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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Refining Cups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For use with AOCS Official Method Ca-9a 52. Refining Cups Lab Supplies Lab Supplies Series Methods Refining Cup - 960 mL For use with AOCS Official Method Ca-9a 52. E5323FF88E60507DAA8DE2F0F507CB97 014 1878

2

Wax Segregation in Oils: A Multiscale Mario Primicerio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a temperature TCL can be defined such that, for T > TCL all wax is dissolved in the solvent while for T TCL part of the wax segregates. Temperature TCL is called cloud temperature or W.A.T. (wax appearance

Primicerio, Mario

3

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data are presented on refining capacity by country and by company within each country. Capacity data are divided into the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacity is divided into: alkylation/polymerization/dimerization; aromatics/isomerization; lubricants; oxygenates; hydrogen; petroleum coke; and asphalts.

NONE

1995-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

4

Grain Refining Aluminum Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

He has had responsibility within Alcoa for optimizing grain refining and alloying ... of grain refinement; Methods of grain refining; Attributes of chemical inoculants ...

5

Wax_finalreport_UofU  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RPSEA RPSEA Wax C ontrol i n t he P resence o f Hydrates RPSEA 0 7121---1201 Project T itle Contract N umber October 1 5, 2 011 Milind D eo Professor Department o f C hemical E ngineering University o f U tah, S alt L ake C ity, U T 8 4112 LEGAL N OTICE This r eport w as p repared b y t he University o f U tah a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored by t he R esearch P artnership t o S ecure E nergy f or A merica, R PSEA. N either R PSEA members o f R PSEA, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the U.S. Department of E nergy, nor a ny p erson a cting o n b ehalf o f any of the entities: a. MAKES A NY W ARRANTY O R R EPRESENTATION, E XPRESS O R I MPLIED W ITH RESPECT T O A CCURACY, C OMPLETENESS, O R U SEFULNESS O F T HE INFORMATION C ONTAINED I N T HIS D OCUMENT, O R T HAT T HE U SE O F A NY INFORMATION, A PPARATUS, M ETHOD,

6

Refining and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Solar Cell Silicon: Refining and Characterization .... Silicon PV Wafers: Correlation of Mechanical Properties and Crack Propagation with ...

7

Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Introducing backward refinement into B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B Method exploits a direct first-order wp predicate-transformer formulation of downward simulation to generate its proof obligations for a refinement, so B's notion of refinement is restricted to that of forward refinement. Therefore some refinements ...

Steve Dunne

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Optimal refinement of rule bases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a formal analysis of the rule refinement selection problem. There is no satisfactory methodical standard for the optimal refinement of rule bases. Current refinement systems select the best overall rule base refinements out of a ... Keywords: Rule base validation, complex gain calculation, conflicting and alternative rule refinements, evaluation of safety-critical knowledge bases, optimal refinement selection, rule refinement classes, subsumption and synergy

Hans-Werner Kelbassa

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Volume Refinement Fairing Isosurfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an interpolating refinement method for two- and three-dimensional scalar fields defined on hexahedral grids. Iterative fairing of the underlying contours (isosurfaces) provides the function values of new grid points. Our method can be considered ... Keywords: adaptive mesh refinement, isosurfaces, subdivision, variational modeling, volume fairing

Martin Bertram

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 70, 1293- 1297. (21) Chung, F.; Sarathi, P; Jones, R. Modelling of Asphaltene and Wax Precipitation

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

16

Nucleation and Growth Observed by Ultrafast SAXS and WAXS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To access these early stages of particle formation we have undertaken ultrafast SAXS and WAXS measurements in the free jet at the exit of a micro-T-mixer ...

17

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oils, Fats, & Waxes, 3rd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The third edition of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oils, Fats, and Waxes includes updated material as well as 25% more new content. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oils, Fats, & Waxes, 3rd Edition Methods - Analyses Books Soft Bound B

18

REFINING FLUORINATED COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the method of refining a liquid perfluorinated hydrocarbon oil containing fluorocarbons from 12 to 28 carbon atoms per molecule by distilling between 150 deg C and 300 deg C at 10 mm Hg absolute pressure. The perfluorinated oil is washed with a chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon, which mairtains a separate liquid phase when mixed with the oil. Impurities detrimental to the stability of the oil are extracted by the chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon. (AEC)

Linch, A.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Developing security protocols by refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a development method for security protocols based on stepwise refinement. Our refinement strategy guides the transformation of abstract security goals into protocols that are secure when operating over an insecure channel controlled by a Dolev-Yao-style ... Keywords: entity authentication, formal development, key establishment, security protocols, stepwise refinement

Christoph Sprenger; David Basin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The Experimental Study on the Wax-Deposit Law in High-Pour-Point Crude Oi1 Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pour point properties of crude oil are generally due to the high wax content, so the study of the laws and the characteristics of wax deposition are significant for taking steps to save energy and transport safely. For the wax deposition of high ... Keywords: pipeline transportation, high-pour-point waxy crude, wax deposition law, DSC, experimental study

Wang Zhihua; Si Minglin; Wang Jinxiu; Li Jungang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Weekly Refiner Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Net Production Refiner Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 11/08/13 11/15/13 11/22/13 11/29/13 12/06/13 12/13/13 View History Finished Motor Gasoline 2,168 2,300 2,336 2,359 2,462 2,368 2010-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 54 53 52 67 71 67 2010-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 696 745 722 711 798 790 2010-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 891 916 1,010 1,053 1,011 1,021 2010-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 260 248 245 232 279 235 2010-2013 West Coast (PADD 5) 268 338 308 296 302 255 2010-2013 Reformulated 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Blended with Ethanol 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Other

24

Refines Efficiency Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

WRI

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

MHK Projects/Wax Lake Outlet | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wax Lake Outlet Wax Lake Outlet < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.6455,"lon":-91.394,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

26

Refiner Wholesale Price ...........................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices (cents per gallon) Prices (cents per gallon) Refiner Wholesale Price ........................... 297 299 302 275 289 290 288 262 275 289 280 257 293 282 276 Gasoline Regular Grade Retail Prices Including Taxes PADD 1 .................................................... 363 366 364 355 361 350 355 331 341 355 347 327 362 349 343 PADD 2 .................................................... 355 366 369 340 350 368 352 318 334 355 346 318 357 347 338 PADD 3 .................................................... 346 353 345 326 339 336 337 307 323 341 329 305 343 330 325 PADD 4 .................................................... 322 374 358 348 323 361 362 326 322 351 348 322 351 344 337 PADD 5 .................................................... 390 413 390 384 382 390 385 355 362 384 379 356 394 378 371 U.S. Average ........................................

27

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for the Petroleum and Coal Products Industry, 1994. Petroleum refining is by far the largest component of the petroleum and ...

28

Fully Integrating the Design Process  

SciTech Connect

The basic approach to designing nuclear facilities in the United States does not currently reflect the routine consideration of proliferation resistance and international safeguards. The fully integrated design process is an approach for bringing consideration of international safeguards and proliferation resistance, together with state safeguards and security, fully into the design process from the very beginning, while integrating them sensibly and synergistically with the other project functions. In view of the recently established GNEP principles agreed to by the United States and at least eighteen other countries, this paper explores such an integrated approach, and its potential to help fulfill the new internationally driven design requirements with improved efficiencies and reduced costs.

T.A. Bjornard; R.S. Bean

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Preservation of probabilistic information flow under refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information flow properties, which describe confidentiality requirements, are not generally preserved under behavior refinement. This article describes a formal framework for refinement relations between nondeterministic probabilistic processes that ... Keywords: CSP, Confidentiality, Information flow property, Information theory, Process calculus, Refinement, Security

Thomas Santen

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Nucleic Acid Standards - Refinement Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refinement Parameters Refinement Parameters The DNA/RNA topology and parameter files for X-PLOR are shown below. These were tested with DNA structures and with protein-DNA complexes. X-PLOR topology file X-PLOR parameter files: X-PLOR parameter file For the refinement of high resolution structures (< 1.7 Angstroms) the parameter file with distinct bond distances and bond angles for both C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations should be considered: X-PLOR parameter file for high resolution structures "New Parameters for the Refinement of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures." Gary Parkinson, Jaroslav Vojtechovsky, Lester Clowney, Axel Brunger*, and Helen M. Berman. (1996) Acta Cryst. D 52, 57-64 Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0939; *The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Molecular and

32

Fully synthetic taped insulation cables  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

Towler, Brian F. (Laramie, WY)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

34

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

Blau, M.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky Refining District Percent ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky Refining District Percent Utilization of Refinery Operable Capacity (Percent)

36

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

37

Electronic structure of superconductivity refined  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

38

Vacuum State/Refiner/Location  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vacuum Vacuum State/Refiner/Location Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Barrels per Operating Idle Operating Idle Downstream Charge Capacity Thermal Cracking Delayed Fluid Coking Visbreaking Other/Gas Calendar Day Stream Day Distillation Coking Oil Table 3. Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2013 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) ......................................................... Alabama 120,100 0 130,000 0 48,000 32,000 0 0 0 Goodway Refining LLC 4,100 0 5,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................

39

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle? Global Refining Strategies 2007 Barcelona, Spain

40

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Rheometry and direct flow observations of a model wax-oil system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waxy crude oils are a commonly encountered type of crude oil which must be dealt with by oil production companies. They are characterized by a gel-like behavior at temperatures below their wax appearance temperature (Twa) ...

Dimitriou, Christopher (Christopher J.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low-cost selective deposition of wax onto textured solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The active regions of a solar cell must be inoculated with wax, while leaving the metal fingers and bus bars bare, in preparation for the electroplating step of a new solar panel manufacturing process. Different methods ...

Páez, Daýan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 19 Waxes and Sterols: Structures and Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 19 Waxes and Sterols: Structures and Chemistry Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 19

46

Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

John Zyren

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Refinement of higher-order logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A refinement calculus provides a method for transforming specifications to executable code, maintaining the correctness of the code with respect to its specification. In this paper we extend the refinement calculus for logic programs to include higher-order ...

Robert Colvin; Ian Hayes; David Hemer; Paul Strooper

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement - theory, implementation and application  

SciTech Connect

Structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) techniques can enable cutting-edge simulations of problems governed by conservation laws. Focusing on the strictly hyperbolic case, these notes explain all algorithmic and mathematical details of a technically relevant implementation tailored for distributed memory computers. An overview of the background of commonly used finite volume discretizations for gas dynamics is included and typical benchmarks to quantify accuracy and performance of the dynamically adaptive code are discussed. Large-scale simulations of shock-induced realistic combustion in non-Cartesian geometry and shock-driven fluid-structure interaction with fully coupled dynamic boundary motion demonstrate the applicability of the discussed techniques for complex scenarios.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Utah Kerosene Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Kerosene Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes; Utah Kerosene Refiner Sales Volumes; Utah Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels ...

51

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 1997 Refiner Barrels per Calendar Day Refiner Barrels per

52

Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

Yang Jianke [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Iowa Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Iowa Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Iowa Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

55

Alabama Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Alabama Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Alabama Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

56

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2011 Calendar Day

57

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2009 Calendar Day

58

Metallurgical Silicon Refining by Transient Directional Solidification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Directional solidification is an essential refining step to obtain solar ... The chemical analyses of the ingots show macrosegregation of several ...

59

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

60

High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs  

SciTech Connect

We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Time-Dependent Fully Nonlinear Geostrophic Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shock-capturing numerical methods are employed to integrate the fully nonlinear, rotating 1D shallow-water equations starting from steplike nongeostrophic initial conditions (a Rossby adjustment problem). Such numerical methods allow one to ...

Allen C. Kuo; Lorenzo M. Polvani

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

63

Refined computational models for laminated shells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents refined computational models for non homogeneous, deep, doubly curved shells. The theory is based on a kinematical approach in which the continuity conditions for displacements and shear stresses at layer interfaces and on the bounding ... Keywords: bending-torsion warping coupling, multilayered shells, piezoelectric laminates, shear-membrane refinements, stress computations, triangular C1-C1/2 finite element

M. Touratier

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

SciTech Connect

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining held at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday April 30,

67

2013 Short Course Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course held at the 104th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2013 Short Course Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining S

68

2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course held at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday, M

69

Valero Refining Company - NJ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valero Refining Company - NJ Valero Refining Company - NJ Jump to: navigation, search Name Valero Refining Company - NJ Place New Jersey Utility Id 56325 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Industrial: $0.0652/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Valero_Refining_Company_-_NJ&oldid=411921" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases

70

U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

Tancred Lidderdale

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

2004: Sign of the Future for Refiners?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A presentation to the NPRA Annual Meeting discussing the major factors that drove petroleum prices, price differentials, and margins in 2004, and what this might mean for refiners as we look towards the future.

Information Center

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

72

Genealogy Of Major U.S. Refiners  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A summary presentation iof mergers and acquisitions by U.S. major oil companies (including the U.S. affiliates of foreign major oil companies). The presentation focuses on petroleum refining over the last several years through late 2009.

Neal Davis

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

73

U.S. Crude Oil Imported Acquisition Cost by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Release Date: 1/2/2014: Next Release Date: 2/3/2014: Referring Pages: Refiner Acquisition Cost of Imported Crude Oil ; U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost ...

74

Idaho Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Retail Sales by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Idaho Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Refiner Sales Volumes; Idaho Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

75

Idaho Kerosene Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Idaho Kerosene Refiner Sales Volumes; Idaho Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. ...

76

Vermont Propane Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Propane (Consumer Grade) Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes; Vermont Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Vermont Sales to End Users ...

77

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 4 Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 4 Refining Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 4 Refining from the book ...

78

Genealogy of major U.S. refiners  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of major U.S. refiners of major U.S. refiners 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Amoco SOHIO BP ARCO Mapco Williams Clark Refining 1/89 12/98 4/00 3/98 Orion Diamond Shamrock Ultramar k 12/96 7/03 Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS) Total North America UDS 9/97 Valero Salomon (Basis) Valero Williams BP BP b BP-Husky Refining LLC (jv) Husky Huntway 5/97 6/01 9/05 Valero Premcor g Valero Valero Valero 12/01 7/94 e 12/98 f Carlyle Group y Coastal 3/03 d 12/88 a 6/01 o Sun Company Sunoco v 7/07 i 4/08 c 5/04 h Pacific Refining (jv) 12/88 r El Paso 1/04 w 10/98 m 6/00 n 9/89 t 8/94 u See notes, footnotes, and source notes below. PBF Energy 6/10 p 12/10 q 3/11 x 10/11 j 9/00 l 1/01 s Genealogy of major U.S. refiners (continued) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

79

Towards a scalable fully-implicit fully-coupled resistive MHD formulation with stabilized FE methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the development of a scalable, nonlinear, fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for 2D incompressible (reduced) resistive MHD. The discussion considers the implementation of a stabilized FE formulation ... Keywords: Direct-to-steady-state, Fully-implicit, Large-scale parallel, Multilevel preconditioner, Newton-Krylov, Resistive MHD, Stabilized finite element

J. N. Shadid; R. P. Pawlowski; J. W. Banks; L. Chacón; P. T. Lin; R. S. Tuminaro

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 6 A volume weighted average of the refiner prices to resellers for ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of Wax Deposition and its Control during Production of Alaska North Slope Oils  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oil & Natural Gas Technology Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: DE-FC26-01NT41248 Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Petroleum Development Laboratory Institute of Northern Engineering University of Alaska Fairbanks P.O. Box 755880 Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5880 Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory December 2008 Office of Fossil Energy Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaskan North Slope Oils Final Report Reporting Period: October 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 Principal Investigator: Tao Zhu University of Alaska Fairbanks P.O. Box 755880 Fairbanks, AK 99775-5880 fftz@uaf.edu, 907-474-5141 External Principal Investigator: Jack A. Walker

82

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Changing World Product Markets and Potential Refining Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Changing World Product Markets and Potential Refining Capacity Increases. NPRA Annual Meeting March 2006

84

Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Refining District ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Refining District Percent Utilization of Refinery Operable Capacity (Percent)

85

Parallel Cell Projection Rendering of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a technique used in numerical simulations to automatically refine (or de-refine) certain regions of the physical domain in a finite difference calculation. AMR data consists of nested hierarchies of data grids. As AMR ... Keywords: volume rendering, adaptive mesh refinement, load balancing, multi-grid methods, parallel rendering, visualization

Gunther H. Weber; Martin Ohler; Oliver Kreylos; John M. Shalf; E. Wes Bethel; Bernd Hamann; Gerik Scheuermann

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

87

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

88

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

89

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)

90

Findings from the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities Title Findings from the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities Publication Type Report...

91

Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refining AS Refining AS Jump to: navigation, search Name Norwegian Silicon Refining AS Place Oslo, Norway Zip 214 Product Oslo-based company with an upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) production process called the Stubergh method. Coordinates 59.91228°, 10.74998° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":59.91228,"lon":10.74998,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

92

1995 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected 5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently by John Zyren, Charles Dale and Charles Riner Introduction The United States has completed its first summer driving season using reformulated gasoline (RFG). Motorists noticed price increases at the retail level, resulting from the increased cost to produce and deliver the product, as well as from the tight sup- ply/demand balance during the summer. This arti- cle focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate. RFG Regulatory Requirements The use of RFG is a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The CAAA cover a wide range of programs aimed at improving air qual-

93

Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Piping Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well- defined limits H2S contamination presents many more problems, beyond the scope of this talk We will note a couple of specific vulnerabilities Refining tracks materials performance in

94

Minimally refined biomass fuels: an economic shortcut  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An economic shortcut can be realized if the sugars from which ethanol is made are utilized directly as concentrated aqueous solutions for fuels rather than by further refining them through fermentation and distillation steps. Simple evaporation of carbohydrate solutions from sugar cane or sweet sorghum, or from hydrolysis of starch or cellulose content of many plants yield potential liquid fuels of energy contents (on a volume basis) comparable to highly refined liquid fuels like methanol and ethanol. The potential utilization of such minimally refined biomass derived fuels is discussed and the burning of sucrose-ethanol-water solutions in a small modified domestic burner is demonstrated. Other potential uses of sugar solutions or emulsion and microemulsions in fuel oils for use in diesel or turbine engines are proposed and discussed.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

SEARCH NAVIGATE REFINE PERSONALIZE SAVE SEARCH OPERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEARCH NAVIGATE REFINE PERSONALIZE SAVE SEARCH OPERATORS Search using AND, OR, NOT, and SAME (same sentence) to create logical search state- ments. Nest search operators inside parentheses. Search exact Web of Science® Quick Reference Card Search over 9,200 journals from over 45 different languages

Russell, Lynn

96

A Cluster Refinement Algorithm for Motif Discovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding Transcription Factor Binding Sites, i.e., motif discovery, is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory relationship. Motifs are weakly conserved and motif discovery is an NP-hard problem. We propose a new approach called Cluster Refinement ... Keywords: Transcription factor binding site, motif discovery.

Gang Li; Tak-Ming Chan; Kwong-Sak Leung; Kin-Hong Lee

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Arnold Schwarzenegger REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of magnitude of waterrelated energy use do not consider energy that is produced as a byproduct of water supply decrease in a dry year. The amount of water delivered or hydropower produced depends on a number Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER- RELATED ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA

98

Deriving Efficient Cache Coherence Protocols Through Refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We address the problem of developing efficient cache coherence protocols for use in distributed systems implementing distributed shared memory (DSM) using message passing. A serious drawback of traditional approaches to this problem is that the users ... Keywords: DSM protocols, communication protocols, refinement

Ratan Nalumasu; Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ontology-based automatic query refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of user query plays a vital role in retrieving highly relevant documents in keyword-based search engine. Because of the lack of domain knowledge, users tend to post very short queries, which do not express their information need ... Keywords: automatic query refinement, document retrieval, information retrieval, keywords, ontology, query expansion, retrieval relevancy, search engines, semantic search, user queries

S. Sendhilkumar; G. S. Mahalakshmi; S. N. Rajasekar

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

Gasification, polygeneration capture interest of refiners  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are moving into the mainstream of international refining. Such plants can turn refinery dregs into the whitest of all products--sparkling electricity--plus hydrogen and synthesis gas. Hydrogen is an indispensable element for cleaning up and improving modern fuels, while syngas is the feedstock for important finished petrochemicals and intermediaries. The status and potential of gasification technologies and projects were covered in a 3 day conference early in October in San Francisco. What made this conference different from others on the subject in the past was recognition that oil and natural gas producers and the international refining industry are becoming major power producers without government subsidies. Such projects can pass the scrutiny of lenders and the test of commerciality. They are not targeted simply for electricity, but also for production of hydrogen, steam, and petrochemical feedstock. The process objective for projects now far exceeds simple cogeneration. It`s now trigeneration, even polygeneration.

Aalund, L.R.

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

103

Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

Wu-yen Chuang; Duiliu-Emanuel Diaconescu; Ron Donagi; Tony Pantev

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

Global refining industry preparing for future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 2.1 million b/sd of crude distillation capacity is now under construction or considered likely to be built, more than 80% of which is concentrated in Asia and the Middle East. An overview of global refining centers will illustrate technological trends and the emergence of developing economies, particularly those in the Asia/Pacific region. About 50% of the refineries in the US and Western Europe have capacities greater than 200,000 b/d. Figure 1 lists the capacities and relative conversion capabilities of the world refining centers. The paper discusses bottoms conversion, regulations, investment, grassroots plans, and refinery capacities in the US, Western Europe, Eastern Europe/FSU, Middle East, Asia/Pacific region, and South America/Caribbean.

Martin, T.W. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Previous Release Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. In the diagram the companies shown on the right side are presently active in U.S. refining. The transactions over the past 25 years that created these companies also are shown. The transactions included here may be as little as a single refinery, or as much as all the refining assets of the parties to the transaction. Transactions that include less than all refining assets are indicated by vertical dotted lines while vertical solid lines indicate that all refining assets are included. Additionally,

106

Low-pressure hydrocracking of coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch waxes to diesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-derived low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) wax was hydrocracked at pressures of 3.5-7.0 MPa using silica-alumina-supported sulfided NiW/NiMo and an unsulfided noble metal catalyst, modified with MoO{sub 3}. A low-pressure operation at 3.5 MPa produced a highly isomerized diesel, having low cloud points (from -12 to -28{sup o}C) combined with high cetane numbers (69-73). These properties together with the extremely low sulfur ({lt}5 ppm) and aromatic ({lt}0.5%) contents place coal/liquid (CTL) derived distillates as highly valuable blending components to achieve Eurograde diesel specifications. The upgrading of coal-based LTFT waxes through hydrocracking to high-quality diesel fuel blend components in combination with commercial-feasible coal-integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture and storage schemes should make CTL technology more attractive. 28 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids  

SciTech Connect

We have previously reported the isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane and a n-C{sub 32} straight chain paraffin with a Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst at 170{degrees}C and 350 psig of hydrogen. This study has now been extended to the treatment of a Fisher-Tropsch wax with a carbon number range from C{sub 55}-C{sub 62}. The results reported in Table 1 show that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active for the isomerization and hydrocracking of this substrate. At an 88.6 wt% conversion level, an 86.1% selectivity to isoparaffins was achieved. The products consisted mainly of C{sub 4}-C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}-C{sub 14} fractions, suitable as gasoline and diesel fuels. A feed/catalyst ratio of 6:1 was used; there was no evidence of catalytic deactivation. The melted wax is viscous and there was a decrease in conversion with time, indicating that diffusion might be a limitation for chains of very high molecular weight.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

P-12: Refinement of Primary and Eutectic Silicon Particles in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture ... Phosphorus Partitioning During EAF Refining of DRI Based Steel.

109

Washington Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail Outlets: ...

110

North Carolina Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Area: ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail ...

111

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels)

112

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Pentanes Plus Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

113

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Manufacturing and Petroleum Refining Industries.Saving Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries. An ENERGYAdministration (EIA), 2002. Petroleum Supply Annual 2001,

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refinement Processing of Inconel Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ELECTRON BEAM COLD HEARTH REFINEMENT PROCESSING OF. INCONEL" ALLOY 718 AND NIMONIC* ALLOY PK50. S. Patel+,. 1-C. Elliott+,.

115

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Refinery and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Refinery and Blender Net Input of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels per Day)

116

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Ethane-Ethylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Ethane-Ethylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

117

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO b Houston Refining LP..... Houston, Texas...270,200 TOTAL SA Total Petrochemicals Inc ...

118

A fully quantum model of Big Bang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the paper the closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with quantization in the presence of the positive cosmological constant and radiation is studied. For analysis of tunneling probability for birth of an asymptotically deSitter, inflationary Universe as a function of the radiation energy a new definition of a "free" wave propagating inside strong fields is proposed. On such a basis, tunneling boundary condition is corrected, penetrability and reflection concerning to the barrier are calculated in fully quantum stationary approach. For the first time non-zero interference between the incident and reflected waves has been taken into account which turns out to play important role inside cosmological potentials and could be explained by non-locality of barriers in quantum mechanics. Inside whole region of energy of radiation the tunneling probability for the birth of the inflationary Universe is found to be close to its value obtained in semiclassical approach. The reflection from the barrier is determined for the first time (which is essentially differs on 1 at the energy of radiation close to the barrier height). The proposed method could be easily generalized on the cosmological models with the barriers of arbitrary shape, that has been demonstrated for the FRW-model with included Chaplygin gas. Result is stable for variations of the studied barriers, accuracy are found to be 11--18 digits for all coefficients and energies below the barrier height.

Sergei P. Maydanyuk; Antonino Del Popolo; Vladislav S. Olkhovsky

2013-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

Action Refinement from a Logical Point of View  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Action refinement provides a mechanism to design a complex reactive system hierarchically. This paper is devoted to action refinement from a logical point of view, and to combining the hierarchical implementation of a complex system with the hierarchical ... Keywords: action refinement, modal logics, reactive systems, specification, verification

Mila E. Majster-Cederbaum; Naijun Zhan; Harald Fecher

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ladle Refining Furnaces for the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a tremendous interest in the use of ladle refining furnaces in the last few years. Several units have been or are being constructed in the United States and most steel companies are seriously considering installing them. The purpose of this report is to inform the member companies of EPRI of the development and operations of ladle furnaces and to assist steel companies in determining if ladle furnaces fit their goals and which particular unit would be best for their operation. In this repo...

1990-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Characteristic Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I consider techniques for Berger-Oliger adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) when numerically solving partial differential equations with wave-like solutions, using characteristic (double-null) grids. Such AMR algorithms are naturally recursive, and the best-known past Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm, that of Pretorius & Lehner (J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004), 10), recurses on individual "diamond" characteristic grid cells. This leads to the use of fine-grained memory management, with individual grid cells kept in 2-dimensional linked lists at each refinement level. This complicates the implementation and adds overhead in both space and time. Here I describe a Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm which instead recurses on null \\emph{slices}. This algorithm is very similar to the usual Cauchy Berger-Oliger algorithm, and uses relatively coarse-grained memory management, allowing entire null slices to be stored in contiguous arrays in memory. The algorithm is very efficient in both space and time. I describe discretizations yielding both 2nd and 4th order global accuracy. My code implementing the algorithm described here is included in the electronic supplementary materials accompanying this paper, and is freely available to other researchers under the terms of the GNU general public license.

Jonathan Thornburg

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar May 28, 2014 11:00AM MDT Attendees will become familiar with the three components of project refinement: project financing strategies, off-taker agreements, and vendor selection. Project refinement obstacles, particularly financing, can deter the deployment of renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Attendees will learn about the financial resources and ownership options available-including venture capital and innovative financing-that can help Tribes overcome longstanding barriers and attract higher levels of private investment. Finally, attendees will learn how project refinement can accelerate renewable energy development and, with it, tribal economic and community development. There is no cost to attend the webinar, but

123

A CSP Account of Event-B Refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Event-B provides a flexible framework for stepwise system development via refinement. The framework supports steps for (a) refining events (one-by-one), (b) splitting events (one-by-many), and (c) introducing new events. In each of the steps events can moreover possibly be anticipated or convergent. All such steps are accompanied with precise proof obligations. Still, it remains unclear what the exact relationship - in terms of a behaviour-oriented semantics - between an Event-B machine and its refinement is. In this paper, we give a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP semantics for Event-B and show how the different forms of Event-B refinement can be captured as CSP refinement.

Schneider, Steve; Wehrheim, Heike; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.9

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In The Plant Control System. Author(s), Xavier Genin, Pasquale Calo,

125

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanic...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic pressure Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map...

126

A generic theorem prover of CSP refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We describe a new tool called Csp-Prover which is an interactive theorem prover dedicated to refinement proofs within the process algebra Csp. It aims specifically at proofs for infinite state systems, which may also involve infinite non-determinism. Semantically, Csp-Prover supports both the theory of complete metric spaces as well as the theory of complete partial orders. Both these theories are implemented for infinite product spaces. Technically, Csp-Prover is based on the theorem prover Isabelle. It provides a deep encoding of Csp. The tool’s architecture follows a generic approach which makes it easy to adapt it for various Csp models besides those studied here: the stable failures model F and the traces model T. 1

Yoshinao Isobe; Markus Roggenbach

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

129

High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Grain-refined Inconel 617 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cr-depleted zone of grain-refined alloy was thicker than that of the ... Intergranular Thermal Residual Strain in Rolled and Texture-free ?-Uranium.

130

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

131

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

132

Table 31. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly February 2012 76 Table 31. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

133

Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Policy Impacts Website: web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTENERGY2/0,,contentMDK:2298 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/renewable-energy-financial-instrument Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Training & Education Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) aims to assist policy in identifying appropriate financial instruments to scale-up

134

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Friedman, S. ,"Conversion of Anthraxylon - Kinetics ofiv- LBL 116807 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COALand Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel,iI pre-

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effect of Sonotrode Design on Simultaneous Grain Refinement and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P-18: Phosphorus Partitioning During EAF Refining of DRI Based Steel ... P-8: Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture.

136

Massachusetts Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Massachusetts Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ... No.1 and No. 2 ...

137

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

138

Production, Refining and Recycling of Rare Earth Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This symposium is targeting on overview of the current state of the art for production, refining and recycling of the rare earth metals. In addition the symposium is ...

139

Rising challenges for the petroleum refiners in managing corrosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Materials Aspects of Corrosion and Fouling in Oil Refining and Exploration.

140

Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type ... Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: ... Alabama: 2.759: 2.740: 2.731: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Massachusetts Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Area: ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail Outlets: ...

142

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels)

143

WPSR provides comprehensive crude oil and refined products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA's Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) is the most comprehensive weekly data available for U.S. crude oil and refined petroleum product balances.

144

Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

Giles, K.A. [Barnes and Click Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining of Investment Casting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining of Investment Casting Superalloys in a Large Production EB Furnace. Janine C. Borofka. Axe1 Johnson Metals, Inc.

146

Neutral Oil Loss During Alkali Refining - ResearchGate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Neutral Oil Loss During Alkali Refining. Albert J. Dijkstra. Journal of Oil & Fat Industries (Impact ... Experiments with cotton oil and soybean o ...

147

Studies on Refining Cobalt Salt Solution by Extraction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cobalt sulfate solution was refined by PC88A levextrel Resins which produced from HPD-100 type of ethylene benzene -divinylbenzene porous adsorption resin  ...

148

Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ... An Experimental Study of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal from the ...

149

Table 40. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2005 Companies with Capacity Over 100,000 bbl/cd

150

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2006 Companies with Capacity Over 100,000 bbl/cd

151

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

152

Process for the hydroisomerization and hydrocracking of Fisher-Tropsch waxes to produce a syncrude and upgraded hydrocarbon products  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing a pumpable syncrude from a Fischer-Tropsch wax containing oxygenate compounds, which comprises: (1) separating the Fischer-Tropsch wax into (a) a low-boiling fraction which contains most of the oxygenate compounds and (b) a high-boiling fraction which is substantially free of water and oxygenate compounds, (2) reacting the high-boiling fraction from step (1) with hydrogen at hydroisomerization and mild hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a fluorided Group VIII metal-on-alumina catalyst to produce a C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbon product, and (3) combining the C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbon product from step (2) with the low-boiling fraction from step (1) to produce a pumpable, refinery processable syncrude that can be transported at atmospheric conditions.

Hamner, G.P.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Improving Ariadne's Bundle by Following Multiple Threads in Abstraction Refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a scalable abstraction-refinement method for model checking invariant properties on large sequential circuits, which is based on fine-grain abstraction and simultaneous analysis of all abstract counterexamples of the shortest length. ... Keywords: Abstraction refinement, binary decision diagram (BDD), formal verification, model checking, satisfiability (SAT)

Chao Wang; Bing Li; HoonSang Jin; G. D. Hachtel; F. Somenzi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 9 Physical Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 9 Physical Refining Processing eChapters Processing 7E84B6524348AB59C4DF2B6D388E2582 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 9 Physical Refining from the book ...

155

Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

None

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Augmenting Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement with Proof Templates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing software model checkers based on predicate abstraction and refinement typically perform poorly at verifying the absence of buffer overflows, with analyses depending on the sizes of the arrays checked. We observe that many of these analyses can ... Keywords: safety verification, counterexample-guided abstraction refinement, proof templates, software model checkers, predicate abstraction, buffer overflows verification, array traversal idioms, PtYasm, Verisec suite

T. E. Hart; K. Ku; A. Gurfinkel; M. Chechik; D. Lie

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Hierarchical Partitioning Techniques for Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the design and preliminary evaluation of hierarchical partitioning and load-balancing techniques for distributed structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications. The overall goal of these techniques is to enable the load distribution ... Keywords: distributed computing, dynamic load balancing, hierarchical partitioning algorithm, structured adaptive mesh refinement

Xiaolin Li; Manish Parashar

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

1988-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

Doran, Simon J.

160

Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Crespi, H.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Table 24. Refining Industry Energy Consumption  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- Corrections to Tables 24 to 32 - Corrections to Tables 24 to 32 Table 24. Refining Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2002- 2025 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 4/ (million metric tons) 190.4 185.7 188.0 191.3 207.3 215.6 220.0 222.8 225.1 226.3 228.0 230.7 234.1 237.5 238.5 239.4 239.4 238.6 240.6 240.5 242.2 244.2 245.9 246.3 246.6 1.2% Table 25. Food Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2002- 2025 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 3/ (million metric tons) 87.8 89.4 87.5 87.8 89.2 90.2 90.9 91.4 92.2 93.5 94.5 95.7 96.7 97.7 98.6 99.6 100.8 101.9 102.9 104.1 105.4 107.0 108.7 110.3 112.1 1.0% Table 26. Paper Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

162

Three faces of US refining: Margins by gasoline customer type  

SciTech Connect

While it is well known that the US gasoline market has become more volatile in recent years, it is less widely appreciated that the deeply structured, term-contract-oriented companies within the refining and marketing sectors are likely to obtain the best profit margins. This issue stratifies refining margins by class of wholesale-gasoline trade. This issue also presents the following: (a) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of September 8, 1989; and (b) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, September 1989 edition. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

1989-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

163

,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Net Production" Refiner Net Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Refiner Net Production",21,"Weekly","12/13/2013","6/4/2010" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_wprodr_s1_w.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_wprodr_s1_w.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 10:39:21 AM"

164

Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

2012 Short Course Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies held at the 103rd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2012 Short Course Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fund

166

Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the upcoming hurricane season. Secretary Bodman made the statements after touring the Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas. "We need a more robust energy sector; and one way to do that is to strengthen and expand our domestic oil refining capacity. We're hopeful that Motiva will continue to work to expand their capacity to 600,000

167

Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve May 12, 2009 - 3:14pm Addthis Statement of David F. Johnson, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Petroleum Reserves before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate. Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, I am pleased to be here today to discuss the issue of developing refined products storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. As you know, the SPR was established by Congress through passage of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act in 1975 in response to the Arab oil embargoes. The primary policy of the U.S. petroleum stockpiling program has been to store crude oil. The SPR has served to protect our Nation from crude oil supply interruptions for over three

168

Polygons in Buildings and their Refined Side Lengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1999. [Bro] K. Brown, Buildings, Springer, 1989. [BuBI] D.AMS, 2001. [D] M. Davis, Buildings are CAT(0), in “Geometryat Springerlink.com POLYGONS IN BUILDINGS AND THEIR REFINED

Kapovich, Michael; Leeb, Bernhard; Millson, John J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

California Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's ...

170

California Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's:

171

,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner...

172

Tennessee Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tennessee Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ... No.1 and No. 2 ...

173

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects 00516 North Dakota Refining...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the North Dakota Refining Capacity study is to assess the feasibility of increasing the oil refinery capacity in North Dakota, and, if possible, determine the scale of such an...

174

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A presentation exploring the factors driving higher prices, margins, and light-heavy price differentials in today's market, and what these observations may imply about future profitability in the refining industry.

Joanne Shore

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer: Dr. Sefa Koseoglu, Filtration and Membrane World LLC, USA. This is a must for engineers, chemists, and any other technicians who want to get a good understanding of edible oil refining/processing. ...

176

Michigan Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Michigan Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's: 3,004.6:

177

Evaluation of Electron-Beam Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR) of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EVALUATION OF ELECTRON-BEAM COLD HEARTH REFINING (EBCHR) OF. VIRGIN AND REVERT IN738LC. P.N. Quested*, M. McLean* and M.R. Winstonet.

178

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Data refinement in a market research applications' data production process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution, we will show how empirically collected field data for a market research application are refined in a stepwise manner and enriched into end-user market reports and charts. The collected data are treated by selections, transformations, ...

Thomas Ruf; Thomas Kirsche

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Query reformulation and refinement using NLP-based sentence clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed an interactive query refinement tool that helps users search a knowledge base for solutions to problems with electronic equipment. The system is targeted towards non-technical users, who are often unable to formulate precise problem ...

Frédéric Roulland; Aaron Kaplan; Stefania Castellani; Claude Roux; Antonietta Grasso; Karin Pettersson; Jacki O'Neill

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation of Cold Hearth Refined Inconel Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

refining of superalloys. This ha8 been identified as possibly the be8t way of ... thie material involving chemical and microetructural, as we11 as cl8anliness and.

182

MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Collection-6 refinements in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational cloud-top properties algorithm. The focus is on calibration improvements and on cloud macrophysical properties including ...

Bryan A. Baum; W. Paul Menzel; Richard A. Frey; David C. Tobin; Robert E. Holz; Steve A. Ackerman; Andrew K. Heidinger; Ping Yang

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

South Dakota Gasoline Midgrade Bulk Sales (Volume) by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota Gasoline Midgrade Bulk Sales (Volume) by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9;

184

Regional differences for cost of crude oil to refiners widened in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The cost of crude oil to refiners varies across regions based on the different types of crude oil available to refiners and transportation bottlenecks in that region.

185

Arkansas Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Arkansas Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Refiner Sales Volumes; Arkansas Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 ...

186

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200--300 {degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. During this quarter work focused on task 1b, experimental measurement of selected model systems. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments for the n- hexane/squalane system, which we initiated in the previous quarter, were continued and results are discussed in this report.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Former Corporation/Refiner Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd) New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 12. Refinery Sales During 2012 Antelope Refining LLC Garco Energy LLC 3/12 Douglas, WY 3,800 Delta Air Lines/Monroe Energy LLC ConocoPhillips Company 4/12 Trainer, PA 185,000 Phillips 66 Company ConocoPhillips Company 5/12 Belle Chasse, LA 252,000 Billings, MT 59,000 Ferndale, WA 101,000 Linden, NJ 238,000 Ponca City, OK 198,400 Rodeo, CA 120,200 Sweeny, TX 247,000 Westlake, LA 239,400 Wilmington, CA 139,000 Nustar Asphalt LLC (50% Nustar Energy LP and 50% Lindsay Goldberg LLC) Nustar Energy LP/Nustar Asphalt Refining LLC 9/12 Paulsboro, NJ 70,000 Savannah, GA 28,000 Carlyle Group/Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refining and Marketing LLC Sunoco Inc./Sunoco Inc. R&M

189

Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enhanced neutron production rate. The scattering wave function should replace the bound state wave function for estimates of the enhanced neutron production rate on water plasma drenched cathodes of chemical cells.

A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

190

DISPERSION AND DISSIPATION ERRORS OF TWO FULLY DISCRETE DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-dimensional Euler equations in gas dynamics. There has been abundant study on the dispersion analysis of many nuDISPERSION AND DISSIPATION ERRORS OF TWO FULLY DISCRETE DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS HE YANG, FENGYAN LI, AND JIANXIAN QIU Abstract. The dispersion and dissipation properties of numerical meth- ods

Li, Fengyan

191

FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP AT PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY Position Description The overall project objective is to utilize marine microalgae for biofuels production (i.e., lipids for biodiesel or jet biofuel). The student will set up a series of photobioreactors

192

FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP AT PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY Position Description The overall project objective is to utilize marine microalgae for biofuels (i.e., lipids for biodiesel or jet biofuel) production. The student will set up a series

Wildermuth, Mary C

193

Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Progress report, March 1, 1992--May 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We have previously reported the isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane and a n-C{sub 32} straight chain paraffin with a Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst at 170{degrees}C and 350 psig of hydrogen. This study has now been extended to the treatment of a Fisher-Tropsch wax with a carbon number range from C{sub 55}-C{sub 62}. The results reported in Table 1 show that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active for the isomerization and hydrocracking of this substrate. At an 88.6 wt% conversion level, an 86.1% selectivity to isoparaffins was achieved. The products consisted mainly of C{sub 4}-C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}-C{sub 14} fractions, suitable as gasoline and diesel fuels. A feed/catalyst ratio of 6:1 was used; there was no evidence of catalytic deactivation. The melted wax is viscous and there was a decrease in conversion with time, indicating that diffusion might be a limitation for chains of very high molecular weight.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Alternating and direct current electrochemical studies of a wool wax-based corrosion preventive coating on aluminum alloy 2024  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of Al 2024-T3 treated with a wool wax (lanolin)-based corrosion preventive coating in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and direct current electrode polarization. DC measurements were modeled by three reactions: oxidation of aluminum, reduction of oxygen, and reduction of hydrogen. Alternating current behavior of untreated specimens was modeled using the Randles circuit, and that of inhibited specimens was modeled using parallel resistance-capacitance circuits representing the coating and the charge-transfer process. AC and DC estimates of the polarization resistance of coated specimens were 50 M{Omega}-cm{sup 2} and 32 M{Omega}-cm{sup 2}, respectively. AC and DC values for bare control specimens were of the order of 3 k{Omega}-cm{sup 2} and 15 k{Omega}-cm{sup 2}, respectively. The wool wax coating was found to be a very effective corrosion preventative for this alloy in the aqueous saline environment whether applied to freshly prepared surfaces or to corroded specimens removed from simulated service.

Su, P.C.; Devereux, O.F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Refining Crude Oil - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy -  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil and Petroleum Products > Refining Crude Oil Oil and Petroleum Products > Refining Crude Oil Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Emissions Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products Refining Crude Oil Where Our Oil Comes From Imports and Exports Offshore Oil and Gas Use of Oil Prices and Outlook Oil and the Environment Gasoline Where Our Gasoline Comes From Use of Gasoline Prices and Outlook

196

Refinement and Verification of Real-Time Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses highly general mechanisms for specifying the refinement of a real-time system as a collection of lower level parallel components that preserve the timing and functional requirements of the upper level specification. These mechanisms are discussed in the context of ASTRAL, which is a formal specification language for real-time systems. Refinement is accomplished by mapping all of the elements of an upper level specification into lower level elements that may be split among several parallel components. In addition, actions that can occur in the upper level are mapped to actions of components operating at the lower level. This allows several types of implementation strategies to be specified in a natural way, while the price for generality (in terms of complexity) is paid only when necessary. The refinement mechanisms are first illustrated using a simple digital circuit; then, through a highly complex phone system; finally, design guidelines gleaned from these specifications are presented.

Kolano, Paul Z; Kemmerer, Richard A; Mandrioli, Dino

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Algebraic specification and program development by stepwise refinement (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Various formalizations of the concept of "refinement step" as used in the formal development of programs from algebraic specifications are presented and compared. 1 Introduction Algebraic specification aims to provide a formal basis to support the systematic development of correct programs from specifications by means of verified refinement steps. Obviously, a central piece of the puzzle is how best to formalize concepts like "specification", "program" and "refinement step". Answers are required that are simple, elegant and general and which enjoy useful properties, while at the same time taking proper account of the needs of practice. Here I will concentrate on the last of these concepts, but first I need to deal with the other two. For "program", I take the usual approach of algebraic specification whereby programs are modelled as many-sorted algebras consisting of a collection of sets of data values together with functions over those sets. This level of abstraction is commens...

Donald Sannella

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

199

Magnetohydrodynamics in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes: A fully covariant approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is developed under the hypotheses of perfect conductivity, stationarity, and axisymmetry. The spacetime is not assumed to be circular, which allows for greater generality than the Kerr-type spacetimes usually considered in general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. Expressing the electromagnetic field tensor solely in terms of three scalar fields related to the spacetime symmetries, we generalize previously obtained results in various directions. In particular, we present the first relativistic version of the Soloviev transfield equation, subcases of which lead to fully covariant versions of the Grad-Shafranov equation and of the Stokes equation in the hydrodynamical limit. We have also derived, as another subcase of the relativistic Soloviev equation, the equation governing magnetohydrodynamical equilibria with purely toroidal magnetic fields in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes.

Gourgoulhon, Eric [Laboratoire Univers et Theories, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Markakis, Charalampos [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Uryu, Koji [Department of Physics, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Eriguchi, Yoshiharu [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, 3-8-1, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel Development for LWR Applications  

SciTech Connect

The concept, fabrication, and key feasibility issues of a new fuel form based on the microencapsulated (TRISO-type) fuel which has been specifically engineered for LWR application and compacted within a SiC matrix will be presented. This fuel, the so-called fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel is currently undergoing development as an accident tolerant fuel for potential UO2 replacement in commercial LWRs. While the ability of this fuel to facilitate normal LWR cycle performance is an ongoing effort within the program, this will not be a focus of this paper. Rather, key feasibility and performance aspects of the fuel will be presented including the ability to fabricate a LWR-specific TRISO, the need for and route to a high thermal conductivity and fully dense matrix that contains neutron poisons, and the performance of that matrix under irradiation and the interaction of the fuel with commercial zircaloy clad.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Grain Refinement in TiC-Ni3Al Composites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop composites of TiC-Ni{sub 3}Al with refined grain microstructures for application in diesel engine fuel injection devices. Grain refinement is important for improved wear resistance and high strength for the applications of interest. Attrition milling effectively reduces the initial particle size and leads to a reduction of the final grain size. However, an increase in the oxygen content occurs concomitantly with the grinding operation and decreased densification of the compacts occurs during sintering.

Tiegs, T.N.

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

Claudia Bertella

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Testing for Refinement in CSP Ana Cavalcanti1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing for Refinement in CSP Ana Cavalcanti1 and Marie-Claude Gaudel2 1 University of York Abstract. CSP is a well-established formalism for modelling and verifi- cation of concurrent reactive work on algebraic reasoning and model checking. Testing techniques based on CSP models, however, have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Department of Computing Stepwise Refinement in Event-B||CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Event-B||CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne and Heike Wehrheim March 12th 2011 #12;Stepwise Refinement in Event-B CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider1 Helen Treharne1 Heike Wehrheim2 1, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 CSP 3 2.1 Notation

Doran, Simon J.

206

GRAIN REFINEMENT OF CAST URANIUM BY HEAT TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The thermal cycling, irradiation behavior, and fabrication characteristics of U are strongly dependent upon grain size; a smaller grain size yields the better properties. Grain refinement of cast U may be accomplished either by hot working in the high alpha temperature range or by heat treatment; refinement by the latter method was the object of this investigation. The variables studied were time, temperature, specimen size, multiple quenching, and alphaannealing after quenching. The results of the investigation have led to the following conclusions, within the scope of the experimental conditions. The grain size of cast U may be appreciably refined by beta-quenching. Time and temperature in the beta phase are not significant in determining the final alpha grain size. Multiple beta-quenches (two to four times) produce better grain size refinement than a single quench. Alpha-annealing after beta-quenching causes recrystallization, but does not greatly affect the grain size. Gamma-quenching is not recommended as a practical heat treatment. (auth)

Powell, G.W.; Klein, J.L.; Krashes, D.

1957-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Development via refinement in probabilistic b: foundation and case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In earlier work, we introduced probability to the B by providing a probabilistic choice substitution and by extending B's semantics to incorporate its meaning [8]. This, a first step, allowed probabilistic programs to be written and ... Keywords: B, generalised substitutions, probability, program correctness, randomised algorithms, refinement, weakest preconditions

Thai Son Hoang; Zhendong Jin; Ken Robinson; Annabelle McIver; Carroll Morgan

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Feature-oriented refinement of models, metamodels and model transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Done well, the blend of Model Driven Development (MDD) and Software Product Lines (SPL) offers a promising approach, mixing abstraction from MDD and variability from SPL. Although Model Driven Product Lines have flourished recently, the focus so far ... Keywords: AHEAD, XAK, metamodels, model transformations, modeling, models, refinements

Salvador Trujillo; Ander Zubizarreta; Xabier Mendialdua; Josune de Sosa

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

1975-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Refining image annotation using contextual relations between words  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a probabilistic approach to refine image annotations by incorporating semantic relations between annotation words. Our approach firstly predicts a candidate set of annotation words with confidence scores. This is achieved by ... Keywords: image annotation, normalized Google distance, semantic relation

Yong Wang; Shaogang Gong

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effects of Multiple Reductions on Grain Refinement During Hot ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of as-cast alloy 718, a research program was initiated at the ... process design criteria for grain size refinement during primary breakdown of alloy. 718 ingot via ..... however, can and does occur during the dwell time after each strain ..... statistically ..... (1981). D. K. Matlock and D. A. Burford,. "An Experimental. Correlation.

213

A fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions around mid-rapidity at LHC energies. Unlike previous treatments, we simulate all phases of the collision, including the equilibration of the system. For the simulation, we use numerical relativity solutions to AdS/CFT for the pre-equilibrium stage, viscous hydrodynamics for the plasma equilibrium stage and kinetic theory for the low density hadronic stage. Our pre-equilibrium stage provides initial conditions for hydrodynamics and our results are insensitive to the AdS/hydro switching time. The resulting light particle spectra reproduce the measurements from the ALICE experiment at all transverse momenta.

van der Schee, Wilke; Pratt, Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron Imaging Archaeopteryx specimens are important but extremely rare fossils. Due to their possession of both reptilian (jaws with teeth, long bony tail) and avian (feathered wings) characters, Archaeopteryx has been crucial in the development of Darwinian evolution. Despite their importance, no Archaeopteryx specimen has ever been chemically analyzed. This in large part may be explained by the analytical obstacles which preclude applying standard methods to such valuable specimens; destructive sampling is not an option and most non-destructive methods cannot handle large specimens. Furthermore, mapping using conventional methods is far too slow to enable chemical zonation to be reasonably determined. Mapping of trace element chemistry is of tremendous interest, however, because it opens a window into understanding several critical questions about Archaeopteryx in particular, and about fossil specimens in general. Preserved trace chemistry in bones and soft tissue may be remnants of the living organism, and therefore may give insight into life processes of extinct organisms. When mapping includes the embedding rock matrix, mass transfer between the fossil and the matrix can be constrained, hence giving information about mode of preservation. Chemical analysis can also resolve artefacts of the curation process. Finally, accurate chemical maps can also be useful for directing future work by highlighting regions that may be promising for other types of analysis including structural methods (CT, diffraction) or techniques that use other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (infra-red).

215

Design and Control of a Fully Automated Vehicle door  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to develop a fully automated vehicle car door that can detect any object obstructing its path during operation. A fully automated door concept has not yet been implemented in the car industry. The door, operated via a pull of the door handle, utilizes an IR sensor to detect objects in its path. The vehicle door utilizes a linear direct current (DC) actuator with a built in potentiometer to power and control the vehicle door. The built in potentiometer provides feedback to the system. Proportional integral (PI) control was implemented to the system in order to provide a smoother and safer operation. The rise time of the system is 0.77 seconds and settling time is 1.07 seconds. The operation time is 3 seconds for the door to either open or close. The automated door has greater benefits compared to a manually operated door, such as ensuring greater safety in door operation and enhancing the lifetime as the door will not be slammed during its cycle. In addition, the door will provide more convenience to physically challenged people, as they will be able to open and close the door with the push of a button.

Hong, Kyung-Min

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst Using Near-Critical Fluid Extraction: Analysis of Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is performed using absorption in ethanolamines and PSA. Once the syngas is prepared the Fischer - Tropsch) technologies based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Wilhelm et al., 2001) Fischer-Tropsch liquids can be refined process conditions. Depending on the types and quantities of Fischer- Tropsch products desired, either low

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

217

Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production  

SciTech Connect

Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

218

Margin turnaround at hand: reprieve for US refiners  

SciTech Connect

After unseasonal US gasoline price deterioration during the summer driving months, a turnaround in rack (unbranded, undelivered wholesale) prices is helping to reverse the downward trend in refining margins on the Gulf Coast. In turn, the improved margins are buoying up light crude oil prices in the US Gulf Coast and strengthening spot-market prices. A graph tracks apparent margins on four important crudes utilized on the US Gulf Coast. August 1984 saw negative margins even for heavy Venezuelan Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) and Mexican Maya (22/sup 0/ API), but both were again positive in September. Energy Detente refining netback data for September 1984 are presented for the US Gulf Coast, the US West Coast, Rotterdam, and Singapore. The fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices are presented for September 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

1984-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

219

Atlantic Basin Refining Dynamics from U.S. Perspective  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

“This presentation focuses on the current refining situation in the Atlantic Basin, “This presentation focuses on the current refining situation in the Atlantic Basin, Page 1 including some discussion on how we got here, and on drivers that will influence the next 5 years. I will focus on three topics today that are critical to the petroleum product dynamics of Page 2 the Atlantic Basin over the next several years. The first is product demand growth - something that has been affected both by the recession and legislation. Next I will cover the supply situation for gasoline and distillates in the Atlantic Basin, since Europe and the U.S. are closely entwined in these markets. Last, we will visit the outlook for those drivers affecting profitability - an area of large uncertainty. I will begin today with a short discussion of important underlying long-term trends in U.S.

220

Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Refiner details ``best practices`` approach to catalyst selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalysts are critical to hydrocarbon processing in refineries. Refiners spend millions of dollars per year on catalysts. This cost, however, pales in comparison to the impact that catalysts can have. The lost opportunity from not using the right catalyst, or an unscheduled shutdown caused by a catalyst-related problem, can be an order of magnitude higher than the cost of the catalyst itself. Chevron Products Co. has adopted a best practices approach to addressing technical and operational issues in refining. A subset of the best-practices program includes the testing, selection, and monitoring of catalysts for Chevron`s fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), catalytic reforming, and hydroprocessing units. The paper discusses these practices.

Krishna, A.S. [Chevron Products Co., El Segundo, CA (United States); Arndt, J.H. [Chevron Products Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kuehler, C.W.; Kramer, D.C. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

2011 Short CourseNew Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining ShortCourse held at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2011 Short CourseNew Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction

223

2010 Short Course New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining Short Course held at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2010 Short Course New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and

224

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aApril 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message2002, "Fuel Choices for Fuel Cell Vehicles: Well-to-Wheels

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the WTI crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC Basket price.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Passive Fully Polarimetric W-Band Millimeter-Wave Imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the theory, design, and experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. Passive millimeter-wave imaging offers persistent day/nighttime imaging and the ability to penetrate dust, clouds and other obscurants, including clothing and dry soil. The single-pixel scanning imager includes both far-field and near-field fore-optics for investigation of polarization phenomena. Using both fore-optics, a variety of scenes including natural and man-made objects was imaged and these results are presented showing the utility of polarimetric imaging for anomaly detection. Analysis includes conventional Stokes-parameter based approaches as well as multivariate image analysis methods.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Harris, Robert V.; Mendoza, Albert; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Fully nonlinear excitations of non-Abelian plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate fully nonlinear, non-Abelian excitations of quark-antiquark plasma, using relativistic fluid theory in cold plasma approximation. There are mainly three important nonlinearities, coming from various sources such as non-Abelian interactions of Yang-Mills (YM) fields, Wong's color dynamics and plasma nonlinearity, in our model. By neglecting nonlinearities due to plasma and color dynamics we get back the earlier results of Blaizot {\\it et. al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3317 (1994). Similarly, by neglecting YM fields nonlinearity and plasma nonlinearity, it reduces to the model of Gupta {\\it et. al.}, Phys. Lett. B498, 223 (2005). Thus we have the most general non-Abelian mode of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Further, our model resembles the problem of propagation of laser beam through relativistic plasma, Physica 9D, 96 (1983). in the absence of all non-Abelian interactions.

Vishnu M. Bannur

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

229

U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Weekly U.S. Refiner and Blender Adjusted Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Refiner and Blender Adjusted Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per Day)

233

Effects of Feed Quality and Product Specification Changes on Refined Product Supply  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The presentation explores the implications that future feedstock changes and product specification changes may have on refined product supply.

Information Center

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Weekly U.S. Refiner, Blender, and Gas Plant Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Refiner, Blender, and Gas Plant Net Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

235

OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances  

SciTech Connect

The East-West Center received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and the petroleum trade. The project was later expanded to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. The Department of Energy requested that the study focus on the Persian Gulf countries, as these countries have the largest share of OPEC reserves and production. Since then, staff members from the East-West Center have visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. In addition, the East-West Center received from a number of large international oil companies and national governments valuable information on OPEC production capabilities. In order to safeguard the confidential nature of this information, these data have been aggregated in this report. The East-West Center considers the results presented to be the most up-to-date information and analysis available today. This report also provides a major reassessment of the export refining and economic competitiveness of Middle East refineries. As pioneers of the research on OPEC export refineries, the East-West Center has fully reevaluated the performance and outlook of these refineries as of the present. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in ObjectZ and CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in Object­Z and CSP Graeme Smith­Z and CSP. A common semantic basis for the two languages enables a unified method of refinement to be used, based upon CSP refinement. To enable state­based techniques to be used for the Object­Z components

Smith, Graeme

237

Retrenching the Purse: The Balance Enquiry Quandary, and Generalised and (1,1) Forward Refinements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the success stories of model based refinement are recalled, as well as some of the annoyances that arise when refinement is deployed in the engineering of large systems. The way that retrenchment attempts to alleviate such inconveniences is briefly ... Keywords: Atomicity, Mondex Purse, Refinement, Retrenchment, Verification

Richard Banach; Czeslaw Jeske; Michael Poppleton; Susan Stepney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Retrenching the Purse: The Balance Enquiry Quandary, and Generalised and (1,1) Forward Refinements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the success stories of model based refinement are recalled, as well as some of the annoyances that arise when refinement is deployed in the engineering of large systems. The way that retrenchment attempts to alleviate such inconveniences is briefly ... Keywords: Atomicity, Mondex Purse, Refinement, Retrenchment, Verification

Richard Banach; Czeslaw Jeske; Michael Poppleton; Susan Stepney

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

A performance study of data layout techniques for improving data locality in refinement-based pathfinding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The widening gap between processor speed and memory latency increases the importance of crafting data structures and algorithms to exploit temporal and spatial locality. Refinement-based pathfinding algorithms, such as Classic Refinement (CR), find quality ... Keywords: Cache-conscious algorithms, classical refinement, pathfinding

Robert Niewiadomski; José Nelson Amaral; Robert C. Holte

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Microphase separation in copolymers of hydrophilic PEG blocks and hydrophobic tyrosine-derived segments using simultaneous SAXS/WAXS/DSC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydration- and temperature-induced microphase separations were investigated by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in a family of copolymers in which hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks are inserted randomly into a hydrophobic polymer made of either desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) or iodinated I{sub 2}DTE segments. Iodination of the tyrosine rings in I{sub 2}DTE increased the X-ray contrast between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments in addition to facilitating the study of the effect of iodination on microphase separation. The formation of phase-separated, hydrated PEG domains is of considerable significance as it profoundly affects the polymer properties. The copolymers of DTE (or I{sub 2}DTE) and PEG are a useful model system, and the findings presented here may be applicable to other PEG-containing random copolymers. In copolymers of PEG and DTE and I{sub 2}DTE, the presence of PEG depressed the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the copolymer relative to the homopolymer, poly(DTE carbonate), and the DTE/I{sub 2}DTE segments hindered the crystallization of the PEG segments. In the dry state, at large PEG fractions (>70 vol%), the PEG domains self-assembled into an ordered structure with 14-18 nm distance between the domains. These domains gave rise to a SAXS peak at all temperatures in the iodinated polymers, but only above the T{sub g} in non-iodinated polymers, due to the unexpected contrast-match between the crystalline PEG domains and the glassy DTE segments. Irrespective of whether PEG was crystalline or not, immersion of these copolymers in water resulted in the formation of hydrated PEG domains that were 10-20 nm apart. Since both water and the polymer chains must be mobile for the phase separation to occur, the PEG domains disappeared when the water froze, and reappeared as the ice began to melt. This transformation was reversible, and showed hysteresis as did the melting of ice and freezing of the water incorporated into the polymer. PEG-water complexes and PEG-water eutectics were observed in WAXS and DSC scans, respectively.

Murthy, N.S.; Wang, W.; Kohn, J. (Rutgers); (Vermont)

2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A fully microfabricated two-dimensional electrospray array with applications to space propulsion; Fully microfabricated 2D electrospray array with applications to space propulsion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents the design, fabrication and testing of a fully-integrated planar electrospray thruster array, which could lead to more efficient and precise thrusters for… (more)

Gassend, Blaise L. P. (Blaise Laurent Patrick), 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

On equilibrium tides in fully convective planets and stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the tidal interaction of a fully convective primary star and a point mass. Using a normal mode decomposition we calculate the evolution of the primary angular velocity and orbit for arbitrary eccentricity e. The dissipation acting on the tidal perturbation is associated with convective turbulence. A novel feature of the Paper is that, to take into account of the fact that there is a relaxation time t_{c}, being the turn-over time of convective eddies, associated with the process, this is allowed to act non locally in time, producing a dependence of the dissipation on tidal forcing frequency. Results are expressed in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the tidal potential. We find analytical approximations for these valid for $e>0.2$. When the tidal response is frequency independent, our results are equivalent to those obtained in the standard constant time lag approximation. When there is the frequency dependence of the dissipative response, the evolution can differ drastically. In that case the system can evolve through a sequence of spin-orbit corotation resonances with Omega_{r}/Omega_{orb}=n/2, where Omega_{r} and Omega_{orb} are the rotation and orbital frequencies and n is an integer. We study this case analytically and numerically.

P. B. Ivanov; J. C. B. Papaloizou

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

243

Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wide-angle scattering of X-rays by anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites (nano-stacks) is addressed. Assuming that the orientation distribution probability function f of the nano-stacks only depends on the deviation of the crystallites' orientation from a fixed reference direction, we derive a relation providing f from the dependence of a given diffraction peak's amplitude on the azimuthal angle. The method is applied to two systems of Na-fluorohectorite (NaFH) clay particles, using synchrotron radiation and a WAXS setup with a two-dimensional detector. In the first system, which consists of dry-pressed NaFH samples, the orientation distribution probability function corresponds to a classical uniaxial nematic order. The second system is observed in bundles of polarized NaFH particles in silicon oil; in this case, the nanostacks have their directors on average in a plane normal to the reference direction, and f is a function of the angle between a nano-stack's director and that plane. In both cases, a suitable Maier-Saupe function is obtained for the distributions, and the reference direction is determined with respect to the laboratory frame. The method only requires one scattering image. Besides, consistency can be checked by determining the orientation distribution from several diffraction peaks independently.

Yves Meheust; Kenneth Dahl Knudsen; Jon Otto Fossum

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Bethe roots and refined enumeration of alternating-sign matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of the most probable ground state candidate for the XXZ spin chain with the anisotropy parameter equal to -1/2 and an odd number of sites is considered. Some linear combinations of the components of the considered state, divided by the maximal component, coincide with the elementary symmetric polynomials in the corresponding Bethe roots. It is proved that those polynomials are equal to the numbers providing the refined enumeration of the alternating-sign matrices of order M+1 divided by the total number of the alternating-sign matrices of order M, for the chain of length 2M+1.

A. V. Razumov; Yu. G. Stroganov

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gas Emission Rate Prediction in Fully-Mechanized Excavated Faces Based on Support Vector Machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to ensure safety in coal production, full assurance is given for fully-mechanized excavated faces. Based on the vector supporting machine for regression (SVR), a model is established for predicting the gas emission in fully-mechanized excavated ... Keywords: SVM, Tracking, emission rate, fully-mechanized excavated faces, gas prediction

Wang Changlong; Fu Weihua

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Process Refinements - Reporting of Public Use of Diesel Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Based on FHWA's reassessment of the reporting and attribution process and on the GAO study, several specific issues were identified. These issues were published in a Federal Register notice for public response.3 Sixteen States provided comments on the issues provided in the Federal Register. Two additional issues were also raised by commenters. The comments may be found at http://dmses.dot.gov; search for docket number FHWA-2000-7635. All of the issues are discussed below. Certain process refinements are required to address these issues; these changes are explained in the following sections. Based on FHWA's reassessment of the reporting and attribution process and on the GAO study, several specific issues were identified. These issues were published in a Federal Register notice for public response.3 Sixteen States provided comments on the issues provided in the Federal Register. Two additional issues were also raised by commenters. The comments may be found at http://dmses.dot.gov; search for docket number FHWA-2000-7635. All of the issues are discussed below. Certain process refinements are required to address these issues; these changes are explained in the following sections. Some of the issues concern the data reported by the States. Because of differences in State laws, States collect different types of data. Chapter 2 of A Guide to Reporting Highway Statistics4 provides instructions for completing Forms FHWA-551M and FHWA-556.

249

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Towards a fully printable battery : robocast deposition of separators.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of thin batteries has presented several interesting problems which are not seen in traditional battery sizes. As the size of a battery reaches a minimum, the usable capacity of the battery decreases due to the fact that the major constituent of the battery becomes the package and separator. As the size decreases, the volumetric contribution from the package and separator increases. This can result in a reduction of capacity from these types of batteries of nearly all of the available power. The development of a method for directly printing the battery layers, including the package, in place would help to alleviate this problem. The technology used in this paper to directly print battery components is known as robocasting and is capable of direct writing of slurries in complex geometries. This method is also capable of conformally printing on three dimensional surfaces, opening up the possibility of novel batteries based on tailoring battery footprints to conform to the available substrate geometry. Interfacial resistance can also be reduced by using the direct write method. Each layer is printed in place on the battery stack instead of being stacked one at a time. This ensures an intimate contact and seal at every interface within the cell. By limiting the resistance at these interfaces, we effectively help increase the useable capacity of our battery through increase transport capability. We have developed methodology for printing several different separator materials for use in a lithium cell. When combined with a printable cathode comprised of LiFePO{sub 4} (as seen in Figure 1) and a lithium anode, our battery is capable of delivering a theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g{sup -1}. This capacity is diminished by transport phenomena within the cell which limit the transport rate of the lithium ions during the discharge cycle. The material set chosen for the printable separator closely resemble those used in commercially available separators in order to keep the transport rates high within the cell during charge and discharge. In order to evaluate the effect of each layer being printed using the robocasting technique, coin cells using printed separator materials were assembled and cycled vs. Li/Li{sup +}. This allows for the standardization of a test procedure in order to evaluate each layer of a printed cell one layer at a time. A typical charge/discharge curve can be seen in Figure 2 using a printed LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and a printed separator with a commercial Celgard separator. This experiment was run to evaluate the loss in capacity and slowdown of transport within the cell due to the addition of the printed separator. This cell was cycled multiple times and showed a capacity of 75 mAh/g. The ability for this cell to cycle with good capacity indicates that a fully printable separator material is viable for use in a full lithium cell due to the retention of capacity. Most of the fully printed cathode and separator cells exhibit working capacities between 65 and 95 mAh/g up to this point. This capacity should increase as the efficiency of the printed separator increases. The ability to deposit each layer within the cell allows for intimate contact of each layer and ensures for a reduction of interfacial impedance of each layer within the cell. The overall effect of printing multiple layers within the cell will be an overall increase in the ionic conductivity during charge and discharge cycles. Several different polymer membranes have been investigated for use as a printed separator. The disadvantage of using polymer separators or solid electrolyte batteries is that they have relatively low conductivities at room temperature (10{sup -6} - 10{sup -8} S cm{sup -1}). This is orders of magnitude lower than the typically accepted 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} needed for proper ionic transport during battery discharge Because of their low conductivity, typical polymer separators such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) have a normal operational temperature well above ambient. At elevated temperature the conductivity of the

Atanassov, Plamen Borissov (University of New Mexico); Fenton, Kyle Ross (University of New Mexico); Apblett, Christopher Alan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

253

The uses of the refined matrix model recursion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study matrix models in the {beta}-ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first {beta}-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the {beta}-deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the {Omega}-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the {beta}-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos; Stevan, Sebastien [Departement de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematiques, Universite de Geneve, Geneve CH-1211 (Switzerland)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Abelianization of BPS Quivers and the Refined Higgs Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We count Higgs "phase" BPS states of general non-Abelian quiver, possibly with loops, by mapping the problem to its Abelian, or toric, counterpart and imposing Weyl invariance later. Precise Higgs index computation is particularly important for quivers with superpotentials; the Coulomb "phase" index is recently shown to miss important BPS states, dubbed intrinsic Higgs states or quiver invariants. We demonstrate how the refined Higgs index is naturally decomposed to a sum over partitions of the charge. We conjecture, and show in simple cases, that this decomposition expresses the Higgs index as a sum over a set of partition-induced Abelian quivers of the same total charge but generically of smaller rank. Unlike the previous approach inspired by a similar decomposition of the Coulomb index, our formulae compute the quiver invariants directly, and thus offer a self-complete routine for counting BPS states.

Seung-Joo Lee; Zhao-Long Wang; Piljin Yi

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

Toward fully self-consistent simulation of the interaction of E-Clouds and beams with WARP-POSINST  

SciTech Connect

To predict the evolution of electron clouds and their effect on the beam, the high energy physics community has relied so far on the complementary use of 'buildup' and 'single/multi-bunch instability' reduced descriptions. The former describes the evolution of electron clouds at a given location in the ring, or 'station', under the influence of prescribed beams and external fields [1], while the latter (sometimes also referred as the 'quasi-static' approximation [2]) follows the interaction between the beams and the electron clouds around the accelerator with prescribed initial distributions of electrons, assumed to be concentrated at a number of discrete 'stations' around the ring. Examples of single bunch instability codes include HEADTAIL [3], QuickPIC [4, 5], and PEHTS [6]. By contrast, a fully self-consistent approach, in which both the electron cloud and beam distributions evolve simultaneously under their mutual influence without any restriction on their relative motion, is required for modeling the interaction of high-intensity beams with electron clouds for heavy-ion beam-driven fusion and warm-dense matter science. This community has relied on the use of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods through the development and use of the WARP-POSINST code suite [1, 7, 8]. The development of novel numerical techniques (including adaptive mesh refinement, and a new 'drift-Lorentz' particle mover for tracking charged particles in magnetic fields using large time steps) has enabled the first application of WARP-POSINST to the fully self-consistent modeling of beams and electron clouds in high energy accelerators [9], albeit for only a few betatron oscillations. It was recently observed [10] that there exists a preferred frame of reference which minimizes the number of computer operations needed to simulate the interaction of relativistic objects. This opens the possibility of reducing the cost of fully self-consistent simulations for the interaction of ultrarelativistic beams with electron cloud by orders of magnitude. The computational cost of the fully self-consistent mode is then predicted to be comparable to that of the quasi-static mode, assuming that several stations per betatron period are needed. During the workshop, there was some debate about the number of stations per betatron period that are needed when using the quasi-static mode. The argument was made that if there is less than one station per betatron period, then artificial resonances can be triggered and the resulting emittance growth provides an upper bound. The emittance growth thus obtained will fall either above or below the operational requirements of the machine. In the latter case, one can conclude that the electron effect that has been simulated is of no concern. However, if the emittance growth that was obtained is above the threshold, then the results become inconclusive, and simulations which resolve the betatron motion are then needed. In this case, according to [10], the fully self-consistent approach becomes an option. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether this option is indeed practical.

LLNL; Furman, M.A.; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Sonnad, K.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

257

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

17 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly February 2012 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

258

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each...

259

Engine spray combustion modeling using unified spray model with dynamic mesh refinement.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of this study is to improve the spray and combustion modeling of internal combustion engines using dynamic mesh refinement. The first part… (more)

Kolakaluri, Ravi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Real-time Imaging of the Grain Refinement Process of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K2: Microstructural Development of Plutonium Alloys via Cooling Curve Analysis · K3: Preparation of High Purity Tellurium by Zone Refining Process.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

262

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

263

Energy efficiency in the South Africa crude oil refining industry drivers, barriers and opportunities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Includes abstract. This study has explored a range of barriers, drivers and opportunities to improving energy performance in the South African crude oil refining industry,… (more)

Bergh, Caitlin.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Regional differences for cost of crude oil to refiners widened in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary For Teachers. Energy Explained. ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil.

265

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

17 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly December 2013 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales ...

266

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

267

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

268

Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae  

SciTech Connect

Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus the discovery of many translated pseudogenes underscores a need for functional analyses to investigate hypotheses related to divergence. Refinements included the discovery of a seemingly essential ribosomal protein, several virulence-associated factors, and a transcriptional regulator, among other proteins, most of which are annotated as hypothetical, that were missed during annotation.

Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its in- ternal representation of CSP processes

Oxford, University of

270

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement Steve Schneider Department of Computing a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP seman- tics for Event-B and show how the different forms

Doran, Simon J.

271

A refinement-based compositional reasoning framework for pipelined machine verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a refinement-based compositional framework for showing that pipelined machines satisfy the same safety and liveness properties as their non-pipelined specifications. Our framework consists of a set of convenient, easily applicable, and complete ... Keywords: compositional reasoning, pipelined machine verification, refinement

Panagiotis Manolios; Sudarshan K. Srinivasan

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Performance characteristics of an adaptive mesh refinement calculation on scalar and vector platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a powerful technique that reduces the resources necessary to solve otherwise intractable problems in computational science. The AMR strategy solves the problem on a relatively coarse grid, and dynamically refines it ... Keywords: IBM power3 and power4, SGI, altix, cray X1E, high end computing, hyperCLaw framework, integrated performance monitoring

Michael Welcome; Charles Rendleman; Leonid Oliker; Rupak Biswas

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

Neal Davis

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

274

Waxes Imports from Venezuela  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

275

258 06 Candelilla Wax  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2011 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

276

Waxes Imports from Japan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

277

Waxes Imports from Canada  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

278

Public, agencies key players in L. A. refiner's program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the middle of the world's largest gasoline market, and what is considered the most hostile environment toward refiners, Mobil Oil Corp. runs a lean, efficient, 130,000 b/d refinery. The refinery processes 13--14[degree] API San Joaquin crude oil, converting roughly 85% to gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. It also makes low-sulfur coke. Located in the Los angeles suburb of Torrance, California, the refinery is literally across the street from residential neighborhoods of medium to high-priced houses. In addition to meeting strict local, state, and federal regulations, the refinery has to make sure its neighbors are satisfied with its operations. To meet this need, the refinery operates a 24-hr hotline that community residents can call to ask questions and voice concerns. The paper discusses agency interaction, department structure, air pollutants, air permits, reporting requirements, the clean air incentives program, NO[sub x] sources, SO[sub x] sources, particulates, fugitive emissions, CO, HF, waste water, groundwater, storm water, soil treatments, and reformulation rules for diesel fuels.

Rhodes, A.K.

1994-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

Refinement and Formalization of SemiFormal Use Case Descriptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Behavioral models of computer systems are required for their synthesis, for verification and validation. The system behavior is usually described in requirements specifications. However, most specifications are provided in natural language or in a semi-formal way. Incompleteness and ambiguity inhibit their successful exploitation by tools. In this paper an approach for stepwise refinement and formalization of natural-language or semiformal descriptions is presented. Based on the structure of Use Case descriptions, the formalization of behavioral information is reached by a stepwise transformation of an input text to structured sentences with a well-defined syntax by performing linguistic analyses. The terms of the text are replaced by references to other items, i.e. of the glossary. By providing a tool-supported text output with hypertext-like navigation facilities, a verification of the result by the human experts is provided. The resulting behavioral description is suitable for a derivation of dynamic models, e.g. message-sequence charts and state diagrams.

Matthias Riebisch; Michael Hübner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase structure  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, was prepared as a part of a systematic investigation of the Ca-Pd-Ge ternary phase diagram. The structure was determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase with the space group R-3m, Z=3, a=5.6191 (5) A, c=12.1674 (7) A, wR{sub 2}=0.054 (all data) and is isostructural to Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si (Noreus et al., 1985 [17]) but due to the larger size of all elements in Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, the cell axes are approximately 10% longer. The compound may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and compared with CaPd{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). - Graphical abstract: The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase which may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The structure is composed of Kagome net layers, consisting of Pd atoms only, which are stacked in an ABC sequence. Band structure calculations show that the Fermi level is located at a local minimum of the DOS (pseudo-gap) indicating that the charge is roughly optimized in the structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Site specific segregation in a Laves phase that is also a Zintl phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pseudo-gap at the Fermi level in a Laves phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distorted Frank-Kasper polyhedron.

Doverbratt, Isa, E-mail: isa.doverbratt@polymat.lth.se [Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven [Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A Fully Two-Dimensional, Nonoscillatory Advection Scheme for Momentum and Scalar Transport Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advection scheme developed in this study is a fully two-dimensional and nonoscillatory extension of the one-dimensional Crowley-type mass-conserving schemes. The fully two-dimensional scheme includes new cell-to-cell fluxes directed along the ...

Elías Valur Hólm

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Accuracy Analysis of a Spectral Element Atmospheric Model Using a Fully Implicit Solution Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully implicit (FI) time integration method has been implemented into a spectral finite-element shallow-water equation model on a sphere, and it is compared to existing fully explicit leapfrog and semi-implicit methods for a suite of test ...

Katherine J. Evans; Mark A. Taylor; John B. Drake

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

An efficient preconditioned iterative solution of fully-coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the fast preconditioned iterative solution to large sparse linear systems arising from the application of Newton and quasi-Newton methods to fully coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication line and point contact problems. The new blockwise ... Keywords: Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, Finite element method, Fully coupled approach, Linear elasticity, Multigrid, Preconditioned GMRES

Sarfraz Ahmed; Christopher E. Goodyer; Peter K. Jimack

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Voronoi, Delaunay, and Block-Structured Mesh Refinement for Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations on the Sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative meshes of the sphere and adaptive mesh refinement could be immensely beneficial for weather and climate forecasts, but it is not clear how mesh refinement should be achieved. A finite-volume model that solves the shallow-water ...

Hilary Weller; Henry G. Weller; Aimé Fournier

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Quarterly report, October--December 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bechtel, with South west research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M. W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. To enhance management of the study, the work has been divided into two parts, the Basic Program and Option 1. The objectives of the Basic Program are to: characterize the coal liquids; develop an optimized refinery configuration for processing indirect and direct coal liquids; and develop a LP refinery model with Process Industry Modeling System software. The objective of Option 1 are to: confirm the validity of the optimization work of the Basic Program; produce large quantities of liquid transportation fuel blending stocks; conduct engine emission tests; and determine the value and the processing costs of the coal liquids. The major effort conducted during the fourth quarter of 1995 were in the areas of: IL catalytic cracking--microactivity tests were conducted on various wax blends; IL wax hydrocracking--a pilot plant run was conducted on a wax/petroleum blend; and DL2 characterization and fractionation.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Photodegradation of mutagens in solvent-refined coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate any changes in the chemical composition and microbial mutagenicities of two representative solvent-refined coal (SRC) liquids as a function of exposure time to sunlight and air. This information was desired to assess potential health hazards arising from ground spills of these liquids during production, transport and use. Results of microbial mutagenicity assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, conducted after exposure, showed that the mutagenicities of both an SRC-II fuel oil blend and an SRC-I process solvent decreased continuously with exposure time to air and that the decrease was accelerated by simultaneous exposure to simulated sunlight. The liquids were exposed as thin layers supported on surfaces of glass, paper, clay or aluminum; but the type of support had little effect on the results. The contrast between these results and the reported increases of mutagenesis in organisms exposed simultaneously to coal liquids and near-ultraviolet light suggested that short-lived mutagenic intermediates, e.g., organic free radicals, were formed in the liquids during exposure to light. The highest activities of microbial mutagenicity in the SRC liquids were found in fractions rich in amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino PAH). After a 36-hour exposure of the fuel oil blend to air in the dark, the mutagenicity of its amine-rich fraction was reduced by 65%; whereas a 36-hour exposure in the light reduced the mutagenicity of this fraction by 92%. Similar rates of reduction in mutagenicity were achieved in exposures of the process solvent. The mutagenicities of other chemical fractions remained low during exposure.

Kalkwarf, D.R.; Stewart, D.L.; Pelroy, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

Zhang, Wei-Qun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, has developed comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading pretreatment technologies. These technologies include ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment, ammonia recycle percolation pretreatment, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, flowthrough pretreatment (hot water or dilute acid), lime pretreatment, controlled pH hot water pretreatment, and sulfur dioxide steam explosion pretreatment. Over the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were applied to two different corn stover batches, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids from each pretreatment technology using identical enzyme preparations, enzyme loadings, and enzymatic hydrolysis assays. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Although there were differences in the profiles of sugar release, with the more acidic pretreatments releasing more xylose directly in the pretreatment step than the alkaline pretreatments, the overall glucose and xylose yields (monomers + oligomers) from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process steps were very similar for all of these leading pretreatment technologies. Some of the water-only and alkaline pretreatment technologies resulted in significant amounts of residual xylose oligomers still remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis that may require specialized enzyme preparations to fully convert xylose oligomers to monomers.

Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Sales Volumes" Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refres_c_nus_eppr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refres_c_nus_eppr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

290

,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Sales Volumes" Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

291

,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

292

,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

293

,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Products for Refiner Gasoline Volumes",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 2","by Grade",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 3","by Formulation",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_d_nus_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls"

294

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Edible Oleogels: Structure and Health ImplicationsChapter 6 Candelilla Wax as an Organogelator for Vegetable Oils–An Alternative to Develop trans-free Products for the Food Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Edible Oleogels: Structure and Health Implications Chapter 6 Candelilla Wax as an Organogelator for Vegetable Oils–An Alternative to Develop trans-free Products for the Food Industry Food Science eChapters Food Science & Technology A2C008

296

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2 material was 3.0-4.0 /barrel higher than the crude. Co-processing the coal liquids with lower quality, less expensive petroleum crudes that have higher sulfur, resid and metals contents was also examined. The coal liquids have higher values under this scenario, but the values are dependent on the prices of the alternative crudes.

NONE

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fully Lagrangian Floats in Labrador Sea Deep Convection: Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of deep convection from fully Lagrangian floats deployed in the Labrador Sea during February and March 1997 are compared with results from model drifters embedded in a large eddy simulation (LES) of the rapidly deepening mixed layer. ...

Ramsey R. Harcourt; Elizabeth L. Steffen; Roland W. Garwood; Eric A. D'Asaro

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A Low Power, Low Voltage, Fully Differential CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This research presents a low voltage (0.8 V) fully differential CMOS variable gain amplifier. SPECTRE simulations on the designed amplifier show a -17 dB… (more)

Siddiqui, Muhammad Yousuf

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Package of Homojunction of Fully Conjugated Heterocyclic Aromatic Rigid-rod Polymer Light Emitting Diodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this study is mono-layer polymer light emitting diode (PLED). The emitting layer is poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO). PBO is a fully conjugated heterocyclic aromatic… (more)

Liao, Hung-chi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A fully microfabricated two-dimensional electrospray array with applications to space propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the design, fabrication and testing of a fully-integrated planar electrospray thruster array, which could lead to more efficient and precise thrusters for space propulsion applications. The same ...

Gassend, Blaise L. P. (Blaise Laurent Patrick), 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Fully Conserved Minimal Adjustment Scheme with (T, S) Coherency for Stabilization of Hydrographic Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new, fully conserved minimal adjustment scheme with temperature and salinity (T, S) coherency is presented for eliminating false static instability generated from analyzing and assimilating stable ocean (T, S) profiles data, that is, from ...

Xidong Wang; Peter C. Chu; Guijun Han; Wei Li; Xuefeng Zhang; Dong Li

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fully automatic calibration of LIDAR and video streams from a vehicle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work describes a fully automatic technique to calibrate a geometric mapping between lidar and video feeds on a mobile ground-based platform. This data association is a crucial first step for any multi-modal scene ...

Bileschi, Stanley M.

304

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per barrel)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,20...

306

Indiana No. 2 Fuel Oil Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Indiana No. 2 Fuel Oil Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ... No.1 and ...

307

Enzo-P / Cello: scalable adaptive mesh refinement for astrophysics and cosmology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cello is a highly-scalable object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework currently under development. While Cello is expected to be usable within multiple scientific problem domains, we specifically target specialized requirements of astrophysics ...

James Bordner; Michael L. Norman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Healthful LipidsChapter 3 Production, Processing and Refining of Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 3 Production, Processing and Refining of Oils Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Production, Processing an

309

An Assessment of carbon reduction technology opportunities in the petroleum refining industry.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The refining industry is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial sector and therefore in the future can expect to face increasing pressures to reduce emission levels. The energy used in refining is impacted by market dictates, crude quality, and environmental regulations. While the industry is technologically advanced and relatively efficient opportunities nevertheless exist to reduce energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions. The opportunities will vary from refinery to refinery and will necessarily have to be economically viable and compatible with each refiner's strategic plans. Recognizing the many factors involved, a target of 15-20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from the refining sector does not appear to be unreasonable, assuming a favorable investment climate.

Petrick, M.

1998-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fats and Oils Handbook (Nahrungsfette und Öle)Chapter 7 Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fats and Oils Handbook (Nahrungsfette und Öle) Chapter 7 Refining Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chap

311

Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Error Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares the error characteristics associated with two grid refinement approaches including global variable resolution and nesting for high-resolution regional climate modeling. The global variable-resolution model, Model for Prediction ...

Samson Hagos; Ruby Leung; Sara A. Rauscher; Todd Ringler

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A Refined Gomory-Chvátal Closure for Polytopes in the Unit Cube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 23, 2012 ... A Refined Gomory-Chvátal Closure for Polytopes in the Unit Cube. Juliane Dunkel(juliane ***at*** mit.edu) Andreas S. Schulz(schulz ***at*** ...

314

Performance Profiles Table Browser: T-28. U.S. Petroleum Refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... Less: Cost of Raw Materials Input To Refining. 170,591 227,622 301,165 343,689 357,559 494,471 309,878 Net ...

315

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

316

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1995--31 December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. During the reporting period, work on the small-scale, continuous-flow apparatus continued. Initial experiments have been performed on a binary mixture of n-hexane (solvent) and squalane (model compound) at 200{degrees}C. A total of fifteen samples were collected at 135, 160, and 208 psig, with pressures being controlled to within {plus_minus}2 psi. Results indicate that the equilibrium phase compositions can in principle be measured to a reproducibility of {plus_minus}0.5% in the squalane-rich bottomphase and {plus_minus}2% in the hexane-rich top phase, with respect to the minor component. However, other data measured at these same conditions at another time exhibited scatter that was as much as 5 times greater. We believe that improvements in (1) the method of preheating the feed to the view cell/phase separator and to (2) the sample collection technique are required before data of high accuracy can consistently be generated. The apparatus modifications required to effect these improvements are currently underway and should be completed by the middle of February.

Thies, M.C.; Joyce, P.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

EASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| P | P a g e MEASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR® PROGRAM GALE A. BOYD AND CHRISTIAN DELGADO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 JULY 10, 2012 2 | P a g e MEASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY CONTENTS Figures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

318

Refine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://psu.summon.serialssolutions.comhttp://psu.summon.serialssolutions.com F I N A L LY : RESEARCH AS EASYAS 1-2-3 #12;1 Enter search term into search box. 2 Refine results relevant articles were published in that year. Include or Exclude subject terms from your searchRefine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand side of the results screen

Yener, Aylin

319

Microsoft PowerPoint - genealogy of major US refiners (00 to 09).ppt  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Major U.S. Refiners Of Major U.S. Refiners 2001 2004 2005 2006 2000 2002 Diamond Shamrock Ultramar j 6/01 12/01 9/97 12/96 Total North America Valero Salomon (Basis) Huntway Valero Valero Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS) UDS 5/97 Notes, footnotes, and source notes are at the bottom of these figures. 2003 Clark Refining g 9/05 Valero Valero 3/98 Mapco Williams Williams Companies d 3/03 d Premcor h 1/89 4/00 12/98 BP America BP Amoco ARCO BP America SOHIO BP America b Sun Company Sunoco r 1/04 o El Paso 1/01 Pacific Refining (jv) Coastal Orion Valero 7/03 6/01 o El Paso 12/88 n 2007 2008 2009 BP-Husky Refining LLC (jv) Husky 7/07 i 4/08 c 10/98 l 8/94 q 9/89 p 12/88 a 7/94 e 12/98 f 6/00 m 9/00 k 5/04 g Holly 6/03 s 6/09 t 12/09 u Holly Genealogy Of Major U.S. Refiners (continued) 2001 2004 2005 2006 2000 2002 2003 2007 2008 2009 1/98 USX (Marathon) 10/98 y Ashland Marathon Lyondell

320

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved. These were: 1) homogenization of the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella with caustic solution; 2) centrifugation; 3) separation of miscella layers; 4) desolventization, 5) water washing and drying; and 6) bleaching. In neutralization, the miscella was mixed with 20 Be' caustic solution (50% excess) by using a Sonolator for 15 times. The refined oils from both the bottom and top layers were water washed using 12.5% and 20% (w/w) hot water, respectively. The water washing efficiently recovered the oil from the top layer miscella and reduced the soap and phosphorus content. The water washed and dried oils from the bottom and top layers were treated with 0.5% and 4% (w/w) acid activated bleaching clay, respectively. Good quality refined and bleached oil was obtained. However, the quality of the bleached oil produced from bottom layer was better than that from the top layer. Comparative experiments with both IPA and hexane systems showed that the new refining process developed in this study could produce a higher quality refined oil from the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella than from the cottonseed oil-hexane miscella.

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies. In addition to consideration of this 'naive' use of TRISO fuel in LWRs, several refined options are briefly examined and others are identified for further consideration including the use of advanced, high density fuel forms and larger kernel diameters and TRISO packing fractions. The combination of 800 {micro}m diameter kernels of 20% enriched UN and 50% TRISO packing fraction yielded reactivity sufficient to achieve comparable burnup to present-day PWR fuel.

R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fully Covariant Van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov Discontinuity, and Absence Thereof  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In both old and recent literature, it has been argued that the celebrated van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity of massive gravity is an artifact due to linearization of the true equations of motion. In this letter, we investigate that claim. First, we exhibit an explicit -albeit somewhat arbitrary- fully covariant set of equations of motion that, upon linearization, reduce to the standard Pauli-Fierz equations. We show that the vDVZ discontinuity still persists in that non-linear, covariant theory. Then, we restrict our attention to a particular system that consistently incorporates massive gravity: the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. DGP is fully covariant and does not share the arbitrariness and imperfections of our previous covariantization, and its linearization exhibits a vDVZ discontinuity. Nevertheless, we explicitly show that the discontinuity does disappear in the fully covariant theory, and we explain the reason for this phenomenon.

M. Porrati

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Joint Center for Housing Studies Harvard University Refinance and the Accumulation of Home Equity Wealth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Any opinions expressed are those of the authors and not those of Freddie Mac, the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, or of any of the persons or organizations providing support to the Joint Center for Housing Spending financed by home equity extraction helps smooth household consumption and bolster the economy in economic downturns, but may reduce wealth accumulation. We use American Housing Survey (AHS) data to provide cross-sectional, longitudinal and cohort group analysis of the accumulation of home equity, the change in aggregate leverage, and the likelihood of mortgage refinance for the period of 1985 to 2001. We find that homeowners who are African-American or lower income tend to have less home equity and higher aggregate leverage than others, and they are less likely to take advantage of refinance during our sample period; over 30 years, the failure to refinance to a lower interest rate reduces aggregate wealth by $22 billion for each group. Further, the decision to refinance is a rational response to changes in market conditions, as the likelihood of refinance is positively tied to interest rate reduction and home value increase. 1

Frank E. Nothaft; Yan Chang; Frank E. Nothaft; Deputy Chief; Economist Freddie; Mac Yan Chang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

Ali, M.S.S. (Bahrain National Oil Co., Awali (Bahrain))

1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

325

Overview of Eulerian Methods and Block Adaptive Mesh Refinement Techniques at Sandia  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Crawford, D.A. et al. 1 Crawford, D.A. et al. 1 Overview of Eulerian Methods and Block Adaptive Mesh Refinement Techniques at Sandia D. A. Crawford* and D. M. Hensinger* * Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Multi-material shock-physics Eulerian codes have undergone several generations of refinement in as many decades at Sandia. The widely used code, CTH, can trace its lineage to the one- and two-dimensional codes CHARTD and CSQ. An adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy has been implemented in CTH, providing improved performance and memory utilization and evidence of improved scaling for large problems. The ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) code ALEGRA combines the multi- material shock physics capabilities found in CTH with a finite element

326

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United States Seismic Source Characterization for Nuclear Facilities model and report is the culmination of a four-year effort among the participating organizations and replaces previous seismic source models used by industry and government since the late 1980s. The NRC is requesting U.S. nuclear power plants to reevaluate seismic

327

,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",9,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refres_a_eppr_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refres_a_eppr_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

328

,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epjk_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epjk_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

329

,"U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0u_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0u_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

330

,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2d_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2d_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

331

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » July 2013 Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) efficiently separates higher octane components from the low value ones, offering great potential for significant cost reduction in gasoline production. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page

332

,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0u_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0u_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

333

,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

334

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining Co - OH  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Smelting and Refining Co - Smelting and Refining Co - OH 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL SMELTING & REFINING CO. (OH.20) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 6800 Grand Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio OH.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 OH.20-2 Site Operations: No indication of other test operations using very limited quantities of slag material. OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon limited scope of activities at the site OH.20-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium - No Indication of Anything But Trace Amounts Handled OH.20-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

335

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United States Seismic Source Characterization for Nuclear Facilities model and report is the culmination of a four-year effort among the participating organizations and replaces previous seismic source models used by industry and government since the late 1980s. The NRC is requesting U.S. nuclear power plants to reevaluate seismic

336

,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

337

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

338

,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

339

,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

340

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability October 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability ii Contacts The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy under the general direction of W. Calvin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Preliminary data summary for the used-oil reclamation and re-refining industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The summaries contain data about industrial facilities in various industries discharging pollutants in their wastewaters and considers whether the EPA should pursue regulations to control such discharges. The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes. The report is part of the process by which EPA is considering what management standards may be appropriate for the recycling of used oil, in response to the requirements mandated by these Acts. The study has attempted to characterize and profile the Oil Reclaimer/Re-Refining Industry. The goals of this preliminary effort were to: conduct a literature review, perform an industry profile, site visit re-refiners, screen sample re-refiners, and develop a Preliminary Data Summary.

Troy, K.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A Parallel Ocean Model With Adaptive Mesh Refinement Capability For Global Ocean Prediction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An ocean model with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability is presented for simulating ocean circulation on decade time scales. The model closely resembles the LLNL ocean general circulation model with some components incorporated from other well known ocean models when appropriate. Spatial components are discretized using finite differences on a staggered grid where tracer and pressure variables are defined at cell centers and velocities at cell vertices (B-grid). Horizontal motion is modeled explicitly with leapfrog and Euler forward-backward time integration, and vertical motion is modeled semi-implicitly. New AMR strategies are presented for horizontal refinement on a B-grid, leapfrog time integration, and time integration of coupled systems with unequal time steps. These AMR capabilities are added to the LLNL software package SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) and validated with standard benchmark tests. The ocean model is built on top of the amended SAMRAI library. The resulting model has the capability to dynamically increase resolution in localized areas of the domain. Limited basin tests are conducted using various refinement criteria and produce convergence trends in the model solution as refinement is increased. Carbon sequestration simulations are performed on decade time scales in domains the size of the North Atlantic and the global ocean. A suggestion is given for refinement criteria in such simulations. AMR predicts maximum pH changes and increases in CO{sub 2} concentration near the injection sites that are virtually unattainable with a uniform high resolution due to extremely long run times. Fine scale details near the injection sites are achieved by AMR with shorter run times than the finest uniform resolution tested despite the need for enhanced parallel performance. The North Atlantic simulations show a reduction in passive tracer errors when AMR is applied instead of a uniform coarse resolution. No dramatic or persistent signs of error growth in the passive tracer outgassing or the ocean circulation are observed to result from AMR.

Herrnstein, A

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fully automated smart wireless frost prediction and protection system using a fuzzy logic controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A smart fuzzy logic controller system is presented to protect the crops from frost damage that occurs every year. The system is a fully automated system to predict the frost and to protect the crops using wireless sensor network technology. The sensors ...

Shadi A. Alboon; Amin T. Alqudah; Hussein R. Al-Zoubi; Abedalgany A. Athamneh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fully complex-valued radial basis function networks: Orthogonal least squares regression and classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a fully complex-valued radial basis function (RBF) network for regression and classification applications. For regression problems, the locally regularised orthogonal least squares (LROLS) algorithm aided with the D-optimality experimental ... Keywords: Classification, Complex-valued radial basis function network, D-optimality experimental design, Fisher ratio of class separability measure, Orthogonal least squares algorithm, Regression

S. Chen; X. Hong; C. J. Harris; L. Hanzo

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

NTU Carbon Management Statement 2010 Nottingham Trent University fully supports government and HEFCE climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NTU Carbon Management Statement 2010 Nottingham Trent University fully supports government the following absolute carbon reduction target aligned to higher education sector target: · At least a 48% reduction in scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions from 2005/6 to 2020/21 NTU is currently completing actions from

Evans, Paul

346

Propagation of Wind Energy into the Deep Ocean through a Fully Turbulent Mesoscale Eddy Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze the 3D propagation of wind-forced near-inertial motions in a fully turbulent mesoscale eddy field with a primitive equation numerical model. Although the wind stress is uniform, the near-inertial motion field quickly becomes ...

Eric Danioux; Patrice Klein; Pascal Rivière

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development of new Consolidity Theory for systems' analysis and design in fully fuzzy environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper establishes the foundation of new systems' Consolidity Theory using the Arithmetic Fuzzy Logic-Based Representation approach for investigating the internal behavior of systems operating in fully fuzzy environment. Consolidated systems are ... Keywords: Advanced fuzzy control systems, Arithmetic Fuzzy Logic-Based Representation, Fuzzy dynamic systems, Fuzzy econometric models, Fuzzy smart grids, Fuzzy theory, Normalized fuzzy matrices, Systems' Consolidity Theory

Hassen Taher Dorrah; Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fully monolithic cellular buck converter design for 3-D power delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fully monolithic interleaved buck dc-dc point-of-load (PoL) converter has been designed and fabricated in a 0.18-mm SiGe BiCMOS process. Target application of the design is 3-D power delivery for future microprocessors, ...

Sun, Jian

349

Can Fully Accounting for Clouds in Data Assimilation Improve Short-Term Forecasts by Global Models?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the degree to which short-term forecasts with global models might be improved if clouds were fully included in a data assimilation system, so that observations of clouds affected all parts of the model state and cloud ...

Robert Pincus; Robert J. Patrick Hofmann; Jeffrey L. Anderson; Kevin Raeder; Nancy Collins; Jeffrey S. Whitaker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A fully-integrated 5 Gbit/s CMOS clock and data recovery circuit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully-integrated 5 Gb/s PLL-based clock and data recovery circuit based on a linear half-rate phase detector (PD) architecture is presented. Data retiming performed by the linear PD provides practically no systematic offset for the operating frequency ... Keywords: CMOS analog integrated circuits, Clock data recovery, Half-rate CDR, Linear PD, PLL

Tan Kok-Siang; Mohd-Shahiman Sulaiman; Mamun Reaz; Chuah Hean-Teik; Manoj Sachdev

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Refiners look at H sub 2 SO sub 4 alkylation and catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid alkylation and catalytic reforming drew many questions at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. At this annual meeting, presubmitted questions are answered by a panel of experts. For more information on the meeting's format, see OGJ, Mar. 16, p. 37. This third and final article in the series of excerpts from the 1991 NPRA Q and A Session examines such pertinent alkylation topics as tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) raffinate processing and unit operation during acid runaway. Also discussed are skewed platinum/rhenium reforming catalyst and how catalyst life affects reformate aromatics levels.

Not Available

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Human Health Risk Assessment for Petroleum Refining Industry of the Remaining Air Toxics after MACT I Emissions Reductions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Inhalation risks on human health for hazardous air pollutants emitted from MACT I petroleum refining industry were determined using EPA HEM-3 Program. Methodology included compiling… (more)

Roa, Nadia C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

A dynamic mesh refinement technique for Lattice Boltzmann simulations on octree-like grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution, we present our new adaptive Lattice Boltzmann implementation within the Peano framework, with special focus on nanoscale particle transport problems. With the continuum hypothesis not holding anymore on these small scales, new physical ... Keywords: Adaptive Cartesian grids, Brownian, Dynamic grid refinement, Fluctuations, Lattice Boltzmann, Multiscale, Particle transport

Philipp Neumann; Tobias Neckel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

355

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

356

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

357

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

358

Use of geothermal heat for sugar refining. Final report, October 1, 1976--May 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic and technical feasibility of applying low grade geothermal heat (less than 300/sup 0/F) in the beet sugar refining industry for both new factory construction and retrofit conversion of existing factories was assessed. The representative Holly Sugar factory at Brawley, California, was utilized as a baseline primarily because of its centralized location with respect to the known and partially developed geothermal anomalies at Brawley, East Mesa, and Heber. Nominal values for the key parameters of the sugar refining process and typical values for the geothermal fluid parameters representative of geothermal resources in areas of existing or potential future sugar factories were defined, promising points of application were identified, and conceptual designs synthesized for introducing the geothermal heat into the process. The design approaches were then quantified with capital, operating and maintenance costs, and comparative economic evaluations were made with other fuels projected to 1995. In parallel with the detailed study of process conversion to geothermal heat, the existing pattern and potential growth of the sugar refining industry was assessed to estimate the potential market for new factory construction at suitable areas, as well as the potential for retrofit conversion of existing factories. The environmental impact of other geothermal application concepts was also assessed, and expected technological or industry/government policy changes which might affect the potential for conversion to geothermal heat were identified and evaluated. Emphasis was placed on achieving results that would stimulate commercial utilization of geothermal heat for beet sugar refining and related processes.

Pearson, R.O.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Refining Phylogenetic Trees Given Additional Data: An Algorithm Based on Parsimony  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a set X of taxa, a phylogenetic X-tree T that is only partially resolved, and a collection of characters on X, we consider the problem of finding a resolution (refinement) of T that minimizes the parsimony score of the given characters. Previous ... Keywords: Combinatorial algorithms, Life and Medical Sciences

Taoyang Wu; Vincent Moulton; Mike Steel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem applied to refinements of the atomic pair distribution function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have systematically studied the optimal real-space sampling of atomic pair distribution (PDF) data by comparing refinement results from oversampled and resampled data. Based on nickel and a complex perovskite system, we show that not only is the optimal sampling bounded by the Nyquist interval described by the Nyquist-Shannon (NS) sampling theorem as expected, but near this sampling interval, the data points in the PDF are minimally correlated, which results in more reliable uncertainty estimates in the modeling. Surprisingly, we find that PDF refinements quickly become unstable for data on coarser grids. Although the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is well known, it has not been applied to PDF refinements, despite the growing popularity of the PDF method and its adoption in a growing number of communities. Here, we give explicit expressions for the application of NS sampling theorem to the PDF case, and establish through modeling that it is working in practice, which lays the groundwork for this to become more widely adopted. This has implications for the speed and complexity of possible refinements that can be carried out many times faster than currently with no loss of information, and it establishes a theoretically sound limit on the amount of information contained in the PDF that will prevent over-parametrization during modeling.

Farrow, Christopher L.; Shaw, Margaret; Kim, Hyunjeong; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J.L. (NIAIST); (Columbia); (Princeton)

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Computation of Hierarchical Transition Systems to Document Refined Event-B Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the specification. More recently, some participants of the POS�7 project have proposed to used GénéSyst to manage from the abstract representa- tion, while substates are introduced to precise some refined behavioursBuffer > 0. Moreover, the use of hier- archy allows to structure the diagram by choosing initial- substates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

342.8 W W 123.0 412.7 W 839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

364

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2,393.2 702.7 3,804.5 3,037.5 W 134.0 See footnotes at end of table. 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District 352 Energy Information Administration ...

365

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

116.7 W W W W 379.0 W 1,039.3 132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

366

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control specification problem to il­ lustrate how the evolving algebra approach and Specification, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract

Börger, Egon

367

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

Peterson, Robert K. D.

368

Further Studies of Mesh Refinement: Are Shock-Free Airfoils Truly Shock Free?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Further Studies of Mesh Refinement: Are Shock-Free Airfoils Truly Shock Free? Antony Jameson with a hodograph method to be shock-free at M = 0.750 and Cl = 0.629. However, computational fluid dynamics results show a double-shock pattern appear at this design point as the resolution of the grid is enhanced

Stanford University

369

Evaluation of ASD Systems for Electric Arc Furnace and Argon Oxygen Decarburization Refiner Baghouse Fans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adjustable speed drive (ASD) offers opportunities to operate dust collection fans in a more energy efficient manner. This report focuses on the system requirements and provides a method for successfully applying ASDs to dust extraction baghouse systems in a steel melting and refining application in order to realize full energy savings and operational improvements.

1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published EIA survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Information Center

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Formal validation of automated policy refinement in the management of network security systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Policy hierarchies and automated policy refinement are powerful approaches to simplify administration of security services in complex network environments. A crucial issue for the practical use of these approaches is to ensure the validity of the policy ... Keywords: Formal validation, Model-based management, Network security, Policy based management, Security policies

João Porto de Albuquerque; Heiko Krumm; Paulo Lício de Geus

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Visualization of Time-Dependent Remote Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data Ralf Kaehler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

addressed the problem of visualizing remote, time- dependent data defined on AMR grids. In order to handle as the network is fast enough and local resources are capable of handling the data, we believe that using remoteVisualization of Time-Dependent Remote Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data Ralf Kaehler Zuse

Andrzejak, Artur

374

Stability of a fully magnetized ferromagnetic state in repulsively interacting ultracold Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect

We construct a variational wave function to study whether a fully polarized Fermi sea of ultracold atoms is energetically stable against a single spin flip. Our variational wave function contains short-range correlations at least to the same level as Gutzwiller's projected wave function. For the Hubbard lattice model and the continuum model with pure repulsive interaction, we show that a fully polarized Fermi sea is generally unstable even for infinite repulsive strength. By contrast, for a resonance model, the ferromagnetic state is possible if the s-wave scattering length is positive and sufficiently large and the system is prepared to be orthogonal to the molecular bound state. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that more exotic correlations can destabilize the ferromagnetic state.

Cui Xiaoling [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute for Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100190 (China); Zhai Hui [Institute for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

A fully automated data reduction pipeline for the FRODOSpec integral field spectrograph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fully autonomous data reduction pipeline has been developed for FRODOSpec, an optical fibre-fed integral field spectrograph currently in use at the Liverpool Telescope. This paper details the process required for the reduction of data taken using an integral field spectrograph and presents an overview of the computational methods implemented to create the pipeline. Analysis of errors and possible future enhancements are also discussed.

Barnsley, R M; Steele, I A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Findings from the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities Title Findings from the 2004 Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-58178 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Piette, Mary Ann, David S. Watson, Naoya Motegi, and Norman Bourassa Date Published 10/18/2005 Keywords market sectors, technologies Abstract This report describes the results of the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of time dependant activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and provide systems that encourage load shifting or shedding during times when the electric grid is near its capacity or electric prices are high. Demand Response is a subset of demand side management, which also includes energy efficiency and conservation. The overall goal of this research project was to support increased penetration of DR in large facilities through the use of automation and better understanding of DR technologies and strategies in large facilities. To achieve this goal, a set of field tests were designed and conducted. These tests examined the performance of Auto-DR systems that covered a diverse set of building systems, ownership and management structures, climate zones, weather patterns, and control and communication configurations.

377

Batteries on the battlefield developing a methodology to estimate the fully burdened cost of batteries in the Department of Defense .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??L), have developed methodologies to calculate the fully burdened cost of fuel as delivered energy in defense systems. Whereas these previous studies did not consider… (more)

Hughley, Anthony E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Long-term comparison of dissolution behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of radioactive sludge-based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been compared by long-term testing of radioactive and simulated compositions of Savannah River Laboratory 165, 131, and 200 glasses. Static tests at glass surface area-to-solution volume (SA/V) ratios of 340 and 2000 m[sup [minus]1] up to 720 days show little difference in reactivity between radioactive and simulated waste glasses. The same leach trends are observed for both glass types. The differences in reactivity at an SA/V of 2000 m[sup [minus]1] or below are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions nor to change the controlling glass dissolution processes. The small differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and simulated glasses can reasonably be explained if the controlling reaction process and leachate pH values are accounted for. However, at an SA/V of 20,000 m[sup [minus]1], the simulated nuclear waste glass, 200S, leaches faster than the corresponding radioactive glass by a factor of 40 within 1 yr. The accelerated reaction with the simulated glass 200S is associated with the formation of crystalline phases such as clinoptilolite (or K-feldspar), and a pH excursion. The radiation field generated by the fully radioactive glass reduces the solution pH, which, in turn, may retard the onset of the increased reaction rate. This result suggests that the fully radioactive nuclear waste glass 200R may be substantially more durable than the simulated 200S glass if the lower pH in the 200R leachate can be sustained. Meaningful comparison tests between radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses should include long-term and high SA/V tests.

Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.; Gong, Meiling (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents compiled data on operating refineries worldwide by country and by company within these countries. Data are presented on charge capacity for the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, cat-hydrocracking, cat hydrorefining, and cat hydrotreating. Data are also presented on the production capacity for the following products: alkylates and polymers, aromatics and isomers, lubricating oils, asphalt, hydrogen, and coke.

Bell, L.

1993-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper consists of several tables compiling data on refinery capacities by country, by state, and by company. The capacity data are given by process as well as by final product. Processes include vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Products include alkylates, polymers, and dimers; aromatics and isomers; oxygenates; hydrogen; asphalts; and coke.

Williamson, M.

1994-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reductions in Northeast Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets December 2011 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the U.S. Department of Energy

382

Table 1A","Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil by PAD District (Domestic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A","Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil by PAD District (Domestic)" A","Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil by PAD District (Domestic)" ,"(Dollars per Barrel)" ,,," "," " ,,,"Previous ","Final" "Frequency","Date","Area","Price","Price","Difference" "Annual",2010,"PAD District 2",78.7,78.85,0.15 ,,"PAD District 4",73.65,73.56,-0.09 ,,"U.S.",77.96,78.01,0.05 ,2011,"PAD District 3",103.19,103.24,0.05 ,,"PAD District 2",96.82,96.81,-0.01 ,,"PAD District 4",89.36,89.34,-0.02 ,,"U.S.",100.74,100.71,-0.03 ,,"PAD District 5",103.85,103.83,-0.02 "Month","application/vnd.ms-excel","PAD District 4",73.68,72.66,-1.02

383

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3  

SciTech Connect

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Adaptive Multiresolution or Adaptive Mesh Refinement? A Case Study for 2D Euler Equations  

SciTech Connect

We present adaptive multiresolution (MR) computations of the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a classical Riemann problem. The results are then compared with respect to accuracy and computational efficiency, in terms of CPU time and memory requirements, with the corresponding finite volume scheme on a regular grid. For the same test-case, we also perform computations using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) imposing similar accuracy requirements. The results thus obtained are compared in terms of computational overhead and compression of the computational grid, using in addition either local or global time stepping strategies. We preliminarily conclude that the multiresolution techniques yield improved memory compression and gain in CPU time with respect to the adaptive mesh refinement method.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Domingues, Margarete O. [Laboratorio Associado de Computacao e Matematica Aplicada (LAC), Sao Paulo; Gomes, Sonia M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Sao Paulo; Roussel, Olivier [Universite d'Aix-Marseille; Schneider, Kai [Universite d'Aix-Marseille

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

T.: A Financial Management Consultation Expert System with Constraint Satisfaction and Knowledge Refinement. The Third  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an expert system that integrates different sorts of expertise for financial management consultation: the quantitative-qualitative financial indices, their relationship equations and the enterprise management policies represented by knowledge production rules. The innovative idea is that it incorporates the Constraint Satisfaction Paradigm (CSP) and the Best-first Search (BFS) techniques to guide the task, whichevaluates the financial 'health ' condition of a company in a routine way, mirroring the processes of a certified public accountant, in order to determine which management policies are the best to be applied. The expert system performs a set of numerical simulations that incorporate the aspects of Knowledge Refinement and Qualitative Simulation under company cases, applying series of refinement strategies for the parameters of the financial knowledge base and the heuristic searching control functions. The integrated inference engine performance and efficiency with the heuristic functions selected to enforce the convergence of the problem solvers combined are depicted. Topics: AI applications, Learning and knowledge acquisition.

Pedro García del Valle y Durán; Takahira Yamaguchi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership  

SciTech Connect

With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered.

Geehan, D.M. [Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Refiners around the world must cope with changing markets, environmental regulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil consumption is expected to grow slowly into the next century, middle distillates are expected to be the fastest growing major products, and the quality of the typical crude fed to refineries will continue to deteriorate. Those are key challenges facing refiners around the world. Changing product specifications - from lead-free gasoline in Europe to new lube oils for tomorrow's engines - will also continue to demand more of refinery processes and equipment. Through it all, refiners will be faced with changing crude and products markets that will constantly test their ability to achieve a reasonable margin. The problems associated with excess capacity have not been completely solved; there is still considerable rationalization of worldwide capacity to be done. Success will depend in large part on the development and proper application of new technology, and the imaginative use of sophisticated operating techniques.

Nunn, J.A.

1987-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

388

Associated Higgs-W-Boson Production at Hadron Colliders: A Fully Exclusive QCD Calculation at NNLO  

SciTech Connect

We consider QCD radiative corrections to standard model Higgs-boson production in association with a W boson in hadron collisions. We present a fully exclusive calculation up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD perturbation theory. To perform this NNLO computation, we use a recently proposed version of the subtraction formalism. Our calculation includes finite-width effects, the leptonic decay of the W boson with its spin correlations, and the decay of the Higgs boson into a bb pair. We present selected numerical results at the Tevatron and the LHC.

Ferrera, Giancarlo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grazzini, Massimiliano [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tramontano, Francesco [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

MASS TRANSFER TO ROTATING DISKS AND ROTATING RINGS IN LAMINAR, TRANSITION, AND FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data and theoretical calculations are presented for the mass-transfer rate to rotating disks and rotating rings when laminar, transition, and fully developed turbulent flow exist upon different portions of the surface. Good agreement of data and the model is obtained for rotating disks and relatively thick rotating rings. Results of the calculations for thin rings generally exceed the experimental data measured in transition and turbulent flow. A y{sup +{sup 3}} form for the eddy diffusivity is used to fit the data. No improvement is noticed with a form involving both y{sup +{sup 3}} and y{sup +{sup 3}}.

Law Jr., C.G.; Pierini, P.; Newman, J.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Phenomenology Studies Using a Scanning Fully Polarimetric Passive W-Band Millimeter Wave Imager  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. In addition to a conventional approach to polarimetric image analysis in which the Stokes I, Q, U, and V images were formed and displayed, we present an alternative method for polarimetric image exploitation based upon multivariate image analysis (MIA). MIA uses principal component analysis (PCA) and 2D scatter or score plots to identify various pixel classes in the image compared with the more conventional scene-based image analysis approaches. Multivariate image decomposition provides a window into the complementary interplay between spatial and statistical correlations contained in the data.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Optimal Portfolio-Consumption with Habit Formation and Partial Observations: The Fully Explicit Solutions Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a model of optimal investment and consumption with both habit-formation and partial observations in incomplete Ito processes markets. The individual investor develops addictive consumption habits gradually while he can only observe the market stock prices but not the instantaneous rates of return, which follow Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Applying the Kalman-Bucy filtering theorem and Dynamic Programming arguments, we solve the associated HJB equation fully explicitly for this path dependent stochastic control problem in the case of power utility preferences. We will provide the optimal investment and consumption policies in explicit feedback forms using rigorous verification arguments.

Yu, Xiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Spatially resolved measurements of fully ionized low-Z impurities in the PDX tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fully ionized oxygen and carbon in PDX plasmas are detected via charge-exchange recombination reactions between the impurities and hydrogen atoms from a low-power neutral beam. The C/sup 6 +/ and O/sup 8 +/ ions are observed out to radii beyond the limiter, which is in contrast to expectations based on coronal equilibrium but consistent with a simple diffusive transport model. Central values of Z/sub eff/ obtained with these measurements agree with values obtained from plasma resistivity and visible bremsstrahlung measurements.

Fonck, R.J.; Finkenthal, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Herndon, D.L.; Hulse, R.A.; Kaita, R.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

1982-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature, and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular, the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

Nalltham, R.V.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

Nalitham, R.V.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction ... Keywords: 52.25.Aj, 52.35.Mw, 52.65.Kj, 52.80.Mj, Adaptive grid refinements, Elliptic-parabolic system, Finite volumes, Negative streamers, Pulled front

C. Montijn; W. Hundsdorfer; U. Ebert

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Refining structures against reflection rank: An alternative metric for electron crystallography.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1Refining structures against reflection rank: An alternative metric for electron crystallography. Alexander S. Eggeman and Paul A. Midgley * Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ... it contains a combination of heavy, medium and light atoms and has a sufficiently complex structure to give a wide range of diffraction intensities and a highly non-monotonic variation of intensity with increasing scattering angle. The material occupies...

Eggeman, Alexander; Migley, Paul

397

Fully coherent follow-up of continuous gravitational-wave candidates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources is computationally limited due to the enormous parameter space that needs to be covered and the weakness of the expected signals. Therefore semi-coherent search strategies have been developed and applied in distributed computing environments such as Einstein@Home, in order to narrow down the parameter space and identify interesting candidates. However, in order to optimally confirm or dismiss a candidate as a possible gravitational-wave signal, a fully-coherent follow-up using all the available data is required. We present a general method and implementation of a direct (2-stage) transition to a fully-coherent follow-up on semi-coherent candidates. This method is based on a grid-less Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm using the F-statistic. We demonstrate the detection power and computing cost of this follow-up procedure using extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on (simulated) semi-coherent candidates from a directed as well a...

Shaltev, Miroslav

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fully coherent follow-up of continuous gravitational-wave candidates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources is computationally limited due to the enormous parameter space that needs to be covered and the weakness of the expected signals. Therefore semi-coherent search strategies have been developed and applied in distributed computing environments such as Einstein@Home, in order to narrow down the parameter space and identify interesting candidates. However, in order to optimally confirm or dismiss a candidate as a possible gravitational-wave signal, a fully-coherent follow-up using all the available data is required. We present a general method and implementation of a direct (2-stage) transition to a fully-coherent follow-up on semi-coherent candidates. This method is based on a grid-less Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm using the F-statistic. We demonstrate the detection power and computing cost of this follow-up procedure using extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on (simulated) semi-coherent candidates from a directed as well as from an all-sky search setup.

Miroslav Shaltev; Reinhard Prix

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Technique for the experimental estimation of nonlinear energy transfer in fully developed turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new procedure for calculating the nonlinear energy transfer and linear growth/damping rate of fully developed turbulence is derived. It avoids the unphysically large damping rates typically obtained using the predecessor method of Ritz [Ch. P. Ritz, E. J. Powers, and R. D. Bengtson, Phys. Fluids B {bold 1}, 153 (1989)]. It enforces stationarity of the turbulence to reduce the effects of noise and fluctuations not described by the basic governing equation, and includes the fourth-order moment to avoid the closure approximation. The new procedure has been implemented and tested on simulated, fully developed two-dimensional (2-D) turbulence data from a 2-D trapped-particle fluid code, and has been shown to give excellent reconstructions of the input growth rate and nonlinear coupling coefficients with good noise rejection. However, in the experimentally important case where only a one-dimensional (1-D) averaged representation of the underlying 2-D turbulence is available, this technique does not, in general, give acceptable results. A new 1-D algorithm has thus been developed for analysis of 1-D measurements of intrinsically 2-D turbulence. This new 1-D algorithm includes the nonresonant wave numbers in calculating the bispectra, and generally gives useful results when the width of the radial wave number spectrum is comparable to or less than that of the poloidal spectrum. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Kim, J.S.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fernandez, E.; Ware, A.; Terry, P.W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Progressive Refinement: A Strategy for the Calibration by Collateral Data of Short-Period Satellite Rainfall Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The progressive refinement approach is a strategy for generating new shorter-term (less than 10 days) satellite rainfall estimation algorithms from structural combinations of an easy-to-calibrate algorithm generating longer- term rainfall totals ...

T. J. Bellerby; E. C. Barrett

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and UtilizationChapter 26 Cost Estimates for Soybean Processing and Soybean Oil Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and Utilization Chapter 26 Cost Estimates for Soybean Processing and Soybean Oil Refining Processing eChapters Processing AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 26 Cost Est

402

Comparing crowd-based, game-based, and machine-based approaches in initial query and query refinement tasks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human computation techniques have demonstrated their ability to accomplish portions of tasks that machine-based techniques find difficult. Query refinement is a task that may benefit from human involvement. We conduct an experiment that evaluates the ...

Christopher G. Harris; Padmini Srinivasan

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health

404

A Direct Method for Constructing Refined Regions in Unstructured Conforming Triangular–Hexagonal Computational Grids: Application to OLAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme is presented for constructing refined regions of 2D unstructured computational meshes composed of triangular cells. The method preserves the conforming property of the original unrefined mesh and does not produce hanging nodes. The ...

Robert L. Walko; Roni Avissar

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Refinements to SSiB with an Emphasis on Snow Physics: Evaluation and Validation Using GSWP and Valdai Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinements to the snow-physics scheme of the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) are described and evaluated. The upgrades include a partial redesign of the conceptual architecture of snowpack to better simulate the diurnal temperature of ...

David M. Mocko; Y. C. Sud

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Vacancies in fully hydrogenated boron nitride layer: implications for functional nanodevices  

SciTech Connect

Using density functional theory, a series of calculations of structural and electronic properties of hydrogen vacancies in a fully hydrogenated boron nitride (fH-BN) layer were conducted. By dehydrogenating the fH-BN structure, B-terminated vacancies can be created which induce complete spin polarization around the Fermi level, irrespective of the vacancy size. On the contrary, the fH-BN structure with N-terminated vacancies can be a small-gap semiconductor, a typical spin gapless semiconductor, or a metal depending on the vacancy size. Utilizing such vacancy-induced band gap and magnetism changes, possible applications in spintronics are proposed, and a special fH-BN based quantum dot device is designed.

Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Nie, JL; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

cuInspiral: prototype gravitational waves detection pipeline fully coded on GPU using CUDA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report the prototype of the first coalescing binary detection pipeline fully implemented on NVIDIA GPU hardware accelerators. The code has been embedded in a GPU library, called cuInspiral and has been developed under CUDA framework. The library contains for example a PN gravitational wave signal generator, matched filtering/FFT and detection algorithms that have been profiled and compared with the corresponding CPU code with dedicated benchmark in order to provide gain factor respect to the standard CPU implementation. In the paper we present performances and accuracy results about some of the main important elements of the pipeline, demonstrating the feasibility and the chance of obtain an impressive computing gain from these new many-core architectures in the perspective of the second and third generations of gravitational wave detectors.

Bosi, Leone B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fluid preconditioning for Newton-Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [Chen et al, J. Comput. Phys., 230 (2011) 7018]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron-ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

Chen, Guangye; Leibs, Christopher A; Knoll, Dana A; Taitano, William

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Stress intensity magnification factors for fully circumferential cracks in valve bodies (thick cylinders)  

SciTech Connect

The stress intensity solutions presented herein were obtained using an energy method in conjunction with a two-dimensional finite element program in order to explicitly account for curvature effect for fully circumferential cracks. The magnification factors for a specific crack depth were calculated by successively loading the crack surface by a uniform, linear, quadratic, and a cubic loading distribution. The magnification factors can be used to calculate the stress intensity factors by superposition method. The functions for each load condition in terms of radius to thickness ratio (R/t) and a fractional distance in terms of crack depth to thickness ratio (a/t) were developed. The validity of these functions is R/t = 1.5 to 10.0 and for 0.0125 {le} a/t {le} 0.8125. The functions agree to within 1% of the finite elements solutions for most magnification factors.

Toor, P.M.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Double ionization of helium by bare ions: Theoretical study of the fully differential cross sections  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a theoretical study of fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for the double ionization of an He target by ion impact within a distorted wave model. The initial atomic system is described by two approximated wave functions of different accuracy proposed by Bonham and Kohl. For the final channel several models are considered based upon improvements and simplifications of the well-known three-body Coulomb (3C) model. The influence of the receding projectile on the resulting fragments is also studied by implementing a model with effective charges that depend on the momenta of the four particles. The FDCSs resulting for different electron energy sharing are discussed. The sensitivity of the FDCSs to the projectile charge sign and magnitude is explored over the energy range 700 keV/amu through 6 MeV/amu.

Lopez, S. D.; Garibotti, C. R. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Centro Atomico Bariloche, Avenida Bustillo 9400, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Otranto, S. [Instituto de Fisica del Sur and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

An Efficient Method for Fully Relativistic Simulations of Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The merger of two neutron stars has been proposed as a source of gamma-ray bursts, r-process elements, and detectable gravitational waves. Extracting information from observations of these phenomena requires fully relativistic simulations. Unfortunately, the only demonstrated method for stably evolving neutron stars requires solving elliptic equations at each time step, adding substantially to the computational resources required. In this paper we present a simpler, more efficient method. The key insight is in how we apply numerical diffusion. We perform a number of tests to validate the method and our implementation. We also carry out a very rough simulation of coalescence and extraction of the gravitational waves to show that the method is viable if realistic initial data are provided.

Walter Landry; Saul A. Teukolsky

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

414

A fully implicit numerical method for single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

We present a nonlinearly implicit, conservative numerical method for integration of the single-fluid resistive MHD equations. The method uses a high-order spatial discretization that preserves the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The fully coupled PDE system is solved implicitly in time, providing for increased interaction between physical processes as well as additional stability over explicit-time methods. A high-order adaptive time integration is employed, which in many cases enables time steps ranging from one to two orders of magnitude larger than those constrained by the explicit CFL condition. We apply the solution method to illustrative examples relevant to stiff magnetic fusion processes which challenge the efficiency of explicit methods. We provide computational evidence showing that for such problems the method is comparably accurate with explicit-time simulations, while providing a significant runtime improvement due to its increased temporal stability.

Reynolds, Daniel R. [Department of Mathematics, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept 0112, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093-0112 (United States)]. E-mail: drreynolds@ucsd.edu; Samtaney, Ravi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, MS 26, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)]. E-mail: samtaney@pppl.gov; Woodward, Carol S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, P.O. Box 808, L-551, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: cswoodward@llnl.gov

2006-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

cuInspiral: prototype gravitational waves detection pipeline fully coded on GPU using CUDA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report the prototype of the first coalescing binary detection pipeline fully implemented on NVIDIA GPU hardware accelerators. The code has been embedded in a GPU library, called cuInspiral and has been developed under CUDA framework. The library contains for example a PN gravitational wave signal generator, matched filtering/FFT and detection algorithms that have been profiled and compared with the corresponding CPU code with dedicated benchmark in order to provide gain factor respect to the standard CPU implementation. In the paper we present performances and accuracy results about some of the main important elements of the pipeline, demonstrating the feasibility and the chance of obtain an impressive computing gain from these new many-core architectures in the perspective of the second and third generations of gravitational wave detectors.

Leone B. Bosi

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

417

Identification of intermittent multi-fractal turbulence in fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent fully nonlinear, kinetic three-dimensional simulations of magnetic reconnection [Daughton et al. 2011] evolve structures and exhibit dynamics on multiple scales, in a manner reminiscent of turbulence. These simulations of reconnection are among the first to be performed at sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to allow formal quantitative analysis of statistical scaling which we present here. We find that the magnetic field fluctuations generated by reconnection are anisotropic, have non-trivial spatial correlation and exhibit the hallmarks of finite range fluid turbulence; they have non-Gaussian distributions, exhibit Extended Self-Similarity in their scaling and are spatially multifractal. Furthermore, we find that the field J.E is also multifractal, so that magnetic energy is converted to plasma kinetic energy in a manner that is spatially intermittent. This suggests that dissipation in this sense in collisionless reconnection on kinetic scales has an analogue in fluid-like turbulent phenomenology, ...

Leonardis, E; Daughton, W; Roytershteyn, V; Karimabadi, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Double Barrier Resonant Tunneling Transistor with a Fully Two Dimensional Emitter  

SciTech Connect

A novel planar resonant tunneling transistor is demonstrated. The growth structure is similar to that of a double-barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD), except for a fully two-dimensional (2D) emitter formed by a quantum well. Current is fed laterally into the emitter, and the 2D--2D resonant tunneling current is controlled by a surface gate. This unique device structure achieves figures-of-merit, i.e. peak current densities and peak voltages, approaching that of state-of-the-art RTDs. Most importantly, sensitive control of the peak current and voltage is achieved by gating of the emitter quantum well subband energy. This quantum tunneling transistor shows exceptional promise for ultra-high speed and multifunctional operation at room temperature.

MOON,J.S.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.; BACA,WES E.; BLOUNT,MARK A.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; JONES,ERIC D.

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

U.S. Waxes Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Singapore: 5 : 23 : 2004-2011: South Africa: 95: 95: 77: 73: 84: 83: 2004-2012: Spain: 2 : 2006-2007: Taiwan: 13: 19 : 25: 25: 10: 2006-2012: Thailand : 5: 33: 55: 5 ...

420

Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Digital Single Event Transients in a 180-nm Fully Depleted SOI Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients are reported for Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) technology using experiments and simulations. Logic circuits, i.e. CMOS inverter chains, were irradiated with cobalt-60 ...

Keast, Craig L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fully Nonlinear Statistics of Wave Crest Elevation Calculated Using a Spectral Response Surface Method: Applications to Unidirectional Sea States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper concerns the calculation of the probability of exceedance of wave crest elevation. The statistics have been calculated for broadbanded, unidirectional, deep-water sea states by incorporating a fully nonlinear wave model into a spectral ...

R. S. Gibson; C. Swan; P. S. Tromans

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Structure and Formation of an Annular Hurricane Simulated in a Fully Compressible, Nonhydrostatic Model—TCM4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure and formation of an annular hurricane simulated in a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic tropical cyclone model—TCM4—are analyzed. The model is initialized with an axisymmetric vortex on an f plane in a quiescent environment, and ...

Yuqing Wang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects 00516 North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study North Dakota Refining Capacity Study DE-FE0000516 Goal The objective of the North Dakota Refining Capacity study is to assess the feasibility of increasing the oil refinery capacity in North Dakota, and, if possible, determine the scale of such an expansion, the slate of refined product(s) that would produce the most economic benefit, and the preferred ownership model, i.e., private, public or private-public. Performer North Dakota Association of Rural Electric Cooperatives (NDAREC) Corval Group, partnered with Purvin & Gertz and Mustang Engineering Background The genesis of this study came from an April 2008 report issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) asserting that North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. This assessment shows a 25-fold increase in the amount of recoverable oil compared to the USGS 1995 estimate of 151 million barrels of oil. The Bakken Formation estimate is larger than all other current USGS oil assessments of the lower 48 states and is the largest "continuous" oil accumulation ever assessed by the USGS. The new report points out that the new geologic models applied to the Bakken Formation, advances in drilling and production technologies, and recent oil discoveries have resulted in these substantially larger technically recoverable oil volumes. About 105 million barrels of oil were produced from the Bakken Formation by the end of 2007. In 2008, the formation produced another 27.2 million barrels of oil, which represented 43% of the state’s annual oil production of some 62.3 million barrels. Even though oil prices have dropped significantly in recent months, it appears that oil production from this formation will continue strong for decades to come. Most recently, a major production find has occurred in the Three Forks formation underlying the Bakken. This find is still undergoing significant testing, but early evidence suggests it represents another significant recoverable pool of oil in western North Dakota.

424

Introduction to Energy Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Refining  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Refining Industry Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

425

Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250oC), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250oC under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit channel extrusion is more effective for both grain refinement and texture enhancement than simple ECAE processing.

Im, Jae-taek

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63 21.08 21.50 21.98 22.44 22.94 23.50 24.12 AEO 1996 1994 16.81 16.98 17.37 17.98 18.61 19.27 19.92 20.47 20.97 21.41 21.86 22.25 22.61 22.97 23.34 23.70 24.08

427

Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per barrel) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 17.06 17.21 18.24 19.43 20.64 22.12 23.76 25.52 27.51 29.67 31.86 34.00 36.05 38.36 40.78 43.29 45.88 48.37 AEO 1995 15.24 17.27 18.23 19.26 20.39 21.59 22.97 24.33 25.79 27.27 28.82 30.38 32.14 33.89 35.85 37.97 40.28 AEO 1996 17.16 17.74 18.59 19.72 20.97 22.34 23.81 25.26 26.72 28.22 29.87 31.51 33.13 34.82 36.61 38.48 40.48

428

Analyzing the oil refining industry in developing countries: A comparative study of China and India  

SciTech Connect

The oil refining industry is a critical link in the energy chain in many developing and industrialized countries, transforming crude oil into transport fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel), residual fuel oil (widely used as a fuel in industry and the electric power sector), and other products such as kerosine, frequently for lighting an cooking usages. Three to four decades ago, the demand for oil products in most developing countries was centered to a few large cities; thus, few refineries were built in these regions. But because of the astonishing economic growth in many developing nations, demand for oil products has increased rapidly. As a result, the refining industry has expanded rapidly in such countries, even in cases were there is no domestic crude oil production. Oil product demand and refinery expansion in Asian developing countries in particular have experienced significant growth. Between 1976 and 1993, oil product demand and refinery capacity in that region (excluding Japan) increased annually an average of 5.2 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively, whereas the comparable figures for the world as a whole remained virtually unchanged during the same period. The substantial gains in Asia`s crude oil production in the 1970s is believed to have facilitated this refinery expansion.

Tang, F.C.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Performance Characteristics of an Adaptive Mesh RefinementCalculation on Scalar and Vector Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a powerful technique thatreduces the resources necessary to solve otherwise in-tractable problemsin computational science. The AMR strategy solves the problem on arelatively coarse grid, and dynamically refines it in regions requiringhigher resolution. However, AMR codes tend to be far more complicatedthan their uniform grid counterparts due to the software infrastructurenecessary to dynamically manage the hierarchical grid framework. Despitethis complexity, it is generally believed that future multi-scaleapplications will increasingly rely on adaptive methods to study problemsat unprecedented scale and resolution. Recently, a new generation ofparallel-vector architectures have become available that promise toachieve extremely high sustained performance for a wide range ofapplications, and are the foundation of many leadership-class computingsystems worldwide. It is therefore imperative to understand the tradeoffsbetween conventional scalar and parallel-vector platforms for solvingAMR-based calculations. In this paper, we examine the HyperCLaw AMRframework to compare and contrast performance on the Cray X1E, IBM Power3and Power5, and SGI Altix. To the best of our knowledge, this is thefirst work that investigates and characterizes the performance of an AMRcalculation on modern parallel-vector systems.

Welcome, Michael; Rendleman, Charles; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Dynamic Adaptive Multimesh Refinement for Coupled Physics Equations Applicable to Nuclear Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The processes studied by nuclear engineers generally include coupled physics phenomena (Thermal-Hydraulics, Neutronics, Material Mechanics, etc.) and modeling such multiphysics processes numerically can be computationally intensive. A way to reduce the computational burden is to use spatial meshes that are optimally suited for a specific solution; such meshes are obtained through a process known as Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). AMR can be especially useful for modeling multiphysics phenomena by allowing each solution component to be computed on an independent mesh (Multimesh AMR). Using AMR on time dependent problems requires the spatial mesh to change in time as the solution changes in time. Current algorithms presented in the literature address this concern by adapting the spatial mesh at every time step, which can be inefficient. This Thesis proposes an algorithm for saving computational resources by using a spatially adapted mesh for multiple time steps, and only adapting the spatial mesh when the solution has changed significantly. This Thesis explores the mechanisms used to determine when and where to spatially adapt for time dependent, coupled physics problems. The algorithm is implemented using the Deal.ii fiinite element library [1, 2], in 2D and 3D, and is tested on a coupled neutronics and heat conduction problem in 2D. The algorithm is shown to perform better than a uniformly refined static mesh and, in some cases, a mesh that is spatially adapted at every time step.

Dugan, Kevin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report  

SciTech Connect

As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Dynamics of coronal rain and descending plasma blobs in solar prominences: I. Fully ionised case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of active regions and limb prominences often show cold, dense blobs descending with an acceleration smaller than that of free fall. The dynamics of these condensations falling in the solar corona is investigated in this paper using a simple fully ionised plasma model. We find that the presence of a heavy condensation gives rise to a dynamical rearrangement of the coronal pressure that results in the formation of a large pressure gradient that opposes gravity. Eventually this pressure gradient becomes so large that the blob acceleration vanishes or even points upwards. Then, the blob descent is characterised by an initial acceleration phase followed by an essentially constant velocity phase. These two stages can be identified in published time-distance diagrams of coronal rain events. Both the duration of the first stage and the velocity attained by the blob increase for larger values of the ratio of blob to coronal density, for larger blob mass, and for smaller coronal temperature. Dense blobs ar...

Oliver, R; Terradas, J; Zaqarashvili, T V; Khodachenko, M L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Electronic structure of fully epitaxial Co2TiSn thin films  

SciTech Connect

In this article we report on the properties of thin films of the full Heusler compound Co{sub 2}TiSn prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering. Fully epitaxial, stoichiometric films were obtained by deposition on MgO (001) substrates at substrate temperatures above 600 C. The films are well ordered in the L2{sub 1} structure, and the Curie temperature exceeds slightly the bulk value. They show a significant, isotropic magnetoresistance and the resistivity becomes strongly anomalous in the paramagnetic state. The films are weakly ferrimagnetic, with nearly 1 {mu}{sub B} on the Co atoms, and a small antiparallel Ti moment, in agreement with theoretical expectations. From comparison of x-ray absorption spectra on the Co L{sub 3,2} edges, including circular and linear magnetic dichroism, with ab initio calculations of the x-ray absorption and circular dichroism spectra we infer that the electronic structure of Co{sub 2}TiSn has essentially non-localized character. Spectral features that have not been explained in detail before, are explained here in terms of the final state band structure.

Meinert, Markus; Schmalhorst, Jan; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Reiss, Gunter; Arenholz, Elke; Graf, Tanja; Felser, Claudia

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

A fully covariant mean-field dynamo closure for numerical 3+1 resistive GRMHD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The powerful high-energy phenomena typically encountered in astrophysics invariably involve physical engines, like neutron stars and black hole accretion disks, characterized by a combination of highly magnetized plasmas, strong gravitational fields, and relativistic motions. In recent years numerical schemes for General Relativistic MHD (GRMHD) have been developed to model the multidimensional dynamics of such systems, including the possibility of an evolving spacetime. Such schemes have been also extended beyond the ideal limit including the effects of resistivity, in an attempt to model dissipative physical processes acting on small scales (sub-grid effects) over the global dynamics. Along the same lines, magnetic fields could be amplified by the presence of turbulent dynamo processes, as often invoked to explain the high values of magnetization required in accretion disks and neutron stars. Here we present, for the first time, a further extension to include the possibility of a mean-field dynamo action within the framework of numerical 3+1 (resistive) GRMHD. A fully covariant dynamo closure is proposed, in analogy with the classical theory, assuming a simple alpha-effect in the comoving frame. Its implementation into a finite-difference scheme for GRMHD in dynamical spacetimes [the X-ECHO code: (Bucciantini and Del Zanna 2011)] is described, and a set of numerical test is presented and compared with analytical solutions wherever possible.

N. Bucciantini; L. Del Zanna

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

437

SNMSP II: A system to fully automate special nuclear materials accountability reporting for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

The USNRC requires each licensee who is authorized to possess Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) to prepare and submit reports concerning SNM received, produced, possessed, transferred, consumed, disposed of, or lost. These SNM accountability reports, which need to be submitted twice a year, contain detailed information on the origin, quantity, and type of SNM for several locations. The amount of detail required makes these reports very time consuming and error prone when prepared manually. Yankee Atomic is developing an IBM PC-based computer code that fully automates the process of generating SNM accountability reports. The program, called SNMSP II, prints a number of summaries including facsimiles of the NRC/DOE-741, 742, 742C, and RW-859 reports in a format that can be submitted directly to the NRC/DOE. SNMSP II is menu-driven and is especially designed for people with little or no computer training. Input can be either from a mainframe-based corporate data base or manually through user-friendly screens. In addition, extensive quality assurance features are available to ensure the security and accuracy of the data. This paper discusses the major features of the code and describes its implementation at Yankee.

Pareto, V.; Venegas, R.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fully Nonlinear Edge Gyrokinetic Simulations of Kinetic Geodesic-Acoustic Modes and Boundary Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present edge gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson Equation. We demonstrate the following: (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high-q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain both the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q{sub 95} in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation, and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

Xu, X Q; Belli, E; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Chang, C S; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Dimits, A M; Dorr, M R; Gao, Z; Hittinger, J A; Ko, S; Krasheninnikov, S; McKee, G R; Nevins, W M; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Suh, J; Umansky, M V

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

439

FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT  

SciTech Connect

Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Schmidt, W.; Berkefeld, T. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstrasse 6, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Domingo, V. [Grupo de AstronomIa y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Knoelker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Title, A. M., E-mail: lagg@mps.mpg.d [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Analysis of refiners' total barrel costs and revenues from the sale of petroleum products, 1976 to 1979  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the Economic Regulatory Administration has evaluated refiners' costs and revenues from the sale of major petroleum products from July 1976 through December 1979. This report represents a continuing effort to assess No. 2 heating oil prices and margins in that it updates prior middle distillate studies through March 1980. The analysis examines selling prices and costs associated with each major petroleum product category and a combination of petroleum products (total barrel) from a sample of nine refiners. The total barrel approach was adopted to reduce distortions caused by varying methods of allocation of costs among regulated and unregulated products by refiners. This report determines the extent to which increased costs were recovered on controlled products and whether refiners obtained greater cost recoupment on decontrolled products than would have been allowed under continued controls. The principal methods of measurement used to evaluate product pricing levels for the nine refiners surveyed were cost recoupment (Chapter III), gross margins (Chapter IV), and net margins (Chapter V). Gross margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs from average product selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel. Net margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs as well as average marketing, manufacturing, and purchased product costs from average selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Neutronics studies of uranium-based fully ceramic micro-encapsulated fuel for PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the core neutronics and fuel cycle characteristics using uranium-based fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR assembly designs with FCM fuel have been developed, which by virtue of their TRISO particle-based elements are expected to achieve higher fuel burnups while also increasing the tolerance to fuel failures. The SCALE 6.1 code package, developed and maintained at ORNL, was the primary software used to model the assembly designs. Analysis was performed using the SCALE double-heterogeneous (DH) fuel modeling capabilities; however, the Reactivity-Equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT) method was used for lattice calculations due to the long run times associated with the SCALE DH capability. In order to understand the impact on reactivity and reactor operating cycle length, a parametric study was performed by varying TRISO particle design features, such as kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction. Also, other features such as the selection of matrix material (SiC, zirconium) and fuel rod dimensions were studied. After evaluating different uranium-based fuels, the higher compound density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, as the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design will need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO{sub 2} rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. Neutronically, the FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable design features in the areas of fuel lifetime and temperature coefficients of reactivity, as well as pin cell and assembly peaking factors. (authors)

George, N. M.; Maldonado, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Terrani, K.; Godfrey, A.; Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnction in semi-collisional plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The influence of Coulomb collisions on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection is examined using fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This powerful first-principles approach offers a bridge between kinetic and fluid regimes, which may prove useful for understanding the applicability of various fluid models. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the collision algorithm is first carefully bench marked for a homogeneous plasma against theoretical predictions for beam-plasma interactions and electrical resistivity. Next, the collisional decay of a current layer is examined as a function of guide field, allowing direct comparisons with transport theory for the parallel and perpendicular resistivity as well as the thermoelectric force. Finally, the transition between collisional and collision less reconnection is examined in neutral sheet geometry. For modest Lundquist numbers S {approx}< 1000, a distinct transition is observed when the thickness of the Sweet-Parker layers falls below the ion inertia length {delta}{sub sp} {approx}< d,. At higher Lundquist number, deviations from the Sweet-Parker scaling are observed due to the growth of plasmoids (secondary-islands) within the elongated resistive layer. In certain cases, this instability leads to the onset of fast reconnection sooner than expected from {delta}{sub sp} {approx} d, condition. After the transition to fast reconnection, elongated electron current layers are formed which are unstable to the formation of new plasmoids. The structure and time-dependence of the electron diffusion region in these semi-collisional regimes is profoundly different than reported in two-fluid simulations.

Daughton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roytershteyn, Vadim S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Karimabadi, Homa [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impact of Environmental Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001 May 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director

446

Federal/Industry Development of Energy-Conserving Technologies for the Chemical and Petroleum Refining Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has started a program to identify future RD&D projects that (i) promise cost-effective savings of scarce fuels in the chemical and petroleum refining industries, (ii) are not likely to be pursued by industry alone. This program, sponsored by the Office of Industrial Programs of DOE, defines technology needs from an industry viewpoint, so that recommended projects will complement industry's efforts and result in technologies for which there are clearly identifiable markets. The search for RD&D projects is currently focusing in the following technology categories: (i) reduction of fouling in cooling water systems, (ii) alternatives to conventional distillation and separation, (iii) low level waste heat recovery, (iv) advanced concepts in furnaces and boilers, (v) coal utilization, and (vi) advanced concepts in conversion and processing. The future direction of the program will continue to be dictated largely by industry needs.

Alston, T. G.; Humphrey, J. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

NEUTRONICS STUDIES OF URANIUM-BASED FULLY CERAMIC MICRO-ENCAPSULATED FUEL FOR PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the core neutronics and fuel cycle characteristics that result from employing uranium-based fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR bundle designs with FCM fuel have been developed, which by virtue of their TRISO particle based elements, are expected to safely reach higher fuel burnups while also increasing the tolerance to fuel failures. The SCALE 6.1 code package, developed and maintained at ORNL, was the primary software employed to model these designs. Analysis was performed using the SCALE double-heterogeneous (DH) fuel modeling capabilities. For cases evaluated with the NESTLE full-core three-dimensional nodal simulator, because the feature to perform DH lattice physics branches with the SCALE/TRITON sequence is not yet available, the Reactivity-Equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT) method was used as workaround to support the full core analyses. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In addition, a parametric study was performed by varying the various TRISO particle design features; such as kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fractions. Also, other features such as the selection of matrix material (SiC, Zirconium) and fuel rod dimensions were perturbed. After evaluating different uranium-based fuels, the higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, as the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design will need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. Neutronically, the FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable design features in the areas of fuel lifetime, temperature coefficients of reactivity, as well as pin cell and assembly peaking factors. Key Words: FCM, TRISO, Uranium Mononitride, PWR

George, Nathan M [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A fully 3D approach for metal artifact reduction in computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In computed tomography imaging metal objects in the region of interest introduce inconsistencies during data acquisition. Reconstructing these data leads to an image in spatial domain including star-shaped or stripe-like artifacts. In order to enhance the quality of the resulting image the influence of the metal objects can be reduced. Here, a metal artifact reduction (MAR) approach is proposed that is based on a recomputation of the inconsistent projection data using a fully three-dimensional Fourier-based interpolation. The success of the projection space restoration depends sensitively on a sensible continuation of neighboring structures into the recomputed area. Fortunately, structural information of the entire data is inherently included in the Fourier space of the data. This can be used for a reasonable recomputation of the inconsistent projection data. Methods: The key step of the proposed MAR strategy is the recomputation of the inconsistent projection data based on an interpolation using nonequispaced fast Fourier transforms (NFFT). The NFFT interpolation can be applied in arbitrary dimension. The approach overcomes the problem of adequate neighborhood definitions on irregular grids, since this is inherently given through the usage of higher dimensional Fourier transforms. Here, applications up to the third interpolation dimension are presented and validated. Furthermore, prior knowledge may be included by an appropriate damping of the transform during the interpolation step. This MAR method is applicable on each angular view of a detector row, on two-dimensional projection data as well as on three-dimensional projection data, e.g., a set of sequential acquisitions at different spatial positions, projection data of a spiral acquisition, or cone-beam projection data. Results: Results of the novel MAR scheme based on one-, two-, and three-dimensional NFFT interpolations are presented. All results are compared in projection data space and spatial domain with the well-known one-dimensional linear interpolation strategy. Conclusions: In conclusion, it is recommended to include as much spatial information into the recomputation step as possible. This is realized by increasing the dimension of the NFFT. The resulting image quality can be enhanced considerably.

Kratz, Baerbel; Weyers, Imke; Buzug, Thorsten M. [Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

This paper describes the energy consideration of fully wireless and mobile-wired sensor system and presented the prototype of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-minimization, ease of usage and ease of further development. Finally we have described the energy optimized clusterABSTRACT This paper describes the energy consideration of fully wireless and mobile-wired sensor will not deteriorate even a few sensors do not function. The typical example of a wireless sensor system is to have

Halgamuge, Malka N.

453

A second-order accurate immersed boundary method for fully resolved simulations of particle-laden flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An immersed boundary method (IBM) with second-order spatial accuracy is presented for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The method is based on the computationally efficient direct-forcing method of ... Keywords: Finite-volume method, Grid locking, Immersed boundary method, Multidirect forcing scheme, Order of grid convergence, Particle-laden flow, Retraction distance

Wim-Paul Breugem

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A Low-Power Multimedia SoC with Fully Programmable 3D Graphics for Mobile Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low-power multimedia SoC integrates a fully programmable 3D graphics for mobile devices with an MPEG4/JPEG codec and H.264 decoder for mobile devices. A mobile unified shader achieves programmable vertex shading and pixel shading in a single die, reducing ... Keywords: Mobile multimedia SoC, programmable, 3D graphics, mobile unified shader, low-power design

Jeong-Ho Woo; Ju-Ho Sohn; Hyejung Kim; Hoi-Jun Yoo

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

An accurate performance model of fully adaptive routing in wormhole-switched two-dimensional mesh multicomputers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous analytical performance models have been proposed for deterministic wormhole-routed mesh networks while only a single model, to our best knowledge, has been suggested for fully adaptive wormhole routing in mesh interconnection networks. This ... Keywords: Adaptive wormhole routing, Analytical modeling, Interconnection network, Meshes, Multicomputer, Performance evaluation

H. Hashemi-Najafabadi; H. Sarbazi-Azad; P. Rajabzadeh

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Conceptual Design of Carbon Steels to Support Heavy Crude Refinement Using Neural Network Modeling and Evolutionary Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oil industries in the entire World and particularly in Mexico, have been taking an important relevance. There are two major challenges in this industry. The first one is the exploration and utilization of crude oil in deep sea, the second one is ... Keywords: soft computing applications, heavy crude refinement process

Luis Torres-Treviño; Arturo Reyes-Valdes

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China E 2004 Available online 26 November 2004 Abstract Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicel

California at Riverside, University of

458

A low numerical dissipation patch-based adaptive mesh refinement method for large-eddy simulation of compressible flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a methodology for the large-eddy simulation of compressible flows with a low-numerical dissipation scheme and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). A description of a conservative, flux-based hybrid numerical method that uses both centered ... Keywords: Compressible flow, LES, Numerical methods, SAMR, Turbulence

C. Pantano; R. Deiterding; D. J. Hill; D. I. Pullin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Global molecular structure and interfaces : refining an RNA : RNA complex structure using solution x-ray scattering data.  

SciTech Connect

Determining the global architecture of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding biomacromolecular machines. Defining interfaces among components and the global structure of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding the biological interactions on a molecular level. We demonstrate that solution X-ray scattering data can be used to precisely determine intermolecular interfaces from just the subunit structures, in the complete absence of intermolecular NMR restraints using an example of a 30 kDa RNA-RNA complex. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) between structures that are determined using the scattering data and using intermolecular distance restraints is about 0.4 {angstrom}. Further, we refined the global structure of the complex using scattering data as a global restraint. The rmsd in backbone structures that are determined with and without the scattering data refinement is about 3.2 {angstrom}, suggesting the impact of the refinement to the overall structure. Information about the 'global correctness' of solution RNA structures could not be practically obtained otherwise, due to the molecular nature of the RNA molecules, but could only be defined by the scattering data together by residual dipolar couplings. This method provides a powerful new approach for refining global structures of macromolecular complexes whose subunits are elongated.

Zuo, X.; Wang, J.; Foster, T. R.; Schwieters, C. D.; Tiede, D. M.; Butcher, S. E.; Wang, Y.-X.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; NCI-Frederick; Univ. of Wisconin at Madison; NIH

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

460

Advanced Fuels for LWRs: Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated and Related Concepts FY 2012 Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress in the Deep Burn project at Idaho National Laboratory during the first half of fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). The current focus of this work is on Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) uranium nitride (UN) fuel kernels. UO2 fuel kernels have not been ruled out, and will be examined as later work in FY2012. Reactor physics calculations confirmed that the FCM fuel containing 500 mm diameter kernels of UN fuel has positive MTC with a conventional fuel pellet radius of 4.1 mm. The methodology was put into place and validated against MCNP to perform whole-core calculations using DONJON, which can interpolate cross sections from a library generated using DRAGON. Comparisons to MCNP were performed on the whole core to confirm the accuracy of the DRAGON/DONJON schemes. A thermal fluid coupling scheme was also developed and implemented with DONJON. This is currently able to iterate between diffusion calculations and thermal fluid calculations in order to update fuel temperatures and cross sections in whole-core calculations. Now that the DRAGON/DONJON calculation capability is in place and has been validated against MCNP results, and a thermal-hydraulic capability has been implemented in the DONJON methodology, the work will proceed to more realistic reactor calculations. MTC calculations at the lattice level without the correct burnable poison are inadequate to guarantee zero or negative values in a realistic mode of operation. Using the DONJON calculation methodology described in this report, a startup core with enrichment zoning and burnable poisons will be designed. Larger fuel pins will be evaluated for their ability to (1) alleviate the problem of positive MTC and (2) increase reactivity-limited burnup. Once the critical boron concentration of the startup core is determined, MTC will be calculated to verify a non-positive value. If the value is positive, the design will be changed to require less soluble boron by, for example, increasing the reactivity hold-down by burnable poisons. Then, the whole core analysis will be repeated until an acceptable design is found. Calculations of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) will be included in the safety evaluation as well. Once a startup core is shown to be viable, subsequent reloads will be simulated by shuffling fuel and introducing fresh fuel. The PASTA code has been updated with material properties of UN fuel from literature and a model for the diffusion and release of volatile fission products from the SiC matrix material . Preliminary simulations have been performed for both normal conditions and elevated temperatures. These results indicated that the fuel performs well and that the SiC matrix has a good retention of the fission products. The path forward for fuel performance work includes improvement of metallic fission product release from the kernel. Results should be considered preliminary and further validation is required.

R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; John D. Bess; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry. Final report, Task 9  

SciTech Connect

The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80`s when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

NA Standards | Refinement Parameters | X-PLOR param file for high  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the file for different bond distances and angles of C2'and C3'-endo the file for different bond distances and angles of C2'and C3'-endo remark K= scale*(kT/sigma**2), scales=Base 0.1875, Sugar 0.566, Phos 1.548 ! removed references to CA, CF, CS, MG, NH3, OS (ATB 12/30/94) ! removed TIP3 water model (ATB 12/30/94) ! mapped NA->NNA, CH3E->CC3E (ATB 12/30/94) ! G.PARKINSON, J.VOJTECHOVSKY, L.CLOWNEY, A.T.BRUNGER ! H.M.BERMAN ! NEW PARAMETERS FOR THE REFINEMENT OF NUCLEIC ACID CONTAINING ! STRUCTURES ! ACTA CRYST.D (1996) v. 52 57-64 set echo=false end !the generic bonds were taken from param11.dna with 3*kq bond C5R OH 876.000 1.4300 ! 5' end bond C5D OH 876.000 1.4300 ! 5' end bond C3R OH 876.000 1.4300 ! 3' end bond C3D OH 876.000 1.4300 ! 3' end bond HHO O2R 1350.000 0.9572 !Mod HO to HHO 05/15/96

464

Biomedical studies on solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquefaction materials: a status report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report summarizes the results of biomedical research effort on solvent refined coal (SRC) materials. The samples, described in the text, as well as samples of raw shale oil, crude petroleum, and some SRC-I materials were evaluated for biological activity in several different systems: (1) microbial mutagenesis (Ames assay), coupled to chemical characterization efforts, (2) in vitro mammalian cell toxicity and transformation, (3) epidermal carcinogenesis (skin painting) in mice, (4) acute and subchronic oral toxicity in rats, (5) developmental toxicity in rats, and (6) dosimetry and metabolism in rats. High boiling point materials (identified) showed significant mutagenic activity while lower boiling fractions from both processes were inactive; crude petroleum was also inactive, while raw shale oil showed only a low level of activity. Chemical characterization studies suggested that 3- and 4-ring primary aromatic amines are responsible for a large fraction of the mutagenic activity. Cultured mammalian cell studies showed that materials exhibiting a positive effect in the Ames system also caused mammalian cell transformation. The results of skin carcinogenesis studies in the mouse were generally consistent with those of the cellular studies. Light distillates were found to be moderately toxic after oral administration to rats. Fuel upgrading, process modification, and appropriate occupational/environmental controls may ameliorate some of the biological effects of SRC materials and other coal liquids of high boiling point. Low-boiling SRC liquids appear to have little biological effects in the assays employed. (LTN)

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Self-gravitational Magnetohydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Protostellar Collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new numerical code, called SFUMATO, for solving self-gravitational magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is presented. A block-structured grid is adopted as the grid of the AMR hierarchy. The total variation diminishing (TVD) cell-centered scheme is adopted as the MHD solver, with hyperbolic cleaning of the divergence error of the magnetic field also implemented. The MHD solver exhibits a second-order accuracy in convergence tests of linearized MHD waves. The self-gravity is solved using a multigrid method composed of (1) a full multigrid (FMG)-cycle on the AMR hierarchical grids, (2) a V-cycle on these grids, and (3) an FMG-cycle on the base grid. The multigrid method exhibits spatial second-order accuracy, fast convergence, and scalability. The numerical fluxes are conserved by using a refluxing procedure in both the MHD solver and the multigrid method. Several tests are performed and the results indicate that the solutions are consistent with previously published results. Key words: hydrodynamics — ISM: clouds — magnetohydrodynamics: MHD — methods: numerical —- stars: formation 1.

Tomoaki Matsumoto

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development  

SciTech Connect

A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF CONVECTION PRECEDING IGNITION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE USING ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend our previous three-dimensional, full-star simulations of the final hours of convection preceding ignition in Type Ia supernovae to higher resolution using the adaptive mesh refinement capability of our low Mach number code, MAESTRO. We report the statistics of the ignition of the first flame at an effective 4.34 km resolution and general flow field properties at an effective 2.17 km resolution. We find that off-center ignition is likely, with radius of 50 km most favored and a likely range of 40–75 km. This is consistent with our previous coarser (8.68 km resolution) simulations, implying that we have achieved sufficient resolution in our determination of likely ignition radii. The dynamics of the last few hot spots preceding ignition suggest that a multiple ignition scenario is not likely. With improved resolution, we can more clearly see the general flow pattern in the convective region, characterized by a strong outward plume with a lower speed recirculation. We show that the convective core is turbulent with a Kolmogorov spectrum and has a lower turbulent intensity and larger integral length scale than previously thought (on the order of 16 km s?1 and 200 km, respectively), and we discuss the potential consequences for the first flames. Key words: convection – hydrodynamics – methods: numerical – nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances – supernovae: general – white dwarfs Online-only material: color figures 1.

A. Nonaka; A. J. Aspden; M. Zingale; A. S. Almgren; J. B. Bell; S. E. Woosley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Development of refined MCNPX-PARET multi-channel model for transient analysis in research reactors  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity insertion transients are often analyzed (RELAP, PARET) using a two-channel model, representing the hot assembly with specified power distribution and an average assembly representing the remainder of the core. For the analysis of protected by the reactor safety system transients and zero reactivity feedback coefficients this approximation proves to give adequate results. However, a more refined multi-channel model representing the various assemblies, coupled through the reactivity feedback effects to the whole reactor core is needed for the analysis of unprotected transients with excluded over power and period trips. In the present paper a detailed multi-channel PARET model has been developed which describes the reactor core in different clusters representing typical BR2 fuel assemblies. The distribution of power and reactivity feedback in each cluster of the reactor core is obtained from a best-estimate MCNPX calculation using the whole core geometry model of the BR2 reactor. The sensitivity of the reactor response to power, temperature and energy distributions is studied for protected and unprotected reactivity insertion transients, with zero and non-zero reactivity feedback coefficients. The detailed multi-channel model is compared vs. simplified fewer-channel models. The sensitivities of transient characteristics derived from the different models are tested on a few reactivity insertion transients with reactivity feedback from coolant temperature and density change. (authors)

Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E. [SCK-CEN, BR2 Reactor Dept., Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olson, A. P. [RERTR Program, Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne National Laboratory, Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM  

SciTech Connect

The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

ADER-WENO Finite Volume Schemes with Space-Time Adaptive Mesh Refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first high order one-step ADER-WENO finite volume scheme with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in multiple space dimensions. High order spatial accuracy is obtained through a WENO reconstruction, while a high order one-step time discretization is achieved using a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin predictor method. Due to the one-step nature of the underlying scheme, the resulting algorithm is particularly well suited for an AMR strategy on space-time adaptive meshes, i.e.with time-accurate local time stepping. The AMR property has been implemented 'cell-by-cell', with a standard tree-type algorithm, while the scheme has been parallelized via the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm. The new scheme has been tested over a wide range of examples for nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws, including the classical Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics and the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). High order in space and time have been confirmed via a numerical convergenc...

Dumbser, Michael; Hidalgo, Arturo; Balsara, Dinshaw S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Decontamination and decarburization of stainless and carbon steel by melt refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With many nuclear reactors and facilities being decommissioned in the next ten to twenty years the concern for handling and storing Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) is growing. Upon direction of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO) is developing technologies for the conditioning of spent fuels and high-level wastes for interim storage and repository acceptance, including the recycling of Radioactive Scrap Metals (RSM) for beneficial reuse with the DOE complex. In February 1993, Montana Tech of the University of Montana was contracted to develop and demonstrate technologies for the decontamination of stainless steel RSM. The general objectives of the Montana Tech research program included conducting a literature survey, performing laboratory scale melt refining experiments to optimize decontaminating slag compositions, performing an analysis of preferred melting techniques, coordinating pilot scale and commercial scale demonstrations, and producing sufficient quantities of surrogate-containing material for all of the laboratory, pilot and commercial scale test programs. Later on, the program was expanded to include decontamination of carbon steel RSM. Each research program has been completed, and results are presented in this report.

Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Webber, D.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1996-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

474

A fully integrated switched-capacitor DC-DC converter with dual output for low power application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a fully integrated on-chip switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter that supports two regulated power supply voltages of 2.2V and 3.2V from 5V input supply and delivers the maximum load currents up to 8mA at both of the outputs. The ... Keywords: dc-dc converter, dual output, switched-capacitor

Heungjun Jeon; Yong-Bin Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effect of liquefaction processing conditions on combustion characteristics of solvent-refined coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of several direct liquefaction processes currently under advanced stages of development is the Solvent-Refined Coal-I (SRC-I) process. A major SRC-1 product option is a low sulfur, low ash solid (SRC) which could be used as an electric utility boiler fuel much in the same manner that pulverized coal is currently fired in this type of combustion equipment. SRC-I processing has been performed using three variations in the manner in which mineral matter and unconverted coal are separated from the hot coal liquid. These processes are the Pressure Filtration Deashing (PFD), Anti-Solvent Deashing (ASD), and Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD). Since processing conditions may influence the combustion of SRC-I solids produced, an experimental program was carried out at both the bench and pilot plant scale to determine the influence of processing (i.e. solids separation method) and combustion conditions on carbon burnout of these three varieties of SRC solid boiler fuels. Included in this study was an examination of NO/sub x/ emissions (particularly for the CSD SRC and PFD SRC) with the objective of attaining low NO/sub x/ emissions without adversely affecting combustion efficiency. The work was carried out at the laboratory, bench and pilot plant scales employing Thermo-Gravimetric analyses, Drop Tube Furnace testing, and Controlled Mixing History furnace testing, respectively. Reactivity and NO/sub x/ emissions results were compared with those obtained from two coals previously tested and used as reference coals. One of these coals was a high reactivity Wyoming subbituminous coal and the other was a low reactivity Kentucky high volatile bituminous coal. The type of processing scheme used in the SRC-I deashing step was found to have a major impact on the combustion properties of the resultant solid SRC product.

Goetz, G.J.; Lao, T.C.; Mehta, A.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors' POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors' POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X. [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

CORRELATION OF CRITICAL MASS DATA ON LIGHT WATER MODERATED, FULLY ENRICHED URANIUM, STAINLESS STEEL REACTORS. PART I  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data were collected on over 70 light water moderated, fully enriched uranium, stainless steel, critical cores. An equation for the critical mass of cores with a buckling of 0.007 cm/sup -2/ that is lineally dependent on stainless steel volume fraction and grams of B/sup 10/ was compared with available critical experiments and found to yield reasonable results. A correlation method, relating buckling to ( xi SIGMA /sub s// SIGMA /sub a/) was found to fit the available experiments. (auth)

Lee, D.H.

1962-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fully refined waxes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Development of fully automated and integrated (''Instamatic'') welding systems for marine applications  

SciTech Connect

A two-year research program was conducted at M.I.T. to develop fully automated and integrated welding systems. These systems package many actions involved in welding so that certain prescribed welding jobs can be performed by a person with no welding skill. They have been nicknamed ''instamatic'' welding systems, since they are similar to the easy-to-operate cameras. Following a general discussion on the development of the concept of the ''instamatic'' welding system, discussions are given on two types of systems which have been built and tested: underwater stud welding systems, and those using arc welding processes.

Masubuchi, K.; Gustin, H.L.; Schloerb, D.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON  

SciTech Connect

Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground measurements to refine interpretations of AEM data; and (3) Improve the calibration and correlation of AEM information. The potential benefits of this project are as follows: (1) Develop a tool to map subsurface units at the Hanford Site in a rapid and cost effective manner; (2) Map groundwater pathways within the River Corridor; and (3) Aid development of the conceptual site model. If anomalies observed in the AEM data can be correlated with subsurface geology, then the rapid scanning and non-intrusive capabilities provided by the airborne surveys can be used at the Hanford Site to screen for areas that warrant further investigation.

PETERSEN SW

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

483

Grain refinement in bulk pure tantalum using equal channel angular extrusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For this study, the effectiveness of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) to improve the material properties and processing characteristics of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) pure tantalum was determined. The primary objectives were: 1) determination of recrystallization temperatures for processed material 2) determination of the grain refinement potential of ECAE and 3) determination of the ability of ECAE to produce a homogeneous grain structure. The effects of initial grains size (as-cast: [] 5 mm, large: 500 [u]m - 2 mm, medium: 20 [u]m - 100[u]m) and morphology, annealing temperature (23°C - 1370°C) and level of strain (one, two, or four extrusions) and extrusion route (C and E) on the recrystallized grain size, percent recrystallization, microstructural uniformity, grain morphology and Vickers microhardness were investigated. All extrusions were performed at room temperature in a 90° die using a punch speed of 5 mm/sec. Microstructural uniformity and morphology were observed and characterized using an optical metallograph equipped with a polarizing filter. Grain size measurements were made using the linear intercept method on optical micrographs. Four consecutive passes without intermediate annealing show that pure VAR tantalum is very workable when subjected to ECAE processing. The initial grain size and processing route have little if any effect on the workability or recrystallization temperature after one extrusion pass. Microhardness values are similar to published literature values produced by conventional deformation methods at equivalent strains and tend to increase significantly during the first two extrusions. Routes 2C and 4C result in fine (<22 [u]m), uniform grains after annealing for the large and medium initial grain size materials but do not for the as-cast initial grain size. Route E results in fine-grained, homogeneous, equiaxed microstructures for all initial grain sizes with ~11 [u]m being the smallest produced. The microstructural homogeneity and uniformity, and the fine-grain size resulting from ECAE processing may be advantageous to those produced by the conventional methods such as rolling, swaging, forging and wire drawing, with the added advantage of being a bulk product. The Hall-Petch relationship is found to be valid for ECAE processed tantalum over a grain size range of 10 [u]m to 100[u]m.

Mathaudhu, Suveen Nigel

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE II STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glass compositions were selected for a Phase II study to assess the potential for reducing the conservatism in the nepheline discriminator. The glass compositions were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the liquidus temperature model was used to restrict the glass compositions so that they could all be melted at the same temperature. The nepheline discriminator was used to force the glass compositions into regions where nepheline formation was predicted to occur. The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized for crystallization and chemical durability after both quenching and slow cooling. Chemical analysis showed that the fabricated glasses met the target compositions. Nepheline was identified in one of the quenched glasses and several of the CCC glasses. There was no clear relationship between the types of crystallization that occurred in a particular glass and its location on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} ternary diagram. A partitioning algorithm was used to identify trends in crystallization behavior based on glass composition. Generally, for the CCC glasses MnO influenced the crystallization of spinels and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} influenced the crystallization of nepheline. Measured durability responses varied from acceptable to unacceptable depending on the glass composition and type and extent of crystallization that occurred. It was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator at this time. It is recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where acceptable glasses are predicted to be produced but are disallowed by the current nepheline discriminator. This may help identify a path for gaining access to glass compositions that are limited by only the nepheline constraint. Dependencies on cooling rates should also be evaluated. A better understanding of these regions, as well as the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO on nepheline crystallization, may allow for relaxation or refinement of the nepheline constraint and subsequently allow for higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

485

REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING USING A PARALLEL FULLY-COUPLED SIMULATOR BASED ON PRECONDITIONED JACOBIAN-FREE NEWTON-KRYLOV  

SciTech Connect

Systems of multicomponent reactive transport in porous media that are large, highly nonlinear, and tightly coupled due to complex nonlinear reactions and strong solution-media interactions are often described by a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential algebraic equations (PDAEs). A preconditioned Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) solution approach is applied to solve the PDAEs in a fully coupled, fully implicit manner. The advantage of the JFNK method is that it avoids explicitly computing and storing the Jacobian matrix during Newton nonlinear iterations for computational efficiency considerations. This solution approach is also enhanced by physics-based blocking preconditioning and multigrid algorithm for efficient inversion of preconditioners. Based on the solution approach, we have developed a reactive transport simulator named RAT. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and massive scalability of the simulator for reactive transport problems involving strong solution-mineral interactions and fast kinetics. It has been applied to study the highly nonlinearly coupled reactive transport system of a promising in situ environmental remediation that involves urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation.

Luanjing Guo; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang; Derek R. Gaston

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

487

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

488

Does the fully parabolic quasilinear 1D Keller-Segel system enjoy long-time asymptotics analogous to its parabolic-elliptic simplification?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the one-dimensional fully parabolic Keller-Segel system with nonlinear diffusion possesses global-in-time solutions, provided the nonlinear diffusion is equal to (1+u)^{-\\alpha}, for \\alpha parabolic-elliptic case to the fully parabolic one. However, in the parabolic-elliptic case the above mentioned integrability condition on nonlinear diffusion sharply distinguishes between global existence and blowup cases. We are unable to recover the entire global existence counterpart of this result in a fully parabolic case.

Jan Burczak; Tomasz Cie?lak; Cristian Morales-Rodrigo

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

489