vec{B}$, depending on its strength and on its orientation with respect to $\\vec{B}'$. The recent experimental data, under this hypothesis, still allow the $n-n'$ oscillation time order 1 s or even smaller. Moreover, they indicate that the neutron losses are sensitive to the orientation of the magnetic field. %at about $3\\sigma$ level. If these hints will be confirmed in the future experiments, this would point to the presence of the mirror magnetic field on the Earth of the order of 0.1 G, or some equivalent spin-dependent force of the other origin that makes a difference between the neutron and mirror neutron states.

  19. Bouncing Neutrons and the Neutron Centrifuge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. S. Watson

    2003-02-26

    The recent observation of the quantum state of the neutron bouncing freely under gravity allows some novel experiments. A method of purifying the ground state is given, and possible applications to the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and the short distance behaviour of gravity are discussed.

  20. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON FUSION MAGNET COMPONENTS ­ 1: SUPERCONDUCTORS Harald W, Austria Introduction: The ITER-Magnets, Neutron Spectra Low Temperature Superconductors Stabilizer HTS Conclusions WAMSDO Workshop, Geneva 14 November 2011 #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Overview: ITER 300

  1. Quark stars: their influence on Astroparticle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjay K. Ghosh

    2008-08-12

    We discuss some of the recent developments in the quark star physics along with the consequences of possible hadron to quark phase transition at high density scenario of neutron stars and their implications on the Astroparticle Physics.

  2. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  3. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  4. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  5. Fundamental Symmetries of the Early Universe and the Precision Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The search for the next Standard Model of fundamental interactions is being carried out at two frontiers: the high energy frontier involving the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider, and the high precision frontier where the focus is largely on low energy experiments. I discuss the unique and powerful window on new physics provided by the precision frontier and its complementarity to the information we hope to gain from present and future colliders.

  6. Fundamentals of a Third-Party Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grantham, F.; Stovall, D.

    1985-01-01

    -1 ----------------- FUNDAMENTALS OF A THIRD-PARTY COGENERATION PROJECT Frank. Grantham and Darrell Stovall Time Energy Systems, Inc., Houston, Texas ABSTRACT There is an increasing number of 2-10 ~W cogeneration projects involving retrofits at institutional and industrial... installations. This type of project requires that the cogeneration equipment be (al designed and sized to match the electrical and thermal usage of the facility and (b) retrofitted or integrated physically with the facility. Third party ownership...

  7. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Best; Joachim Gorres; Matthias Junker; Karl-Ludwig Kratz; Matthias Laubenstein; Alexander Long; Stefano Nisi; Karl Smith; Michael Wiescher

    2015-09-02

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  8. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  9. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, J M; Zhang, H F; Zuo, W

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  10. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; U. Lombardo; H. F. Zhang; W. Zuo

    2015-12-09

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  11. Neutron capture rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Surman; M. Mumpower; G. C. McLaughlin; R. Sinclair; W. R. Hix; K. L. Jones

    2013-08-31

    Simulations of r-process nucleosynthesis require nuclear physics information for thousands of neutron-rich nuclear species from the line of stability to the neutron drip line. While arguably the most important pieces of nuclear data for the r-process are the masses and beta decay rates, individual neutron capture rates can also be of key importance in setting the final r-process abundance pattern. Here we consider the influence of neutron capture rates in forming the A~80 and rare earth peaks.

  12. Neutron-antineutron transition as a test-bed for dynamical CPT violations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Addazi

    2015-08-30

    We show a simple mechanism for a dynamical CPT violation in the neutron sector. In particular, we show a {\\it CPT-violating see-saw mechanism}, generating a Majorana mass and a CPT violating mass for the neutron. CPT-violating see-saw involves a sterile partner of the neutron, living in a hidden sector, in which CPT is spontaneously broken. In particular, neutrons (antineutrons) can communicate with the hidden sector through non-perturbative quantum gravity effects called {\\it exotic instantons}. Exotic instantons dynamically break R-parity, generating one effective vertex between the neutron and its sterile partner. In this way, we show how a small CPT violating mass term for the neutron is naturally generated. This model can be tested in the next generation of experiments in neutron-antineutron physics. This strongly motivates researches of CPT-violating effects in neutron-antineutron physics, as a test-bed for dynamical CPT-violations in SM.

  13. Syndetic model of fundamental interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Ernest

    2015-02-01

    The standard model of quarks and leptons is extended to connect three outstanding issues in particle physics and astrophysics: (1) the absence of strong CPnonconservation, (2) the existence of dark matter, and (3) the mechanism of nonzero neutrino masses, and that of the first family of quarks and leptons, all in the context of having only one Higgs boson in a renormalizable theory. Some phenomenological implications are discussed.

  14. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1993-04-27

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations.

  15. High energy neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rai, K.S.F.

    1994-01-11

    A device for measuring dose equivalents in neutron radiation fields is described. The device includes nested symmetrical hemispheres (forming spheres) of different neutron moderating materials that allow the measurement of dose equivalents from 0.025 eV to past 1 GeV. The layers of moderating material surround a spherical neutron counter. The neutron counter is connected by an electrical cable to an electrical sensing means which interprets the signal from the neutron counter in the center of the moderating spheres. The spherical shape of the device allows for accurate measurement of dose equivalents regardless of its positioning. 2 figures.

  16. High energy neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Rai Ko S.F. (Albany, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring dose equivalents in neutron radiation fields. The device includes nested symmetrical hemispheres (forming spheres) of different neutron moderating materials that allow the measurement of dose equivalents from 0.025 eV to past 1 GeV. The layers of moderating material surround a spherical neutron counter. The neutron counter is connected by an electrical cable to an electrical sensing means which interprets the signal from the neutron counter in the center of the moderating spheres. The spherical shape of the device allows for accurate measurement of dose equivalents regardless of its positioning.

  17. Semiconductor neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-03-08

    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  18. Neutron scatter camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  19. Experimental and numerical characterization of the neutron field produced in the n@BTF Frascati photo-neutron source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedogni, R.; Buonomo, B.; Esposito, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Foggetta, L.; Gomez Ros. J.M.; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.08.032

    2011-01-01

    A photo-neutron irradiation facility is going to be established at the Frascati National Laboratories of INFN on the base of the successful results of the n@BTF experiment. The photoneutron source is obtained by an electron or positron pulsed beam, tunable in energy, current and in time structure, impinging on an optimized tungsten target located in a polyethylene-lead shielding assembly. The resulting neutron field, through selectable collimated apertures at different angles, is released into a 100 m2 irradiation room. The neutron beam, characterized by an evaporation spectrum peaked at about 1 MeV, can be used in nuclear physics, calibration of neutron detectors, material

  20. Review of Current Neutron Detection Systems for Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Maurer, R.; Guss, P.; Kruschwitz, C.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron detectors are used in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Modern micro-fabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  1. Study on neutron radiation field of carbon ions therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions offer significant advantages for deep-seated local tumors therapy due to their physical and biological properties. Secondary particles, especially neutrons caused by heavy ion reactions should be carefully considered in treatment process and radiation protection. For radiation protection purposes, the FLUKA Code was used in order to evaluate the radiation field at deep tumor therapy room of HIRFL in this paper. The neutron energy spectra, neutron dose and energy deposition of carbon ion and neutron in tissue-like media was studied for bombardment of solid water target by 430MeV/u C ions. It is found that the calculated neutron dose have a good agreement with the experimental date, and the secondary neutron dose may not exceed one in a thousand of the carbon ions dose at Bragg peak area in tissue-like media.

  2. Study on neutron radiation field of carbon ions therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun-Kui Xu; You-Wu Su; Wu-Yuan Li; Wei-Wei Yan; Xi-Meng Chen; Wang Mao; Cheng-Guo Pang

    2015-03-18

    Carbon ions offer significant advantages for deep-seated local tumors therapy due to their physical and biological properties. Secondary particles, especially neutrons caused by heavy ion reactions should be carefully considered in treatment process and radiation protection. For radiation protection purposes, the FLUKA Code was used in order to evaluate the radiation field at deep tumor therapy room of HIRFL in this paper. The neutron energy spectra, neutron dose and energy deposition of carbon ion and neutron in tissue-like media was studied for bombardment of solid water target by 430MeV/u C ions. It is found that the calculated neutron dose have a good agreement with the experimental date, and the secondary neutron dose may not exceed one in a thousand of the carbon ions dose at Bragg peak area in tissue-like media.

  3. Relativistic density functional theory for finite nuclei and neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Piekarewicz

    2015-02-05

    The main goal of the present contribution is a pedagogical introduction to the fascinating world of neutron stars by relying on relativistic density functional theory. Density functional theory provides a powerful--and perhaps unique--framework for the calculation of both the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars. Given the enormous densities that may be reached in the core of neutron stars, it is essential that such theoretical framework incorporates from the outset the basic principles of Lorentz covariance and special relativity. After a brief historical perspective, we present the necessary details required to compute the equation of state of dense, neutron-rich matter. As the equation of state is all that is needed to compute the structure of neutron stars, we discuss how nuclear physics--particularly certain kind of laboratory experiments--can provide significant constrains on the behavior of neutron-rich matter.

  4. Topological characterization of neutron star crusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. A. López

    2012-08-23

    Neutron star crusts are studied using a classical molecular dynamics model developed for heavy ion reactions. After the model is shown to produce a plethora of the so-called "pasta" shapes, a series of techniques borrowed from nuclear physics, condensed matter physics and topology are used to craft a method that can be used to characterize the shape of the pasta structures in an unequivocal way.

  5. About the Applied Physics Career Applied physics is a general term for physics which is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    ://www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising Applied Physics Career Options · Nuclear Physics* · Geophysics* · Atomic, molecular, optics physics, geoscience, mathematical sciences, physics and astronomy, and water management. The college has created a well-rounded curriculum by combining practical and empirical knowledge with scientific fundamentals

  6. MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    . Physics Career Options · Nuclear Physics* · Geophysics* · Atomic, molecular, optics physics* · Astronomy sciences, physics and astronomy, and water management. The college has created a well-rounded curriculum by combining practical and empirical knowledge with scientific fundamentals and principles, which provides

  7. The Fundamentals of Generalized Electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Tomilin

    2008-08-27

    The article presents an alternative approach to the definition of vector electrodynamic potential and its properties. It is shown that generally it has vortical and potential components. The system of differential equations of generalized electrodynamics (the macroscopical theory) is written down; and on the basis of these equations the mechanism of occurrence of the electromagnetic waves spreading in the direction of vector (longitudinal E-waves) is explained. It is demonstrated that the new macroscopical theory is in accordance with quantum electrodynamics. The author investigates the issue of physical pithiness of longitudinal electromagnetic E-waves and specifies the references to the experimental researches confirming the new theory.

  8. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensminger, Dale; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-09-17

    This is a new edition of a bestselling industry reference. Discusses the science, technology, and applications of low and high power ultrasonics, including industrial implementations and medical uses. Reviews the basic equations of acoustics, starting from basic wave equations and their applications. New material on property determination, inspection of metals (NDT) and non-metals, imaging, process monitoring and control. Expanded discussion of transducers, transducer wave-fields, scattering, attenuation and measurement systems and models. New material that discusses high power ultrasonics - in particular using mechanical effects and sonochemistry, including applications to nano-materials. Examines diagnosis, therapy, and surgery from a technology and medical physics perspective.

  9. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of RH up to a threshold value, depending on the coating chemistry. The mechanism for the adhesion increase beyond this threshold value is that the coupling agent reconfigures from a surface to a bulk phase (Chapter 3). To investigate the details of how the adhesion increase occurs, the authors developed the mechanics for adhesion hysteresis measurements. These revealed that near-crack tip compression is the underlying cause of the adhesion increase (Chapter 4). A vacuum deposition chamber for silane coupling agent deposition was constructed. Results indicate that vapor deposited coatings are less susceptible to degradation at high RH (Chapter 5). To address issues relating to surfaces in relative motion, a new test structure to measure friction was developed. In contrast to other surface micromachined friction test structures, uniform apparent pressure is applied in the frictional contact zone (Chapter 6). The test structure will enable friction studies over a large pressure and dynamic range. In this LDRD project, the authors established an infrastructure for MEMS adhesion and friction metrology. They then characterized in detail the performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic films under humid conditions, and determined mechanisms which limit this performance. These studies contribute to a fundamental understanding for MEMS reliability design rules. They also provide valuable data for MEMS packaging requirements.

  10. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall L. Headrick

    2009-01-06

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  11. Gravitationally enhanced depolarization of ultracold neutrons in magnetic field gradients, and implications for neutron electric dipole moment measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. G. Harris; J. M. Pendlebury; N. E. Devenish

    2013-06-05

    Trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) have for many years been the mainstay of experiments to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron, a critical parameter in constraining scenarios of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Because their energies are so low, UCN preferentially populate the lower region of their physical enclosure, and do not sample uniformly the ambient magnetic field throughout the storage volume. This leads to a substantial increase in the rate of depolarization, as well as to shifts in the measured frequency of the stored neutrons. Consequences for EDM measurements are discussed.

  12. Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    energy, or send an email to request hard copies by mail. April 2, 2015 Conocimiento de Energia Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education...

  13. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News &...

  14. Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Embrittlement Fundamentals, Modeling, and Experiment Embrittlement, under static load could be a result of the synergistic action of the HELP and decohesion...

  15. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  16. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics (NMCPP) -- Task A: Collider Physics; Task A2: Collider Physics; Task B: Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, John; Seidel, Sally; Gold, Michael

    2013-11-05

    During the period 2010-­?2012, we conducted particle physics research with the ATLAS and CDF experiments and developed new instrumentation for tracking fundamental particles.

  17. March, 2001 Neutron Scattering Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    March, 2001 Neutron Scattering Group A High Performance Hybrid Spectrometer for theA High of the instrument performance · Igor Zaliznyak · Laurence Passell OutlineOutline #12;Neutron Scattering GroupNeutron states in single crystals.single crystals. #12;Neutron Scattering GroupNeutron Scattering Group What

  18. Stochastic modeling and survival analysis of marginally trapped neutrons for a magnetic trapping neutron lifetime experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Coakley; M. S. Dewey; M. G. Huber; P. R. Huffman; C. R. Huffer; D. E. Marley; H. P. Mumm; C. M. O'Shaughnessy; K. W. Schelhammer; A. K. Thompson; A. T. Yue

    2015-08-10

    In a variety of neutron lifetime experiments, in addition to $\\beta-$decay, neutrons can be lost by other mechanisms including wall losses. Failure to account for these other loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in neutron lifetime measurements. In this work, we develop a physical model for neutron wall losses and construct a competing risks survival analysis model to account for losses due to the joint effect of $\\beta-$decay losses, wall losses of marginally trapped neutrons, and an additional absorption mechanism. We determine the survival probability function associated with the wall loss mechanism by a Monte Carlo method. Based on a fit of the competing risks model to a subset of the NIST experimental data, we determine the mean lifetime of trapped neutrons to be approximately 700 s -- considerably less than the current best estimate of (880.1 $\\pm$ 1.1) s promulgated by the Particle Data Group [1]. Currently, experimental studies are underway to determine if this discrepancy can be explained by neutron capture by ${}^3$He impurities in the trapping volume. Analysis of the full NIST data will be presented in a later publication.

  19. Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKigney, Edward A.; Stange, Sy

    2014-03-17

    These slides present a summary of previous work, conclusions, and anticipated schedule for the conclusion of our fast neutron detection evaluation.

  20. Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Office User Program Manager Laura Morris Edwards 865.574.2966 ORNL study uses neutron scattering, supercomputing to demystify forces at play in biofuel production Full...

  1. Lujan Neutron Scattering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent...

  2. GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934-FALL 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    GIS Fundamentals SUR 6934- FALL 2013 School of Forest Resources and ConservationGulf Coast Research _________________________________________________________________________________ GIS Fundamentals Description: This course introduces geographic information systems to Geomatics practical skills needed in many applications. Students learn basic GIS data modeling and managing concepts

  3. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1984-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, W.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report provides brief accounts of significant progress in development activities and research results achieved by Physics Division personnel during the period January 1, 1984, through September 31, 1986. These efforts are representative of the three main areas of experimental research and development in which the Physics Division serves Los Alamos National Laboratory's and the Nation's needs in defense and basic sciences: (1) defense physics, including the development of diagnostic methods for weapons tests, weapon-related high-energy-density physics, and programs supporting the Strategic Defense Initiative; (2) laser physics and applications, especially to high-density plasmas; and (3) fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and biophysics. Throughout the report, emphasis is placed on the design, construction, and application of a variety of advanced, often unique, instruments and instrument systems that maintain the Division's position at the leading edge of research and development in the specific fields germane to its mission. A sampling of experimental systems of particular interest would include the relativistic electron-beam accelerator and its applications to high-energy-density plasmas; pulsed-power facilities; directed energy weapon devices such as free-electron lasers and neutral-particle-beam accelerators; high-intensity ultraviolet and x-ray beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (at Brookhaven National Laboratory); the Aurora KrF ultraviolet laser system for projected use as an inertial fusion driver; antiproton physics facility at CERN; and several beam developments at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility for studying nuclear, condensed-matter, and biological physics, highlighted by progress in establishing the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center.

  4. COALESCING NEUTRON STARS AS GAMMA RAY BURSTERS ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruffert; H. -Th. Janka; W. Keil; G. Schaefer

    1995-03-06

    We investigate the dynamics and evolution of coalescing neutron stars. The three-dimensional Newtonian equations of hydrodynamics are integrated by the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' However, we do include the effects of the emission of gravitational waves on the hydrodynamics. The properties of neutron star matter are described by the equation of state of Lattimer & Swesty. In addition to the fundamental hydrodynamic quantities, density, momentum, and energy, we follow the time evolution of the electron density in the stellar gas. Energy losses and changes of the electron abundance due to the emission of neutrinos are taken into account by an elaborate ``neutrino leakage scheme'', which employs a careful calculation of the lepton number and energy source terms of all neutrino types. The grid is Cartesian and equidistant with a resolution of 64**3 or 128**3, which allows us to calculate the self-gravity via fast Fourier transforms.

  5. The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental Classification Guidance Review The Department of Energy's National Security Information Fundamental...

  6. Neutron Science Research Areas | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home | Science & Discovery | Neutron Science | Research Areas SHARE Research Areas Neutron scattering research at ORNL covers four broad research areas: biology and soft...

  7. Neutron Stars and Fractal Dimensionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2008-05-06

    We argue that the material inside Neutron stars behaves anomalously with fractal statistics and that in principle, we could induce mini Neutron stars, with the release of energy.

  8. Neutron capture therapies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  9. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  10. Supplementary data for HIV-1 Tat membrane interaction probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD, and MD simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    1 Supplementary data for HIV-1 Tat membrane interaction probed using X-ray and neutron scattering- spacing are linearly related. Figure S3. Neutron scattering from stacks of DOPC:DOPE (3:1)/Tat, x=0 of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180, 3 NIST Center for Neutron

  11. Pulsed neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-03-21

    A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

  12. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  13. Demonstration of a solid deuterium source of ultra-cold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Saunders; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; B. W. Filippone; P. Geltenbort; R. E. Hill; M. Hino; S. Hoedl; G. E. Hogan; T. M. Ito; K. W. Jones; T. Kawai; K. Kirch; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; L. J. Marek; J. W. Martin; C. L. Morris; R. N. Mortensen; A. Pichlmaier; S. J. Seestrom; A. Serebrov; D. Smith; W. Teasdale; B. Tipton; R. B. Vogelaar; A. R. Young; J. Yuan

    2003-12-18

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN), neutrons with energies low enough to be confined by the Fermi potential in material bottles, are playing an increasing role in measurements of fundamental properties of the neutron. The ability to manipulate UCN with material guides and bottles, magnetic fields, and gravity can lead to experiments with lower systematic errors than have been obtained in experiments with cold neutron beams. The UCN densities provided by existing reactor sources limit these experiments. The promise of much higher densities from solid deuterium sources has led to proposed facilities coupled to both reactor and spallation neutron sources. In this paper we report on the performance of a prototype spallation neutron-driven solid deuterium source. This source produced bottled UCN densities of 145 +/-7 UCN/cm3, about three times greater than the largest bottled UCN densities previously reported. These results indicate that a production UCN source with substantially higher densities should be possible.

  14. Neutron Interactions as Seen by A Segmented Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; K. Kroeninger; J. Liu; X. Liu; B. Majorovits

    2007-11-14

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed for the search for ``neutrinoless double beta decay'' (0-nu-2-beta) with germanium detectors enriched in Ge76. An 18-fold segmented prototype detector for GERDA Phase II was exposed to an AmBe neutron source to improve the understanding of neutron induced backgrounds. Neutron interactions with the germanium isotopes themselves and in the surrounding materials were studied. Segment information is used to identify neutron induced peaks in the recorded energy spectra. The Geant4 based simulation package MaGe is used to simulate the experiment. Though many photon peaks from germanium isotopes excited by neutrons are correctly described by Geant4, some physics processes were identified as being incorrectly treated or even missing.

  15. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  16. The electric charge and magnetic moment of neutral fundamental particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushik Bhattacharya

    2009-05-27

    The article focuses on the issue of the two definitions of charge, mainly the gauge charge and the effective charge of fundamental particles. Most textbooks on classical electromagnetism and quantum field theory only works with the gauge charges while the concept of the induced charge remains unattended. In this article it has been shown that for intrinsically charged particles both of the charges remain the same but there can be situations where an electrically neutral particle picks up some electrical charge from its plasma surrounding. The physical origin and the scope of application of the induced charge concept has been briefly discussed in the article.

  17. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Durham, M.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States); Sowa, W.A. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Himes, R.M. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Mahaffey, W.A. [CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  18. FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK Abstract. In this paper, I will briefly develop) Date: August 22, 2008. 1 #12;2 ETHAN JERZAK the structure of a group; the constant loop is the identity

  19. Some Fundamental Limitations for Cognitive Radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Anant

    ' & $ % Some Fundamental Limitations for Cognitive Radio Anant Sahai Wireless Foundations, UCB EECS program November 1 at BWRC Cognitive Radio Workshop #12;' & $ % Outline 1. Why cognitive radios? 2 November 1 at BWRC Cognitive Radio Workshop #12;' & $ % Apparent spectrum allocations · Traditional

  20. New measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. B. Grammer; R. Alarcon; L. Barrón-Palos; D. Blyth; J. D. Bowman; J. Calarco; C. Crawford; K. Craycraft; D. Evans; N. Fomin; J. Fry; M. Gericke; R. C. Gillis; G. L. Greene; J. Hamblen; C. Hayes; S. Kucuker; R. Mahurin; M. Maldonado-Velázquez; E. Martin; M. McCrea; P. E. Mueller; M. Musgrave; H. Nann; S. I. Penttilä; W. M. Snow; Z. Tang; W. S. Wilburn

    2015-04-24

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function $g(r)$ inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section $d\\sigma \\over d\\Omega$ from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43~meV and 16.1~meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6~K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1~meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra non-equilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely-used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. We describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  1. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation, flow measurements, evaluation methods FLOWACT, FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS IN PIPES WITH THE PULSED-NEUTRON ACTIVATION METHOD PER LINDÉN,* GUDMAR GROSSHÖG- neutron activation (PNA) in a specially designed test loop. A stationary neutron generator was used

  2. Neutron Scattering Group February, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    Neutron Scattering Group February, 2001 A High Performance Instrument for the Single Crystal Igor Zaliznyak Outline #12;Neutron Scattering Group Neutron spectrometer for studies of the low-energy coherent excitations in single crystals. Common requirements for a single crystal neutron spectrometer

  3. The resonance absorption probability function for neutron and multiplicative integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; S. I. Kosenko; S. A. Chernegenko

    2012-08-05

    The analytical approximations for the moderating neutrons flux density like Fermi spectra, widely used in reactor physics, involve the probability function for moderating neutron to avoid the resonant absorption obtained using some restrictive assumptions regarding the acceptable resonances width. By means of multiplicative integral (Volterra integral) theory for a commutative algebra an analytical expression for the probability function is obtained rigorously without any restrictive assumptions.

  4. Neutron Charge Radius: Relativistic Effects and the Foldy Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Araújo, W R B; Beyer, M; Weber, H J

    2003-01-01

    The neutron charge radius is studied within a light-front model with different spin coupling schemes and wave functions. The cancellation of the contributions from the Foldy term and Dirac form factor to the neutron charge form factor is verified for large nucleon sizes and it is independent of the detailed form of quark spin coupling and wave function. For the physical nucleon our results for the contribution of the Dirac form factor to the neutron radius are insensitive to the form of the wave function while they strongly depend on the quark spin coupling scheme.

  5. Neutron-induced nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Oberhummer; H. Herndl; T. Rauscher; H. Beer

    1996-08-20

    Neutron--induced nucleosynthesis plays an important role in astrophysical scenarios like in primordial nucleosynthesis in the early universe, in the s--process occurring in Red Giants, and in the $\\alpha$--rich freeze--out and r--process taking place in supernovae of type II. A review of the three important aspects of neutron--induced nucleosynthesis is given: astrophysical background, experimental methods and theoretical models for determining reaction cross sections and reaction rates at thermonuclear energies. Three specific examples of neutron capture at thermal and thermonuclear energies are discussed in some detail.

  6. Fundamental Symmetries of the Early Universe and the Precision Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael (University of Wisconsin) [University of Wisconsin

    2011-03-02

    The quest to explain nature's fundamental interactions and how they shaped the evolution of the universe is one of the most compelling in physics. The standard model of particle physics provides a partial explanation, but we know that it must be part of a larger, more complete framework. Experiments hoping to uncover details of the 'new standard model' are being carried out at two frontiers: the high energy frontier and the high precision frontier. In this talk, I discuss the theoretical implications of some of the key up-coming experiments at the precision frontier. I focus in particular on what they may teach us about the origin of matter and the possible existence of new forces that were important at earlier times in the evolution of the cosmos. I will also comment on how they complement experiments at the energy frontier.

  7. Finding Your Way through Physics at Rensselaer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persans, Peter D.

    · Electromagnetic Theory · Introductory Quantum Mechanics · Research/Capstone/ Physics Elective #12;Physics and Astronomy Electives · Fundamentals of Optics · Intro Astronomy and Astrophysics · Observational Astronomy to Nuclear Engineering · Fundamentals of Optics · Intro to Astro and Astro · Comp Sci 1 and Data Structures

  8. Neutron emission profiles and energy spectra measurements at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Conroy, S.; Belli, F.; Riva, M.; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lerche, E.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-08-21

    The Joint European Toras (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world. It is devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D) or Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. JET has been upgraded over the years and recently it has also become a test facility of the components designed for ITER, the next step fusion machine under construction in Cadarache (France). JET makes use of many different diagnostics to measure the physical quantities of interest in plasma experiments. Concerning D or DT plasmas neutron production, various types of detectors are implemented to provide information upon the neutron total yield, emission profile and energy spectrum. The neutron emission profile emitted from the JET plasma poloidal section is reconstructed using the neutron camera (KN3). In 2010 KN3 was equipped with a new digital data acquisition system capable of high rate neutron measurements (<0.5 MCps). A similar instrument will be implemented on ITER and it is currently in its design phase. Various types of neutron spectrometers with different view lines are also operational on JET. One of them is a new compact spectrometer (KM12) based on organic liquid scintillating material which was installed in 2010 and implements a similar digital data acquisition system as for KN3. This article illustrates the measurement results of KN3 neutron emission profiles and KM 12 neutron energy spectra from the latest JET D experimental campaign C31.

  9. Switchable radioactive neutron source device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

    1987-11-06

    This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

  10. Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Winter 2000 Instructor: Howard Haber OÆce: Kerr Hall|Room 289 REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Thermal Physics, by Ralph Baierlein Recommended Outside Reading: Thermal Physics, by Charles Kittel and Herbert Kroemer Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics

  11. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  12. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  13. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  14. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  15. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Leading neutron spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Kaidalov; V. A. Khoze; A. D. Martin; M. G. Ryskin

    2006-05-27

    It is shown that the observation of the spectra of leading neutrons from proton beams can be a good probe of absorptive and migration effects. We quantify how these effects modify the Reggeized pion-exchange description of the measurements of leading neutrons at HERA. We are able to obtain a satisfactory description of all the features of these data. We also briefly discuss the corresponding data for leading baryons produced in hadron-hadron collisions.

  17. Physics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in detail in the following areas: Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, neutron physics, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, atomic and plasma physics, and high energy physics. Publications are listed. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers. (WHK)

  18. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  19. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  20. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  1. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussos, George

    " Digital resources:! ­ Object info and location! ­ Maps! ­ Person info! ­ Activities! DigitalPhysical Physical (real) resources:! ­ People! ­ Objects! ­ Places! #12;Ubiquitous Computing" · Ubiquitous computing sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere,! ­ makes a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural

  2. 277Department of Physics Undergraduate Catalogue 201415

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    277Department of Physics Undergraduate Catalogue 2014­15 Department of Physics Chairperson: Isber in Physics Mission Statement The program leading to the Bachelor of Science emphasizes the fundamental concepts and principles of physics and their roles in a variety of disciplines, in a liberal arts setting

  3. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussos, George

    the vision, notably Ken Sakamura) The physical/digital discontinuity Digital resources: ­ Object info and location ­ Maps ­ Person info ­ Activities DigitalPhysical Physical (real) resources: ­ People ­ Objects a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it. · Also called

  4. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Fundamental Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussos, George

    : ­ Object info and location ­ Maps ­ Person info ­ Activities DigitalPhysical Physical (real) resources described the vision, notably Ken Sakamura) #12;The physical/digital discontinuity Digital resources everywhere, ­ makes a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking

  5. Neutron-deuteron breakup reaction as a tool for studying neutron-neutron interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konobeevski, E. S., E-mail: konobeev@inr.ru; Zuyev, S. V.; Mordovskoy, M. V.; Potashev, S. I.; Sharapov, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    An analysis of the most recent data on the reaction nd {yields} pnn revealed a serious discrepancy between theoretical predictions and cross sections measured for this reaction in various configurations where the role of neutron-neutron interactions is important. In view of this, it seems necessary both to develop theoretical approaches and to obtain new experimental data. For this purpose, a setup for studying the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction was created at the Institute for Nuclear Research on the basis of the neutron beam in the RADEX channel and deuterium targets. This facility makes it possible to perform experiments over a broad region of primary-neutron energies (10-60 MeV) and in various (final-state interaction, quasifree scattering, and spatial-star) configurations. Preliminary results of the respective experiment were obtained for configurations of final-state neutron-neutron interaction and quasifree neutron-neutron scattering.

  6. The Computational Fundamentals of Spatial Cycloidal Gearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nawratil, Georg

    The Computational Fundamentals of Spatial Cycloidal Gearing Giorgio Figliolini, Universit`a degli 2. Reuleaux's principle of gearing in the plane 3. Reuleaux's principle of gearing in 3-space 4. Consequences for skew gearing 5. Conclusion Computational Kinematics 2009, May 6­9, Duisburg/Germany 1 #12

  7. The Computational Fundamentals of Spatial Cycloidal Gearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nawratil, Georg

    The Computational Fundamentals of Spatial Cycloidal Gearing Giorgio Figliolini, Hellmuth Stachel and Jorge Angeles Abstract The tooth flanks of bevel gears with involute teeth are still cut using known. The modeling of the tooth flanks of gears with skew axes, however, still represents a challenge

  8. Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Huan

    Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges Mohammad Ali Abbasi, Huan Liu, and Reza Zafarani Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Arizona State University http://icdm2013.zafarani.net December 10, 2013 #12;2Social Media Mining Measures and Metrics 2Social Media Mining ICDM 2013 Tutorial

  9. Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti Spring 2012 Radio astronomy provides a very different view of the universe than optical astronomy. Radio astronomers and optical astronomers use different terminology to describe their work. Here I present some basic concepts and terms of radio

  10. Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems to articulate information-based principles for ultra-low-power design that apply to biology or to electronics of ultra- low-power electronics and bioelectronics is shown in the figure below. Engineering can aid

  11. Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    10. Updates in SQL 10­1 Teil 10: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, Addison­Wesley , 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO

  12. Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    7. Updates in SQL 7­1 Teil 7: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, Addison­Wesley , 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO

  13. Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals Kemper/Eickler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    10. Updates in SQL 10­1 Teil 10: Updates in SQL Literatur: . Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, ``SQL --- The Relational Database Standard'' . Kemper/Darwen: A Guide to the SQL Standard, Fourth Edition, Addison­Wesley, 1997. . van der Lans: SQL, Der ISO

  14. Title: Ontario Fundamental Data Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Ontario Fundamental Data Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Land Information Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Publisher: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Edition: N/A Versions: N/A Keywords (Place): Ontario Keywords (Subject): Boundaries, Protected Land Areas, Land Use, Buildings, Parks

  15. Preliminary Fundamentals 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    electromagnetic theory, synchronous machine construction, 2.0 Some essential electromagnetic 2.1 Self1 Preliminary Fundamentals 1.0 Introduction In all of our previous work, we assumed a very simple model of the electromagnetic torque Te (or power) that is required in the swing equation

  16. Biharmonic Volumetric Mapping Using Fundamental Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xin "Shane"

    Biharmonic Volumetric Mapping Using Fundamental Solutions Huanhuan Xu, Wuyi Yu, Shiyuan Gu, and Xin Li, Member, IEEE Computer Society Abstract--We propose a biharmonic model for cross-object volumetric individually. The biharmonic volumetric mapping can be performed in each subregion separately. Unlike

  17. Physicalism versus quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry P. Stapp

    2008-03-11

    In the context of theories of the connection between mind and brain, physicalism is the demand that all is basically purely physical. But the concept of "physical" embodied in this demand is characterized essentially by the properties of the physical that hold in classical physical theories. Certain of these properties contradict the character of the physical in quantum mechanics, which provides a better, more comprehensive, and more fundamental account of phenomena. It is argued that the difficulties that have plaged physicalists for half a century, and that continue to do so, dissolve when the classical idea of the physical is replaced by its quantum successor. The argument is concretized in a way that makes it accessible to non-physicists by exploiting the recent evidence connecting our conscious experiences to macroscopic measurable synchronous oscillations occurring in well-separated parts of the brain. A specific new model of the mind-brain connection that is fundamentally quantum mechanical but that ties conscious experiences to these macroscopic synchronous oscillations is used to illustrate the essential disparities between the classical and quantum notions of the physical, and in particular to demonstrate the failure in the quantum world of the principle of the causal closure of the physical, a failure that goes beyond what is entailed by the randomness in the outcomes of observations, and that accommodates the efficacy in the brain of conscious intent.

  18. Ensuring Project Success - The Fundamental Art of Managing the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ensuring Project Success - The Fundamental Art of Managing the Interfaces Ensuring Project Success - The Fundamental Art of Managing the Interfaces August 2009 Presenter: Jeff...

  19. Project Profile: Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems Project Profile: Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

  20. First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  1. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements You are accessing a document...

  2. Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Developments in Petroleum Science, 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL RESERVOIR SIMULATION DONALD WCongressCatalogingin PublicationData Peaceman, Donald W Fundamentals of numerical reservoir simulation. (develrpents in petroleum

  3. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fundamental Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...

  6. Novel neutron focusing mirrors for compact neutron sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubarev, M. V.

    We demonstrated neutron beam focusing and neutron imaging using axisymmetric optics, based on pairs of confocal ellipsoid and hyperboloid mirrors. Such systems, known as Wolter mirrors, are commonly used in x-ray telescopes. ...

  7. NUCLEARSCIENCEAND ENGINEERING:77, 15%167(1981) The Distribution of Thermal Neutron Cross Sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyakhter, Ilya

    1981-01-01

    sections for thermal neutrons [the (n,-y) reaction] have been measured for hundreds of nuclei. ' However such estimates while planning the measurements of cross sections. They are also useful to estimate changes Neutron Cross Sections I I I i / I I ! I I R Yu. V. Petrov and A. I. Shlyakhter Leningrad Nuclear Physics

  8. A Large-Area Detector for Fundamental Neutron Science | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0GrantsThe Life of Enrico's The20155 HighU.S. DOE

  9. Physics 485 Spring 2013 1 Ethical Problems in Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    ' as the Source of Morality · Moral Sentiment 'informs us' of Good and Evil #12;Physics 485 Spring 2013 7 Theories): ­ justice is intuitive, arising from personal apprehension of fundamental forms · Aristotle (4th cent. BC://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/index.html #12;Physics 485 Spring 2013 5 Applied Ethics is important: Alexander the Great

  10. A Review Of Recent Progress On Nano/micro Scale Nucleate Boiling Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research progress in the area of nano/micro scale nucleate boiling is reviewed and an up-to-date summary is provided with a focus on the advances of fundamental boiling physics. This review examines nano/micro scale ...

  11. Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics From Submitted to the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research, Mumbai for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics by Sayantani Bhattacharyya School of Natural Sciences Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Mumbai August 2010 #12;DECLARATION This thesis Research, Mumbai. Sayantani Bhattacharyya In my capacity as supervisor of the candidate's thesis, I certify

  12. Neutron Science | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL's long history of neutron science began in the 1940s with the pioneering neutron scattering studies of Ernest Wollan and Clifford Shull. Shull was co-recipient of...

  13. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

  14. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, R.B.; Tyree, W.H.

    1982-03-03

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  15. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, Roger B. (Lafayette, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-12-18

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  16. Spherical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  17. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  18. Spallation Neutron Source | Neutron Science at ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae modelsearch this site SandiaSpallation Neutron

  19. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. I. Measurement of the (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    The precise determination of the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os and {sup 187}Os is important to define the s-process abundance of {sup 187}Os at the formation of the solar system. This quantity can be used to evaluate the radiogenic component of the abundance of {sup 187}Os due to the decay of the unstable {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) and from this to infer the time duration of the nucleosynthesis in our galaxy (Re/Os cosmochronometer). The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility from 1 eV to 1 MeV, covering the entire energy range of astrophysical interest. The measurement has been performed by time-of-flight technique using isotopically enriched samples and two C{sub 6}D{sub 6} scintillation detectors for recording the prompt gamma rays emitted in the capture events. Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections have been determined for thermal energies between kT=5 and 100 keV corresponding to all possible s-process scenarios. The estimated uncertainties for the values at 30 keV are 4.1, 3.3, and 4.7% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively.

  20. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  1. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  2. Sub-barrier fusion cross-sections for neutron-rich oxygen and carbon Indiana University, ORNL, Western Michigan University, GANIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    : Neutron star crusts (pycnonuclear fusion, X-ray superbursts) 2. Nuclear Physics: Structure of neutronSub-barrier fusion cross-sections for neutron-rich oxygen and carbon nuclei Indiana University, ORNL, Western Michigan University, GANIL Thermonuclear fusion vs pycnonuclear fusion 1. Astrophysics

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering spectrum of H2@C60 and its temperature dependence decoded using rigorous quantum calculations and a new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Inelastic neutron scattering spectrum of H2@C60 and its temperature dependence decoded using://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 064309 (2013) Inelastic neutron scattering spectrum of H2@C60 quantum cal- culations of the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of this prototypical endohedral

  4. This major incorporates many mathematical theoreticians as well as specialists in applications of engineering, computer science, finance, economics, physics, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, Richard M.

    -- Mathematical induction; counting principles; arrangements; selections; binomial coefficients; generating Courses MATH 408: Mathematical Statistics -- Principles for testing hypotheses and estimation; small: Fundamentals of Physics I -- Mechanics and Thermodynamics PHYS 152: Fundamentals of Physics II -- Electricity

  5. Neutron - Mirror Neutron Oscillations: How Fast Might They Be?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurab Berezhiani; Luis Bento

    2006-02-20

    We discuss the phenomenological implications of the neutron (n) oscillation into the mirror neutron (n'), a hypothetical particle exactly degenerate in mass with the neutron but sterile to normal matter. We show that the present experimental data allow a maximal n-n' oscillation in vacuum with a characteristic time $\\tau$ much shorter than the neutron lifetime, in fact as small as 1 sec. This phenomenon may manifest in neutron disappearance and regeneration experiments perfectly accessible to present experimental capabilities and may also have interesting astrophysical consequences, in particular for the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  6. 22.101 Applied Nuclear Physics, Fall 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Sidney

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics for engineering students. Basic properties of the nucleus and nuclear radiations. Elementary quantum mechanical calculations of bound-state energies and barrier transmission probability. ...

  7. Hydrogen Production: Fundamentals and Case Study Summaries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.; Remick, R.; Hoskin, A.; Martin, G.

    2010-05-19

    This presentation summarizes hydrogen production fundamentals and case studies, including hydrogen to wind case studies.

  8. Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling with WRAP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    2005-01-01

    with WRAP by Ralph A. Wurbs Civil Engineering Department Texas A&M University TR-283 Texas Water Resources Institute College Station, Texas April 2005 Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling with WRAP Ralph A.... Wurbs Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University Technical Report No. 283 Texas Water Resources Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 April 2005 Mention of a trademark or a...

  9. DOE fundamentals handbook: Mechanical science. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  10. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information on diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  11. The Decay of the Neutron or Beta Decay, the Big Bang, and the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decay of the Neutron or Beta Decay, the Big Bang, and the Left-Handed Universe Apr 03 2014 01:00 PM - 02:30 PM Geoffrey L. Greene Physics Division, ORNL Research Accelerator...

  12. The Neutron_Time of Flight Facility at CERN: First Commissioning Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borcea, C; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Dangenhorf, V; Ferrari, A; García-Muñoz, G; Kadi, Y; Lacoste, V; Nolte, R; Radermacher, E; Rubbia, Carlo; Saldaña, F; Vlachoudis, V; Zanini, L; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    Recently the CERN neutron spallation source became operational. Information concerning this new facility will be given as for installation, expected performances and physics program. Some preliminary results of the commisioning campaign of measurements will also be presented.

  13. Is there further evidence for spatial variation of fundamental constants?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Curran, S. J.; Webb, J. K.

    2011-06-15

    Indications of spatial variation of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}, based on study of quasar absorption systems have recently been reported [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, arXiv:1008.3907.]. The physics that causes this {alpha}-variation should have other observable manifestations, and this motivates us to look for complementary astrophysical effects. In this paper we propose a method to test whether spatial variation of fundamental constants existed during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and study existing measurements of deuterium abundance for a signal. We also examine existing quasar absorption spectra data that are sensitive to variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu} and x={alpha}{sup 2{mu}}g{sub p} for spatial variation.

  14. A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisdat, C; Quintin, N; Shi, C; Raupach, S M F; Grebing, C; Nicolodi, D; Stefani, F; Al-Masoudi, A; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Robyr, J -L; Chiodo, N; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Koczwara, A; Koke, S; Kuhl, A; Wiotte, F; Meynadier, F; Camisard, E; Abgrall, M; Lours, M; Legero, T; Schnatz, H; Sterr, U; Denker, H; Chardonnet, C; Coq, Y Le; Santarelli, G; Amy-Klein, A; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Lopez, O; Pottie, P -E

    2015-01-01

    Leveraging the unrivaled performance of optical clocks in applications in fundamental physics beyond the standard model, in geo-sciences, and in astronomy requires comparing the frequency of distant optical clocks truthfully. Meeting this requirement, we report on the first comparison and agreement of fully independent optical clocks separated by 700 km being only limited by the uncertainties of the clocks themselves. This is achieved by a phase-coherent optical frequency transfer via a 1415 km long telecom fiber link that enables substantially better precision than classical means of frequency transfer. The fractional precision in comparing the optical clocks of three parts in $10^{17}$ was reached after only 1000 s averaging time, which is already 10 times better and more than four orders of magnitude faster than with any other existing frequency transfer method. The capability of performing high resolution international clock comparisons paves the way for a redefinition of the unit of time and an all-optic...

  15. What is Physics? Physics is the study of matter and energy and their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    What is Physics? Physics is the study of matter and energy and their interactions. Based on observations, hypotheses and testing, physicists identify, validate and apply the fundamental physical "laws" that explain and predict how natural and man-made phenomena occur. The field of physics is exceptionally broad

  16. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  17. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  18. Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron Source at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Preliminary Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the Spallation Neutron...

  19. Dose-equivalent neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.; Tomasino, L.; Gomaa, M.A.M.

    1981-01-07

    A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurement indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer contaning conversion material such as /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet.

  20. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

    1999-08-17

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

  1. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

  2. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  3. A physical basis for MOND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alasdair Macleod

    2007-08-23

    MOND is a phenomenological theory with no apparent physical justification which seems to undermine some of the basic principles that underpin established theoretical physics. It is nevertheless remarkably successful over its sphere of application and this suggests MOND may have some physical basis. It is shown here that two simple axioms pertaining to fundamental principles will reproduce the characteristic behaviour of MOND, though the axioms are in conflict with general relativistic cosmology.

  4. Physical Objects of Dark Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Novikov-Borodin

    2006-09-11

    The hypothesis of existence of off-site continuums is investigated. Principles of the physical description are formulated. The structure of off-site continuums and opportunities of observation of off-site physical objects from the continuum of the observer is investigated. There are found conformities between properties of the considered objects with properties of known physical objects and fundamental interactions both in micro-, and macro-scales.

  5. Prospects for measuring neutron-star masses and radii with X-ray pulse profile modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science case for the forthcoming NICER and proposed LOFT X-ray missions. In this paper, we determine the number of distinct observables that can be derived from pulse profile modeling and show that using only bolometric pulse profiles is insufficient for breaking the degeneracy between inferred neutron-star radius and mass. However, we also show that for moderately spinning (300-800 Hz) neutron stars, analysis of pulse profiles in two different energy bands provides additional constraints that allow a unique determination of the neutron-star properties. Using the fractional amplitudes of the fundamental and the second harmonic of the pulse profile in addition to the amplitude and phase difference of the spectral color oscillations, we quantify the signal-to-noise ratio necessary to achieve a specified measurement precision for neutron star radius. We find that accumulating 10{sup 6} counts in a pulse profile is sufficient to achieve a ? 5% uncertainty in the neutron star radius, which is the level of accuracy required to determine the equation of state of neutron-star matter. Finally, we formally derive the background limits that can be tolerated in the measurements of the various pulsation amplitudes as a function of the system parameters.

  6. Parity Violating Measurements of Neutron Densities: Implications for Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Horowitz; J. Piekarewicz

    2002-01-08

    Parity violating electron scattering can measure the neutron density of a heavy nucleus accurately and model independently. This is because the weak charge of the neutron is much larger then that of the proton. The Parity Radius Experiment (PREX) at Jefferson Laboratory aims to measure the root mean square neutron radius of $^{208}$Pb with an absolute accuracy of 1% ($\\pm 0.05$ Fm). This is more accurate then past measurements with hadronic probes, which all suffer from controversial strong interaction uncertainties. PREX should clearly resolve the neutron-rich skin. Furthermore, this benchmark value for $^{208}$Pb will provide a calibration for hadronic probes, such as proton scattering, which can then be used to measure neutron densities of many exotic nuclei. The PREX result will also have many implications for neutron stars. The neutron radius of Pb depends on the pressure of neutron-rich matter: the greater the pressure, the larger the radius as neutrons are pushed out against surface tension. The same pressure supports a neutron star against gravity. The Pb radius is sensitive to the equation of state at normal densities while the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star also depends on the equation of state at higher densities. Measurements of the radii of a number of isolated neutron stars such as Geminga and RX J185635-3754 should soon improve significantly. By comparing the equation of state information from the radii of both Pb and neutron stars one can search for a softening of the high density equation of state from a phase transition to an exotic state. Possibilities include kaon condensates, strange quark matter or color superconductors.

  7. Combinatorial evaluation of systems including decomposition of a system representation into fundamental cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Joseph S. (Richland, WA); Jones-Oliveira, Janet B. (Richland, WA); Bailey, Colin G. (Wellington, NZ); Gull, Dean W. (Seattle, WA)

    2008-07-01

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a computer operable to represent a physical system with a graphical data structure corresponding to a matroid. The graphical data structure corresponds to a number of vertices and a number of edges that each correspond to two of the vertices. The computer is further operable to define a closed pathway arrangement with the graphical data structure and identify each different one of a number of fundamental cycles by evaluating a different respective one of the edges with a spanning tree representation. The fundamental cycles each include three or more of the vertices.

  8. 2111 Physics Building College Park, Maryland 20742-4111

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2111 Physics Building College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 Tel: 301-405-6115 Fax: 301-405-6114 robinet@physics.umd.edu DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics Theoretical Quarks, Hadrons & Nuclei Group theory, effective field theories, dense quark matter, neutrino physics, dark matter and large Nc

  9. Fundamental measure theory of hydrated hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor F. Sokolov; Gennady N. Chuev

    2006-04-13

    To calculate the solvation of hydrophobic solutes we have developed the method based on the fundamental measure treatment of the density functional theory. This method allows us to carry out calculations of density profiles and the solvation energy for various hydrophobic molecules with a high accuracy. We have applied the method to the hydration of various hydrocarbons (linear, branched and cyclic). The calculations of the entropic and the enthalpic parts are also carried out. We have examined a question about temperature dependence of the entropy convergence. Finally, we have calculated the mean force potential between two large hydrophobic nanoparticles immersed in water.

  10. Recreating Fundamental Effects in the Laboratory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Schützhold

    2010-04-14

    This article provides a brief (non-exhaustive) overview of some possibilities for recreating fundamental effects which are relevant for black holes (and other gravitational scenarios) in the laboratory. Via suitable condensed matter analogues and other laboratory systems, it might be possible to model the Penrose process (superradiant scattering), the Unruh effect, Hawking radiation, the Eardley instability, black-hole lasers, cosmological particle creation, the Gibbons-Hawking effect, and the Schwinger mechanism. Apart from an experimental verification of these yet unobserved phenomena, the study of these laboratory systems might shed light onto the underlying ideas and problems and should therefore be interesting from a (quantum) gravity point of view as well.

  11. Sandia Energy - HCCI/SCCI Fundamentals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling Technology HomeGridHCCI/SCCI Fundamentals

  12. Types of Paradox in Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragoljub A. Cucic

    2009-12-09

    Paradoxes are a relatively frequent occurrence in physics. The nature of their genesis is diverse and they are found in all branches of physics. There are a number of general and special classifications of paradoxes, but there are no classifications of paradoxes in physics. Nowadays, physics is a fundamental and rather formalized science, the paradoxes of which imply falsity and imprecision. One of the basic methods of addressing a problem is to present classifications that facilitate its formulation and study. This work groups together the paradoxes in physics according to certain common characteristics, which should assist in explaining the causes for paradox formation.

  13. Effective Field Theory for Top Quark Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cen Zhang; Scott Willenbrock

    2010-08-18

    Physics beyond the standard model can affect top-quark physics indirectly. We describe the effective field theory approach to describing such physics, and contrast it with the vertex-function approach that has been pursued previously. We argue that the effective field theory approach has many fundamental advantages and is also simpler.

  14. Microwaves and particle accelerators: a fundamental link

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan [Universities of Lancaster, Liverpool and Manchester and Cockcroft Institute, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. The development of radar and high power vacuum electronics, especially microwave power tubes like the magnetrons and the klystrons in the pre-second world war era, was instrumental in the rapid development of circular and linear charged particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century. We had harnessed the powerful microwave radio-frequency sources from few tens of MHz to up to 90 GHz spanning L-band to W-band frequencies. Simultaneously in the second half of the twentieth century, lasers began to offer very first opportunities of controlling charged particles at smaller resolutions on the scale of wavelengths of visible light. We also witnessed in this period the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. These developments depend crucially on yet further advancements in the production and control of high power and high frequency microwaves and light sources, often intricately coupled in their operation to the high energy beams themselves. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the electromagnetic production and control of charged particle beams in the service of science and society. (author)

  15. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron interaction cross sections for boron. While corrections to the data files themselves are simple to implement and distribute, it is quite possible, however, that coding changes may be required in G4beamline or even in GEANT4 to fully correct nuclear interactions. Regardless, these studies are ongoing and future results will be reflected in updated releases of G4beamline.

  16. Stars In Other Universes: Stellar structure with different fundamental constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred C. Adams

    2008-07-23

    Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with possible variations in the laws of physics, this paper explores the parameter space of fundamental constants that allows for the existence of stars. To make this problem tractable, we develop a semi-analytical stellar structure model that allows for physical understanding of these stars with unconventional parameters, as well as a means to survey the relevant parameter space. In this work, the most important quantities that determine stellar properties -- and are allowed to vary -- are the gravitational constant $G$, the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, and a composite parameter $C$ that determines nuclear reaction rates. Working within this model, we delineate the portion of parameter space that allows for the existence of stars. Our main finding is that a sizable fraction of the parameter space (roughly one fourth) provides the values necessary for stellar objects to operate through sustained nuclear fusion. As a result, the set of parameters necessary to support stars are not particularly rare. In addition, we briefly consider the possibility that unconventional stars (e.g., black holes, dark matter stars) play the role filled by stars in our universe and constrain the allowed parameter space.

  17. Physics 630 Statistical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    strongly the issue of problem solving and understanding of the main concepts in Statistical PhysicsPhysics 630 Statistical Physics Spring 2005 Logistics Lecture Room: 1100 (Science I, 1st floor (Supplement) Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics, by David Chandler, Oxford Objectives This course

  18. Porous material neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  19. Neutron electric polarizability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Alexandru; Frank X. Lee

    2009-11-13

    We use the background field method to extract the "connected" piece of the neutron electric polarizability. We present results for quenched simulations using both clover and Wilson fermions and discuss our experience in extracting the mass shifts and the challenges we encountered when we lowered the quark mass. For the neutron we find that as the pion mass is lowered below $500\\MeV$, the polarizability starts rising in agreement with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. For our lowest pion mass, $m_\\pi=320\\MeV$, we find that $\\alpha_n = 3.8(1.3)\\times 10^{-4}\\fm^3$, which is still only one third of the experimental value. We also present results for the neutral pion; we find that its polarizability turns negative for pion masses smaller than $500\\MeV$ which is puzzling.

  20. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Seagraves, David T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  1. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  2. Di-neutron correlation in light neutron-rich nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; H. Sagawa; P. Schuck

    2008-12-03

    Using a three-body model with density-dependent contact interaction, we discuss the root mean square distance between the two valence neutrons in $^{11}$Li nuclues as a function of the center of mass of the neutrons relative to the core nucleus $^9$Li. We show that the mean distance takes a pronounced minimum around the surface of the nucleus, indicating a strong surface di-neutron correlation. We demonstrate that the pairing correlation plays an essential role in this behavior. We also discuss the di-neutron structure in the $^8$He nucleus.

  3. Looking for new physics beyond the Standard Model through flavour transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics by Diptimoy Ghosh Department of Theoretical Physics Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Mumbai Submitted of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Diptimoy Ghosh In my capacity as supervisor of the candidate's thesis, I certify

  4. Multi-GeV neutrinos due to neutro anti-neutron oscillation in Gamma-Ray Burst Fireballs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarira Sahu

    2007-02-27

    The long and short gamma-ray bursts are believed to be produced due to collapse of massive stars and merger of compact binaries respectively. All these objects are rich in neutron and the jet outflow from these objects must have a neutron component in it. By postulating the neutron anti-neutron oscillation in the gamma-ray burst fireball, we show that, 19-38 GeV neutrinos and anti-neutrinos can be produced due to annihilation of anti-neutrons with the background neutrons. These neutrinos and anti-neutrinos will be produced before the 5-10 GeV neutrinos due to dynamical decoupling of neutrons from the rest of the fireball. Observation of these neutrinos will shed more light on the nature of the GRB progenitors and also be a unique signature of physics beyond the standard model. A possible way of detecting these neutrinos in future is also discussed.

  5. Manifestations of dark matter and variations of fundamental constants in atoms and astrophysical phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. V. Stadnik; V. V. Flambaum

    2015-09-03

    We present an overview of recent developments in the detection of light bosonic dark matter, including axion, pseudoscalar axion-like and scalar dark matter, which form either a coherently oscillating classical field or topological defects (solitons). We emphasise new high-precision laboratory and astrophysical measurements, in which the sought effects are linear in the underlying interaction strength between dark matter and ordinary matter, in contrast to traditional detection schemes for dark matter, where the effects are quadratic or higher order in the underlying interaction parameters and are extremely small. New terrestrial experiments include measurements with atomic clocks, spectroscopy, atomic and solid-state magnetometry, torsion pendula, ultracold neutrons, and laser interferometry. New astrophysical observations include pulsar timing, cosmic radiation lensing, Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background measurements. We also discuss various recently proposed mechanisms for the induction of slow `drifts', oscillating variations and transient-in-time variations of the fundamental constants of Nature by dark matter, which offer a more natural means of producing a cosmological evolution of the fundamental constants compared with traditional dark energy-type theories, which invoke a (nearly) massless underlying field. Thus, measurements of variation of the fundamental constants gives us a new tool in dark matter searches.

  6. Are there good probes for the di-neutron correlation in light neutron-rich nuclei?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagino, K

    2015-01-01

    The di-neutron correlation is a spatial correlation with which two valence neutrons are located at a similar position inside a nucleus. We discuss possible experimental probes for the di-neutron correlation. This includes the Coulomb breakup and the pair transfer reactions of neutron-rich nuclei, and the direct two-neutron decays of nuclei beyond the neutron drip-line.

  7. Ris-R-1336(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1336(EN) Fundamentals for Remote Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades) Fundamentals for Remote Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades - a Preproject Bent F. Sørensen

  8. Neutron stars - cooling and transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y; Page, Dany

    2015-01-01

    Observations of thermal radiation from neutron stars can potentially provide information about the states of supranuclear matter in the interiors of these stars with the aid of the theory of neutron-star thermal evolution. We review the basics of this theory for isolated neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, including most relevant thermodynamic and kinetic properties in the stellar core, crust, and blanketing envelopes.

  9. Neutron Imaging by Boric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Cardone; Giovanni Cherubini; Walter Perconti; Andrea Petrucci; Alberto Rosada

    2013-02-22

    In this paper a new type of passive neutron detector based on the already existing one, CR39, is described. Its operation was verified by three different neutron sources: an Americium-Beryllium (Am241-Be) source; a TRIGA type nuclear reactor; and a fast neutron reactor called TAPIRO. The obtained results, reported here, positively confirm its operation and the accountability of the new developed detecting technique.

  10. Inferring neutron stars crust properties from quiescent thermal emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilera, Deborah N

    2015-01-01

    The observation of thermal emission from isolated neutron stars and the modeling of the corresponding cooling curves has been very useful to get information on the properties of matter at very high densities. More recently, the detection of quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems after active periods opened a new window to the physics of matter at lower densities. Here we analyze a few sources that have been recently monitored and we show how the models can be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and their transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed.

  11. Deuterated polyethylene coatings for ultra-cold neutron applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altarev, I; Fierlinger, P; Geltenbort, P; Gutsmiedl, E; Kuchler, F; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Niessen, B; Petzoldt, G; Ruhstorfer, D; Seeman, K M; Soltwedel, O; Stuiber, St; Taubenheim, B; Windmayer, D; Zechlau, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and use of deuterated polyethylene (dPE) as a coating material for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) storage and transport. The Fermi potential has been determined to be 214 neV and the wall loss coefficient $\\eta$ is 2$\\cdot$10$^4$ per wall collision. The coating technique allows for a wide range of applications and new possibilities in this field of physics. In particular, flexible and quasi-massless UCN guides with slit-less shutters and slit-less UCN storage volumes become possible. These properties enable the use in next-generation measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  12. ENTRY PHYSICS [ENTRY PHYSICS] Authors: Oliver Knill: 2002 Literature: Fundamental formulas in physics (edited by D.H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knill, Oliver

    momentum. C14 method [C14 method] Used to estimate the age of substances containing carbon. It is useful of light 10-15 s. · Period of sound 10-3 s. · One day 105 s. · Life of a human 2109 s. · Age of earth 1 addition v = (v1 + v2)/(1 + v1v2/c2 ). Using a mass which depends on the velocity m = m0/sqrt1 - v2 /c2

  13. Fundamental Equation of State for Deuterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, I. A.; Leachman, J. W., E-mail: jacob.leachman@wsu.edu [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, P.O. Box 642920, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Lemmon, E. W. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    World utilization of deuterium is anticipated to increase with the rise of fusion-energy machines such as ITER and NIF. We present a new fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of fluid deuterium. Differences between thermodynamic properties of orthodeuterium, normal deuterium, and paradeuterium are described. Separate ideal-gas functions were fitted for these separable forms together with a single real-fluid residual function. The equation of state is valid from the melting line to a maximum pressure of 2000 MPa and an upper temperature limit of 600 K, corresponding to available experimental measurements. The uncertainty in predicted density is 0.5% over the valid temperature range and pressures up to 300 MPa. The uncertainties of vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities are 2% and 3%, respectively, while speed-of-sound values are accurate to within 1% in the liquid phase.

  14. Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

  15. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  16. NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH,G.C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.

  17. Supporting Organizations | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials. The user community takes advantage of division-supported capabilities of neutron scattering for measurements over wide ranges of experimental and operating...

  18. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the research and development, design and safety of the Advanced Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (LSP)

  19. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes.

  20. Nuclear Physics and the New Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States) and Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-08-04

    Nuclear physics studies of fundamental symmetries and neutrino properties have played a vital role in the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of fundamental interactions. With the advent of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, experiments at the high energy frontier promise exciting discoveries about the larger framework in which the Standard Model lies. In this talk, I discuss the complementary opportunities for probing the 'new Standard Model' with nuclear physics experiments at the low-energy high precision frontier.

  1. GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Lesson 10: Terrain Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher J.

    GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Lesson 10: Terrain Analyses What You'll Learn: Basic if needed. You should read chapter 11 in the GIS Fundamentals textbook before starting. Data are located processing, using the ArcGIS Hydrology tools. 1 #12;GIS Fundamentals Lesson 10: Terrain Analysis Project1

  2. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorentini, G; Vysotsky, M I

    2001-01-01

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  3. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fiorentini; L. Okun; M. Vysotsky

    2001-12-04

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  4. Novel Boron-10-based detectors for Neutron Scattering Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piscitelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays neutron scattering science is increasing its instrumental power. Most of the neutron sources in the world are pushing the development of their technologies to be more performing. The neutron scattering development is also pushed by the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden, a neutron facility which has just started construction. Concerning small area detectors (1m^2), the 3He technology, which is today cutting edge, is reaching fundamental limits in its development. Counting rate capability, spatial resolution and cost-e?ectiveness, are only a few examples of the features that must be improved to ful?fill the new requirements. On the other hand, 3He technology could still satisfy the detector requirements for large area applications (50m^2), however, because of the present 3He shortage that the world is experiencing, this is not practical anymore. The recent detector advances (the Multi-Grid and the Multi-Blade prototypes) developed in the framework of the collaboration between the Institut Laue...

  5. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Z.W.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2002-06-20

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB{sub 2} (a superconductor with T{sub c} = 39 K), B{sub 6}Si, B{sub 4}C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li{sub 12}Si{sub 7}, and Li{sub 7}Sn{sub 2}. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of {sup 10}B and {sup 6}Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lithium-based system. This project is concerned with the development of materials for use in a cryogenic neutron spectrometer and is complementary to work in progress by Labov at LLNL to develop a cryogenic gamma ray spectrometer. Refrigeration to 100 mK lowers the heat capacity of these materials to the point that the energy of absorbed gamma and x rays, nuclei scattered by fast neutrons, and ions from (n, {alpha}) reactions produce a measurable heat pulse, from which the energy of the incident radiation may be deduced. The objective of this project is the discovery, fabrication, and testing of candidate materials with which a cryogenic neutron spectrometer may be realized.

  6. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2011-01-01

    13, 2010. [11] D-D Neutron Generator Development at LBNL, J.12] High-yield DT Neutron Generator, B.A. Ludewigt et al. ,a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator, O. Waldmann and B.

  7. Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimeo, Robert M.

    Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis ­ Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications

  8. NEUTRON EMISSION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Figure Captions Figure l. Neutron-to-proton ratio at 30° labapparent anomalies in the neutron-to-proton fragment ratio.3 proton data. Figure 2. Neutron-to-proton ratio R 1 , Solid

  9. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2011-01-01

    of a High Fluence Neutron Source for NondestructiveAugust 8-13, 2010. [11] D-D Neutron Generator Development at2005. [12] High-yield DT Neutron Generator, B.A. Ludewigt et

  10. Neutron-deuteron breakup and quasielastic scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Quasielastic scattering and deuteron breakup in the 200 MeV region is studied by impinging a pulsed neutron beam on a deuterium target at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The ...

  11. NEUTRON PRODUCTION BY NEUTRAL BEAM SOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkner, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    HORSE Code—A Hultigroup Neutron and Gamma-Say Honte CarloR. Smith, "A Tantalus Fast Neutron Integrator," UCRL-17051.FiS- 9 Neutron dose during 3 months of typical TSUI

  12. Uncertainty evaluation of delayed neutron decay parameters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jinkai

    2009-05-15

    In a nuclear reactor, delayed neutrons play a critical role in sustaining a controllable chain reaction. Delayed neutron’s relative yields and decay constants are very important for modeling reactivity control and have been studied for decades...

  13. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  14. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  15. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    application. Whether thermal activation (measuring prompt orthermal neutrons for both prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation

  17. Neutron Multiplicity Measurements With 3He Alternative: Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system to collect neutron multiplicity information from spontaneous fission sources using a single panel consisting of 60 straws equally distributed over three rows in high-density polyethylenemoderator. In the following year, we developed the field-programmable gate array and associated DAQ software. This SDRD effort successfully produced a prototype NMC with*33% detection efficiency compared to a commercial fission meter.

  18. Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

  19. Neutron structure effects in the deuteron and one neutron halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Nowakowski; N. G. Kelkar; T. Mart

    2006-08-29

    Although the neutron (n) does not carry a total electric charge, its charge and magnetization distributions represented in momentum space by the electromagnetic form factors, $F_1^{(n)} (q^2)$ and $F_2^{(n)} (q^2)$, lead to an electromagnetic potential of the neutron. Using this fact, we calculate the electromagnetic corrections to the binding energy, $B_d$, of the deuteron and a one neutron halo nucleus (11Be), by evaluating the neutron-proton and the neutron-charged core (10Be) potential, respectively. The correction to $B_d$ (~9 keV) is comparable to that arising due to the inclusion of the $\\Delta$-isobar component in the deuteron wave function. In the case of the more loosely bound halo nucleus, 11Be, the correction is close to about 2 keV.

  20. Science Education Programs | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Tutorials Kids' Corner NScD Careers Supporting Organizations Neutron Science Home | Science & Discovery | Neutron Science | Science and Education SHARE Inspiring...

  1. Search for: "neutron scattering" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron scattering" Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: "neutron scattering" Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search...

  2. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Lecturer Abstracts Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the...

  3. SciTech Connect: "neutron scattering"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron scattering" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "neutron scattering" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  4. The Neutron EDM Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. G. Harris

    2007-12-05

    The neutron EDM experiment has played an important part over many decades in shaping and constraining numerous models of CP violation. This review article discusses some of the techniques used to calculate EDMs under various theoretical scenarios, and highlights some of the implications of EDM limits upon such models. A pedagogical introduction is given to the experimental techniques employed in the recently completed ILL experiment, including a brief discussion of the dominant systematic uncertainties. A new and much more sensitive version of the experiment, which is currently under development, is also outlined.

  5. Neutron Science Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(MillionNature andNeutrinos from the'..NeutronNeutronto

  6. Neutron Science and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(MillionNature andNeutrinos from the'..NeutronNeutronto3

  7. Neutrons - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CSNationalNational UserNavalNeutrons

  8. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Physics 32100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmann, Peter

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Syllabus Physics 32100 Modern Physics for Engineers Designation to one- electron atoms, atomic shell structure and periodic table; nuclear physics, relativity. Prerequisites: Prereq.: Physics 20800 or equivalent, Math 20300 or 20900 (elective for Engineering students

  9. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Physics 21900

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmann, Peter

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Syllabus Physics 21900 Physics for Architecture Students Designation suggested material: Giancoli, Physics, Principles with Applications (6th ed.) (required), Prentice Hall Giancoli, Physics, Principles with Applications, Student Guide (6th ed.) (optional), Prentice Hall Course

  10. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2014-11-25

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  11. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  12. Maintenance neutron coincidence counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.

    1989-09-01

    A compact thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed specifically for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a reference neutron detector for maintenance activities. The counter is designed for use only with {sup 252}Cf sources in SR-CF-100 capsules. This manual describes the detector's mechanical and electrical components and its operating characteristics. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  13. The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Trodden

    2006-05-26

    Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

  14. ATRC Neutron Detector Testing Quick Look Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy C. Unruh; Benjamin M. Chase; Joy L. Rempe

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program, a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project was initiated in FY-10 to investigate the feasibility of using neutron sensors to provide online measurements of the neutron flux and fission reaction rate in the ATR Critical Facility (ATRC). A second objective was to provide initial neutron spectrum and flux distribution information for physics modeling and code validation using neutron activation based techniques in ATRC as well as ATR during depressurized operations. Detailed activation spectrometry measurements were made in the flux traps and in selected fuel elements, along with standard fission rate distribution measurements at selected core locations. These measurements provide additional calibration data for the real-time sensors of interest as well as provide benchmark neutronics data that will be useful for the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Computational Methods and V&V Upgrade project. As part of this effort, techniques developed by Prof. George Imel will be applied by Idaho State University (ISU) for assessing the performance of various flux detectors to develop detailed procedures for initial and follow-on calibrations of these sensors. In addition to comparing data obtained from each type of detector, calculations will be performed to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. The neutron detectors required for this project were provided to team participants at no cost. Activation detectors (foils and wires) from an existing, well-characterized INL inventory were employed. Furthermore, as part of an on-going ATR NSUF international cooperation, the CEA sent INL three miniature fission chambers (one for detecting fast flux and two for detecting thermal flux) with associated electronics for assessment. In addition, Prof. Imel, ISU, has access to an inventory of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) with a range of response times as well as Back-to-Back (BTB) fission chambers from prior research he conducted at the Transient REActor Test Facility (TREAT) facility and Neutron RADiography (NRAD) reactors. Finally, SPNDs from the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) were provided in connection with the INL effort to upgrade ATR computational methods and V&V protocols that are underway as part of the ATR LEP. Work during fiscal year 2010 (FY10) focussed on design and construction of Experiment Guide Tubes (EGTs) for positioning the flux detectors in the ATRC N-16 locations as well as obtaining ATRC staff concurrence for the detector evaluations. Initial evaluations with CEA researchers were also started in FY10 but were cut short due to reactor reliability issues. Reactor availability issues caused experimental work to be delayed during FY11/12. In FY13, work resumed; and evaluations were completed. The objective of this "Quick Look" report is to summarize experimental activities performed from April 4, 2013 through May 16, 2013.

  15. Which Fundamental Constants for CMB and BAO?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rich, James

    2015-01-01

    We study the Cosmic Microwave Background using the three-scale framework of Hu et al. to derive the dependence of the CMB temperature anisotropy spectrum on the fundamental constants. We show that, as expected, the observed spectrum depends only on \\emph{dimensionless} combinations of the constants, and we emphasize the points that make this generally true for cosmological observations. Our analysis suggests that the CMB spectrum shape is mostly determined by $\\alpha^2m_e/m_p$ and the proton-CDM-particle mass ratio, $m_p/\\mchi$, with a sub-dominant dependence on $(G\\mchi m_e/\\hbar c)\\alpha^\\beta$ with $\\beta\\sim -7$. The distance to the last-scattering surface depends on $Gm_p\\mchi/\\hbar c$, so published CMB observational limits on time variations of the constants, besides making assumptions about the form of the dark-energy, implicitly assume the time-independence of this quantity. On the other hand, low-redshift $H_0$, BAO and large-scale structure data can be combined with the \\emph{shape} of the CMB spect...

  16. Fast neutron environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Lu, Ping; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Foiles, Stephen Martin; Puskar, Joseph David; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Boyce, Brad Lee; Clark, Blythe G.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this LDRD project is to develop a rapid first-order experimental procedure for the testing of advanced cladding materials that may be considered for generation IV nuclear reactors. In order to investigate this, a technique was developed to expose the coupons of potential materials to high displacement damage at elevated temperatures to simulate the neutron environment expected in Generation IV reactors. This was completed through a high temperature high-energy heavy-ion implantation. The mechanical properties of the ion irradiated region were tested by either micropillar compression or nanoindentation to determine the local properties, as a function of the implantation dose and exposure temperature. In order to directly compare the microstructural evolution and property degradation from the accelerated testing and classical neutron testing, 316L, 409, and 420 stainless steels were tested. In addition, two sets of diffusion couples from 316L and HT9 stainless steels with various refractory metals. This study has shown that if the ion irradiation size scale is taken into consideration when developing and analyzing the mechanical property data, significant insight into the structural properties of the potential cladding materials can be gained in about a week.

  17. Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement No. 151, 2003 1 Physics of Plasma Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a theory of the fundamental plasma emission of type-III solar radio bursts. Starting from the generalized The study of type-III solar radio bursts is fundamental for our understanding of the physics of nonthermal-III solar radio bursts are produced by a two-step process: first, an energetic electron beam excites

  18. Neutron Transfer Studied with a Radioactive beam of 24Ne, using TIARA at SPIRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Catford; C. N. Timis; R. C. Lemmon; M. Labiche; N. A. Orr; L. Caballero; R. Chapman; M. Chartier; M. Rejmund; H. Savajols; for the TIARA Collaboration

    2009-12-20

    A general experimental technique for high resolution studies of nucleon transfer reactions using radioactive beams is briefly described, together with the first new physics results that have been obtained with the new TIARA array. These first results from TIARA are for the reaction 24Ne(d,p)25Ne, studied in inverse kinematics with a pure radioactive beam of 100,000 pps from the SPIRAL facility at GANIL. The reaction probes the energies of neutron orbitals relevant to very neutron rich nuclei in this mass region and the results highlight the emergence of the N=16 magic number for neutrons and the associated disappearance of the N=20 neutron magic number for the very neutron rich neon isotopes.

  19. The sensitivity of r-process nucleosynthesis to the properties of neutron-rich nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Surman; M. Mumpower; J. Cass; A. Aprahamian

    2013-08-31

    About half of the heavy elements in the Solar System were created by rapid neutron capture, or r-process, nucleosynthesis. In the r-process, heavy elements are built up via a sequence of neutron captures and beta decays in which an intense neutron flux pushes material out towards the neutron drip line. The nuclear network simulations used to test potential astrophysical scenarios for the r-process therefore require nuclear physics data (masses, beta decay lifetimes, neutron capture rates, fission probabilities) for thousands of nuclei far from stability. Only a small fraction of this data has been experimentally measured. Here we discuss recent sensitivity studies that aim to determine the nuclei whose properties are most crucial for r-process calculations.

  20. Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    41st Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics Seattle, Washington 15-19 November, 1999 on physical generation and interaction mechanisms will help formulate corrective strategies for improving fundamental physical behavior, i.e. exponential growth and saturation of tone amplitudes. · Detailed physics

  1. Neutron in a Strong Magnetic Field: Finite Volume Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian C. Tiburzi

    2014-03-04

    We investigate the neutron's response to magnetic fields on a torus with the aid of chiral perturbation theory, and expose effects from non-vanishing holonomies. The determination of such effects necessitates non-perturbative treatment of the magnetic field; and, to this end, a strong-field power counting is employed. Using a novel coordinate-space method, we find the neutron propagates in a coordinate-dependent effective potential that we obtain by integrating out charged pions winding around the torus. Knowledge of these finite volume effects will aid in the extraction of neutron properties from lattice QCD computations in external magnetic fields. In particular, we obtain finite volume corrections to the neutron magnetic moment and magnetic polarizability. These quantities have not been computed correctly in the literature. In addition to effects from non-vanishing holonomies, finite volume corrections depend on the magnetic flux quantum through an Aharonov-Bohm effect. We make a number of observations that demonstrate the importance of non-perturbative effects from strong magnetic fields currently employed in lattice QCD calculations. These observations concern neutron physics in both finite and infinite volume.

  2. Direct Test of the Time-Independence of Fundamental Nuclear Constants Using the Oklo Natural Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander I. Shlyakhter

    2003-08-06

    [NOTE: This 1983 preprint is being uploaded to arXiv.org after the death of its author, who supported online distribution of his work. Contact info of the submitter is at http://ilya.cc .] The positions of neutron resonances have been shown to be highly sensitive to the variation of fundamental nuclear constants. The analysis of the measured isotopic shifts in the natural fossil reactor at Oklo gives the following restrictions on the possible rates of the interaction constants variation: strong ~2x10^-19 yr^-1, electromagnetic ~5x10^-18 yr^-1, weak ~10^-12 yr^-1. These limits permit to exclude all the versions of nuclear constants contemporary variation discussed in the literature. URL: http://alexonline.info >. For more recent analyses see hep-ph/9606486, hep-ph/0205206 and astro-ph/0204069 .

  3. Fundamentals and advances in magnetic hyperthermia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elio Alberto Périgo; Gauvin Hemery; Olivier Sandre; Daniel Ortega; Eneko Garaio; Fernando Plazaola; Francisco Jose Teran

    2015-11-03

    Nowadays, magnetic hyperthermia constitutes a complementary approach to cancer treatment. The use of magnetic particles as heating mediators, proposed in the 1950s, provides a novel strategy for improving tumor treatment and, consequently, patient quality of life. This review reports a broad overview about several aspects of magnetic hyperthermia addressing new perspectives and the progress on relevant features such as the ad hoc preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, physical modeling of magnetic heating, methods to determine the heat dissipation power of magnetic colloids including the development of experimental apparatus and the influence of biological matrices on the heating efficiency.

  4. Fundamentals and advances in magnetic hyperthermia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Périgo, Elio Alberto; Sandre, Olivier; Ortega, Daniel; Garaio, Eneko; Plazaola, Fernando; Teran, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, magnetic hyperthermia constitutes a complementary approach to cancer treatment. The use of magnetic particles as heating mediators, proposed in the 1950s, provides a novel strategy for improving tumor treatment and, consequently, patient quality of life. This review reports a broad overview about several aspects of magnetic hyperthermia addressing new perspectives and the progress on relevant features such as the ad hoc preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, physical modeling of magnetic heating, methods to determine the heat dissipation power of magnetic colloids including the development of experimental apparatus and the influence of biological matrices on the heating efficiency.

  5. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  6. Graphical User Interface for Simplified Neutron Transport Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Randolph; Carter, Leland L

    2011-07-18

    A number of codes perform simple photon physics calculations. The nuclear industry is lacking in similar tools to perform simplified neutron physics shielding calculations. With the increased importance of performing neutron calculations for homeland security applications and defense nuclear nonproliferation tasks, having an efficient method for performing simple neutron transport calculations becomes increasingly important. Codes such as Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) can perform the transport calculations; however, the technical details in setting up, running, and interpreting the required simulations are quite complex and typically go beyond the abilities of most users who need a simple answer to a neutron transport calculation. The work documented in this report resulted in the development of the NucWiz program, which can create an MCNP input file for a set of simple geometries, source, and detector configurations. The user selects source, shield, and tally configurations from a set of pre-defined lists, and the software creates a complete MCNP input file that can be optionally run and the results viewed inside NucWiz.

  7. Delayed neutrons from the neutron irradiation of ²³?U 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Aaron David

    2008-10-10

    two 235U samples, an array of three 3He cylindrical neutron detectors, signal processing circuitry, the PTS, a reactor core sensor and a computerized control system. A. Fissile Material Isotope Products Laboratories produced the two 235U samples... stream_source_info Heinrich.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 107692 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Heinrich.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DELAYED NEUTRONS FROM THE NEUTRON...

  8. Solution-grown crystals for neutron radiation detectors, and methods of solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Hull, Giulia; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2012-06-26

    A method according to one embodiment includes growing an organic crystal from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. A system according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source; and a photodetector for detecting the signal response of the organic crystal. A method according to another embodiment includes growing an organic crystal from solution, the organic crystal being large enough to exhibit a detectable signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. An organic crystal according to another embodiment includes an organic crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the organic crystal has a length of greater than about 1 mm in one dimension.

  9. Measurement of Leakage Neutron Spectra for Tungsten with D-T Neutrons and Validation of Evaluated Nuclear Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zhanga; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; R. Wada; X. Ruan; R. Han; X. Liu; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; P. Ren; G. Tian; F. Luo; J. Ren; J. Bao

    2014-11-20

    Integral neutronics experiments have been investigated at Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) in order to validate evaluated nuclear data related to the design of Chinese Initiative Accelerator Driven Systems (CIADS). In present paper, the accuracy of evaluated nuclear data for Tungsten has been examined by comparing measured leakage neutron spectra with calculated ones. Leakage neutron spectra from the irradiation of D-T neutrons on Tungsten slab sample were experimentally measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$ by using a time-of-flight method. Theoretical calculations are carried out by Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with evaluated nuclear data of the ADS-2.0, ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. From the comparisons, it is found that the calculations with ADS-2.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 give good agreements with the experiments in the whole energy regions at 60$^{\\circ}$, while a large discrepancy is observed at 120$^{\\circ}$ in the elastic scattering peak, caused by a slight difference in the oscillation pattern of the elastic angular distribution at angles larger than 20$^{\\circ}$. However, the calculated spectra using data from ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0 and CENDL-3.1 libraries showed larger discrepancies with the measured ones, especially around 8.5-13.5 MeV. Further studies are presented for these disagreements.

  10. Correlation between radiation processes in silicon and long-time degradation of detectors for high energy physics experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu

    2006-11-20

    In this contribution, the correlation between fundamental interaction processes induced by radiation in silicon and observable effects which limit the use of silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments is investigated in the frame of a phenomenological model which includes: generation of primary defects at irradiation starting from elementary interactions in silicon; kinetics of defects, effects at the p-n junction detector level. The effects due to irradiating particles (pions, protons, neutrons), to their flux, to the anisotropy of the threshold energy in silicon, to the impurity concentrations and resistivity of the starting material are investigated as time, fluence and temperature dependences of detector characteristics. The expected degradation of the electrical parameters of detectors in the complex hadron background fields at LHC & SLHC are predicted.

  11. Thermal evolution of neutron stars with global and local neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. de Carvalho; R. Negreiros; Jorge A. Rueda; Remo Ruffini

    2014-11-19

    Globally neutral neutron stars, obtained from the solution of the called Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations that account for all the fundamental interactions, have been recently introduced. These configurations have a more general character than the ones obtained with the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff, which impose the condition of local charge neutrality. The resulting configurations have a less massive and thinner crust, leading to a new mass-radius relation. Signatures of this new structure of the neutron star on the thermal evolution might be a potential test for this theory. We compute the cooling curves by integrating numerically the energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and sizes, according to this theory for different core-crust transition interfaces. We compare and contrast our study with known results for local charge neutrality. We found a new behavior for the relaxation time, depending upon the density at the base of the crust, $\\rho_{\\rm crust}$. In particular, we find that the traditional increase of the relaxation time with the crust thickness holds only for configurations whose density of the base of the crust is greater than $\\approx 5\\times 10^{13}$ g cm$^{-3}$. The reason for this is that neutron star crusts with very thin or absent inner crust have some neutrino emission process blocked which keep the crust hotter for longer times. Therefore, accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase of neutron stars might give crucial information on the core-crust transition which may aid us in probing the inner composition/structure of these objects.

  12. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amand Faessler

    2002-12-06

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics willdevelop quite fast: A. Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region; B. Nuclear structure at the limits; C. High energy heavy ion collisions; D. Nuclear astrophysics; E. Neutrino physics; F. Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: 1. The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon $\\Sigma$-term, 2. VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance, 3. Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak, 4. The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  13. Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobson, Art

    that fundamental fields such as the electromagnetic (EM) field are physi- cally real, and not simply mathematical continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory.) of introduc- tory quantum physics, and I certainly do not propose teaching quantum field theory

  14. The World Neutron Monitor Network as a tool for the study of solar neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    The World Neutron Monitor Network as a tool for the study of solar neutrons I. G. Usoskin1 , G. A Neutron Monitor Network to detect high-energy solar neutrons is dis- cussed in detail. It is shown that the existing network can be used for the routine detection of intense sporadic solar-neutron events whenever

  15. A neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source B. Bayanova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    A neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source B. Bayanova , E. Kashaeva b l e i n f o Keywords: Target Lithium Neutron capture therapy Epithermal neutrons a b s t r a c t An innovative accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT has just started operation at the Budker Institute

  16. neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul- taneousT is the thermal neutron velocity, l is the decay constant, Ns is the s-process abun- dance, bsÀ is the maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross-section, and t0 is the average neutron exposure (21). The branching decay of 186Re

  17. Neutron capture therapy with deep tissue penetration using capillary neutron focusing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An improved method for delivering thermal neutrons to a subsurface cancer or tumor which has been first doped with a dopant having a high cross section for neutron capture. The improvement is the use of a guide tube in cooperation with a capillary neutron focusing apparatus, or neutron focusing lens, for directing neutrons to the tumor, and thereby avoiding damage to surrounding tissue.

  18. Boron nitride solid state neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2004-04-27

    The present invention describes an apparatus useful for detecting neutrons, and particularly for detecting thermal neutrons, while remaining insensitive to gamma radiation. Neutrons are detected by direct measurement of current pulses produced by an interaction of the neutrons with hexagonal pyrolytic boron nitride.

  19. Scattered neutron tomography based on a neutron transport problem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scipolo, Vittorio

    2005-11-01

    and scattered images generated from a beam passing through an optically thick object. This inverse problem makes use of a computationally efficient, two-dimensional forward problem based on neutron transport theory that effectively calculates the detector...

  20. Part I: The Higgs Boson--A Theoretical Journey The search for the fundamental particles and forces of nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    were unified by electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell in 1865. Isaac Newton introduced#12;Part I: The Higgs Boson--A Theoretical Journey The search for the fundamental particles and forces of nature o Revolutions of 20th century physics: relativity and quantum theory Quantum fields

  1. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations Citation Details In-Document...

  2. Angelica Garcia Gutierrez, Peter Baumann Modeling Fundamental Geo-Raster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Peter

    Angelica Garcia Gutierrez, Peter Baumann Modeling Fundamental Geo-Raster Operations with Array Angelica Garcia Gutierrez Peter Baumann School of Engineering and Science Jacobs University Bremen g

  3. The fundamental solution of the unidirectional pulse propagation equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babushkin, I.; Bergé, L.

    2014-03-15

    The fundamental solution of a variant of the three-dimensional wave equation known as “unidirectional pulse propagation equation” (UPPE) and its paraxial approximation is obtained. It is shown that the fundamental solution can be presented as a projection of a fundamental solution of the wave equation to some functional subspace. We discuss the degree of equivalence of the UPPE and the wave equation in this respect. In particular, we show that the UPPE, in contrast to the common belief, describes wave propagation in both longitudinal and temporal directions, and, thereby, its fundamental solution possesses a non-causal character.

  4. Review of Indirect Methods Used to Determine the $^1S_0$ Neutron-Neutron Scattering Length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Howell

    2008-05-08

    We have determined a value for the $^1S_0$ neutron-neutron scattering length ($a_{nn}$) from high-precision measurements of time-of-flight spectra of neutrons from the $^2H(\\pi^-,n \\gamma)n$ capture reaction. The measurements were done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility by the E1286 collaboration. The high spatial resolution of our gamma-ray detector enabled us to make a detailed assessment of the systematic uncertainties in our techniques. The value obtained in the present work is $a_{nn} = -18$.63 $\\pm $0.10 (statistical) $\\pm$ 0.44 (systematic) $\\pm$ 0.30 (theoretical) fm. This result is consistent with previous determinations of $a_{nn}$ from the $\\pi^-d$ capture reaction. We found that the analysis of the data with calculations that use a relativistic phase-space factor gives a more negative value for $a_{nn}$ by 0.33 fm over the analysis done using a nonrelativistic phase-space factor. Combining the present result with the previous ones from $\\pi^-d$ capture gives: $a_{nn} = - 18$.63 $\\pm$ 0.27 (expt) $\\pm$ 0.30 fm (theory). For the first time the combined statistical and systematic experimental uncertainty in $a_{nn}$ is smaller than the theoretical uncertainty and comparable to the uncertainty in the proton-proton $^1S_0$ scattering length ($a_{pp}$). This average value of $a_{nn}$ when corrected for the magnetic-moment interaction of the two neutrons becomes -18.9 $\\pm$ 0.4 fm which is 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.5 fm different from the recommended value of $a_{pp}$, thereby confirming charge symmetry breaking at the 1% confidence level.

  5. High Energy Physics from High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Blum

    2009-08-06

    We discuss Quantum Chromodynamics calculations using the lattice regulator. The theory of the strong force is a cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics. We present USQCD collaboration results obtained on Argonne National Lab's Intrepid supercomputer that deepen our understanding of these fundamental theories of Nature and provide critical support to frontier particle physics experiments and phenomenology.

  6. Teaching symmetry in the introductory physics curriculum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, C. T.; Lederman, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.

  7. Physical Realities from Simple Philosophical Conjectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helen Lynn; Michele Caponigro

    2006-08-21

    We will focus on the Quantum theory and starting from simple philosophical conjectures, we infer possible different physical realities. Also we argue of possible wavefunction emerging under specific conditions of the physical reality. Finally, we affirm that the "hidden choice" of the ontic elements as primitive is a fundamental step to analyze the construction of any theory.

  8. @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

  9. Distribution of neutron resonance widths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans A. Weidenmueller

    2011-10-28

    Recent data on neutron resonance widths indicate disagreement with the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD). I discuss the theoretical arguments for the PTD, possible theoretical modifications, and I summarize the experimantal evidence.

  10. SNS | Spallation Neutron Source | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USA. This one-of-a-kind facility provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. The 80-acre SNS site is located...

  11. Coherent control of neutron interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pushin, Dmitry A

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, several novel techniques are proposed and demonstrated for measuring the coherent properties of materials and testing aspects of quantum information processing using a single crystal neutron interferometer. ...

  12. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  13. Research Highlights | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 06, 2014 - Thermoelectric SnTe and PbTe compounds were investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations to understand the basis of...

  14. Chiral condensate in neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2008-08-06

    A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

  15. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  16. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  17. Graduate & Post-doctoral Programs | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduate & Post-doctoral Programs SHARE Facilitating Education of Future Neutron Users ORNL's neutron science education programs promote strong partnerships between neutron...

  18. Thermal Neutron Computed Tomography of Soil Water and Plant Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leanne G. Tumlinson; Hungyuan Liu; Wendy K. Silk; Jan W. Hopmans

    2007-01-01

    caused by increased neutron scattering with an increase inof beam hardening and neutron scattering could be correctedof beam hardening or neutron scattering and backscattering

  19. On Some General Physical Aspects of the Real Physical Space and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Gevorkian; R. A. Gevorkian

    2001-01-24

    The paper discusses some aspects of real physical space and time: structure of electrodynamics; structure of gravitational-inert theory in the real world; formation of the real matter; Mach's principle and the radiational cosmic mass; spread and transmission of information in the space of the real world; fundamental and main physical constants, protostar or 3+1-dimensional matter; and some philosophical and general physical approaches to solutions of physical problems.

  20. Basic Concepts for a Fundamental Aether Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Levy

    2008-03-27

    In the light of recent experimental and theoretical data, we go back to the studies tackled in previous publications [1] and develop some of their consequences. Some of their main aspects will be studied in further detail. Yet this text remains self- sufficient. The questions asked following these studies will be answered. The consistency of these developments in addition to the experimental results, enable to strongly support the existence of a preferred aether frame and of the anisotropy of the one-way speed of light in the Earth frame. The theory demonstrates that the apparent invariance of the speed of light results from the systematic measurement distortions entailed by length contraction, clock retardation and the synchronization procedures with light signals or by slow clock transport. Contrary to what is often believed, these two methods have been demonstrated to be equivalent by several authors [1]. The compatibility of the relativity principle with the existence of a preferred aether frame and with mass-energy conservation is discussed and the relation existing between the aether and inertial mass is investigated. The experimental space-time transformations connect co-ordinates altered by the systematic measurement distortions. Once these distortions are corrected, the hidden variables they conceal are disclosed. The theory sheds light on several points of physics which had not found a satisfactory explanation before. (Further important comments will be made in ref [1d]).