National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fully refined waxes

  1. Petroleum Refining

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maintaining the viability of the U.S. petroleum refining industry requires continuous improvement in productivity and energy efficiency. The U.S. refining industry has worked with AMO to provide a range of resources that can provide energy and cost savings for the industry.

  2. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  3. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of Motor Gasoline Blending Comp Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and ...

  4. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  5. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

  6. Wax and hydrate control with electrical power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Electrical heating of subsea flowlines is an effective way to prevent wax and hydrate information, especially for long transportation distances and in low-temperature deep water. Systems are available for use in conjunction with bundles, pipe-in-pipe, and wet-thermal-insulation systems. These systems provide environmentally friendly fluid-temperature control without chemicals or flaring for pipeline depressurizing. Enhanced production is achieved because no time is lost by unnecessary depressurizing, pigging, heating-medium circulation, or removal of hydrate and wax blockages. The seabed temperature at 100-m and greater water depths may range from 7 to {minus}1.5 C, causing a rapid cooling of the hot well streams being transported in subsea flowlines. Under these supercooling conditions, vulnerable crude oils and multiphase compositions will deposit wax and asphalts; also the gas/water phase may freeze solid with hydrate particles. The paper discusses thermal-insulated flowlines, heat-loss compensation with electrical power, electrical power consumption and operation, and subsea electrical-power distribution system.

  7. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes PDF icon bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry

  8. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and its Control during Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Journal, 43, no. 5, 1997 48. Pedersen, K.S. and Christensen, P., Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, Taylor & ... Strategies for Wax Management and Control for Deep ...

  9. Microbial production of wax esters from highly branched alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogan, William W.; Sullivan, Wendy R.; Paterek, James R.

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture and method for producing wax esters using highly branched alkanes. In accordance with one embodiment, the highly branched alkane is squalane.

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in...

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes PDF icon bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP...

  12. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  13. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  14. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  15. Canfield waxes poetic about superconductors | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Canfield waxes poetic about superconductors An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. When the editors...

  16. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California: California Industries of the Future Program | Department of Energy Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program PDF icon cpi_profile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum

  17. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  18. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  19. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  20. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  1. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  2. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  3. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universitt Gttingen, Tammannstrae 4, Gttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as a CIF) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  4. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  5. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Petroleum Refining More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  6. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    A processor is described for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons comprising the steps of: (a) charging the synthesis gas to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis conversion zone containing a catalyst providing CO reducing characteristics to produce a waxy hydrocarbon liquid; (b) separating hydrocarbon wax from the waxy liquid; (c) catalytically cracking the wax in a fluidized bed of acid crystalline zeolite at cracking temperature under process conditions requiring a supply of heat to effect cracking, producing olefinic liquid hydrocarbon crackate in the gasoline and distillate boiling range along with olefinic light gas; (d) recovering distillate range hydrocarbons from the liquid crackate; (e) further converting the olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbon crackate and olefinic light gas under oligomerization conditions in contact with a shape selective medium pore acid oligomerization catalyst to upgrade at least a portion of the olefinic crackate and olefinic light gas to distillate range hydrocarbon product and producing by-product light fuel gas; (f) separating the light fuel gas from step (e) and passing the light fuel gas to cracking step (c) to supply heat.

  7. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  8. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Brian F. (Laramie, WY)

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

  9. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  10. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  11. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  12. Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Petroleum Refining More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Cement (2010 MECS) Foundries (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy Sankey Diagrams

  13. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  14. Development of Screenable Wax Coatings and Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design new formulations and production processes for water-based adhesives and wax coatings that can be easily screened from recycling operations.

  15. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  16. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  17. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  18. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement Authors: Brunger, A.T., Adams, P.D., Fromme, P., Fromme, R., Levitt, M., and Schröder, G.F. Title: Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement Source: Structure Year: 2012 Volume: 20 Pages: 20, 957-966 ABSTRACT: In X-ray crystallography, molecular replacement and subsequent refinement is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 Å

  19. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  20. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry...

  1. GAMMA IRRADIATION TESTING OF MONTAN WAX FOR USE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOO,P.; HEISER,J.; HART,A.

    1996-09-08

    A field demonstration was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to quantify the potential use of montan wax as a subsurface barrier material for nuclear waste management applications. As part of that demonstration, a study was completed to address some of the characteristics of the wax. Of particular interest is its resistance to chemical and structural changes that would influence its integrity as a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. Based on the data obtained to date the wax is extremely resistant to radiation-induced change. Coupled with low permeability, the material shows promise as a subsurface barrier material.

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Vogel Paint and Wax, Maurice, IA. (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-20

    The Vogel Paint and Wax (VPW) site is an approximately two-acre disposal area two miles southwest of the town of Maurice, in Sioux County, Iowa. Adjacent land uses are primarily agricultural; however, several private residences are within one-quarter mile of the site. A surficial sand and gravel aquifer underlies the site and supplies nearby private wells and the Southern Sioux County Rural Water System, located a mile and one half southeast of the site. Paint sludge, resins, solvents, and other paint-manufacturing wastes were disposed of at the site between 1971 and 1979. VPW records indicate that approximately 43,000 gallons of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and 6,000 pounds of metals waste were buried at the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes excavation of contaminated soil and separation of solid and liquid wastes; onsite bioremediation of 3,000 cubic yards of the contaminated soil in a fully contained surface impoundment unit, or onsite thermal treatment if soil contains high metal content; and stabilization of treated soil, if necessary to prevent leaching of metals, followed by disposal in the excavated area.

  3. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  4. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  5. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  6. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  7. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  8. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  9. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on...

  13. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  14. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  15. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  16. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  17. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  18. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  19. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Part I. Design and fabrication (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES - Part I. Design and fabrication This content will become publicly available on June 24, 2016 Title: A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift

  20. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  1. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  2. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents &

  3. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  4. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-09-30

    The use of solid acids, especially Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, to convert long chain alkanes and Fischer-Tropsch waxes to liquid fuels under mild reaction conditions was explored in this work. Anion and/or hydrogenation metal modified zirconium oxides were synthesized, characterized, and tested for hydrocracking and hydroisomerization. of model compounds, chiefly with n-hexadecane. The relationship between catalytic activity and acidic character of the bifunctional Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was investigated.

  5. Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Marketing Monthly (April 2012), Tables 1, 2, 4, 6, and 16. 5In this table, refiner margin is the difference between the ...

  6. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  7. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  8. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  9. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors

  10. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  11. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  12. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining PDF icon condition_assessment.pdf More Documents & Publications Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of

  14. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are co-leading an effort to accelerate the development of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. The ability to leverage existing petroleum-refining infrastructure to produce "drop-in" biofuels (biofuels that can substitute readily for

  15. Fully Integrated Nanosystem for Artificial Photosynthesis - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Fully Integrated Nanosystem for Artificial Photosynthesis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Liu, C., Dasgupta, N. P., Yang, P., "Semiconductor Nanowires for Artificial Photosynthesis," Chemistry of Materials, 2014, 26(1), 415-422, DOI: 10.1021/cm4023198. (1,285 KB) PDF Document Publication Liu, C., Tang, J., Chen,

  16. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 PDF icon techvision.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint References Industrial Technologies Funding Profile by Subprogram ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

  17. Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  18. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. ...

  19. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Previous Release Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. In the diagram the companies shown on the right side are presently active in U.S. refining. The transactions over the past 25 years that created these companies also are shown. The

  20. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 . Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) PDF icon profile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum

  2. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capacity | Department of Energy Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the

  3. REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES In a state where energy costs are low and the home performance workforce had not been established, Nebraska's two largest cities-Omaha and Lincoln-took on the challenge of promoting whole home energy upgrades to homeowners, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Using $10 million in seed funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)

  4. Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve May 12, 2009 - 3:14pm Addthis Statement of David F. Johnson, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Petroleum Reserves before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate. Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, I am pleased to be here today to discuss the issue of developing refined products storage in the

  5. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  6. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Annual",2014,"6301968" ,"Release Date:","212016" ,"Next Release Date:","312016" ,"Excel File...

  7. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California PDF icon ...

  8. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  9. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  10. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  13. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  15. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  16. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  18. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  19. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  20. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  2. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  3. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  4. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  5. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  6. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  7. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  8. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  9. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  10. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients ?{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the ? = 6 scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of ?{sub s}[x(E, ?)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of ?{sup }{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}(x)=?{sub 1}?{sub s1}(x)+?{sub 2}?{sub s2}(x)+?{sub 3}?{sub s3}(x), where ?{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the ?{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known ?{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup ?1}. The ?{sup }{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to measure ?{sub s} of homogeneous samples was quantitatively accurate. Simple WAXS models predicted the probabilities for specific x-ray scattering to occur from heterogeneous biopsies. The fat subtraction model can allow ?{sub s} signals of breast cancer and fibroglandular tissue to be compared without the effects of fat provided there is an independent measurement of the fat volume fraction ?{sub f}. Future work will consist of devising a quantitative x-ray digital imaging method to estimate ?{sub f} in ex vivo breast samples.

  11. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  12. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  13. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  14. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  15. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical extraction. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major objectives of this research project is to predict the phase behavior of model wax compounds in dense supercritical fluids such as hexane. Because initial results with the SAFT equation have been less promising than expected, the group at North Carolina State University has focused their recent attention on cubic equations of state, in particular the Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong versions. The focus of this work has been on developing correlations that can be used to predict binary interaction parameters (i.e., k{sub ij}s) for a given binary wax-solvent system. As a first step, k{sub ij}s were first calculated from experimental data on systems containing alkanes between nC{sub 4} and nC{sub 23} at temperatures between 25 and 357{degrees} C. Attempts were then made to correlate these parameters with specific pure component properties of the alkanes of interest. Reasonably good agreement between experimental and predicted k{sub ij}s was found using a correlation that incorporates both temperature and the molecular size of the alkanes. As phase equilibrium data becomes available for higher molecular weight model wax compounds, the ability of the correlation to handle such systems will need to be tested. The phase equilibrium apparatus is currently undergoing modifications that will allow the system to run components that are solids at ambient temperatures. Some problems are still being resolved, as the heavy component tends to precipitate in the sample lines. Modifications have been made that should allow the system to operate reliably.

  16. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

  17. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  18. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  19. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Derivative (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a

  20. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits PDF icon hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  1. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pathfinder Mission (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; Phillion, D ; Nikolaev, S Publication Date: 2011-05-19 OSTI Identifier: 1122251 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-485519 DOE Contract

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Belmont Smelting and Refining Works

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Inc - NY 44 Belmont Smelting and Refining Works Inc - NY 44 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Belmont Smelting & Refining Works Inc (NY 0-04) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Brooklyn , New York NY.44-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.44-1 Site Operations: Supplied the MED with construction materials. NY.44-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of radioactive materials handled at this site NY.44-1 Radioactive

  3. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will...

  4. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  5. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  6. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices...

  7. Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morton, P. L. Manning, W. I. Sellers, S. Farrar, K. G. Huntley, R. A. Wogelius, and P. Larson (2010) "Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron...

  8. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  9. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  10. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (?{sup }{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ?{sup }{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient ?{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ?{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ?{sup }{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6 scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 10{sup ?5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, ?{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the ?{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to ?{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ?{sup }{sub fat}=0.330.05 and 0.32 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of ?{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and ?{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. Conclusions: The methodology to estimate ?{sup }{sub fat} in a ROI of a tissue sample via CCD x-ray imaging was quantitatively accurate. The WAXS fat subtraction model allowed ?{sub s} of fibrous tissue to be obtained from a ROI which had some fat. The fat estimation method coupled with the WAXS models can be used to compare ?{sub s} coefficients of fibroglandular and cancerous breast tissue.

  11. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. ,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Net Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Refiner Net Production",21,"Weekly","3/11/2016","6/4/2010" ,"Release Date:","3/16/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/23/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  14. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by LeanRich Cycling Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel...

  15. Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Study of the Phase Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Drug/PEG Solid Dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Qing; Harris, Michael T.; Taylor, Lynne S.

    2013-03-07

    Simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was employed to elucidate the physical state and location of various small molecule drugs blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as well as the time dependent microstructural evolution of the systems. Samples were prepared by comelting physical mixtures of the drug and PEG, followed by solidification at 25 C. The model drugs selected encompassed a wide variety of physicochemical properties in terms of crystallization tendency and potential for interaction with PEG. It was observed that compounds which crystallized rapidly and had weak interactions with PEG tended to be excluded from the interlamellar region of the PEG matrix. In contrast, drugs which had favorable interactions with PEG were incorporated into the interlamellar regions of the polymer up until the point at which the drug crystallized whereby phase separation occurred. These factors are likely to impact the effectiveness of drug/PEG systems as drug delivery systems.

  16. Health assessment for Vogel Paint and Wax, Maurice, Sioux County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD980630487. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-29

    The Vogel Paint and Wax National Priority List site is situated in northwest Iowa in Sioux County. Contaminants found at the site consist of heavy metals (particularly cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury) and volatile organic compounds (benzene, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylene). Two towns, Maurice and Struble, and the Southern Sioux County Rural Water System well field are located within three miles of the site, and two families live within 1600 feet of the waste-disposal site. Environmental pathways include contaminated soil and ground water, as well as potential surface water and air contamination. Although there does not appear to be any immediate public health threat, the site is of potential health concern because of the possibility for further off-site migration of contaminants into the ground water aquifer and for direct on-site contact.

  17. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites | Department of Energy Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services took over the DUF6 Project on March 29 of this year, the company had one thing in mind: Bring all seven conversion lines at both plants to

  18. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  19. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  20. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  1. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  2. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  3. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  4. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  7. ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry PDF icon petroleumroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies 2011 Strategic Plan

  8. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  9. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content

  10. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87 faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  11. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape003_tolbert_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart Integrated Power Module

  12. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape_03_marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module Wide Bandgap Materials

  13. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact 676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of...

  14. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  15. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less

  16. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-12-14

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called textbook multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  17. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Publications Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will transform how current magnets are fabricated, resulting in a dramatic cost decrease and significant reduction of the rare earth (RE) content while actually enhancing the magnetic performance of the magnets. This will be accomplished by a revolutionary solid-state processing

  18. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  19. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  20. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  1. Ability of TiO2(110) Surface to Be Fully Hydroxylated and Fully Reduced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhitao; Garcia, Juan C.; Deskins, N. A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2015-08-06

    Many TiO2 applications (e.g., in heterogeneous catalysis) involve contact with ambient atmosphere and/or water. The resulting hydroxylation can significantly alter its surface properties. While behavior of single, isolated OH species on the model metal oxide surface of rutile TiO2(110) is relatively well understood, much less is known regarding highly-hydroxylated surfaces and/or whether TiO2(110) could be fully-hydroxylated under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Here we report in situ formation of a well-ordered, fully-hydroxylated TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) surface using an enhanced photochemical approach, key parts of which are pre-dosing of water and multi-step dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis of the carboxylic (trimethyl acetic) acid. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory results, we show that the attained super OH surface is also fully-reduced, as a result of the photochemical trapping of electrons at the OH groups.

  2. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  4. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    David, Tanya M. S.; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2014-01-01

    Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene) or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer wasmore » synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.« less

  5. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  6. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  7. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratorys GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  10. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore » incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  11. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

  12. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  13. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN STRATIFIED SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2013-07-10

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with zero magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite (constant) thermal diffusivity. We choose radiative boundary conditions at the vertical boundaries in which the heat flux is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. We compare the results with the corresponding cases in which fixed temperature boundary conditions are applied. The most notable result is that the formation of a fully convective state in which the density is nearly constant as a function of height and the heat is transported to the upper and lower boundaries by overturning motions is robust and persists even in cases with radiative boundary conditions. Interestingly, in the convective regime, although the diffusive transport is negligible, the mean stratification does not relax to an adiabatic state.

  14. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  15. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","102015","1151983" ,"Release Date:","142016" ,"Next Release Date:","212016" ,"Excel File...

  16. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  17. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  18. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  19. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  20. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  2. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  3. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  4. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are co-leading an effort to accelerate the development of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. The ability to leverage existing petroleum-refining infrastructure to produce "drop-in" biofuels (biofuels that

  5. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  6. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmore » of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.« less

  7. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  8. Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense...

  9. Fully self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation using a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fully self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation using a plane-wave basis set This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2016 Prev Next Title: Fully...

  10. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  11. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  12. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  13. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  14. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement May 19, 2014 - 12:54pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy, the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program, and the Western Area Power Administration (Western) will present the next Tribal Renewable Energy Series webinar, Renewable Energy Project Refinement, on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to

  15. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  16. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy 2 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (Alon) filed in response to a determination that was issued to it by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Information Resources (OIR). In that determination, the OIR replied to a request for documents that Alon submitted under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. §

  17. Toward fully self-consistent simulation of the interaction of E-Clouds and beams with WARP-POSINST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLNL; Furman, M.A.; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Sonnad, K.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2012-04-09

    To predict the evolution of electron clouds and their effect on the beam, the high energy physics community has relied so far on the complementary use of 'buildup' and 'single/multi-bunch instability' reduced descriptions. The former describes the evolution of electron clouds at a given location in the ring, or 'station', under the influence of prescribed beams and external fields [1], while the latter (sometimes also referred as the 'quasi-static' approximation [2]) follows the interaction between the beams and the electron clouds around the accelerator with prescribed initial distributions of electrons, assumed to be concentrated at a number of discrete 'stations' around the ring. Examples of single bunch instability codes include HEADTAIL [3], QuickPIC [4, 5], and PEHTS [6]. By contrast, a fully self-consistent approach, in which both the electron cloud and beam distributions evolve simultaneously under their mutual influence without any restriction on their relative motion, is required for modeling the interaction of high-intensity beams with electron clouds for heavy-ion beam-driven fusion and warm-dense matter science. This community has relied on the use of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods through the development and use of the WARP-POSINST code suite [1, 7, 8]. The development of novel numerical techniques (including adaptive mesh refinement, and a new 'drift-Lorentz' particle mover for tracking charged particles in magnetic fields using large time steps) has enabled the first application of WARP-POSINST to the fully self-consistent modeling of beams and electron clouds in high energy accelerators [9], albeit for only a few betatron oscillations. It was recently observed [10] that there exists a preferred frame of reference which minimizes the number of computer operations needed to simulate the interaction of relativistic objects. This opens the possibility of reducing the cost of fully self-consistent simulations for the interaction of ultrarelativistic beams with electron cloud by orders of magnitude. The computational cost of the fully self-consistent mode is then predicted to be comparable to that of the quasi-static mode, assuming that several stations per betatron period are needed. During the workshop, there was some debate about the number of stations per betatron period that are needed when using the quasi-static mode. The argument was made that if there is less than one station per betatron period, then artificial resonances can be triggered and the resulting emittance growth provides an upper bound. The emittance growth thus obtained will fall either above or below the operational requirements of the machine. In the latter case, one can conclude that the electron effect that has been simulated is of no concern. However, if the emittance growth that was obtained is above the threshold, then the results become inconclusive, and simulations which resolve the betatron motion are then needed. In this case, according to [10], the fully self-consistent approach becomes an option. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether this option is indeed practical.

  18. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC’s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGen® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGen™ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGen® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGU’s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.’s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, “Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,” refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre-commercial hydrokinetic technology into a commercially viable product over a three-year period by means of a design-for-manufacture process to be applied to the turbines which would result in a detail turbine design suitable for volume manufacture. In Phase I of the Project, ORPC systematically investigated performance of cross flow turbines by varying design parameters including solidity, foil profile, number of foils and foil toe angle using scale models of ORPC’s turbine design in a tow tank at the University of Maine (UMaine). Data collected provided information on interactions between design variables and helped ORPC improve turbine efficiency from 21% to greater than 35%. Analytical models were developed to better understand the physical phenomena at play in cross-flow turbines. In Phase II of the Project, ORPC expanded on data collected in Phase I to continue improving turbine efficiency, with a goal to optimally approach the Betz limit of 59.3%. Further tow tank testing and development of the analytical models and techniques was completed at UMaine and led to a deeper understanding of the flow phenomena involved. In addition, ORPC evaluated various designs, materials and manufacturing methods for full-scale turbine foils, and identified those most conducive to volume manufacture. Selected components of the turbine were structurally tested in a laboratory environment at UMaine. Performance and structural testing of the full scale turbine design was conducted as part of the field testing. The work funded by this project enabled the development of design tools for the rapid and efficient development of high performance cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine foils. The analytical tools are accurate and properly capture the underlying physical flow phenomena present in hydrokinetic cross-flow turbines. The ability to efficiently examine the design space provides substantial economic benefit to ORPC in that it allows for rapid design iteration at a low computational cost. The design-for-manufacture work enabled the delivery of a turbine design suitable for manufacture in intermediate to large quantity, lowering the unit cost of turbines and the levelized cost of electricity from ORPC hydrokinetic turbine. ORPC fielded the turbine design in a full scale application – the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project which began operation off the coast of Eastport, Maine in September 2012. This is the first commercial, grid-connected tidal energy project in North America and the only ocean energy project not involving a dam which delivers power to a utility grid anywhere in the Americas. ORPC received a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission pilot project license to install and operate this project in February 2012. Construction of the TidGen® Power System began in March 2012, and the system was grid-connected on September 13, 2012. A 20-year commercial power purchase agreement to sell the power generated by the project was completed with Bangor Hydro Electric Company and is the first and only power purchase agreement for tidal energy. This is the first project in the U.S. to receive Renewable Energy Certificates for tidal energy production. The STTR project is a benefit to the public through its creation of jobs. ORPC’s recent deployment of the TidGen™ Power System is part of their larger project, the Maine Tidal Energy Project. According to ORPC’s report to the Maine Public Utilities Commission and the 20-year power purchase agreement, the Maine Tidal Energy Project will create and/or retain at least 80 direct full-time equivalent jobs in Maine during the development, construction and installation phase (2011 through 2016). In addition, the Maine Tidal Energy Project will create and/or retain at least 12 direct full-time equivalent jobs in Maine during the operating and maintenance phase (2016 through 2020). The STTR project has facilitated new and expanded services in manufacturing, fabrication and assembly, including major business growth for the composite technologies sector; creation of deepwater deployment, maintenance and retrieval services; and the expansion and formation of technical support services such as site assessment and design services, geotechnical services, underwater transmission services, and environmental monitoring services. The Maine Tidal Energy Project’s impact on workforce will enable other ocean energy projects – be they offshore wind, wave or additional tidal opportunities – to succeed in Maine. ORPC received a 2013 Tibbetts Award by the U.S. Small Business Administration.

  19. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  20. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  1. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  2. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  3. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  5. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  6. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  7. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  17. Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets December 2011 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in

  19. Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  20. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse

  1. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mission (Conference) | SciTech Connect Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S Publication Date: 2013-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 1092503 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-637976 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  2. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining i , ii Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE)'S ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE PROVIDED FUNDING FOR THIS ANALYSIS AND REPORT The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)'s Advanced Manufacturing Office works with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining Co - OH

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    20 Smelting and Refining Co - OH 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL SMELTING & REFINING CO. (OH.20) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 6800 Grand Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio OH.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 OH.20-2 Site Operations: No indication of other test operations using very limited quantities of slag material. OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon

  4. A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CCSM Simulation A fully coupled global simulation using the Community Climate ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ...

  5. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced Red Sensitivity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick,...

  6. Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doverbratt, Isa; Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven

    2013-01-15

    The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, was prepared as a part of a systematic investigation of the Ca-Pd-Ge ternary phase diagram. The structure was determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase with the space group R-3m, Z=3, a=5.6191 (5) A, c=12.1674 (7) A, wR{sub 2}=0.054 (all data) and is isostructural to Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si (Noreus et al., 1985 [17]) but due to the larger size of all elements in Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, the cell axes are approximately 10% longer. The compound may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and compared with CaPd{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). - Graphical abstract: The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase which may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The structure is composed of Kagome net layers, consisting of Pd atoms only, which are stacked in an ABC sequence. Band structure calculations show that the Fermi level is located at a local minimum of the DOS (pseudo-gap) indicating that the charge is roughly optimized in the structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Site specific segregation in a Laves phase that is also a Zintl phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pseudo-gap at the Fermi level in a Laves phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distorted Frank-Kasper polyhedron.

  7. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  8. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by splitting a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  9. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of validity of soundproof models, showing that they are more broadly applicable than some had previously thought. Substantial testing of EULAG included application and extension of the Jablonowski-Williamson baroclinic wave test - an archetype of planetary weather - and further analysis of multi-scale interactions arising from collapse of temperature fronts in both the baroclinic wave test and simulations of the Held-Suarez idealized climate. These analyses revealed properties of atmospheric gravity waves not seen in previous work and further demonstrated the ability of EULAG to simulate realistic behavior over several orders of magnitude of length scales. Additional collaborative work enhanced capability for modeling atmospheric flows with adaptive moving meshes and demonstrated the ability of EULAG to move into petascale computing. 3b. CAM-EULAG Advances We have developed CAM-EULAG in collaboration with former project postdoc, now University of Cape Town Assistant Professor, Babatunde Abiodun. Initial study documented good model performance in aqua-planet simulations. In particular, we showed that the grid adaptivity (stretching) implemented in CAM-EULAG allows higher resolution in selected regions without causing anomalous behavior such as spurious wave reflection. We then used the stretched-grid version to analyze simulated extreme precipitation events in West Africa, comparing the precipitation and event environment with observed behavior. The model simulates fairly well the spatial scale and the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the extreme events, although its extreme precipitation intensity is weaker than observed. In addition, both observations and the simulations show possible forcing of extreme events by African easterly waves. 3c. Other Contributions Through our collaborations, we have made contributions to a wide range of outcomes. For research focused on terrestrial behavior, these have included (1) upwind schemes for gas dynamics, (2) a nonlinear perspective on the dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, (3) numerical realism of thermal co

  10. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pranikar, Jure [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Duan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  11. Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement Authors: Guzik, S M ; Weisgraber, T H ; Colella, P ; Alder, B J Publication Date: 2012-10-18 OSTI Identifier: 1226215 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-594615 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal

  12. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  14. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  15. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016"

  16. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016"

  17. ,"U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  19. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  20. ,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  2. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Products for Refiner Gasoline Volumes",1,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Data 2","by Grade",3,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Data

  3. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  4. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DE P A R T M E N U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A M Office of Energy Efficency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Appendices Appendices (This page intentionally left blank.) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

  5. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Implications of Increasing Light Oil Production on the U.S. Refining System i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  9. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inc./Commonwealth of Puerto Rico | Department of Energy RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc./Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc./Commonwealth of Puerto Rico On July 29, 2014, OHA approved a distribution plan submitted by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico) to use approximately $1.2 million of petroleum overcharge funds held in escrow by the Department of Energy. The funds were collected

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Smelting and Refining Co - CO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    0-01 Smelting and Refining Co - CO 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Smelting and Refining Co (CO.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - DOE facility Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Grand Junction , Colorado CO.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CO.0-01-1 Site Operations: Purchased and assayed ores for AEC at Grand Junction Office, Colorado from 1949-1954. CO.0-01-1 CO.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Operations performed at Grand Junction

  11. A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation A fully coupled global simulation using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) was configured using grid resolutions of 0.1{sup o} for the ocean and sea-ice, and 0.25{sup o} for the atmosphere and land, and was run under present-day greenhouse gas conditions

  12. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling | Department of Energy Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust. PDF icon deer08_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul

  13. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Energy Efficency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Main Report Main Report Download CD-ROM Zip File (27.3 MB) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System

  14. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  15. Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

  16. Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically fully

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coupled CFD study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically fully coupled CFD study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically fully coupled CFD study Authors: Chen, Gaoqiang [1] ; Feng, Zhili [1] ; Shi, Qingyu [2] ; Zhu, Yucan [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1159431 DOE Contract Number:

  17. Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm035_derezinski_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Vehicle Technologies

  18. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  19. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  20. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 . Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  1. Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per barrel)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  2. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  3. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  4. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  5. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  6. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  12. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies. In addition to consideration of this 'naive' use of TRISO fuel in LWRs, several refined options are briefly examined and others are identified for further consideration including the use of advanced, high density fuel forms and larger kernel diameters and TRISO packing fractions. The combination of 800 {micro}m diameter kernels of 20% enriched UN and 50% TRISO packing fraction yielded reactivity sufficient to achieve comparable burnup to present-day PWR fuel.

  13. FRACSTIM/I: A Fully Coupled Fluid Flow/Heat Transport and Geomechanical Deformation/Fracture Generation Simulator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This research will develop a fully coupled, fully implicit approach for EGS stimulation and reservoir simulation. Solve all governing equations simultaneously in fully implicit way. Enable massively parallel performance and scalability. Apply state of the art nonlinear PDE solvers: Jacobian Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method.

  14. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  15. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  16. Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Authors: Schmidt, A ; Link, A ; Welch, D ; Meehan, T ; Tang, V ; Halvorson, C ; May, M ; Hagen, E C Publication Date: 2014-09-19 OSTI Identifier: 1169854 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-661056 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  17. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  18. An Industrial Membrane System Suitable for Distributed Used Oil Re-refining

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An Industrial Membrane System Suitable for Distributed Used Oil Re-refining DE-SC0006185 Dr. Richard J. Ciora, Jr., Media and Process Technology Inc. 1155 William Pitt Way, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412 292-4057, rciora@mediaandprocess.com US DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28 - 29, 2015 1 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objectives Ceramic membranes for large scale hydrocarbon

  19. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  20. Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 07.01.13 Fewer

  1. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor Recent Findings Published in Energy & Environmental Science February 26, 2015 A new study from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrates the conversion of lignin-derived compounds to adipic acid, an important industrial dicarboxylic acid produced for its use as a precursor to nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, polyesters, and other popular products and chemicals. The demonstration is an

  2. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  3. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  4. ProDeGe: A Computational Protocol for fully Automated Decontamination of Genomic Data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    The Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline is a fully-automated software tool which classifies unscreened contigs from single cell datasets through a combination of homology and feature-based methodologies using the organism's nucleotide sequences and known NCBI taxonomony. The software is freely available to download and install, and can be run on any system.

  5. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  6. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  7. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  8. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  9. ,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Monthly","1/2016","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 234 Nonprocess Losses 3,542 689 Steam Distribution Losses 150 22 Nonprocess Energy 2,873 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,542 150 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 59 2,734 153 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 58 308 2,793 2,285 891 3,176 461 208 657 13.2 26.7 40.0 139.2 176.3 3.2

  12. Fully Differential Monte-Carlo Generator Dedicated to TMDs and Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghasyan, Mher M.; Avakian, Harut A.

    2013-10-01

    We present studies of double longitudinal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator, which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model based on the fully differential cross section for the process. Additionally, we apply Bessel-weighting to the simulated events to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and also discuss possible uncertainties due to kinematic correlation effects.

  13. A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01

    We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

  14. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for integrating an external source of high-energy neutrons with a conventional moderated high conversion ratio molten salt reactor, thereby creating a self-contained hybrid system which fissions any

  15. Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, Luis

    2015-07-16

    The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ωpeΔt >> 1, and Δx >> λD. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing NFE, leading to an optimal algorithm.

  16. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  17. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  18. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  19. Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.

  20. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  1. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  2. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63 21.08

  3. Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per barrel) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 17.06 17.21 18.24 19.43 20.64 22.12 23.76 25.52 27.51 29.67 31.86 34.00 36.05 38.36 40.78 43.29 45.88 48.37 AEO 1995 15.24 17.27 18.23 19.26 20.39 21.59 22.97 24.33 25.79 27.27 28.82 30.38 32.14 33.89 35.85 37.97 40.28 AEO 1996 17.16 17.74 18.59 19.72

  4. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  5. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  6. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  7. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  8. Scalable Nonlinear Solvers for Fully Implicit Coupled Nuclear Fuel Modeling. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Xiang; Pernice, Michael

    2014-09-29

    The focus of the project is on the development and customization of some highly scalable domain decomposition based preconditioning techniques for the numerical solution of nonlinear, coupled systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from nuclear fuel simulations. These high-order PDEs represent multiple interacting physical fields (for example, heat conduction, oxygen transport, solid deformation), each is modeled by a certain type of Cahn-Hilliard and/or Allen-Cahn equations. Most existing approaches involve a careful splitting of the fields and the use of field-by-field iterations to obtain a solution of the coupled problem. Such approaches have many advantages such as ease of implementation since only single field solvers are needed, but also exhibit disadvantages. For example, certain nonlinear interactions between the fields may not be fully captured, and for unsteady problems, stable time integration schemes are difficult to design. In addition, when implemented on large scale parallel computers, the sequential nature of the field-by-field iterations substantially reduces the parallel efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, fully coupled approaches have been investigated in order to obtain full physics simulations.

  9. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  10. Effects of dynamic screening on the electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmer, R.A.; Roepke, G.; Morales, F.; Kilimann, K. )

    1990-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma is expressed within the Zubarev method by equilibrium correlation functions. Using the Green's function technique, the Lenard--Balescu--Gurnsey collision integral of a generalized Boltzmann equation is derived that accounts for the effects of dynamic screening. Applying the usual random phase approximation, numerical results for the collision integral and the electrical conductivity are compared with the case of static screening ({omega}=0) and the long-wavelength limit ({ital q}{r arrow}0) for the dielectric function {Epsilon}({ital q},{omega}). Effective low-density expansions are given for the collision integrals as well as for the electrical conductivity that are applicable for a wide range of density and temperature.

  11. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  12. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  13. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  14. Vacancies in fully hydrogenated boron nitride layer: implications for functional nanodevices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Nie, JL; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-01

    Using density functional theory, a series of calculations of structural and electronic properties of hydrogen vacancies in a fully hydrogenated boron nitride (fH-BN) layer were conducted. By dehydrogenating the fH-BN structure, B-terminated vacancies can be created which induce complete spin polarization around the Fermi level, irrespective of the vacancy size. On the contrary, the fH-BN structure with N-terminated vacancies can be a small-gap semiconductor, a typical spin gapless semiconductor, or a metal depending on the vacancy size. Utilizing such vacancy-induced band gap and magnetism changes, possible applications in spintronics are proposed, and a special fH-BN based quantum dot device is designed.

  15. Local timespace mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local timespace grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  16. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  17. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85 13 and ? = 20 10; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  19. Dimensional reduction as a tool for mesh refinement and trackingsingularities of PDEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2007-06-10

    We present a collection of algorithms which utilizedimensional reduction to perform mesh refinement and study possiblysingular solutions of time-dependent partial differential equations. Thealgorithms are inspired by constructions used in statistical mechanics toevaluate the properties of a system near a critical point. The firstalgorithm allows the accurate determination of the time of occurrence ofa possible singularity. The second algorithm is an adaptive meshrefinement scheme which can be used to approach efficiently the possiblesingularity. Finally, the third algorithm uses the second algorithm untilthe available resolution is exhausted (as we approach the possiblesingularity) and then switches to a dimensionally reduced model which,when accurate, can follow faithfully the solution beyond the time ofoccurrence of the purported singularity. An accurate dimensionallyreduced model should dissipate energy at the right rate. We construct twovariants of each algorithm. The first variant assumes that we have actualknowledge of the reduced model. The second variant assumes that we knowthe form of the reduced model, i.e., the terms appearing in the reducedmodel, but not necessarily their coefficients. In this case, we alsoprovide a way of determining the coefficients. We present numericalresults for the Burgers equation with zero and nonzero viscosity toillustrate the use of the algorithms.

  20. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  1. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  2. Table 5.21 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 (Dollars per Barrel)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 (Dollars per Barrel) Year Domestic Imported Composite Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1968E 3.21 14.57 [R] 2.90 13.16 [R] 3.17 14.39 [R] 1969E 3.37 14.58 [R] 2.80 12.11 [R] 3.29 14.23 [R] 1970E 3.46 14.22 [R] 2.96 12.16 [R] 3.40 13.97 [R] 1971E 3.68 14.40 [R] 3.17 12.41 [R] 3.60 14.09 [R] 1972E 3.67 13.77 [R] 3.22 12.08 [R] 3.58 13.43 [R] 1973E 4.17 14.82 [R] 4.08 14.50 [R] 4.15 14.75 [R] 1974 7.18 23.40 [R] 12.52 40.80 [R] 9.07

  3. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  4. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  5. Fully coupled simulation of cosmic reionization. II. Recombinations, clumping factors, and the photon budget for reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Geoffrey C.; Norman, Michael L.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Wise, John H.

    2014-07-10

    We use a fully coupled cosmological simulation including dark matter dynamics, multispecies hydrodynamics, nonequilibrium chemical ionization, flux-limited diffusion radiation transport, and a parameterized model of star formation and feedback (thermal and radiative) to investigate the epoch of hydrogen reionization in detail. In this paper, the first of several application papers, we investigate the mechanics of reionization from stellar sources forming in high-z galaxies, the utility of various formulations for the gas clumping factor on accurately estimating the effective recombination time in the intergalactic medium (IGM), and the photon budget required to achieve reionization. We also test the accuracy of the static and time-dependent models of Madau et al. as predictors of reionization completion/maintenance. We simulate a WMAP7 ?CDM cosmological model in a 20 comoving Mpc cube, resolved with 800{sup 3} uniform fluid cells and dark matter particles. By tuning our star formation recipe to approximately match the observed high-redshift star formation rate density and galaxy luminosity function, we have created a fully coupled radiation hydrodynamical realization of hydrogen reionization, which begins to ionize at z ? 10 and is completed at z ? 5.8 without further tuning. We find that roughly two ionizing photons per H atom are required to convert the neutral IGM to a highly ionized state. After reionization concludes, we find that the quantity n-dot{sub ion}(1 Gyr)/n{sub H} is ?9 at z = 5, in rough agreement with measurements of the ionizing emissivity by Becker and Bolton. The complicated events during reionization that lead to this number can be generally described as inside-out, but in reality, the narrative depends on the level of ionization of the gas one attributes as being ionized. We find that the formula for the ionizing photon production rate needed to maintain the IGM in an ionized state derived by Madau et al. should not be used to predict the epoch of reionization completion because it ignores history-dependent terms in the global ionization balance which are not ignorable. We find that the time-dependent model for the ionized volume fraction Q{sub HII} is more predictive, but overestimates the redshift of reionization completion z{sub reion} by ?z ? 1. We propose a revised formulation of the time-dependent model that agrees with our simulation to a few percent accuracy. Finally, we use our simulation data to measure the absorption of ionizing radiation due to circumgalactic gas resolved on our mesh and find f-bar{sub esc}(CGM)?0.7.

  6. Fully Autonomous Multiplet Event Detection: Application to Local-Distance Monitoring of Blood Falls Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel; Carr, Christina; Pettit, Erin C.

    2015-06-18

    We apply a fully autonomous icequake detection methodology to a single day of high-sample rate (200 Hz) seismic network data recorded from the terminus of Taylor Glacier, ANT that temporally coincided with a brine release episode near Blood Falls (May 13, 2014). We demonstrate a statistically validated procedure to assemble waveforms triggered by icequakes into populations of clusters linked by intra-event waveform similarity. Our processing methodology implements a noise-adaptive power detector coupled with a complete-linkage clustering algorithm and noise-adaptive correlation detector. This detector-chain reveals a population of 20 multiplet sequences that includes ~150 icequakes and produces zero false alarms on the concurrent, diurnally variable noise. Our results are very promising for identifying changes in background seismicity associated with the presence or absence of brine release episodes. We thereby suggest that our methodology could be applied to longer time periods to establish a brine-release monitoring program for Blood Falls that is based on icequake detections.

  7. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  8. Is the price squeeze doctrine still viable in fully-regulated energy markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiwak, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Simply stated, a price squeeze occurs when a firm with monopoly power on the primary, or wholesale, level engages in a prolonged price increase that drives competitors out of the secondary, or retail level, and thereby extends its monopoly power to the secondary market. A price squeeze will not be found, however, for any short-term exercise in market power. Rather, because anticompetitive effects of a price squeeze are indirect, the price squeeze must last long enough and be severe enough to produce effects on actual or potential competition in the secondary market. In regulated electric industries, a price squeeze claim usually arises from the complex relationship between the supplier, the wholesale customer, the retail customer, and the federal and state regulators. The supplier sells electric power to both wholesale and retail customers. Wholesale transactions are regulated by federal regulators, and retail transactions are regulated at the state level. The wholesale customers in turn sell power to their retail customers. Over the last several years, there have been substantial developments in the application of the price squeeze doctrine to fully-regulated electric utilities. This article will examine the current developments in this area, and attempt to highlight the burdens potential litigants, both plaintiffs and defendants, must overcome to succeed.

  9. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resultingmore » operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.« less

  10. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  11. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  12. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  13. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less

  14. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resulting operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.

  15. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  16. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less

  17. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  18. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  19. Petropower energia project under way in Chile promises refiner better economics at lower cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Construction of the Republic of Chile`s first public/private industrial partnership project is well under way. Ground was broken for the $232-million Petropower Energia Limitada project early this year, shortly after the final contract between the parties - Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. (FWPS); Petrox S.A. Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP) - was signed. The Petropower project, located adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000-b/d refinery in Talcahuano, represents the first project ever to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. Petropower is 85% owned by FWPS, 7.5% by ENAP, the Chilean national oil company and parent of Petrox S.A. When completed in mid-1998, the Petropower project will enable Petrox to refine heavier crudes and enhance the refinery`s flexibility and economics. The project will consist of a delayed coking facility (a 12,000-b/d delayed coking unit and a 7,000-b/d hydrotreating plant) and a 67-MW (59 MW net) cogeneration plant. The coke produced will fuel a Foster Wheeler proprietary-design circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler which will generate all the high-pressure steam and electric power needs of the Petrox refinery. This unit will be the first circulating fluidized-bed boiler to be built in Latin America. The cogeneration facility, using limestone as a reagent and equipped with a baghouse, will control SO{sub x} emissions from combustion of the green coke fuel and easily meet all Chilean environmental standards. Moreover, by constructing the cogeneration facility, Petrox will not have to proceed with capital improvements to existing facilities to ensure a reliable source of steam and electricity, resulting in substantial savings for Petrox. The cogeneration plant provides a permanent {open_quotes}disposal{close_quotes} for all coke produced by the delayed coker, thereby solving any future problems of unwanted or excess coke.

  20. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  2. Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinneken, Johannes Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

    2014-09-01

    An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes.

  3. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; Anders, David; Martineau, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  4. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  5. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  6. Study of deactivation and regeneration of catalysts used in the LC-fining of solvent refined coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL); Guin, J.A.; Nalitham, R.; mohsin, A.; Tarrer, A.R.; Potts, J.D.; Hastings, K.E.

    1981-03-29

    Batch experiments as well as results from LC-Fining catalytic upgrading of coal extracts indicate deactivation of the Shell 324 Ni/Mo catalyst in the presence of solvent refined coal (SRC). At increased levels of SRC loading, deactivation increases. The chief cause of catalyst deactivation appears to be coking. The Shell 324 catalyst can be substantially regenerated after the upgrading reaction by medium temperature ashing followed by presulfiding.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR process is a much simpler process that requires less capital and maintenance costs when compared to conventional chemical pretreatments with pressure vessels. As a result, we feel the DDR process should be considered as an option for future biorefineries with great potential to be more cost-effective.« less

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozymes CTec3) loading (11.628.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozymes HTec3) loading (05 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NRELs 2011 design report. The DDR process is a much simpler process that requires less capital and maintenance costs when compared to conventional chemical pretreatments with pressure vessels. As a result, we feel the DDR process should be considered as an option for future biorefineries with great potential to be more cost-effective.

  9. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  10. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Yingssu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Gonzlez, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M.; Zinn, Daniel; Cohen, Aina E.; Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David; Ludaescher, Bertram; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Soltis, S. Michael

    2013-05-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully demonstrated. This workflow was run once on the same 96 samples that the group had examined manually and the workflow cycled successfully through all of the samples, collected data from the same samples that were selected manually and located the same peaks of unmodeled density in the resulting difference Fourier maps.

  11. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing, characterization, and evaluation relating to Auto-DR. This evaluation also included the related decisionmaking perspectives of the facility owners and managers. Another goal of this project was to develop and test a real-time signal for automated demand response that provided a common communication infrastructure for diverse facilities. The six facilities recruited for this project were selected from the facilities that received CEC funds for new DR technology during California's 2000-2001 electricity crises (AB970 and SB-5X).

  12. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAGâ??s advanced dynamics core with the â??physicsâ? of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  13. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining should more fully recover or eliminate its costs of regulating coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-28

    The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is spending about $65 million annually to implement regulatory program requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The act requires the regulatory authority, whether OSM or that of a state with an OSM-approved program, to charge fees to mining operators for reviewing, enforcing, and administering coal mine operating permits and authorizes that the amount of such fees can fully recover costs. The OSM and states assess certain fees, but the fees recover only a small portion of their program costs. GAO found that if OSM and states fully recovered their regulatory costs, OSM could save over $50 million a year and the impact on coal demand and production would be minimal. GAO recommends that the Secretary of the Interior collect fees that fully recover OSM's regulatory costs, phase out or substantially reduce financial assistance to states, and encourage states to fully recover their own costs.

  14. Advanced Fuels for LWRs: Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated and Related Concepts FY 2012 Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; John D. Bess; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress in the Deep Burn project at Idaho National Laboratory during the first half of fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). The current focus of this work is on Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) uranium nitride (UN) fuel kernels. UO2 fuel kernels have not been ruled out, and will be examined as later work in FY2012. Reactor physics calculations confirmed that the FCM fuel containing 500 mm diameter kernels of UN fuel has positive MTC with a conventional fuel pellet radius of 4.1 mm. The methodology was put into place and validated against MCNP to perform whole-core calculations using DONJON, which can interpolate cross sections from a library generated using DRAGON. Comparisons to MCNP were performed on the whole core to confirm the accuracy of the DRAGON/DONJON schemes. A thermal fluid coupling scheme was also developed and implemented with DONJON. This is currently able to iterate between diffusion calculations and thermal fluid calculations in order to update fuel temperatures and cross sections in whole-core calculations. Now that the DRAGON/DONJON calculation capability is in place and has been validated against MCNP results, and a thermal-hydraulic capability has been implemented in the DONJON methodology, the work will proceed to more realistic reactor calculations. MTC calculations at the lattice level without the correct burnable poison are inadequate to guarantee zero or negative values in a realistic mode of operation. Using the DONJON calculation methodology described in this report, a startup core with enrichment zoning and burnable poisons will be designed. Larger fuel pins will be evaluated for their ability to (1) alleviate the problem of positive MTC and (2) increase reactivity-limited burnup. Once the critical boron concentration of the startup core is determined, MTC will be calculated to verify a non-positive value. If the value is positive, the design will be changed to require less soluble boron by, for example, increasing the reactivity hold-down by burnable poisons. Then, the whole core analysis will be repeated until an acceptable design is found. Calculations of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) will be included in the safety evaluation as well. Once a startup core is shown to be viable, subsequent reloads will be simulated by shuffling fuel and introducing fresh fuel. The PASTA code has been updated with material properties of UN fuel from literature and a model for the diffusion and release of volatile fission products from the SiC matrix material . Preliminary simulations have been performed for both normal conditions and elevated temperatures. These results indicated that the fuel performs well and that the SiC matrix has a good retention of the fission products. The path forward for fuel performance work includes improvement of metallic fission product release from the kernel. Results should be considered preliminary and further validation is required.

  15. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered. Establishment of the calculation formula for dismantling of each kind of equipment makes it possible to evaluate manpower for dismantling the whole facility. However, it is not easy to prepare calculation formula for all kinds of equipment that exist in the facility. Therefore, a simpler evaluation method was considered to calculate manpower based on facility characteristics. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. For dismantling of contaminated equipment, a GH has been used for protection of the spread of contamination. The use of a GH increases manpower for installation and removal of GH etc. Moreover, structural materials of the GH such as plastic sheets, adhesive tape become a burnable secondary waste. To create an effective dismantling plan, it is necessary to carefully consider use of a GH preliminarily. Thus, an evaluation method of project management data such as manpower and secondary waste generation was considered. The results showed promise for evaluating project management data of GH by using established calculation formula. (authors)

  16. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial meshing, corrected somewhat by employing effective fuel heat conduction values. The effectiveness of switching between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity model as a function of time was assessed using the neutronics problem. Based upon work completed to date, one concludes that the time switching is effective in annealing out differences between the highest and lower fidelity solutions. The effectiveness of using a lower fidelity GPT solution, along with a prolongation operator, to estimate the QoI was also assessed. The utilization of a lower fidelity GPT solution was done in an attempt to avoid the high computational burden associated with solving for the highest fidelity GPT solution. Based upon work completed to date, one concludes that the lower fidelity adjoint solution is not sufficiently accurate with regard to estimating the QoI; however, a formulation has been revealed that may provide a path for addressing this shortcoming.

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Mid-course Refinements of Financing Strategies Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Mid-course Refinements of Financing Strategies Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  Have you made any adjustments to your financing strategies based on implementation experience? * Program Experience and Lessons:  New York: Jeff Pitkin, NYSERDA  San Diego: Jeremy Hutman, CCSE * Discussion:  What has caused programs to refine financing strategies?  What are lessons for

  18. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  20. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  1. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 . Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  2. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  3. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  4. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to dynamic recrystallization.

  5. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C.; Baker, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments.

  6. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore » of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  7. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  8. Effect of the radio frequency discharge on the dust charging process in a weakly collisional and fully ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motie, Iman; Bokaeeyan, Mahyar

    2015-02-15

    A close analysis of dust charging process in the presence of radio frequency (RF) discharge on low pressure and fully ionized plasma for both weak and strong discharge's electric field is considered. When the electromagnetic waves pass throughout fully ionized plasma, the collision frequency of the plasma is derived. Moreover, the disturbed distribution function of plasma particles in the presence of the RF discharge is obtained. In this article, by using the Krook model, we separate the distribution function in two parts, the Maxwellian part and the perturbed part. The perturbed part of distribution can make an extra current, so-called the accretion rate of electron (or ion) current, towards a dust particle as a function of the average electron-ion collision frequency. It is proven that when the potential of dust grains increases, the accretion rate of electron current experiences an exponential reduction. Furthermore, the accretion rate of electron current for a strong electric field is relatively smaller than that for a weak electric field. The reasons are elaborated.

  9. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Alexander J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  10. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill outmore » a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.« less

  11. Search for Bbar to Lambda_c+ X l- nu Decays in Events with a Fully Reconstructed B Meson

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-19

    We present a search for semileptonic B decays to the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} based on 420 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. By fully reconstructing the recoiling B in a hadronic decay mode, we reduce non-B backgrounds and determine the flavor of the signal B. We statistically correct the flavor for the effect of the B{sup 0} mixing. We obtain a 90% confidence level upper limit of {Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X) < 3.5%.

  12. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corona, Edmundo; Gullerud, Arne S.; Haulenbeek, Kimberly K.; Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  13. A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng; Pan, Xiaoning; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Xiaochun; Du, Weiliang; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

  14. Final Report – Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan

    2015-09-14

    ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.

  15. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J

    2008-11-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 {angstrom} of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 {+-} 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH{sub znpc} values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH{sub znpc} value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 {+-} 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic strength. Additionally, the H-bond interactions between protolyzable surface oxygen groups and water were found to be stronger than those between bulk water molecules at all temperatures investigated in our CMD simulations (25, 150 and 250 C). Comparison with the protonation scheme previously determined for the (110) surface of isostructural cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) reveals that the greater extent of H-bonding on the latter surface, and in particular between water and the terminal hydroxyl group (Sn-OH) results in the predicted protonation constant for that group being lower than for the bridged oxygen (Sn-O-Sn), while the reverse is true for the rutile (110) surface. These results demonstrate the importance of H-bond structure in dictating surface protonation behavior, and that explicit use of this solvation structure within the refined MUSIC model framework results in predicted surface protonation constants that are also consistent with a variety of other experimental and computational data.

  16. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  17. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle.

  18. A procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on grid refinement studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ea, L.; Hoekstra, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.

  19. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  20. Initial chemical and biological characterization of hydrotreated solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, W.C.; Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Craun, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of both chemical and biomedical research performed on a solvent refined coal (SRC-II) research material (distillate blend) which was produced by the pilot plant facility at Fort Lewis, Washington. Samples of this distillate blend were subjected to research-scale hydrotreatment by Universal Oil Products, Inc., prior to chemical and biological analysis at PNL. The samples are considered to be, in general, generically representative of raw or hydrotreated materials which might be produced by demonstration or commercial-scale facilities. The above described feedstock and hydrotreated materials were analyzed for chemical composition both prior to and after chemical fractionation. The fractionation procedure used was an acid-base-neutral solvent extraction. The fractions produced, as well as the unfractionated materials, were subjected to microbial mutagenesis testing (Ames assay) and to further chemical analysis. The principal components of the unmodified distillate blend are two and three ringed aromatic and heteroatomic species together with high concentrations of phenolic and polynuclear aromatic components relative to typical levels found in petroleum crudes. The Ames assay mutagenic response for the unfractionated material, as well as the fractions produced by the solvent separation, was reduced considerably in the hydrotreated materials compared to that of the feedstock. Total mutagenic response for the hydrotreated products was approximately 1% of that in the untreated feedstock. The concentrations of two important genetically active compound classes, the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the primary aromatic amines, were considerably reduced in both of the hydrotreated products compared to the feedstock.

  1. Refining climate models

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2014-06-26

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  2. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  3. Weekly Refiner Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History Finished Motor Gasoline 1,708 1,811 1,620 1,497 1,512 1,554 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 64 59 65 68 71 64 2010-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 350 361 354 363 367 347 2010-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1,050 1,097 909 778 795 808 2010-2016 Rocky

  4. Refining climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2012-10-31

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  5. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  6. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  7. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  8. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  9. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  10. High gain, low noise, fully complementary logic inverter based on bi-layer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Saptarshi; Roelofs, Andreas; Dubey, Madan

    2014-08-25

    In this article, first, we show that by contact work function engineering, electrostatic doping and proper scaling of both the oxide thickness and the flake thickness, high performance p- and n-type WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized. We report record high drive current of 98??A/?m for the electron conduction and 110 ?A/?m for the hole conduction in Schottky barrier WSe{sub 2} FETs. Then, we combine high performance WSe{sub 2} PFET with WSe{sub 2} NFET in double gated transistor geometry to demonstrate a fully complementary logic inverter. We also show that by adjusting the threshold voltages for the NFET and the PFET, the gain and the noise margin of the inverter can be significantly enhanced. The maximum gain of our chemical doping free WSe{sub 2} inverter was found to be ?25 and the noise margin was close to its ideal value of ?2.5?V for a supply voltage of V{sub DD}?=?5.0?V.

  11. Absence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at fully epitaxial Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} interface (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radaelli, G. Petti, D.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-05-07

    Interfacial MagnetoElectric coupling (MEC) at ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interfaces has recently emerged as a promising route to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) system, various MEC mechanisms have been theoretically predicted. Experimentally, it is well established that using BTO single crystal substrates MEC is dominated by strain-mediated mechanisms. In case of ferromagnetic layers epitaxially grown onto BTO films, instead, no direct evidence for MEC has been provided, apart from the results obtained on tunneling junction sandwiching a BTO tunneling barrier. In this paper, MEC at fully epitaxial Fe/BTO interface is investigated by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and magnetoresistance measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated on BTO. We find no evidence for strain-mediated MEC mechanisms in epitaxial systems, likely due to clamping of BTO to the substrate. Our results indicate that pure electronic MEC is the route of choice to be explored for achieving the electrical writing of information in epitaxial ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures.

  12. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses through long-term testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of glass reactivity between radioactive sludge based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of both glass types for SRL 165, SRL 131, and SRL 200 frit compositions. The data demonstrate that for time periods through 280 days, differences in elemental release to solution up to 400% are observed. However, in general, differences in glass reactivity as measured by the release of boron, lithium, and sodium are less than a factor of two. The differences in reactivity are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions or to change the controlling glass dissolution mechanism. A radiation effect exists, mainly in the influence on the leachate pH, which in turn affects the glass reaction mechanism and rate. The differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and the simulated glasses can be reasonably explained if the controlling reaction mechanism is accounted for. Those differences are glass composition and leaching mechanism dependent. Lithium is found to have the highest elemental release in an ion-exchange dominated glass reaction process, while lithium has a lower release than boron and sodium in a matrix dissolution dominated process, where boron and sodium are usually among the most concentrated solution species.

  13. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ =more » 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.« less

  14. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 149 tanks out of 177 at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. All the SSTs had been removed from active service by November 1980 and have been later interim stabilized by removing the pumpable liquids. The remaining waste in the tanks is in the form of salt cake and sludge awaiting r permanent disposal.. The evaluation of the structural integrity of these tanks is of utmost importance not only for the continued safe storage of the waste until waste retrieval and closure, but also to assure safe retrieval and closure operations. This article discusses the structural analysis approach, modeling challenges and issues encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. Several studies were conducted to refine the models in order to minimize modeling artifacts introduced by soil arching, boundary effects, concrete cracking, and concrete-soil interface behavior. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads imposed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. The article also discusses the criteria and design standards used for evaluating the structural integrity of these underground concrete tanks. Because of the non-availability of complete data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the worst and extreme loading cases that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. The SSTs are classified into 4 types as per their configuration and capacity. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to two types of SSTs that have been analyzed until now. The TOLA results combined with seismic demands from seismic analysis for the analysis of record indicate that the tanks analyzed are structurally stable as per the evaluation criteria established. These results are presented in a separate article. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of SSTs at Hanford are in general applicable to any similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures.

  15. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-11-10

    ABSTRACT Several tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III SSTs. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of SSTs at Hanford are in general applicable to any similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures.

  16. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Ames, L.B.; Ronzio, N.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a program to determine the feasibility and potential applications for direct firing of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines, specifically gas turbines and diesel engines. AMAX Extractive Research and Development, Inc. supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines programs. One of the lots was of ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (UCCSF) for which a two-stage caustic and acid leaching procedure was developed to chemically clean the coal. As a part of the contract, AMAX R and D developed a conceptual design and preliminary cost estimate for a commercial-scale process for UCCSF manufacture. The contract was extended to include the following objectives: define chemical cleaning and slurry preparation process conditions and costs more precisely; investigate methods to reduce the product cost; and determine the relationship, in dollars per million Btu, between product cost and fuel quality. Laboratory investigations have been carried out to define the chemical cleaning process conditions required to generate fuels containing from 0.17 to 1.0% ash. Capital and operating cost refinements are to be performed on the basis of the preferred process operating conditions identified during the laboratory investigations. Several such areas for cost reductions have been identified. Caustic strengths from 2 to 7% NaOH are currently anticipated while 25% NaOH was used as the basis for the preliminary cost estimate. In addition, leaching times for each of the process steps have been reduced to half or less of the times used for the preliminary cost estimate. Improvement of fuel quality has been achieved by use of a proprietary hot-water leaching step to reduce the residual alkali content to less than 250 ppM (Na/sub 2/O plus K/sub 2/O) on a dry coal basis. 2 refs., 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.; Mizia, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  18. Simultaneous use of solution NMR and X-ray data in REFMAC5 for joint refinement/detection of structural differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinaldelli, Mauro; Ravera, Enrico; Calderone, Vito; Parigi, Giacomo; Murshudov, Garib N.; Luchinat, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings can now be used in the program REFMAC5 from CCP4 as structural restraints together with X-ray crystallographic data. These NMR restraints can reveal differences between solid state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. The program REFMAC5 from CCP4 was modified to allow the simultaneous use of X-ray crystallographic data and paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and/or diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings. Incorporation of these long-range NMR restraints in REFMAC5 can reveal differences between solid-state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. Since NMR and X-ray data are complementary, when a single structure is consistent with both sets of data and still maintains reasonably ideal geometries, the reliability of the derived atomic model is expected to increase. The program was tested on five different proteins: the catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 1, GB3, ubiquitin, free calmodulin and calmodulin complexed with a peptide. In some cases the joint refinement produced a single model consistent with both sets of observations, while in other cases it indicated, outside the experimental uncertainty, the presence of different protein conformations in solution and in the solid state.

  19. Systematic study of electric dipole excitations with fully self-consistent Skyrme HF plus RPA calculation from light to medium-mass deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inakura, Tsunenori; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2009-05-04

    We undertake a systematic calculation on electric dipole responses of even-even nuclei for a wide mass region employing a fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus RPA approach. For an easy implementation of the fully self-consistent calculation, the finite amplitude method which we have proposed recently is employed. We calculated dipole responses in Cartesian mesh representation, which can deal with deformed nuclei but does not include pairing correlation. The calculated results show reasonable agreement for heavy nuclei while the average excitation energy are underestimated for light nuclei. The systematic calculation have reached Nickel isotopes. We show a compilation of calculated peak energies of giant dipole resonances.

  20. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity performance. Assembly calculations will be performed in future work to explore the design options for heterogeneous assemblies of this type and their impact on reactivity coefficients.

  1. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-07-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their estimated 25 year design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record for evaluating the structural integrity of the single-shell tanks. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the analysis of record models also include anticipated loads that may occur during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of modeling details, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to boundary conditions that realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the analysis of record resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III single-shell tanks. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of single-shell tanks at Hanford are in general applicable to other similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures. This article presented the details of the finite element models and analysis approach followed during the ongoing effort to establish structural integrity of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. The details of the material constitutive models applicable to the underground Hanford concrete tanks that capture the thermal and creep induce degradation are also presented. The thermal profiles were developed based on the available tank temperature data for the Type II and Type III single-shell tanks, and they were chosen to yield conservative demands under the thermal and operating loads analysis of these tanks. Sensitivity studies were conducted to address two issues regarding the soils modeled around the single-shell tanks. The results indicate that excluding the boundary separating the backfill soil from the undisturbed soil will result in conservative demands (plots 14b and 14c green lines for circumferential Demand/Capacity ratios). The radial extent study indicated that the soil model extending to 240 ft gave more conservative results than the model with 62 ft of soil (plots 17a and 17c magenta lines for hoop Demand/Capacity ratios). Based on these results, a 240 ft far-field soil boundary with backfill throughout the lateral extent was recommended and used for the finite element models used in the Type-II and Type-III analyses of record. The modeling effort and sensitivity studies discussed in this article helped in developing bounding models for the structural integrity evaluation of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. (authors)

  2. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  3. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  4. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction of 50% and a more modest burnup target level of 500 MWd/kg ,the failure probability drops below 2.0 x 10{sup -5}, the typical performance of TRISO fuel made under the German HTR research program. An optimization study on particle design shows improved performance if the buffer size is increased from 100 to 120 {micro}mm while reducing the OPyC layer. The presence of the latter layer does not provide much benefit at high burnup levels (and fast fluence levels). Normally the shrinkage of the OPyC would result in a beneficial compressive force on the SiC coating. However, at high fluence levels the shrinkage is expected to turn into swelling, resulting in the opposite effect. However, this situation is different when the SiC-matrix, in which the particles are embedded, is also considered: the OPyC swelling can result in a beneficial compressive force on the SiC coating since outward displacement of the OPyC outer surface is inhibited by the presence of the also-swelling SiC matrix. Taking some credit for this effect by adopting a 5 {micro}mm SiC-matrix layer, the optimized particle (100 {micro}mm buffer and 10 {micro}mm OPyC), gives a failure probability of 1.9 x 10{sup -4} for conservative conditions. During a LOCA transient, assuming core re-flood in 30 seconds, the temperature of the coated particle can be expected to be about 200K higher than nominal temperature (900K). For this event the particle failure fraction for a conservative case is 1.0 x 10{sup -2}, for the optimized particle design. For a FGR-fraction of 50% this value reduces to 6.4 x 10{sup -4}.

  5. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the contextmoreof simplified models of supersymmetry.less

  6. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.

  7. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s} = 8$$ TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-06-17

    We searched for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states and presented them using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. Furthermore, no excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark productionmore » in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.« less

  8. Topological characterization of the transition from laminar regime to fully developed turbulence in the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.; Calvo, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Departament d'Algebra i Geometria, Facultat de Matematiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    For the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence model, the transition from laminar regime to fully developed turbulence is not simple and goes through several phases. For low values of the plasma parameter {beta}, a single quasicoherent structure forms. As {beta} increases, several of these structures may emerge and in turn take the dominant role. Finally, at high {beta}, fully developed turbulence with a broad spectrum is established. A suitable characterization of this transition can be given in terms of topological properties of the flow. Here, we analyze these properties that provide an understanding of the turbulence-induced transport and give a measure of the breaking of the homogeneity of the turbulence. To this end, an approach is developed that allows discriminating between topological properties of plasma turbulence flows that are relevant to the transport dynamics and the ones that are not. This is done using computational homology tools and leads to a faster convergence of numerical results for a fixed level of resolution than previously presented in Phys. Rev. E 78, 066402 (2008)

  9. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  10. Fully Executed Mod 115.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  11. Fully Executed Mod 116.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  12. Fully Executed Mod 123.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  13. Fully Executed Mod 124.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  14. Fully Executed Mod 125.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. Fully Executed Mod 126.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. Fully Executed Mod 294.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. Fully Executed Mod 298.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. Fully Executed Mod 301.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. Fully Executed Mod 302.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. Fully Executed Mod 303.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  1. Fully Executed Mod 307.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  2. Fully Executed Mod 308.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  3. Fully Executed Mod 310.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  4. Fully Executed Mod 311.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  5. Fully Executed Mod 312.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  6. Fully Executed Mod 316.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  7. Fully Executed Mod 317.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  8. Fully Executed Mod 318.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  9. Fully Executed Mod 326.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  10. Fully Executed Mod 327.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  11. Fully executed Mod 206.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  12. S. 42: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, January 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 42 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  14. PETRO-SAFE '91 conference papers: Volume 3 (Drilling and production environment and safety), Volume 4 (Transportation and storage environment and safety) and Volume 5 (Processing and refining environment and safety)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries to discuss state of the art knowledge in those fields. The following topics were addressed: drilling and production environment and safety; transportation and storage environment and safety; and processing and refining environment and safety. Separate papers are processed for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  15. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Small Refineries 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Number of Refineries with Number of Refineries with U U. .S. S. Re Ref fi in ni ing ng C Ca apa ...

  16. Refinement of the experimental dynamic structure factor for liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium using semi-classical quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kyle K. G. Rossky, Peter J.; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Cunsolo, A.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamic structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium in corresponding thermodynamic states (T = 20.0?K, n = 21.24?nm{sup ?3}) and (T = 23.0?K, n = 24.61?nm{sup ?3}), respectively, has been computed by both the Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral (FK-LPI) and Ring-Polymer Molecular Dynamics (RPMD) methods and compared with Inelastic X Ray Scattering spectra. The combined use of computational and experimental methods enabled us to reduce experimental uncertainties in the determination of the true sample spectrum. Furthermore, the refined experimental spectrum of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium is consistently reproduced by both FK-LPI and RPMD results at momentum transfers lower than 12.8?nm{sup ?1}. At larger momentum transfers the FK-LPI results agree with experiment much better for ortho-deuterium than for para-hydrogen. More specifically we found that for k ? 20.0 nm{sup ?1} para-hydrogen provides a test case for improved approximations to quantum dynamics.

  17. Synthesis, structure refinement at 296 K and physico-chemical characterizations of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechergui, J.; Belam, W.

    2008-12-01

    Potassium manganese(III) monohydrogentriphosphate KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} was synthesized by flux method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, crystallizes in the monoclinic system with centric space group C2/c. The parameters of the unit cell are a = 12.104(1), b = 8.287(1). c = 9.150(1) A, {beta} = 110.97(1) deg. and Z = 4. The structure was solved at 296 K using 893 independent reflections and refined until R(F) = 0.022; wR(F{sup 2}) = 0.045. The atomic arrangement of the title compound consists of MnO{sub 6} octahedra linked by hydrogentriphosphate anions to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels parallel to the c-axis where the K{sup +} cations are inserted. The structure of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} contains a single Mn site which is surrounded by typical Jahn-Teller [2 + 2 + 2] distorted octahedron. The title material has been also characterized by different physico-chemical techniques: powder X-ray diffraction, IR, NMR and CI spectroscopies and DTA-TGA-DSC thermal analysis.

  18. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    667-7000 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, July 10, 2008- A team of physicists, including Neil Harrison and Charles Mielke from Los Alamos National Laboratory, propose a new model that...

  19. Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionspetroleum...

  20. MHK Projects/Wax Lake Outlet | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *MHK TechnologiesSmarTurbine Project Licensing FERC License Docket Number P-14254 Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  1. Propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in an electron beam-superthermal plasma system with finite ion-temperature: Linear and fully nonlinear investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saberian, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Rastkar-Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Afsari-Ghazi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitons is studied in a plasma system, comprised of warm ions and superthermal (Kappa distributed) electrons in the presence of an electron-beam by using a hydrodynamic model. In the linear analysis, it is seen that increasing the superthermality lowers the phase speed of the IA waves. On the other hand, in a fully nonlinear investigation, the Mach number range and characteristics of IA solitons are analyzed, parametrically and numerically. It is found that the accessible region for the existence of IA solitons reduces with increasing the superthermality. However, IA solitons with both negative and positive polarities can coexist in the system. Additionally, solitary waves with both subsonic and supersonic speeds are predicted in the plasma, depending on the value of ion-temperature and the superthermality of electrons in the system. It is examined that there are upper critical values for beam parameters (i.e., density and velocity) after which, IA solitary waves could not propagate in the plasma. Furthermore, a typical interaction between IA waves and the electron-beam in the plasma is confirmed.

  2. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses through long-term testing. Part 1, Solution analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1992-04-01

    A comparison of glass reactivity between radioactive sludge based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of both glass types for SRL 165, SRL 131, and SRL 200 frit compositions. The data demonstrate that for time periods through 280 days, differences in elemental release to solution up to 400% are observed. However, in general, differences in glass reactivity as measured by the release of boron, lithium, and sodium are less than a factor of two. The differences in reactivity are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions or to change the controlling glass dissolution mechanism. A radiation effect exists, mainly in the influence on the leachate pH, which in turn affects the glass reaction mechanism and rate. The differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and the simulated glasses can be reasonably explained if the controlling reaction mechanism is accounted for. Those differences are glass composition and leaching mechanism dependent. Lithium is found to have the highest elemental release in an ion-exchange dominated glass reaction process, while lithium has a lower release than boron and sodium in a matrix dissolution dominated process, where boron and sodium are usually among the most concentrated solution species.

  3. Analytical electron microscopy investigation of elemental composition and bonding structure at the Sb-doped Ni-fully-silicide/SiO{sub 2} interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Naohiko; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Otsuka, Yuji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiji

    2011-03-15

    It is very important to control the elemental composition and bonding structure at the gate electrode/gate dielectrics interface in metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor devices because this determines the threshold voltage of the gate electrode. In this study, we investigated the structure at the interface between the antimony (Sb)-doped nickel-fully-silicide gate electrode and SiO{sub 2} dielectrics by employing high-spatial resolution techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy using a scanning transmission electron microscope. In one region, we found a thin nickel layer at the NiSi/SiO{sub 2} interface originating from the migration of native oxide at the face of the poly-silicon. In another region, a Sb pileup was detected at the NiSi/SiO{sub 2} interface where the Ni L{sub 3}-edge spectrum showed Ni-Sb bonding, then it was suggested that Sb atoms exist at the bottom of NiSi, substituting for Si atoms in NiSi.

  4. Parametric and kinetic studies on deactivation and regeneration of hydrotreating catalysts in solvent refined coal upgrading process and an evaluation of the liquid vaporization effects on hydrotreater performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    Catalysts used in hydrotreating the solvent refined coal were rapidly deactivated during the initial stages of processing. The major cause of deactivation appears to be the deposition of carbonaceous material on the catalyst. A simulated aging technique involving a series of reactions on the same batch of catalyst and a model compound activity test were developed and used to study the effects of process conditions, feedstock characteristics, catalyst properties, and catalyst pretreatment on initial catalyst deactivation. The variables shown to increase the rate of deactivation are: increased catalyst loading, high reaction temperature, low hydrogen pressure, unsulfiding the catalyst, and high concentrations of preasphaltenes and insoluble organic matter in the feedstock. The loss in catalyst surface area during the aging process was substantial, being as high as 95%. A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, was applied to upgrading of two-coal derived feedstocks. A catalyst deactivation mechanism was proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. Catalyst regeneration of aged catalysts from the LC-Finer and the ITSL process has been accomplished through oxidative treatment followed by presulfiding. A parametric study has been performed to identify the optimum regeneration conditions. The degree of regeneration appears to be dependent on the feed material and reaction history of the catalyst. Liquid vaporization affects the hydrotreater performance significantly. The hydrotreater is simulated to study the effects of the solvent volatility, hydrogen flow rate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. A gradientless reactor system was designed, built, and used to verify the key result ofthe simulation study.

  5. Study of B̄→Xulν̄ decays in BB̄ events tagged by a fully reconstructed B-meson decay and determination of |Vub|

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; et al

    2012-08-07

    We report measurements of partial branching fractions for inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays B¯¯¯→Xulν¯ and the determination of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |Vub|. The analysis is based on a sample of 467×10⁶ Υ(4S)→BB¯¯¯ decays recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e⁺e⁻ storage rings. We select events in which the decay of one of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and an electron or a muon signals the semileptonic decay of the other B meson. We measure partial branching fractions ΔB in several restricted regions of phase space and determine the CKM element |Vub| based on different QCDmore » predictions. For decays with a charged lepton momentum p*l>1.0 GeV in the B meson rest frame, we obtain ΔB=(1.80±0.13stat±0.15sys±0.02theo)×10⁻³ from a fit to the two-dimensional MX-q² distribution. Here, MX refers to the invariant mass of the final state hadron X and q² is the invariant mass squared of the charged lepton and neutrino. From this measurement we extract |Vub|=(4.33±0.24exp±0.15theo)×10⁻³ as the arithmetic average of four results obtained from four different QCD predictions of the partial rate. We separately determine partial branching fractions for B¯¯¯0 and B⁻ decays and derive a limit on the isospin breaking in B¯¯¯→Xulν¯ decays.« less

  6. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Zahurak, Marianna; Simari, Patricio; Pang, Dalong; Taylor, Russell; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  7. Rietveld refinement and ionic conductivity of Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tmar Trabelsi, I.; Madani, A.; Mercier, A.M.; Toumi, M.

    2013-01-15

    The structure of Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}, isostructural with Fluoroapatite, was determined by X-ray powder diffraction methods. The results of Rietveld refinement revealed that the formula of this compound is [Ca{sub 4}]{sup 4f}[Ca{sub 4.4}Bi{sub 1.6}]{sup 6h}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}[O{sub 1.8}]{sup 2a}, space group P63/m (a=9.468 (3) A, c=6.957 (3) A). A total substitution of Bi{sup 3+} ions in the (6h) sites was related particularly to the high polarizability of the Bi{sup 3+} ion compared to Ca{sup 2+}. The observed frequencies in the Raman and infrared spectra were explained and discussed on the basis of unit-cell group analyses and in comparison with Fluoroapatite and other oxyapatites. The ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperature was investigated according to the complex impedance method. The highest overall conductivity values were found at {sigma}{sub 700 Degree-Sign C} =5.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} and E{sub a}=0.50 eV. - Graphical abstract: The final Rietveld refinement plot of the Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6} (PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement revealed that the formula of this compound is Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vibrational spectroscopy supports the high symmetry P63/m space group for this apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This apatite contained channels where oxygen ions were located in 2a sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of anionic conduction along these channels was considered.

  8. Rietveld refinement and dielectric studies of Bi{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.95}V{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priyanka, Agarwal, A. Ahlawat, N. Sanghi, S. Rani, S.

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.95}V{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} ceramic has been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction revealed that the sample has a rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) with average particle size of 29 nm. The values of dielectric constant (??) and dielectric loss (tan ?) increases with increasing temperature at different frequencies which may be the result of increase in the number of charge carriers and their mobilities due to the thermal activation. The Jonschers universal power law used to analyze the ac conductivity. In the measured temperature range, the values of frequency exponent s are less than one and shows a continous decrease which is attributed to the short range translational hopping assisted by large polaron hopping mechanisms.

  9. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. [Fate of 36 trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run.

  10. Measurement of the Bs0 Lifetime in Fully and Partially Reconstructed Bs0 -> Ds- (phi pi-)X Decays in pp? Collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-12-29

    The authors present a measurement of the Bs0 lifetime in fully and partially reconstructed Bs0 = Ds0(??-)X decays in 1.3 fb-1 collected in pp? collisions at ?s = 1.96 Tev by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They measure ?(Bs0) = 1.518 0.041 (stat.) 0.027 (syst.) ps. The ratio of this result and the world average B0 lifetime yields ?(Bs0)/?(B0) = 0.99 0.03, which is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  11. H. R. 4662: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 22, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products was introduced and referred to the House Ways and Means Committee. The fee would apply to the first sale of crude or refined petroleum products following importation into the US and the first use. It exempts certain exports, but requires proof of eligibility for exemption. Sections of the bill outline procedures for determining prices and adjustments, the registration of affected parties, and penalties for non-compliance.

  12. S. 65: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, January 21, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    S. 65 may be cited as the [open quotes]Domestic Petroleum Security Act of 1993.[close quotes] This Bill proposes a fee on imported crude oil or refined petroleum products. In general, Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new chapter: [open quotes]Chapter 55--Imported Crude Oil of Refined Petroleum Products.[close quotes] Section 5891 will be Imposition of Tax; Section 5892, Definitions; Section 5893, Registration; and Section 5894, Procedures, Returns, and Penalties.

  13. H. R. 838: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 4, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    H.R. 838 may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy Security Tax Act.[close quotes] The purpose of this Bill is to impose a fee on imported crude oil or refined petroleum products. In general, Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new chapter: [open quotes]Chapter 55--Imported Crude Oil, Refined Petroleum Products, and Petrochemical Feedstocks or Derivatives.[close quotes] Section 5886 will be concerned with Imposition of Tax; Section 5887 with Definitions; Section 5888 with Procedures, Returns, and Penalties; and Section 5890 with Adjustment for inflation.

  14. bni_Fully_Executed_Mod_3471.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. BNI Fully Executed Mod 320.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. BNI Fully Executed Mod 321.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. BNI Fully Executed Mod 322.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. BNI Fully Executed Mod 324.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. BNI Mod 328 - FullyExecuted.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. BNI_Fully_Executed_Mod_345.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  1. BNI_Fully_Executed_Mod_356.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  2. BNI_Fully_Executed_Mod_357.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  3. TOC_Fully_Executed_Mod_330.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  4. MASSIVE HYBRID PARALLELISM FOR FULLY IMPLICIT MULTIPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody J. Permann; David Andrs; John W. Peterson; Derek R. Gaston

    2013-05-01

    As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided.

  5. A169 Fully Executed Modification.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  6. ATL Fully Executed Mod 103.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  7. ATL_-_Fully_Executed_Mod_125.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  8. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Wojciechowski, Kenneth E. 1 ; Baker, Michael S. 1 ; Clews, Peggy J. 1 ; Olsson, Roy H. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM ...

  9. Fully ceramic nuclear fuel and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venneri, Francesco; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-03-29

    Various embodiments of a nuclear fuel for use in various types of nuclear reactors and/or waste disposal systems are disclosed. One exemplary embodiment of a nuclear fuel may include a fuel element having a plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles embedded in a silicon carbide matrix. An exemplary method of manufacturing a nuclear fuel is also disclosed. The method may include providing a plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles, mixing the plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles with silicon carbide powder to form a precursor mixture, and compacting the precursor mixture at a predetermined pressure and temperature.

  10. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_3511.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  11. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_3531.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  12. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_3541.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  13. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_358.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  14. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_359.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_360.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. WTP_Fully_Executed_Mod_361.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. wtp Fully Executed Mod 325.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. wtp_Fully_Executed_Mod_355.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. Fully Exectued Contract Modification No. 231.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. Fully Executed Contract Modification 269.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  1. Fully Executed Contract Modification 541.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  2. Fully Executed Contract Modification(247).pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  3. Fully Executed Modification A180.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  4. Fully Executed Modification M171.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  5. Fully Executed WTP Contract Modification 200.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  6. Fully Executed WTP Contract Modification 214.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  7. Fully Executed, WTP M155.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  8. Fully_Executed_Mod_338.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  9. Fully_Executed_Mod_340.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  10. Fully_Executed_Mod_341.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  11. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the inter-aggregate and intra-aggregate pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates was larger than 18 micron. Inter-aggregate pores continued to be the dominant flow pathways even at much smaller spacing; intra-aggregate flow was less than 10% of the total flow when the inter- and intra-aggregate pore sizes were comparable. Such studies are making it possible to identify which model upscaling assumptions are realistic and what computational methods are required for detailed numerical investigation of microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil systems.

  12. M-16 Fully Exectued Modification 270.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  13. M-16 Fully Execute Mod 194.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  14. M-16 Fully Execute Mod 199.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 101.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 102.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 103.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 109.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 1101.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. M-16 Fully Executed Mod 111.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)