National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fully develop prototype

  1. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  2. Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a ... Title: Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Getter-Doped Polymer ...

  3. Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_mazumder.pdf (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Final Report - Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors Self-Cleaning CSP Optics with EDS - FY13 Q2

  4. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. ...

  5. UDC Develops Prototype High-Efficiency OLED Undercabinet Luminaire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has demonstrated the real-world application of a novel lighting technology by developing two pre-prototype OLED undercabinet lighting systems that exceed 420 total lumens at an efficacy of more than 55 lm/W, with an estimated lifetime (LT70) in excess of 10,000 hours, and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 85.

  6. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype Eric Kozubal, Jason Woods, and Ron Judkoff Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54755 April 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

  7. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    David, Tanya M. S.; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2014-01-01

    Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene) or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer wasmore » synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.« less

  8. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  9. Development of a reliable, miniaturized hydrogen safety sensor prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Williamson, Todd L

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the development and long-term testing of a hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle and infrastructure applications is presented. The working device is demonstrated through application of commercial and reproducible manufacturing methods and rigorous life testing results guided by materials selection, and sensor design. Fabricated using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as the sensing electrode, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and Platinum (Pt) as a pseudo-counter electrode, the device was subjected to interference studies, temperature cycling, and long-testing routine. The sensor responded in real time to varying concentrations of H{sub 2} (1000 to 20,000 ppm) monitored under a humidified condition. Among the interference gases tested such as nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), the sensor showed cross-sensitivity to C{sub 3}H{sub 6}. Analyzing the overall device performance over 4000 hrs of testing for 5000 ppm of H{sub 2}, (a) the sensitivity varied {+-}21% compared to response recorded at 0 hrs, and (c) the response rise time fluctuated between 3 to 46 s. The salient features of the H{sub 2} sensor prototype designed and co-developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are (a) stable three phase interface (electrode/electrolyte/gas) leading to reliable sensor operation, (b) low power consumption, (b) compactness to fit into critical areas of application, (c) simple operation, (d) fast response, (e) a direct voltage read-out circumventing the need for any additional conditioning circuitry, and (f) conducive to commercialization.

  10. Final Report- Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Awardee: Boston UniversityLocation: Boston, MASubprogram: Concentrating Solar PowerFunding Program: SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&DProject: Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self...

  11. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  12. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  13. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-07-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of compressor and engine is presented. The superior performance of these two products arises from the superior performance of rotating supersonic shock-wave compression. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A High Risk Technology review was conducted and evaluated by a team of 20 senior engineers and scientists representing various branches of the federal government. The conceptual design of a compression test rig, test rotors, and test cell adaptor was completed. The work conducted lays the foundation for the completed design and testing of the compression test rig, and the design of a supersonic shock-wave compressor matched to a conventional combustor and turbine.

  15. Development of a HVDC prototype breaker. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damsky, B L; Barkan, P; Imam, I; Permerlani, W; Anderson, J M; Carroll, J J; Hudson, J E; Pohl, R V; Solberg, W D; Sharbaugh, A H

    1980-06-01

    The significant design features of a high-voltage dc (HVDC) circuit breaker based on the commutation concept were developed. Tests of components indicate the breaker is capable of interrupting a fault current of 10 kA on a 400 kV system and absorbing up to 10 MJ of system energy without generating more than 1.6 per unit (P.U.) voltage of the system. Interactions of the breaker with a three-terminal network were studied, using a system simulator. An ultrafast hydraulic actuator system was developed for this program which enables the breaker to initiate the current limiting process within 5 ms after receipt of a trip signal. A new hydraulic valve, operated by a repulsion coil, minimizes the delay before motion begins. Interruption will occur in series-connected vacuum interrupters. A 400 kV circuit breaker is estimated to require eight breaks in series. Only a single break was tested as part of this program because of the scale and cost required for multibreak tests. System energy will be absorbed by zinc-oxide-based surge suppressors included as an integral part of the breaker. The overall design is envisioned as a dead tank type using pressurized SF/sub 6/ gas as a dielectric medium. The actuator and all control functions are located at ground potential, with easy access for inspection or adjustment. Operational specifications have been carried over from NEMA standards for ac power circuit breakers where applicable. The cost of one pole of this circuit breaker, when in regular production, has been estimated as two times the cost of a three-phase 500 kV ac circuit breaker.

  16. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ORNL and Sheetak, Inc. have developed prototypes of a novel thermoelectric (TE) clothes dryer that is energy efficient and has a potentially short payback period. The solid-state heat pump technology is expected to deliver an energy factor greater than 6 lb/kWh, a major improvement over current electric resistance dryers, which perform at only 3.73 lb/kWh.

  17. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-06-15

    We report that the precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolvemore » into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Finally, accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition.« less

  18. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, M. S.; Seon, C. R.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Bertalot, L.

    2012-10-15

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  19. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  20. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  1. Prototype Development Capabilities of 3D Spatial Interactions and Failures During Scenario Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  3. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing, characterization, and evaluation relating to Auto

  4. Report on Performance of Prototype Dynatronix Power Supplies Developed Under a Phase I DOE SBIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Merriman, Jason H.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prototype power supplies fabricated by Dynatronix, Inc. This project supports the advancement of electroforming capabilities to produce ultra-high purity copper. Ultra-high purity copper is an essential material used for a range of current and future fundamental nuclear physics programs such as the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The Mach 30 power supplies are a new design built to the specifications from the requirements of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with regard to timing, voltage, current output, and the required tolerances. The parameters used in these tests were developed empirically over a number of years based on a combination of thermodynamic and kinetics of the electroplating process. The power supplies were operated in a typical cleanroom environment for the production electroforming at PNNL. The units that were received by PNNL in July, 2010 have performed satisfactorily and have demonstrated short term durability.

  5. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  6. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  7. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  8. Development and evaluation of a prototype tracking system using the treatment couch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Stephanie Riesterer, Oliver; Klck, Stephan; Zeimetz, Jrg; Ochsner, Gregor; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Tumor motion increases safety margins around the clinical target volume and leads to an increased dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. The authors have developed and evaluated a one-dimensional treatment couch tracking system to counter steer respiratory tumor motion. Three different motion detection sensors with different lag times were evaluated. Methods: The couch tracking system consists of a motion detection sensor, which can be the topometrical system Topos (Cyber Technologies, Germany), the respiratory gating system RPM (Varian Medical Systems) or a laser triangulation system (Micro Epsilon), and the Protura treatment couch (Civco Medical Systems). The control of the treatment couch was implemented in the block diagram environment Simulink (MathWorks). To achieve real time performance, the Simulink models were executed on a real time engine, provided by Real-Time Windows Target (MathWorks). A proportional-integral control system was implemented. The lag time of the couch tracking system using the three different motion detection sensors was measured. The geometrical accuracy of the system was evaluated by measuring the mean absolute deviation from the reference (static position) during motion tracking. This deviation was compared to the mean absolute deviation without tracking and a reduction factor was defined. A hexapod system was moving according to seven respiration patterns previously acquired with the RPM system as well as according to a sin{sup 6} function with two different frequencies (0.33 and 0.17 Hz) and the treatment table compensated the motion. Results: A prototype system for treatment couch tracking of respiratory motion was developed. The laser based tracking system with a small lag time of 57 ms reduced the residual motion by a factor of 11.9 5.5 (mean value standard deviation). An increase in delay time from 57 to 130 ms (RPM based system) resulted in a reduction by a factor of 4.7 2.6. The Topos based tracking system

  9. Development of a tester for evaluation of prototype thermal cells and batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    A tester was developed to evaluate prototype thermal cells and batteries--especially high-voltage units--under a wide range of constant-current and constant-resistance discharge conditions. Programming of the steady-state and pulsing conditions was by software control or by hardware control via an external pulse generator. The tester was assembled from primarily Hewlett-Packard (H-P) instrumentation and was operated under H-P`s Rocky Mountain Basic (RMB). Constant-current electronic loads rated up to 4 kW (400 V at up to 100 A) were successfully used with the setup. For testing under constant-resistance conditions, power metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) controlled by a programmable pulse generator were used to switch between steady-state and pulse loads. The pulses were digitized at up to a 50 kHz rate (20 {mu} s/pt) using high-speed DVMs; steady-state voltages were monitored with standard DVMs. This paper describes several of the test configurations used and discusses the limitations of each. Representative data are presented for a number of the test conditions.

  10. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  11. Prototype prosperity-diversity game for the Laboratory Development Division of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDevender, P.; Berman, M.; Savage, K.

    1996-02-01

    The Prosperity Game conducted for the Laboratory Development Division of National Laboratories on May 24--25, 1995, focused on the individual and organizational autonomy plaguing the Department of Energy (DOE)-Congress-Laboratories` ability to manage the wrenching change of declining budgets. Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Each Prosperity Game is unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This particular Prosperity Game was played by volunteers from Sandia National Laboratories, Eastman Kodak, IBM, and AT&T. Since the participants fully control the content of the games, the specific outcomes will be different when the team for each laboratory, Congress, DOE, and the Laboratory Operating Board (now Laboratory Operations Board) is composed of executives from those respective organizations. Nevertheless, the strategies and implementing agreements suggest that the Prosperity Games stimulate cooperative behaviors and may permit the executives of the institutions to safely explore the consequences of a family of DOE concert.

  12. Development and Verification of a Fully Coupled Simulator for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines the development of an analysis tool capable of analyzing a variety of wind turbine, support platform, and mooring system configurations.The simulation capability was tested by model-to-model comparisons to ensure its correctness.

  13. Development of a Prototype Lattice Boltzmann Code for CFD of Fusion Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattison, Martin J; Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Dwivedi, Vinay

    2007-02-26

    ability of the LBM to scale almost linearly. The equation for magnetic induction was also solved using a lattice Boltzmann method. This approach has the advantage that it fits in well to the framework used for the hydrodynamic equations, but more importantly that it preserves the ability of the code to run efficiently on parallel architectures. Since the LBM is a relatively recent model, a number of new developments were needed to solve the magnetic induction equation for practical problems. Existing methods were only suitable for cases where the fluid viscosity and the magnetic resistivity are of the same order, and a preconditioning method was used to allow the simulation of liquid metals, where these properties differ by several orders of magnitude. An extension of this method to the hydrodynamic equations allowed faster convergence to steady state. A new method of imposing boundary conditions using an extrapolation technique was derived, enabling the magnetic field at a boundary to be specified. Also, a technique by which the grid can be stretched was formulated to resolve thin layers at high imposed magnetic fields, allowing flows with Hartmann numbers of several thousand to be quickly and efficiently simulated. In addition, a module has been developed to calculate the temperature field and heat transfer. This uses a total variation diminishing scheme to solve the equations and is again very amenable to parallelisation. Although, the module was developed with thermal modelling in mind, it can also be applied to passive scalar transport. The code is fully three dimensional and has been applied to a wide variety of cases, including both laminar and turbulent flows. Validations against a series of canonical problems involving both MHD effects and turbulence have clearly demonstrated the ability of the LBM to properly model these types of flow. As well as applications to fusion engineering, the resulting code is flexible enough to be applied to a wide range of other

  14. Crab Cavity and Cryomodule Prototype Development for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H; Ciovati, G; Clemens, W A; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Kushnick, P; Macha, K; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Slack, G; Turlington, L; Nassiri, R; Waldschmidt, G J

    2011-03-01

    We review the single-cell, superconducting crab cavity designs for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The 'on-cell' waveguide scheme is expected to have a more margin for the impedance budget of the APS storage ring, as well as offering a more compact design compared with the original design consisting of a low order mode damping waveguide on the beam pipe. We will report recent fabrication progress, cavity test performance on original and alternate prototypes, and concept designs and analysis for various cryomodule components.

  15. Greenbrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-18

    This case study describes a prototype home that is the model home for the Homes at Greenbrier in Oakdale, Connecticut, and demonstrates the builder's concept of “attainable sustainable” of offering high performance homes at mid-market prices.

  16. Development of Thomson scattering system on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Tao; Li, Zhichao; Jiang, Xiaohua; Ding, Yongkun Yang, Dong; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Fang; Li, Ping; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-02-15

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic system, using a 263 nm laser as the probe beam, is designed and implemented on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The probe beam is provided by an additional beam line completed recently. The diagnostic system allows simultaneous measurements of both ion feature and red-shifted electron feature from plasmas in a high-temperature (≥2 keV) and high-density (≥10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}) regime. Delicate design is made to satisfy the requirements for successful detection of the electron feature. High-quality ion feature spectra have already been diagnosed via this system in recent experiments with gas-filled hohlraums.

  17. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  18. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  19. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Ahmad Al Rashdan; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Bly, Aaron Douglas; Agarwal, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  20. Prototype Development Progress Toward a 500 kV Solid State Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leyh, G.

    2004-07-27

    Recent advances in IGBT and SiC technology have made possible a range of solid-state modulator concepts that were unthinkable a decade ago. Power densities and speeds of pulsed-power circuits have increased dramatically due to the commercial introduction of fast, multi-kilovolt IGBT silicon and SiC diodes featured in PCB-style packages. A solid-state modulator concept that stands to benefit considerably from recent IGBT and SiC breakthroughs is the Marx configuration--where an array of stacked modules generates high-voltage output pulses directly from a low voltage DC supply. The Marx scheme avoids the large, inefficient and costly magnetic cores inherent in standard modulator designs, resulting in a considerably simpler, cheaper and more compact mechanical solution. The main disadvantage to this approach is that the individual cells in a Marx bank must float at high voltages during the pulse, complicating the distribution of power and timing signals. This paper examines in closer detail the practical advantages and pitfalls of a solid-state Marx configuration, and explores a design approach with emphasis on performance, wall-plug efficiency, cost of manufacture, availability and ease of service. The paper presents electrical diagrams, mechanical CAD layout and preliminary prototype test data.

  1. Development of the Variable Atmosphere Testing Facility for Blow-Down Analysis of the Mars Hopper Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Recent developments at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) on a Martian exploration probe have lead to the assembly of a multi-functional variable atmosphere testing facility (VATF). The VATF has been assembled to perform transient blow-down analysis of a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept that has been proposed for the Mars Hopper; a long-lived, long-ranged mobile platform for the Martian surface. This study discusses the current state of the VATF as well as recent blow-down testing performed on a laboratory-scale prototype of the Mars Hopper. The VATF allows for the simulation of Mars ambient conditions within the pressure vessel as well as to safely perform blow-down tests through the prototype using CO2 gas; the proposed propellant for the Mars Hopper. Empirical data gathered will lead to a better understanding of CO2 behavior and will provide validation of simulation models. Additionally, the potential of the VATF to test varying propulsion system designs has been recognized. In addition to being able to simulate varying atmospheres and blow-down gases for the RTR, it can be fitted to perform high temperature hydrogen testing of fuel elements for nuclear thermal propulsion.

  2. Prototype Programmatic Agreement Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prototype programmatic agreements are a type of program alternative that the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) can designate to assist federal agencies in their efforts to comply with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470f) and its implementing regulations (36 CFR Part 800). Prototype agreements may be used for the same type of program or undertaking in more than one case or area, and typically establish efficiencies and protocols for implementing these undertakings. This ACHP guidance describes the process for developing prototype agreements, the involvement of interested parties, and other important components to be considered when exploring the use of a prototype agreement as a program alternative.

  3. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  4. Development of a 5 kW Prototype Coal-Based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.; Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz; Rismanchian, Azadeh

    2014-01-20

    The University of Akron Fuel Cell Laboratory pioneered the development of a laboratory scale coal-based fuel cell, which allows the direct use of high sulfur content coal as fuel. The initial research and coal fuel cell technology development (“Coal-based Fuel Cell,” S. S. C. Chuang, PCT Int. Appl. 2006, i.e., European Patent Application, 35 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2006028502 A2 20060316) have demonstrated that it is feasible to electrochemically oxidize carbon to CO2, producing electricity. The key innovative concept of this coal-based fuel cell technology is that carbon in coal can be converted through an electrochemical oxidation reaction into manageable carbon dioxide, efficiently generating electricity without involving coal gasification, reforming, and water-gas shift reaction. This study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reaction. A carbon injection system was developed to inject the solid fuel without bringing air into the anode chamber; a fuel cell stack was developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fuel cell stack. Further improvement of anode catalyst activity and durability is needed to bring this novel coal fuel cell to a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology, which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil.

  5. Power API Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype. The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

  6. Power API Prototype

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype.more » The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.« less

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE MACH 2 RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2001-09-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of combustion engine is presented. The engine is designed to convert the thrust from ramjet modules into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. An aggressive test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the existing engine, as well as incorporation of novel improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with Vortex Generators and bluff body flame holders illuminated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Air film cooling studies demonstrated that acceptable combustor life could be achieved with optimized air film distribution patterns and thermal barrier coatings.

  8. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clemson University – North Charleston, SC New motor power converter technologies will be used to develop a pre-commercial megawatt class variable speed drive. The fully integrated prototype system will be made by TECO Westinghouse Motor Company in its Round Rock, TX facility and be demonstrated at Clemson’s eGRID Center. Fact sheet coming soon.

  9. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  10. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  11. factsheet: National Prototype Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the World Safer This enduring national asset integrates science and technology for manufacturing success that meets our customer's special manufacturability challenges. Since its establishment in 1997, more than 5,0 0 0 i ndustr ies and government agencies have capitalized on the resources of the National Prototype Center (NPC). These customers received subject -matter expertise as well as critical manufacturing resources enabling development of i n novat ive manufacturing solutions.

  12. OriginalPrototypes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Original Prototypes (Status of detectors June, 1998) Ionization Chamber with one cell instrumented Ring 2-3 Silicon Detector Prototype CsI with dimensions approximately of Ring 2-3 Prototype CsI with PMT on Ring 2-3 prototype holder Silicon detectors also installed More Pictures: Recent data from NIMROD: Data Graph 1 Data Graph 2

  13. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.

  14. Developing Fully Coupled Dynamical Reactor Core Isolation System Models in RELAP-7 for Extended Station Black-Out Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-04-01

    The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup water to the reactor vessel for core cooling when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. It was one of the very few safety systems still available during the Fukushima Daiichi accidents after the tsunamis hit the plants and the system successfully delayed the core meltdown for a few days for unit 2 & 3. Therefore, detailed models for RCIC system components are indispensable to understand extended station black-out accidents (SBO) for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the new generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, major components to simulate the RCIC system have been developed. This paper describes the models for those components such as turbine, pump, and wet well. Selected individual component test simulations and a simplified SBO simulation up to but before core damage is presented. The successful implementation of the simplified RCIC and wet well models paves the way to further improve the models for safety analysis by including more detailed physical processes in the near future.

  15. Topological characterization of the transition from laminar regime to fully developed turbulence in the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.; Calvo, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Departament d'Algebra i Geometria, Facultat de Matematiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    For the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence model, the transition from laminar regime to fully developed turbulence is not simple and goes through several phases. For low values of the plasma parameter {beta}, a single quasicoherent structure forms. As {beta} increases, several of these structures may emerge and in turn take the dominant role. Finally, at high {beta}, fully developed turbulence with a broad spectrum is established. A suitable characterization of this transition can be given in terms of topological properties of the flow. Here, we analyze these properties that provide an understanding of the turbulence-induced transport and give a measure of the breaking of the homogeneity of the turbulence. To this end, an approach is developed that allows discriminating between topological properties of plasma turbulence flows that are relevant to the transport dynamics and the ones that are not. This is done using computational homology tools and leads to a faster convergence of numerical results for a fixed level of resolution than previously presented in Phys. Rev. E 78, 066402 (2008)

  16. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  17. Lancaster Live/Work Townhome Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    This case study describes development of a prototype live-work townhome that is highly efficient at 45% energy savings (95% counting photovoltaic system).

  18. Y-12: Seawolf to National Prototype Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Propulsor, which ultimately led to Y-12 being designated as the National Prototype Center. ... This "propulsor development center" at Y-12 led to other opportunities for unique designs ...

  19. The SiC Direct Target Prototype for SPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzi, V.; Andrighetto, A.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cinausero, M.; Giacchini, M.; Gramegna, F.; Lollo, M.; Maggioni, G.; Prete, G.; Tonezzer, M.; Antonucci, C.; Cevolani, S.; Petrovich, C.; Biasetto, L.; Colombo, P.; Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Celona, L.; Chines, F.

    2007-10-26

    A R and D study for the realization of a Direct Target is in progress within the SPES project for RIBs production at the Laboratori Nazionali of Legnaro. A proton beam (40 MeV energy, 0.2 mA current) is supposed to impinge directly on a UCx multiple thin disks target, the power released by the proton beam is dissipated mainly through irradiation. A SiC target prototype with a 1:5 scale has been developed and tested. Thermal, mechanical and release calculations have been performed to fully characterize the prototype. An online test has been performed at the HRIBF facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), showing that our SiC target can sustain a proton beam current considerably higher than the maximum beam current used with the standard HRIBF target configuration.

  20. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M.; Hartmann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  1. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  2. US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

    2006-10-01

    The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

  3. Prototype simplified daylighting design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treado, S.J.; Goodin, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    The report describes a prototype simplified design tool which has been developed to provide information for developing effective building fenestration systems. A computer software system was developed to search through and select the best available fenestration designs from a large database of previously simulated buildings. Fenestration designs can be selected based on energy usage, energy cost or peak loads. The determination of fenestration energy costs is discussed. The design tool is primarily intended for commercial, industrial or institutional buildings of any type.

  4. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  5. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony; Lew, Roger Thomas; Medema, Heather Dawne; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  6. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-08-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  7. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-11-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  8. Wave power prototype nears construction phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggott, M.; Morris, R.

    1985-02-01

    A Scottish-led consortium of major United Kingdom (UK) and European companies will soon decide on the next stage in the development of a prototype 5-MW wave energy system. The oscillating water column, wave energy Breakwater system was developed in Scotland by the National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) over the past 10 years. Plans for the prototype follow a year-long economic and feasibility study that indicated a worldwide market potential of $1 billion over the next decade for the system.

  9. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  10. Cell Prototyping Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cell Prototyping Facility - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  11. Working With PNNL Mentors, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    two prototypes developed as part of their senior design projects to their Pacific Northwest National Laboratory mentors. The design projects were supported by the Next Generation ...

  12. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  13. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  14. Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Winter, F. )

    1994-07-01

    A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

  15. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  16. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  17. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  18. HSI Prototypes for Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokstad, Håkon; McDonald, Rob

    2015-09-01

    This report describes in detail the design and features of three Human System Interface (HSI) prototypes developed by the Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program under Contract 128420 through Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The prototypes are implemented for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor simulator and installed in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL. The three prototypes are: 1) Power Ramp display 2) RCS Heat-up and Cool-down display 3) Estimated time to limit display The power ramp display and the RCS heat-up/cool-down display are designed to provide good visual indications to the operators on how well they are performing their task compared to their target ramp/heat-up/cool-down rate. The estimated time to limit display is designed to help operators restore levels or pressures before automatic or required manual actions are activated.

  19. A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detelina P. 5 ; Kim, Yoo Yin 1 ; Boyle, James S. 5 ; Jacob, Robert L. 6 ; Norton, Nancy 7 ; Craig, Anthony 3 ; Worley, Patrick H 2 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  20. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  1. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  2. Weighting Factors for the Commercial Building Prototypes Used in the Development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.

    2010-01-21

    Detailed construction data from the McGraw Hill Construction Database was used to develop construction weights by climate zones for use with DOE Benchmark Buildings and for the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 development. These construction weights were applied to energy savings estimates from simulation of the benchmark buildings to establish weighted national energy savings.

  3. A Prototyping Environment for Research on Human-Machine Interfaces in Process Control: Use of Microsoft WPF for Microworld and Distributed Control System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    Operators of critical processes, such as nuclear power production, must contend with highly complex systems, procedures, and regulations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is a high priority for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical processes. Human factors engineering (HFE) provides a rich and mature set of tools for evaluating the performance of HMIs, but the set of tools for developing and designing HMIs is still in its infancy. Here we propose that Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is well suited for many roles in the research and development of HMIs for process control.

  4. PROJECT PROFILE: Addressing Environmental Challenges to Deployment through the Development of an Avian-Solar Science Plan and a Prototype Avian Risk Assessment Tool (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The soft costs associated with solar project development can increase with potential wildlife impacts. Avian impact issues associated with utility scale solar development, in particular avian fatalities, are not well understood. This project will address these issues to help reach SunShot soft cost target goals by better understanding avian issues at utility scale solar facilities and their soft cost implications using a systematic, standardized, science-based approach that could be applied across the industry.

  5. Characterization of Prototype LSST CCDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OCONNOR,P.; FRANK, J.; GEARY, J.C.; GILMORE, D.K.; KOTOV, I.; RADEKA, V.; TAKACS, P.; TYSON, J.A.

    2008-06-23

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be achieved in part by a wide-field imager that will achieve a new level of performance in terms of area, speed, and sensitivity. The instrument performance is dominated by the focal plane sensors, which are now in development. These new-generation sensors will make use of advanced semiconductor technology and will be complemented by a highly integrated electronics package located inside the cryostat. A test laboratory has been set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to characterize prototype sensors and to develop test and assembly techniques for eventual integration of production sensors and electronics into modules that will form the final focal plane. As described in [1], the key requirements for LSST sensors are wideband quantum efficiency (QE) extending beyond lpm in the red, control of point spread function (PSF), and fast readout using multiple amplifiers per chip operated in parallel. In addition, LSST's fast optical system (f71.25) places severe constraints on focal plane flatness. At the chip level this involves packaging techniques to minimize warpage of the silicon die, and at the mosaic level careful assembly and metrology to achieve a high coplanarity of the sensor tiles. In view of the long lead time to develop the needed sensor technology, LSST undertook a study program with several vendors to fabricate and test devices which address the most critical performance features [2]. The remainder of this paper presents key results of this study program. Section 2 summarizes the sensor requirements and the results of design optimization studies, and Section 3 presents the sensor development plan. In Section 4 we describe the test bench at BNL. Section 5 reports measurement results obtained to date oh devices fabricated by several vendors. Section 6 presents a summary of the paper and an outlook for the future work. We present characterization methods and results on a

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Prototyping | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Prototyping Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Prototyping Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Prototyping Find resources to help you design and refine a prototype of a new clean energy technology or product. For prototyping, areas to consider include materials characterization; models and tools; intellectual property protection; small-scale production; R&D funding; and regional, state, and local resources. For more resources, see the Clean Energy

  7. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  8. Fuelcell Prototype Locomotive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Barnes

    2007-09-28

    An international industry-government consortium is developing a fuelcell hybrid switcher locomotive for commercial railway applications and power-to-grid generation applications. The current phase of this on-going project addresses the practicalities of on-board hydrogen storage, fuelcell technology, and hybridity, all with an emphasis on commercially available products. Through practical evaluation using designs from Vehicle Projects’ Fuelcell-Powered Underground Mine Loader Project, the configuration of the fuelcell switcher locomotive changed from using metal-hydride hydrogen storage and a pure fuelcell power plant to using compressed hydrogen storage, a fuelcell-battery hybrid power plant, and fuelcell stack modules from Ballard Power Systems that have been extensively used in the Citaro bus program in Europe. The new overall design will now use a RailPower battery hybrid Green Goat™ as the locomotive platform. Keeping the existing lead-acid batteries, we will replace the 205 kW diesel gen-set with 225 kW of net fuelcell power, remove the diesel fuel tank, and place 14 compressed hydrogen cylinders, capable of storing 70 kg of hydrogen at 350 bar, on the roof. A detailed design with associated CAD models will allow a complete build of the fuelcell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive in the next funded phase.

  9. Working With PNNL Mentors, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Safeguards Fixtures | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Working With PNNL Mentors, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype Safeguards Fixtures Friday, December 18, 2015 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Earlier this month, Washington State University mechanical engineering students delivered two prototypes developed as part of their senior design projects to their Pacific Northwest National Laboratory mentors. The design projects were supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

  10. Test report -- Prototype core sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linschooten, C.G.

    1995-01-17

    The purpose of this test is to determine the adequacy of the prototype sampler, provided to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by DOE-RL. The sampler was fabricated for DOE-RL by the Concord Company by request of DOE-RL. This prototype sampler was introduced as a technology that can be easily deployed (similar to the current auger system) and will reliably collect representative samples. The sampler is similar to the Universal Sampler i.e., smooth core barrel and piston with an O-ring seal, but lacks a rotary valve near the throat of the sampler. This makes the sampler inappropriate for liquid sampling, but reduces the outside diameter of the sampler considerably, which should improve sample recovery. Recovery testing was performed with the supplied sampler in three different consistencies of Kaolin sludge simulants.

  11. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  12. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  13. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  14. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  15. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  16. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels: Characteristics and Potential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: ATF; accident tolerant fuel; FCM; fully ceramic microencapsulated; LWR; light water reactor; fuel; TRISO; particle fuel; nuclear; reactor physics; neutronics; actinide ...

  17. Preliminary neutronics assessment of fully ceramic microencapsulated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas-cooled reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary neutronics assessment of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel in high-temperature gas-cooled ...

  18. Scalable implicit incompressible resistive MHD with stabilized FE and fully-coupled Newton–Krylov-AMG

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shadid, J. N.; Pawlowski, R. P.; Cyr, E. C.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Chacon, L.; Weber, P. D.

    2016-02-10

    Here, we discuss that the computational solution of the governing balance equations for mass, momentum, heat transfer and magnetic induction for resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) systems can be extremely challenging. These difficulties arise from both the strong nonlinear, nonsymmetric coupling of fluid and electromagnetic phenomena, as well as the significant range of time- and length-scales that the interactions of these physical mechanisms produce. This paper explores the development of a scalable, fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for 3D incompressible resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of a stabilized FE formulation in context of the variational multiscale (VMS) method,more » and describes the scalable implicit time integration and direct-to-steady-state solution capability. The nonlinear solver strategy employs Newton–Krylov methods, which are preconditioned using fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners. These preconditioners are shown to enable a robust, scalable and efficient solution approach for the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-accuracy for the stabilized FE discretization. The approach is tested on a variety of prototype problems, that include MHD duct flows, an unstable hydromagnetic Kelvin–Helmholtz shear layer, and a 3D island coalescence problem used to model magnetic reconnection. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are also presented on up to 128K processors for problems with up to 1.8B unknowns on a CrayXK7.« less

  19. A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01

    We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

  20. Software design and operational model for the WCEDS prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Young, C.J.; Trujillo, J.R.

    1997-08-01

    To explore the potential of waveform correlation for CTBT, the Waveform Correlation Event Detection System (WCEDS) prototype was developed. The WCEDS software design followed the Object Modeling Technique process of analysis, system design, and detailed design and implementation. Several related executable programs are managed through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The WCEDS prototype operates in an IDC/NDC-compatible environment. It employs a CSS 3.0 database as its primary input/output interface, reading in raw waveforms at the start, and storing origins, events, arrivals, and associations at the finish. Additional output includes correlation results and data for specified testcase origins, and correlation timelines for specified locations. During the software design process, the more general seismic monitoring functionality was extracted from WCEDS-specific requirements and developed into C++ object-oriented libraries. These include the master image, grid, basic seismic, and extended seismic libraries. Existing NDC and commercial libraries were incorporated into the prototype where appropriate, to focus development activities on new capability. The WCEDS-specific application code was built in a separate layer on top of the general seismic libraries. The general seismic libraries developed for the WCEDS prototype can provide a base for other algorithm development projects.

  1. A first prototype of PyACTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Ning; Drummond, Leroy A.

    2003-08-31

    The ACTS Collection is a set of software tools that help developers or programmers write high performance parallel codes for their scientific applications. PyACTS is a Python-based interface to some of the tools in the ACTS Collection. The main purpose of developing PyACTS is to provide a uniform easy-to-use external interface to existing ACTS tools,and support ACTS users to rapidly prototype their codes with the tools. In particular, for users who are new to ACTS, they will find PyACTS helpful to test and try the functionality available in the collection. Further, this training will allow users to acquire the necessary experience to develop their own applications. In the current development phase of PyACTS, part of the ScaLAPACK subroutines are being made available. This report illustrates how we develop the idea of wrapping the ACTS Collection with a high level scripting language, like Python, and a status of the development of the Python front-end interface and future plans.

  2. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  3. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  4. DESIGN, ANALYSIS AND TEST CONCEPT FOR PROTOTYPE CRYOLINE OF ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, B.; Badgujar, S.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.; Bhattacharya, R.; Chakrapani, Ch.

    2008-03-16

    The ITER cryo-distribution and cryoline is a part of the in-kind supply for India. The design of the systems is in progress. The topology of torus and neutral beam cryoline is defined as six process pipes along with thermal shield at 80 K and outer vacuum jacket. In order to develop confidence in the concept and to establish the high level of engineering and manufacturing technology, a prototype testing has been proposed. The prototype test will be carried out on 1:1 model in terms of dimension. However, the mass flow rate of the supercritical helium at 4.5 K and gaseous helium at 80 K will be on a 1:10 scale. The prototype cryoline has been designed and analyzed for thermal, structural and hydraulic parameters. The objective of this prototype test is to verify mechanical behavior due to thermal stress and pressure force, thermal and hydraulic performances. The concept of test facility has been realized along with the Piping and Instrumentation (P and I) diagram, instrumentation, controls, data acquisition, 80 K helium generation system along with supply and return valve boxes and interfacing hardware. The design concept, methodology for analysis and results, as well as the test facility have been discussed.

  5. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, J.E.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  6. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  7. OPERATING THE WAND AND HERCULES PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. GRUETZMACHER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Two prototype systems for low-density Green is Clean (GIC) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have been in operation for three years at the Solid Waste Operation's (SWOs) non-destructive assay (NDA) building. The Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal (WAND) and the High Efficiency Radiation Counters for Ultimate Low Emission Sensitivity (HERCULES) are used to verify the waste generator's acceptable knowledge (AK) that low-density waste is nonradioactive. GIC waste includes all non-regulated waste generated in radiological controlled areas (RCAs) that has been actively segregated as ''clean'' (i.e., nonradioactive) through the use of waste generator AK. GIC waste that is verified clean can be disposed of at the Los Alamos County Landfill. It is estimated that 50-90% of the low-density room trash from RCAs at LANL might be free of contamination. To date, with pilot programs at five facilities at LANL, 3000 cubic feet of GIC waste has been verified clean by these two prototype systems. Both the WAND and HERCULES systems are highly sensitive measurement systems optimized to detect very small quantities of common LANL radionuclides. Both of the systems use a set of phoswich scintillation detectors in close proximity to the waste, which have the capability of detecting plutonium-239 concentrations below 3 pCi per gram of low density waste. Both systems detect low-energy x-rays and a broad range of gamma rays (10-2000 keV), while the WAND system also detects high energy beta particles (>100 keV). The WAND system consists of a bank of six shielded detectors which screen low density shredded waste or stacked sheets of paper moving under the detectors in a twelve inch swath on a conveyor belt. The WAND system was developed and tested at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility in conjunction with instrument system designers from the Los Alamos Safeguards Science and Technology group. The HERCULES system consists of a bank of three shielded detectors which screen low

  8. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have

  9. PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, THE ... AND WAP UNDERTAKINGS February 5, 2010 PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE ...

  10. VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation) VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation) Details hydrogen fuel cell buses being ...

  11. Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems Authors: Fishler, ...

  12. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping Capability for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping Capability for CINT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping...

  13. Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ...

  14. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of ...

  15. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping Capability for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping Capability for CINT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Fabrication: a Rapid Prototyping ...

  16. Subsea processing and control system in the GASP project; Testing of the prototype system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordvik, H.S. )

    1992-03-01

    The subsea production and processing system developed under the Goodfellow Assocs. Subsea Production (GASP) project involved two stages of separation that led to the production of exportable-quality crude oil by pipeline. The produced gas is transported along a separate line. This paper described key elements of the subsea process system. A prototype system was developed during the second phase of the project. The system was tested under dry and submerged conditions in a dry dock. Key features of the prototype system and the tests carried out are described. Prototype testing proved the viability of the GASP system and helped identify areas requiring particular attention and improvement for future applications.

  17. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  18. Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron Imaging Archaeopteryx specimens are important but extremely rare fossils. Due to their possession of both reptilian (jaws with teeth, long bony tail) and avian (feathered wings) characters, Archaeopteryx has been crucial in the development of Darwinian evolution. Despite their importance, no Archaeopteryx specimen has ever been chemically analyzed. This in large part may be explained by the analytical obstacles

  19. Mu2e transport solenoid prototype tests results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopes, Mauricio L.; G. Ambrosio; DiMarco, J.; Evbota, D.; Feher, S.; Friedsam, H.; Galt, A.; Hays, S.; Hocker, J.; Kim, M. J.; et al

    2016-02-08

    The Fermilab Mu2e experiment has been developed to search for evidence of charged lepton flavor violation through the direct conversion of muons into electrons. The transport solenoid is an s-shaped magnet which guides the muons from the source to the stopping target. It consists of fifty-two superconducting coils arranged in twenty-seven coil modules. A full-size prototype coil module, with all the features of a typical module of the full assembly, was successfully manufactured by a collaboration between INFN-Genoa and Fermilab. The prototype contains two coils that can be powered independently. In order to validate the design, the magnet went throughmore » an extensive test campaign. Warm tests included magnetic measurements with a vibrating stretched wire, electrical and dimensional checks. As a result, the cold performance was evaluated by a series of power tests as well as temperature dependence and minimum quench energy studies.« less

  20. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED ...

  1. A new small Stirling engine prototype for auxiliary employments aboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a small size Stirling engine as low power system for auxiliary employments aboard sailing boats or caravan still appears interesting. In previous papers the author presented the design, the prototype construction and the experimental tests of a monocylinder P-type configuration with the regenerator and part of the heat exchangers set on the displacer; the heat was irradiated by the head and it was removed by the water circulating through the rod of the displacer and around the cylinder. Considerable reductions in dead volume and global dimensions were obtained. At the same time, however, the weight of the heat exchanger regenerator displacer, mainly due to the cooler, kept the speed of revolution from increasing, with consequent limitation of specific power value; furthermore thermal insulation between hot and cold ends and displacer rod seals proved to be critical features as far as reliability is concerned. A new prototype has been developed adopting {gamma}-type configuration with stationary heat exchangers and with the displacer connecting rod linked to the crankshaft by means of an epicyclic train able to make its movement linear thus eliminating rod seal side loadings. The paper deals with the criteria followed with the design and the prototype construction; the adopted technical solutions are shown and discussed.

  2. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  3. FRACSTIM/I: A Fully Coupled Fluid Flow/Heat Transport and Geomechanical Deformation/Fracture Generation Simulator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This research will develop a fully coupled, fully implicit approach for EGS stimulation and reservoir simulation. Solve all governing equations simultaneously in fully implicit way. Enable massively parallel performance and scalability. Apply state of the art nonlinear PDE solvers: Jacobian Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method.

  4. The chip-scale atomic clock : prototype evaluation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mescher, Mark; Varghese, Mathew; Lutwak, Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Tepolt, Gary; Geib, Kent Martin; Leblanc, John; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Rashid, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    The authors have developed a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) for applications requiring atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. At PTTI/FCS 2005, they reported on the demonstration of a prototype CSAC, with an overall size of 10 cm{sup 3}, power consumption > 150 mW, and short-term stability sy(t) < 1 x 10-9t-1/2. Since that report, they have completed the development of the CSAC, including provision for autonomous lock acquisition and a calibrated output at 10.0 MHz, in addition to modifications to the physics package and system architecture to improve performance and manufacturability.

  5. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  6. Developing Fully Coupled Subchannel Model in RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Richard Martineau

    2014-09-01

    This is a DOE milestone report documenting the implementation of the subchannel model into the RELAP-7 code.

  7. Fully Developed Turbulent Mixing in an Annular Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hyun-Kyung; Zhou, Yijie; de Almeida, Valmor F; Glimm, James G

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress on the characterization of turbulent mixing fluid flow and relate these ideas to high-speed, two-phase Couette flow with application to mixing in a centrifugal contactor. The general ideas are more broadly applicable and have been applied to the study of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid mixing, combustion in the engine of a scram jet and the analysis of inertial confinement pellet simulations.

  8. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 1: Building prototype analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of, and the baseline assumptions and simulation results for, the building prototype simulations conducted for the building types designated in the Work Plan for Demand-side Management Assessment of Hawaii`s Demand-Side Resources (HES-4, Phase 2). This report represents the second revision to the initial building prototype description report provided to DBEDT early in the project. Modifications and revisions to the prototypes, based on further calibration efforts and on comments received from DBEDT Staff have been incorporated into this final version. These baseline prototypes form the basis upon which the DSM measure impact estimates and the DSM measure data base were developed for this project. This report presents detailed information for each of the 17 different building prototypes developed for use with the DOE-21E program (23 buildings in total, including resorts and hotels defined separately for each island) to estimate the impact of the building technologies and measures included in this project. The remainder of this section presents some nomenclature and terminology utilized in the reports, tables, and data bases developed from this project to denote building type and vintage. Section 2 contains a more detailed discussion of the data sources, the definition of the residential sector building prototypes, and results of the DOE-2 analysis. Section 3 provides a similar discussion for the commercial sector. The prototype and baseline simulation results are presented in a separate section for each building type. Where possible, comparison of the baseline simulation results with benchmark data from the ENERGY 2020 model or other demand forecasting models specific to Hawaii is included for each building. Appendix A contains a detailed listing of the commercial sector baseline indoor lighting technologies included in the existing and new prototypes by building type.

  9. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  10. Prototype design of an advanced ceramic receiver. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of the activities described in this report is to investigate an advanced gas receiver design concept. The advanced gas reactor design concept utilizes a translucent ceramic tube packed with a solar absorbing, porous material. A gas is pumped through the tube and is heated to a high temperature by direct solar energy incident on the tube surface. The basic energy exchange mechanisms are the transfer of the incoming solar flux through the translucent tube, the absorption of the solar energy by the packing material, and the convective transfer of the absorbed solar energy from the packing material to the gas. The approach taken for this activity was to develop a conceptual design of a commercial size receiver, investigate critical design elements of the commercial receiver, develop a preliminary design of a prototype, and identify the appropriate facility for testing the prototype. In order to develop the conceptual design of the commercial size receiver a thermo/hydraulic numerical model of the tube was devised. This model yields predictions of the thermal performance of the tube along with estimates of the tube pressure drops. A detailed description of the model is given in section IIIA of this report. Using the model it was possible to establish an optimum tube diameter and length for a commercial size receiver. With the tube dimensions known it was then possible to perform design studies to determine tube stresses and attachment schemes.

  11. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  12. Working With PNNL Mentorees, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With PNNL Mentorees, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype Safeguards Fixtures | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission...

  13. Prototype Programmatic Agreement Guidance (ACHP, 2012) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement Guidance (ACHP, 2012) Prototype Programmatic Agreement Guidance (ACHP, 2012) Prototype programmatic agreements are a type of program alternative that the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) can designate to assist federal agencies in their efforts to comply with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470f) and its implementing regulations (36 CFR Part 800). Prototype agreements may be used for

  14. Cell Analysis, Modeling, and Prototyping Facility | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Cell Analysis, Modeling, and Prototyping Facility The goal of Argonne's Cell Analysis, Modeling, and Prototyping (CAMP) Facility is to design, fabricate, and characterize high-quality prototype cells using the latest discoveries in high-energy anode and cathode battery materials created at Argonne and in research labs around the world. PDF icon CAMP_Facility_fact_sheet

  15. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Beshears, David L; Hively, Lee M; Scudiere, Matthew B; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  16. RAMGEN ROTOR CARTRIDGE FOR THE PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-09-01

    The research and development of a unique combustion engine is presented. The engine converts the thrust from ramjet modules located on the rim of a disk into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. A test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the pre-prototype engine and incorporation of improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with vortex generators and bluff body flame holders demonstrated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Finally, successful operation of novel fuel and cooling air delivery systems have resolved issues of gas (fuel and air) delivery to the individual rotor segments. The lessons learned from the pre-prototype engine are currently being applied to the development of a 2.8MW engine.

  17. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  18. Prototype Instrument for Noninvasive Ultrasonic Inspection and Indentification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-08-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  19. A prototype catalogue: DOE National Laboratory technologies for infrastructure modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currie, J.W.; Wilfert, G.L.; March, F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) with information about selected technologies under development in the Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Laboratory System and its Program Office operations. The technologies selected are those that have the potential to improve the performance of the nation's public works infrastructure. The product is a relational database that we refer to as a prototype catalogue of technologies.'' The catalogue contains over 100 entries of DOE-supported technologies having potential application to infrastructure-related problems. The work involved conceptualizing an approach, developing a framework for organizing technology information, and collecting samples of readily available data to be put into a prototype catalogue. In developing the catalogue, our objectives were to demonstrate the concept and provide readily available information to OTA. As such, the catalogue represents a preliminary product. The existing database is not exhaustive and likely represents only a fraction of relevant technologies developed by DOE. In addition, the taxonomy we used to classify technologies is based on the judgment of project staff and has received minimal review by individuals who have been involved in the development and testing of the technologies. Finally, end users will likely identify framework changes and additions that will strengthen the catalogue approach. The framework for the catalogue includes four components: a description of the technology, along with potential uses and other pertinent information; identification of the source of the descriptive information; identification of a person or group knowledgeable about the technology; and a classification of the described technology in terms of its type, application, life-cycle use, function, and readiness.

  20. Evaluation of Computer-Based Procedure System Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc; Seth Hays

    2012-09-01

    relevant for the task and situation at hand, which has potential consequences of taking up valuable time when operators must be responding to the situation, and potentially leading operators down an incorrect response path. Other challenges related to PBPs are the management of multiple procedures, place-keeping, finding the correct procedure for the task at hand, and relying on other sources of additional information to ensure a functional and accurate understanding of the current plant status (Converse, 1995; Fink, Killian, Hanes, & Naser, 2009; Le Blanc & Oxstrand, 2012). The main focus of this report is to describe the research activities conducted to address the remaining two objectives; Develop a prototype CBP system based on requirements identified and Evaluate the CBP prototype. The emphasis will be on the evaluation of an initial CBP prototype in at a Nuclear Power Plant.

  1. Test of Two NB Superstructure Prototypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekutowicz, J.

    2004-04-16

    An alternative layout of the TESLA linear collider [1], based on weakly coupled multi-cell superconducting structures (superstructures), significantly reduces investment cost due to a simplification in the RF system of the main accelerator. In January 1999, preparation of the beam test of the superstructure began in order to prove the feasibility of this layout. Progress in the preparation was reported frequently in Proceedings of TESLA Collaboration Meetings. Last year, two superstructures were installed in the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac at DESY to experimentally verify: methods to balance the accelerating gradient in a weakly coupled system, the stability of the energy gain for the entire train of bunches in macro-pulses and the damping of Higher Order Modes (HOMs). We present results of the first cold and beam test of these two Nb prototypes.

  2. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion ...

  3. Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to ...

  4. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices...

  5. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  6. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  7. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstruc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    light water reactor Concepts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstructure fueled light water reactor ...

  8. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will...

  9. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) Fuel in FHRs: A Preliminary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactor Physics Assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) Fuel in FHRs: A Preliminary Reactor Physics Assessment ...

  10. MASSIVE HYBRID PARALLELISM FOR FULLY IMPLICIT MULTIPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody J. Permann; David Andrs; John W. Peterson; Derek R. Gaston

    2013-05-01

    As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided.

  11. Duct injection technology prototype development. Materials corrosion report, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, S.L.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 08 HYDROGEN; CATALYSTS; GETTERS; HYDROGEN; LASERS; MONITORING; OPTICAL FIBERS; PALLADIUM; POLYMERS; SILICONES; TRANSDUCERS

  13. Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Omnivorous Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Omnivorous engine is a research project designed to understand flex fuel combustion and optimize a single engine to run on many different fuels with optimum efficiency. ...

  14. Development of a prototype Open-close positron emission tomography...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp ; Okumura, Satoshi ; Komori, Masataka ; Ogata, Yoshimune ; Kato, Katsuhiko 1 ; Watabe, Tadashi ; Ikeda, Hayato ; ...

  15. Developing the Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver for a Prototype...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042313miller.p...

  16. US NDC Modernization Iteration E1 Prototyping Report: Common...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E1 Prototyping Report: Common Object Interface. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lewis, Jennifer E. ; Hess, Michael M. Publication Date: 2014-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1173203...

  17. Y-12: Seawolf to National Prototype Center, part 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report, Fall 2005, Volume 2, Issue 3 appears the following story titled Prototype jet engine fan cases. "At the request of GKN Aerospace, a major supplier of aircraft ...

  18. NREL: News - Prototype Low-Emissions Natural Gas Engine Saves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the promise of the prototype medium-duty natural gas engine equipped with ... and activities in alternative fuels and vehicles are available at www.afdc.nrel.gov. ...

  19. MHK Projects/WavePlane Prototype 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WavePlane Prototype 1 < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADM...

  20. Hydrogen, CNG, and HCNG Dispenser System – Prototype Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is currently testing a prototype gaseous fuel dispenser developed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC). The dispenser (Figure 1) delivers three types of fuels: 100% hydrogen, 100% compressed natural gas (CNG), and blends of hydrogen and CNG (HCNG) using two independent single nozzles (Figure 2). The nozzle for the 100% hydrogen dispensing is rated at 5,000 psig and used solely for 100% hydrogen fuel. The second nozzle is rated at 3,600 psig and is used for both CNG and HCNG fuels. This nozzle connects to both a CNG supply line and a hydrogen supply line and blends the hydrogen and CNG to supply HCNG levels of 15, 20, 30, and 50% (by volume).

  1. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  2. Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  3. Eaton Throat-Valve Element prototype concept. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, M.R.; Arendts, J.G.; Berry, R.A.; Korth, G.E.; Schwieder, P.R.; Sekot, J.P.; Snow, S.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve techniques for simulating nuclear blasts, the US Army Research Laboratory has been studying the merits of computer-controlled valves. The valve studies have been aimed at providing the Department of Defense with the capacity to conduct nuclear blast and thermal survivability testing on full-scale tactical vehicles. This report documents the development and findings of a computer model that simulates the behavior of the Eaton-Throat Valve Element (ETVE) prototype, and describes a proposed modification concept for the ETVE. The computer model reveals three main findings: (1) the ETVE chatters during the open cycle, (2) the chatter is caused by the high gas forces on the sliding sleeve as the driver gas passes through its portholes, and (3) the chatter is aggravated because there is insufficient damping in the system. The INEL recommends opening the ETVE by sliding the sleeve toward the downstream end of the valve instead of toward the upstream end, as the ETVE is presently configured, and to provide additional damping to the system. However, neither of these configuration changes can be achieved easily, and a redesign and analysis f the ETVE must be completed prior to performing any work on the current ETVE prototype. The ETVE simulation model proved to be an extremely valuable tool in analyzing the qualitative nature of the valve`s operation. Further development of the model is recommended for quantitative analysis and design of the ETVE. This report explains the model and stress analysis findings, and proposes a redesign concept.

  4. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  5. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the inter-aggregate and intra-aggregate pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates was larger

  6. Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-04-16

    This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of Patterned Multifunctional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-07-18

    The ability to engineer ordered arrays of objects on multiple length scales has potential for applications such as microelectronics, sensors, wave guides, and photonic lattices with tunable band gaps. Since the invention of surfactant templated mesoporous sieves in 1992, great progress has been made in controlling different mesophases in the form of powders, particles, fibers, and films. To date, although there have been several reports of patterned mesostructures, materials prepared have been limited to metal oxides with no specific functionality. For many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies utilized so far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors present a series of new methods of producing patterns within seconds. Combining sol-gel chemistry, Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA), and rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates, they form hierarchically organized silica structures that exhibit order and function on multiple scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale, mono-sized pores are organized into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional networks, providing size-selective accessibility from the gas or liquid phase, and on the macroscale, 2-dimensional arrays and fluidic or photonic systems may be defined. These rapid patterning techniques establish for the first time a link between computer-aided design and rapid processing of self-assembled nanostructures.

  8. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Light Water Reactor Concepts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor ...

  9. Neutronic Analysis of the Burning of Transuranics in Fully Ceramic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculations have been performed to assess the neutronic behavior of pins of Fully-Ceramic ... of coolant voiding suggest that the behavior of this fuel would be similar to a MOX ...

  10. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

  11. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.

    1995-11-01

    Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ``proven`` long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford.

  12. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  13. Rapid prototyping for radio-frequency geolocation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briles, S. C.; Arrowood, J. L.; Braun, T. R.; Turcotte, D.; Fiset, E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous space-to-ground, single-platform geolocation experiments exploiting time-difference-of arrival (TDOA) via interferometry were successful at separating and quantitatively characterizing interfering radio frequency (RF) signals from expected RF transmissions. Much of the success of these experiments rested on the use of embedded processors to perform the required signal processing. The experiments handled data in a 'snapshot' fashion: digitized data was collected, the data was processed via a digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor to yield differential phase measurements, and these measurements were transmitted to the Earth for geolocation processing. With the utilization of FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays) for the intensive number-crunching algorithms, the processing of streaming real-time data is feasible for bandwidths on the order of 20 MHz. By partitioning the signal processing algorithm so there is a significant reduction in the data rate as data flows through the FPGA, a DSP microprocessor can now be employed to perform further decision-oriented processing on the FPGA output. This hybrid architecture, employing both FPGAs and DSPs, typically requires an expensive and lengthy development cycle. However, the use of graphical development environments with auto-code generation and hardware-in-the-loop testing can result in rapid prototyping for geolocation experiments, which enables adaptation to emerging signals of interest in a cost and time effective manner.

  14. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the puritymore » requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.« less

  15. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the purity requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.

  16. New High-Efficiency Window Prototype Result of DOE Partnership...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 4, 2006 - 9:34am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced a next-generation residential and commercial window prototype. When widely ...

  17. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Proc, K.

    2005-02-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final data.

  18. PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY, THE [INSERT STATE NAME] ENERGY OFFICE AND THE [INSERT STATE NAME] STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE REGARDING EECBG, SEP AND WAP UNDERTAKINGS February 5, 2010 | Department of Energy PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, THE [INSERT STATE NAME] ENERGY OFFICE AND THE [INSERT STATE NAME] STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE REGARDING EECBG, SEP AND WAP UNDERTAKINGS February 5, 2010 PROTOTYPE PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES

  19. VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation) VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Interim Results (Presentation) Details hydrogen fuel cell buses being evaluated in service at AC Transit. Presented at the APTA Bus and Paratransit Conference in Anaheim, California, April 30 through May 3, 2006. 40012.pdf (412.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell

  20. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  1. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; et al

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of thismore » type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.« less

  2. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. -C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J. -C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of this type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  3. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baily, Scott A.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Wheat, Robert Mitchell; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-11-16

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  4. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  5. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  6. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  7. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  8. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G.S.; Va'vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; ,

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  9. Effect of Substrate Configuration on the Grain Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Ni for Prototyping LIGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nacy Y. C. Yang

    2002-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray lithographic molding of PMMA-Ti/Cu/Ti substrates has been developed and used in the electrodeposition of Ni microparts for prototype LIGA development at SNL, CA. Alternative molding processes that minimize x-ray beam line use and reduce processing time are of interest for the rapid fabrication of large quantities of microparts. The objective of this investigation is to examine, archive, and compare the grain structure and morphology of deposits produced from four different molding technologies currently under development. We conclude that deposit microstructure and uniformity are greatly influenced by substrate material and design configuration. The findings are summarized.

  10. Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M.; Feustel, H.E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.

  11. Design and Construction of a Prototype Solenoid Coil for MICE Coupling Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Guo, XingLong; Xu, FengYu; Liu, XiaoKun; Wu, Hong; Zheng, ShiXian; Green, Michael A; Li, Derun; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael

    2010-06-28

    A superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around four conventional RF cavities, which produces up to 2.6 T central magnetic field to keep the muons within the cavities, is to be used for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The coupling coil made from copper matrix NbTi conductors is the largest of three types of magnets in MICE both in terms of 1.5 m inner diameter and about 13MJ stored magnetic energy at full operation current of 210A. The stress induced inside the coil assembly during cool down and magnet charging is relatively high. In order to validate the design method and develop the coil winding technique with inside-wound SC splices required for the coupling coil, a prototype coil made from the same conductor and with the same diameter and thickness but only one-fourth long as the coupling coil was designed and fabricated by ICST. The prototype coil was designed to be charged to strain conditions that are equivalent or greater than would be encountered in the coupling coil. This paper presents detailed design of the prototype coil as well as developed coil winding skills. The analyses on stress in the coil assembly and quench process were carried out.

  12. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  13. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less

  14. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-12-14

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  15. BNL 56 MHz HOM Damper Prototype Fabrication at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huque, Naeem A.; Daly, Edward F.; Clemens, William A.; McIntyre, Gary T.; Wu, Qiong; Seberg, Scott; Bellavia, Steve

    2015-09-01

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider's (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for electronics prototype laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2005-10-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/California Electronics Prototype Laboratory (EPL) in May 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Electronics Prototype Laboratory personnel in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with the EPL to implement the recommendations.

  17. 2016 - Prototype Demos | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prototype Demos 5.26.2016 Prototype Demonstrations - May 5, 2016 Hot or Really Hot ?: Two hot plates were prepared, one at moderate temperature (~150F) and the other one at very hot temperature(~250F), with surface thermometers sitting on top of the hot plates. Audiences are asked "if you drop water, which one will evaporate faster?" Most of them think the water drop on the hotter one will evaporate faster. However, the result is counter-intuitive. What happens is that the hotter one

  18. Prototyping Regional Discrimination Tools with Matseis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chael, Eric; Harris, Mark; Young, Chris; Mayeda, Kevin; Walter, William; Taylor, Steve; Velasco, Aaron

    1999-08-03

    To facilitate the development testing and comparison of regional seismic discriminants, we have implemented some of the most promising techniques in Matseis, a-Matlab-based seismic processing toolkit. The existing Matseis package provides graphical tools for analyzing seismic data from a network of stations. It can access data via a CSS 3.0 database, or from static files in a format defined by the user. Waveforms are displayed in a record-section format, with overlays for IASPE191 travel-time curves. The user can pick arrivals and locate events, then show the results on a map. Tools are available for spectral and polarization measurements, as well as beam forming and f-k analysis with array data. Additionally, one has full access to the Matlab environment and any functions available there, as well as to portions of the U.S. Department of Energy Knowledge Base. Recently, we have added some new tools to Matseis for calculating regional discrimination measurements. The first of these performs Lg coda analysis as developed by Mayeda and coworkers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Lg coda magnitudes are calculated from the amplitudes of the coda envelopes in narrow frequency bands. Ratios of these amplitudes between high- and low-frequency bands provide a spectral-ratio discriminant for regional events. The second tool we have implemented measures P/Lg phase ratios, using the MDAC technique of Taylor (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and Walter (LLNL). P and Lg amplitudes are obtained at select frequencies, then corrected for source magnitude and propagation path. Finally, we added a tool for analyzing long-period Rayleigh and Love arrivals, useful for moment:magnitude and LQ:LR discrimination. Because all these tools have been written as Matlab functions, they can be easily modified to experiment with different processing details. The performance of the discriminants can be evaluated using any event available in the database.

  19. Final Report Providing the Design for Low-Cost Wireless Current Transducer and Electric Power Sensor Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Burghard, Brion J.; Reid, Larry D.

    2005-01-31

    This report describes the design and development of a wireless current transducer and electric power sensor prototype. The report includes annotated schematics of the power sensor circuitry and the printed circuit board. The application program used to illustrate the functionality of the wireless sensors is described in this document as well.

  20. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Initial Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results of initial testing of an Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Several configurations of the ABUNCL models, which use 10B-lined proportional counters in place of 3He proportional counters for the neutron detection elements, were previously reported. The ABUNCL tested is of a different design than previously modeled. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was performed, and modeling will be conducted. Testing of the system reconfigured for active testing will be performed in the near future, followed by testing with nuclear fuel.

  1. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning ... Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between ...

  2. Prototyping and validating requirements of radiation and nuclear emergency plan simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, AHA.; Rozan, MZA.; Ibrahim, R.; Deris, S.; Selamat, A.

    2015-04-29

    Organizational incapability in developing unrealistic, impractical, inadequate and ambiguous mechanisms of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan (EPR) causing emergency plan disorder and severe disasters. These situations resulting from 65.6% of poor definition and unidentified roles and duties of the disaster coordinator. Those unexpected conditions brought huge aftermath to the first responders, operators, workers, patients and community at large. Hence, in this report, we discuss prototyping and validating of Malaysia radiation and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan simulation model (EPRM). A prototyping technique was required to formalize the simulation model requirements. Prototyping as systems requirements validation was carried on to endorse the correctness of the model itself against the stakeholders intensions in resolving those organizational incapability. We have made assumptions for the proposed emergency preparedness and response model (EPRM) through the simulation software. Those assumptions provided a twofold of expected mechanisms, planning and handling of the respective emergency plan as well as in bringing off the hazard involved. This model called RANEPF (Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework) simulator demonstrated the training emergency response perquisites rather than the intervention principles alone. The demonstrations involved the determination of the casualties absorbed dose range screening and the coordination of the capacity planning of the expected trauma triage. Through user-centred design and sociotechnical approach, RANEPF simulator was strategized and simplified, though certainly it is equally complex.

  3. Ability of TiO2(110) Surface to Be Fully Hydroxylated and Fully Reduced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhitao; Garcia, Juan C.; Deskins, N. A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2015-08-06

    Many TiO2 applications (e.g., in heterogeneous catalysis) involve contact with ambient atmosphere and/or water. The resulting hydroxylation can significantly alter its surface properties. While behavior of single, isolated OH species on the model metal oxide surface of rutile TiO2(110) is relatively well understood, much less is known regarding highly-hydroxylated surfaces and/or whether TiO2(110) could be fully-hydroxylated under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Here we report in situ formation of a well-ordered, fully-hydroxylated TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) surface using an enhanced photochemical approach, key parts of which are pre-dosing of water and multi-step dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis of the carboxylic (trimethyl acetic) acid. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory results, we show that the attained super OH surface is also fully-reduced, as a result of the photochemical trapping of electrons at the OH groups.

  4. Evaluation of database technologies for the CTBT Knowledge Base prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, R.; Shepard-Dombroski, E.; Baur, D.; Hipp, J.; Moore, S.; Young, C.; Chael, E.

    1996-11-01

    This document examines a number of different software technologies in the rapidly changing field of database management systems, evaluates these systems in light of the expected needs of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Knowledge Base, and makes some recommendations for the initial prototypes of the Knowledge Base. The Knowledge Base requirements are examined and then used as criteria for evaluation of the database management options. A mock-up of the data expected in the Knowledge Base is used as a basis for examining how four different database technologies deal with the problems of storing and retrieving the data. Based on these requirement and the results of the evaluation, the recommendation is that the Illustra database be considered for the initial prototype of the Knowledge Base. Illustra offers a unique blend of performance, flexibility, and features that will aid in the implementation of the prototype. At the same time, Illustra provides a high level of compatibility with the hardware and software environments present at the US NDC (National Data Center) and the PIDC (Prototype International Data Center).

  5. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  6. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Army War College final prototype optical disk system testing and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, A.J.; Gillespie, S.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the continuation of the PC-based optical disk retrieval-storage system testing and evaluation activities that Data Systems Research and Development (DSRD) staff have performed over the last year for the Army War College (AWC), Carlisle, Pennsylvania. A previous report (see Army War College Optical Disk System Test and Evaluation Report, K/DSRD-74, April 1989) detailed the performance testing results of the initial two prototype optical disk systems evaluated by DSRD. Based on the results of this prototype system testing and evaluation, the AWC selected the SAIC/LaserData system for further development and testing. This report describes the development activities that were performed to enhance the SAIC/LaserData system for further development and testing. This report describes the development activities that were performed to enhance the SAIC/LaserData system and details the tests and evaluations that were performed under an environment similar to that which would be encountered at the sponsor's site. The prototype optical disk system that was tested and evaluated consists of two stations: a master scanning station for scanning, indexing, and storing of documents onto master and distribution disks and retrieval station for retrieving and displaying information contained on the distribution disks. The master scanning station includes a 386 Central Processing Unit (CPU), a high-speed scanner, and a dual 5.25-inch optical disk drive and is capable of being networked. The retrieval station, intended mainly for viewing documents, does not have a scanner and has only one optical disk drive.

  8. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  10. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  11. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving

  12. Development of {micro}Chemlab{sup TM}/CG for Detection of Biotoxins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Fruetel; R. Renzi; R. Crocker; V. VanderNoot; S. Ferko; J. Stamps; I. Shokair; D. Yee; C. Hasselbrink

    2000-10-23

    The authors have developed a research prototype device for low level detection of SEB, ricin, botulinum toxin and ovalbumin in liquid samples. This hand-held, low power device analyzes samples by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) in a parallel microchannel format, and provides sensitive detection of fluorescently-tagged analytes using miniature 392 nm diode laser-induced fluorescence. They have successfully demonstrated simultaneous parallel channel separations, fully automated high voltage control of fluidics and automated data analysis with toxin identification and semi-quantitation in the presence of aerosol backgrounds in a stand-alone self-contained unit. Tests of the fully integrated device indicate high sensitivity detection (as low as 5 nM) and cycle times of 5-10 minutes.

  13. Description of the prototype diagnostic residual gas analyzer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, T. R.; Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Marcus, C.

    2014-11-15

    The diagnostic residual gas analyzer (DRGA) system to be used during ITER tokamak operation is being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure fuel ratios (deuterium and tritium), fusion ash (helium), and impurities in the plasma. The eventual purpose of this instrument is for machine protection, basic control, and physics on ITER. Prototyping is ongoing to optimize the hardware setup and measurement capabilities. The DRGA prototype is comprised of a vacuum system and measurement technologies that will overlap to meet ITER measurement requirements. Three technologies included in this diagnostic are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, an ion trap mass spectrometer, and an optical penning gauge that are designed to document relative and absolute gas concentrations.

  14. Longitudinal Gradient Dipole Magnet Prototype for APS at ANL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kashikhin, V. S.; Borland, M.; Chlachidze, G.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; DiMarco, J.; Doose, C. L.; Gardner, T. J.; Harding, D. J.; Jaski, M. S.; et al

    2016-01-26

    We planned an upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The main goal of the upgrade is to improve the storage ring performance based on more advanced optics. One of the key magnet system elements is bending dipole magnets having a field strength change along the electron beam path. Moreover, a prototype of one such longitudinal gradient dipole magnet has been designed, built, and measured in a collaborative effort of ANL and Fermilab. Our paper discusses various magnetic design options, the selected magnet design, and the fabrication technology. The prototype magnet has been measured by rotationalmore » coils, a stretched wire, and a Hall probe. Measurement results are discussed and compared with simulations.« less

  15. Federal prototype oil shale tract C-A offtract lease, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A draft environmental impact statement (EPA No. 850428D) assesses the impacts of proposed offtract disposal of waste materials associated with an open pit mine on a prototype oil shale lease tract. The offtract lease would include facilities for retorting, upgrading, power generation, and product storage. Offtract disposal and plant siting would make the mining cite more viable and cost effective. The project would require rerouting of two major country roads, and would eliminate an airport and other facilities. The site would become more isolated, which could affect future development in the area. The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 mandates the impact study.

  16. International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jim Turnure, Director Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis, EIA EIA Conference: Asian Energy Demand July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China Dawn of new global oil market paradigm? 2 Jim Turnure, EIA Conference July 14, 2014 * Conventional wisdom has centered around $100-120/barrel oil and 110-115 million b/d global liquid fuel demand in the long term (2030-2040) * Demand in non-OECD may push

  17. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN STRATIFIED SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2013-07-10

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with zero magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite (constant) thermal diffusivity. We choose radiative boundary conditions at the vertical boundaries in which the heat flux is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. We compare the results with the corresponding cases in which fixed temperature boundary conditions are applied. The most notable result is that the formation of a fully convective state in which the density is nearly constant as a function of height and the heat is transported to the upper and lower boundaries by overturning motions is robust and persists even in cases with radiative boundary conditions. Interestingly, in the convective regime, although the diffusive transport is negligible, the mean stratification does not relax to an adiabatic state.

  18. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  19. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  20. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  1. Modeling and simulation of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for the ITER prototype neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbisan, M. Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    A test facility for the development of the neutral beam injection system for ITER is under construction at Consorzio RFX. It will host two experiments: SPIDER, a 100 keV H{sup −}/D{sup −} ion RF source, and MITICA, a prototype of the full performance ITER injector (1 MV, 17 MW beam). A set of diagnostics will monitor the operation and allow to optimize the performance of the two prototypes. In particular, beam emission spectroscopy will measure the uniformity and the divergence of the fast particles beam exiting the ion source and travelling through the beam line components. This type of measurement is based on the collection of the H{sub α}/D{sub α} emission resulting from the interaction of the energetic particles with the background gas. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the spectrum of the collected emissions in order to design this diagnostic and to study its performance. The paper describes the model at the base of the simulations and presents the modeled H{sub α} spectra in the case of MITICA experiment.

  2. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  3. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  4. A prototype functional language implementation for hierarchical- memory architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolski, R.; Feo, J.; Cann, D.

    1992-01-14

    Programming languages are the most important tool at a programmers' disposal. All other tools correct, visualize, or evaluate the product crafted by this tool. The advent of multiprocessor computer systems has greatly complicated the programmer's task an increased his need for high-level languages capable of automatically taming these architectures. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation of Sisal for multiprocessor, hierarchical-memory systems. The implementation includes explicit compiler and runtime control that effectively exploits the different levels of memory and manages interprocess communications (IPC). We give preliminary performance results for this system on the BBN TC2000.

  5. Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense ...

  6. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  7. Intial performance from the NOvA surface prototype detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muether, M.; ,

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  8. Mu2e transport solenoid prototype design and manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fabbricatore, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Cheban, S.; Evbota, D.; Farinon, S.; Lamm, M.; Lopes, M.; Musenich, R.; Wands, R.; Masullo, G.

    2016-02-08

    The Mu2e Transport Solenoid consists of 52 coils arranged in 27 coil modules that form the S-shaped cold mass. Each coil is wound from Al-stabilized NbTi superconductor. The coils are supported by an external structural aluminum shell machined from a forged billet. Most of the coil modules house two coils, with the axis of each coil oriented at an angle of approximately 5° with respect to each other. The coils are indirectly cooled with LHe circulating in tubes welded on the shell. In order to enhance the cooling capacity, pure aluminum sheets connect the inner bore of the coils tomore » the cooling tubes. The coils are placed inside the shell by the means of a shrink-fit procedure. A full-size prototype, with all the features of the full assembly, was successfully manufactured in a collaboration between INFN Genova and Fermilab. In order to ensure an optimal mechanical prestress at the coil-shell interface, the coils are inserted into the shell through a shrink-fitting process. We present the details of the prototype with the design choices as validated by the structural analysis. In conclusion, the fabrication steps are described as well.« less

  9. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettry, J. Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; Chaudet, E.; Gil-Flores, J.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Koszar, I.; Mahner, E.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, Ø.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O’Neil, M.; and others

    2014-02-15

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H{sup −} ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 16–22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  10. Fastcast: Integration and application of rapid prototyping and computational simulation to investment casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The emergence of several rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP and M) technologies is having a dramatic impact on investment casting. While the most successful of the rapid prototyping technologies are almost a decade old, relatively recent process advances in their application have produced some remarkable success in utilizing their products as patterns for investment castings. Sandia National Laboratories has been developed highly coupled experimental and computational capabilities to examine the investment casting process with the intention of reducing the amount of time required to manufacture castings, and to increase the quality of the finished product. This presentation will begin with process aspects of RP and M pattern production and handling, shell fabrication, burnout, and casting. The emphasis will be on how the use of Stereolithography (SL) or Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) patterns differs from more traditional wax pattern processes. Aspects of computational simulation to couple design, thermal analysis, and mold filling will be discussed. Integration of these topics is probably the greatest challenge to the use of concurrent engineering principles with investment casting. Sandia has conducted several experiments aimed at calibrating computer codes and providing data for input into these simulations. Studies involving materials as diverse as stainless steel and gold have been conducted to determine liquid metal behavior in molds via real time radiography. The application of these experiments to predictive simulations will be described.

  11. Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

    2011-03-21

    A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

  12. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  13. Scalable Nonlinear Solvers for Fully Implicit Coupled Nuclear Fuel Modeling. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Xiang; Pernice, Michael

    2014-09-29

    The focus of the project is on the development and customization of some highly scalable domain decomposition based preconditioning techniques for the numerical solution of nonlinear, coupled systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from nuclear fuel simulations. These high-order PDEs represent multiple interacting physical fields (for example, heat conduction, oxygen transport, solid deformation), each is modeled by a certain type of Cahn-Hilliard and/or Allen-Cahn equations. Most existing approaches involve a careful splitting of the fields and the use of field-by-field iterations to obtain a solution of the coupled problem. Such approaches have many advantages such as ease of implementation since only single field solvers are needed, but also exhibit disadvantages. For example, certain nonlinear interactions between the fields may not be fully captured, and for unsteady problems, stable time integration schemes are difficult to design. In addition, when implemented on large scale parallel computers, the sequential nature of the field-by-field iterations substantially reduces the parallel efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, fully coupled approaches have been investigated in order to obtain full physics simulations.

  14. Absence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at fully epitaxial Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} interface (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radaelli, G. Petti, D.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-05-07

    Interfacial MagnetoElectric coupling (MEC) at ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interfaces has recently emerged as a promising route to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) system, various MEC mechanisms have been theoretically predicted. Experimentally, it is well established that using BTO single crystal substrates MEC is dominated by strain-mediated mechanisms. In case of ferromagnetic layers epitaxially grown onto BTO films, instead, no direct evidence for MEC has been provided, apart from the results obtained on tunneling junction sandwiching a BTO tunneling barrier. In this paper, MEC at fully epitaxial Fe/BTO interface is investigated by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and magnetoresistance measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated on BTO. We find no evidence for strain-mediated MEC mechanisms in epitaxial systems, likely due to clamping of BTO to the substrate. Our results indicate that pure electronic MEC is the route of choice to be explored for achieving the electrical writing of information in epitaxial ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures.

  15. Business Case Analysis of Prototype Fabrication Division Recapitalization Plan. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, Steven Richard; Benson, Faith Ann; Dinehart, Timothy Grant

    2015-04-30

    Business case studies were completed to support procurement of new machines and capital equipment in the Prototype Fabrication (PF) Division SM-39 and TA-03-0102 machine shops. Economic analysis was conducted for replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine in SM-39, the Haas Vertical CNC Mill in Building 102, and the Hardinge Q10/65-SP Lathe in SM-39. Analysis was also conducted for adding a NanoTech Lathe in Building 102 and a new electrical discharge machine (EDM) in SM-39 to augment current capabilities. To determine the value of switching machinery, a baseline scenario was compared with a future scenario where new machinery was purchased and installed. Costs and benefits were defined via interviews with subject matter experts.

  16. A prototype silicon double quantum dot with dispersive microwave readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A. R. Henry, E.; Namaan, O.; Siddiqi, I.; Lo, C. C.; Wang, Y.-T.; Bokor, J.; Yablonovitch, E.; Li, H.; Greenman, L.; Whaley, K. B.; Schenkel, T.

    2014-07-28

    We present a unique design and fabrication process for a lateral, gate-confined double quantum dot in an accumulation mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure coupled to an integrated microwave resonator. All electrostatic gates for the double quantum dot are contained in a single metal layer, and use of the MOS structure allows for control of the location of the two-dimensional electron gas via the location of the accumulation gates. Numerical simulations of the electrostatic confinement potential are performed along with an estimate of the coupling of the double quantum dot to the microwave resonator. Prototype devices are fabricated and characterized by transport measurements of electron confinement and reflectometry measurements of the microwave resonator.

  17. SAMPLE (Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout tools, and Education)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, B.R.; Barron, C.C.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    The SAMPLE (Sandia Agile MEMS Protyping, Layout tools, and Education) service makes Sandia`s state-of-the-art surface-micromachining fabrication process, known as SUMMiT, available to US industry for the first time. The service provides a short cause and customized computer-aided design (CAD) tools to assist customers in designing micromachine prototypes to be fabricated in SUMMiT. Frequent small-scale manufacturing runs then provide SAMPLE designers with hundreds of sophisticated MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) chips. SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology) offers unique surface-micromachining capabilities, including four levels of polycrystalline silicon (including the ground layer), flanged hubs, substrate contacts, one-micron design rules, and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) planarization. This paper describes the SUMMiT process, design tools, and other information relevant to the SAMPLE service and SUMMiT process.

  18. Testing of 3-meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouge, Michael J; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Rey, Christopher M; Thompson, James R; Lindsay, David T; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton; Willen, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Carter, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Two 3-m long, single-phase cables have been fabricated by Ultera from second generation (2G) superconductor supplied by American Superconductor. The first cable was made with two layers of 2G tape conductor and had a critical current of 5,750 A while the second cable had four layers and a critical current of 8,500 A. AC loss was measured for both cables at ac currents of up to 4 kArms. Ultera performed initial fault current studies of both cables in Denmark with limited currents in the range from 9.1 to 44 kA. Results from these tests will provide a basis for a 25-m long, three-phase, prototype cable to be tested at ORNL early next year and a 300-m long, fault current limiting, superconducting cable to be installed in a ConEd substation in New York City.

  19. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  20. Structural Divergence in Vertebrate Phylogeny of a Duplicated Prototype Galectin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, R.; Chakraborty, M.; Mian, I. S.; Newman, S. A.

    2014-09-25

    Prototype galectins, endogenously expressed animal lectins with a single carbohydrate recognition domain, are well-known regulators of tissue properties such as growth and adhesion. The earliest discovered and best studied of the prototype galectins is Galectin-1 (Gal-1). In the Gallus gallus (chicken) genome, Gal-1 is represented by two homologs: Gal-1A and Gal-1B, with distinct biochemical properties, tissue expression, and developmental functions. We investigated the origin of the Gal-1A/Gal-1B divergence to gain insight into when their developmental functions originated and how they could have contributed to vertebrate phenotypic evolution. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction showed that the Gal-1A/Gal-1B divergence can be traced back to the origin of the sauropsid lineage (consisting of extinct and extant reptiles and birds) although lineage-specific duplications also occurred in the amphibian and actinopterygian genomes. Gene synteny analysis showed that sauropsid gal-1b (the gene for Gal-1B) and its frog and actinopterygian gal-1 homologs share a similar chromosomal location, whereas sauropsid gal-1a has translocated to a new position. Surprisingly, we found that chicken Gal-1A, encoded by the translocated gal-1a, was more similar in its tertiary folding pattern than Gal-1B, encoded by the untranslocated gal-1b, to experimentally determined and predicted folds of nonsauropsid Gal-1s. This inference is consistent with our finding of a lower proportion of conserved residues in sauropsid Gal-1Bs, and evidence for positive selection of sauropsid gal-1b, but not gal-1a genes. We propose that the duplication and structural divergence of Gal-1B away from Gal-1A led to specialization in both expression and function in the sauropsid lineage.

  1. Structural Divergence in Vertebrate Phylogeny of a Duplicated Prototype Galectin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhat, R.; Chakraborty, M.; Mian, I. S.; Newman, S. A.

    2014-09-25

    Prototype galectins, endogenously expressed animal lectins with a single carbohydrate recognition domain, are well-known regulators of tissue properties such as growth and adhesion. The earliest discovered and best studied of the prototype galectins is Galectin-1 (Gal-1). In the Gallus gallus (chicken) genome, Gal-1 is represented by two homologs: Gal-1A and Gal-1B, with distinct biochemical properties, tissue expression, and developmental functions. We investigated the origin of the Gal-1A/Gal-1B divergence to gain insight into when their developmental functions originated and how they could have contributed to vertebrate phenotypic evolution. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction showed that the Gal-1A/Gal-1B divergence can bemore » traced back to the origin of the sauropsid lineage (consisting of extinct and extant reptiles and birds) although lineage-specific duplications also occurred in the amphibian and actinopterygian genomes. Gene synteny analysis showed that sauropsid gal-1b (the gene for Gal-1B) and its frog and actinopterygian gal-1 homologs share a similar chromosomal location, whereas sauropsid gal-1a has translocated to a new position. Surprisingly, we found that chicken Gal-1A, encoded by the translocated gal-1a, was more similar in its tertiary folding pattern than Gal-1B, encoded by the untranslocated gal-1b, to experimentally determined and predicted folds of nonsauropsid Gal-1s. This inference is consistent with our finding of a lower proportion of conserved residues in sauropsid Gal-1Bs, and evidence for positive selection of sauropsid gal-1b, but not gal-1a genes. We propose that the duplication and structural divergence of Gal-1B away from Gal-1A led to specialization in both expression and function in the sauropsid lineage.« less

  2. Study of a prototype high quantum efficiency thick scintillation crystal video-electronic portal imaging device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun

    2006-08-15

    developed to be used as a predictive model to propose improvements in the optics associated with the light detection. The prototype TSC provides DQE(0)=0.02 with its current imaging geometry, which is an order of magnitude greater than that for commercial VEPID systems and comparable to flat-panel imaging systems. Following optimization in the imaging geometry and the use of a high-end, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system, the performance of the TSC is expected to improve even further. Based on our theoretical model, the expected DQE(0)=0.12 for the TSC system with the proposed improvements, which exceeds the performance of current flat-panel EPIDs. The prototype TSC provides high quality imaging even at subMU exposures (typical imaging dose is 0.2 MU per image), which offers the potential for daily patient localization imaging without increasing the weekly dose to the patient. Currently, the TSC is capable of limited frame-rate fluoroscopy for intratreatment visualization of patient motion at {approx}3 frames/second, since the achievable frame rate is significantly reduced by the limitations of the camera-control processor. With optimized processor control, the TSC is expected to be capable of intratreatment imaging exceeding 10 frames/second to monitor patient motion.

  3. Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Ke; Wang, Zongrong; Ren, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhichao; Peng, Boyu; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2015-07-20

    We utilize highly transparent, junction-free metal network electrodes to fabricate fully transparent organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The patterned transparent Ag networks are developed by polymer crack template with adjustable line width and density. Sheet resistance of the network is 6.8 Ω/sq and optical transparency in the whole visible range is higher than 80%. The bottom contact OFETs with DNTT active layer and parylene-C dielectric insulator show a maximum field-effect mobility of 0.13 cm{sup 2}/V s (average mobility is 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s) and on/off ratio is higher than 10{sup 7}. The current OFETs show great potential for applications in the next generation of transparent and flexible electronics.

  4. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters heat_pump_water_heater_testing.pdf (565.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid

  5. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY STATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PIT DISASSEMBLY AND CONVERSION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalmaso, M.; Gibbs, K.; Gregory, D.

    2011-05-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed prototype equipment to demonstrate remote surveying of Inner and Outer DOE Standard 3013 containers for fixed and transferable contamination in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 and 10 CFR 835 Appendix B. When fully developed the equipment will be part of a larger suite of equipment used to package material in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 at the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Project slated for installation at the Savannah River Site. The prototype system consists of a small six-axis industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a force sensor, vacuum gripper and a three fingered pneumatic gripper. The work cell also contains two alpha survey instruments, swipes, swipe dispenser, and other ancillary equipment. An external controller interfaces with the robot controller, survey instruments and other ancillary equipment to control the overall process. SRNL is developing automated equipment for the Pit Disassembly and Conversion (PDC) Project that is slated for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment being developed is automated packaging equipment for packaging plutonium bearing materials in accordance with DOE-STD-3013-2004. The subject of this paper is the development of a prototype Radiological Survey Station (RSS). Other automated equipment being developed for the PDC includes the Bagless transfer System, Outer Can Welder, Gantry Robot System (GRS) and Leak Test Station. The purpose of the RSS is to perform a frisk and swipe of the DOE Standard 3013 Container (either inner can or outer can) to check for fixed and transferable contamination. This is required to verify that the contamination levels are within the limits specified in DOE-STD-3013-2004 and 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. The surface contamination limit for the 3013 Outer Can (OC) is 500 dpm/100 cm2 (total) and 20 dpm/100 cm2 (transferable). This paper will concentrate on the RSS developments for the 3013 OC but the system for the

  6. MHK Projects/Neptune Renewable Energy 1 10 Scale Prototype Pilot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Neptune Renewable Energy 1 10 Scale Prototype Pilot Test < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  7. Risk D&D Rapid Prototype: Scenario Documentation and Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2009-05-28

    Report describes process and methodology associated with a rapid prototype tool for integrating project risk analysis and health & safety risk analysis for decontamination and decommissioning projects.

  8. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  9. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the /sup 240/Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies.

  10. THERMAL TESTING OF PROTOTYPE GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGES USING A FURNACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A; Lawrence Gelder, L; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-02-16

    The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed by SRNL to replace the DOT 6M Specification Package and ship Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. Urethane foam was used for the overpack to ensure the package would withstand the 10CFR71.73(c)(2) crush test, which is a severe test for drum-type packages. In addition, it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam configuration provided adequate thermal protection for the containment vessel during the subsequent 10CFR71.73(c)(4) thermal test. Development tests were performed on early prototype test specimens of different diameter overpacks and a range of urethane foam densities. The thermal test was performed using an industrial furnace. Test results were used to optimize the selection of package diameter and foam density, and provided the basis for design enhancements incorporated into the final package design.

  11. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D ...

  12. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  13. RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION RAPID ... typically required as part of the prototyping process in automotive and aerospace design. ...

  14. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype ...

  15. Third-harmonic performance of the Beamlet prototype laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, P.J.; Barker, C.E.; Caird, J.A.; Dixit, S.N.; Henesian, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Van Wonterghem, B.V.

    1997-01-31

    The Beamlet laser is a nearly full-scale, single-aperture prototype of the driver design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As part of a test and validation plan for the NIF design, Beamlet was recently equipped with final focusing optics and diagnostics for the purpose of evaluating integrated component performance and equivalent target-plane irradiance conditions at the 0.351-{mu}m output wavelength specified for NIF targets. A 37-cm aperture two-crystal converter scheme generates the third harmonic of the Nd:glass 1.053-{mu}m wavelength with high efficiency. The efficiency of the converter has been characterized and is reported, along with detailed measurements of the near-field and far-field UV irradiance distributions at operating conditions up to and exceeding red-line levels for the NIF. Dependences of observed beam quality on critical laser parameters including output power, B-integral, and spatial filtering are discussed and compared with numerical simulations.

  16. The LEB to MEB transfer kicker system prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappas, C.; Wilson, M.; Anderson, D.

    1994-08-01

    The design requirements for the Low Energy Booster (LEB) extraction kicker system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) were to deflect a 12 GeV/c beam through an angle of 1.5 mrad. The circumference of the LEB was 540 M. This resulted in a 0.06 T-m integrated field, of 1.8 {mu}s width with a 1% to 99% rise time of less than 80 ns and allowable pulse ripple of less than {plus_minus}1%. The repetition frequency was 10 Hz and the allowable timing jitter was 2 ns. The field was required to be uniform over a 2{times}4 cm area to {plus_minus}2.5%. The requirements for the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) injection kicker were similar except that a 99% to 1% pulse fall time of less than 2 {mu}s was needed. Prototypes of the pulsed power system and magnet to meet these requirements were built and tested at the SSCL. This paper describes the results of that testing.

  17. A prototype station for ARIANNA: a detector for cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.; Stezelberger, T.; Barwick, S.; Dookayka, K.; Hanson, J.; Nichol, R.

    2010-05-27

    The Antarctic Ross Iceshelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a proposed detector for ultra-high energy astrophysical neutrinos. It will detect coherent radio Cherenkov emission from the particle showers produced by neutrinos with energies above about 1017 eV. ARIANNA will be built on the Ross Ice Shelf just off the coast of Antarctica, where it will eventually cover about 900 km2 in surface area. There, the ice-water interface below the shelf reflects radio waves, giving ARIANNA sensitivity to downward going neutrinos and improving its sensitivity to horizontally incident neutrinos. ARIANNA detector stations will each contain 4-8 antennas which search for brief pulses of 50 MHz to 1 GHz radio emission from neutrino interactions. We describe a prototype station for ARIANNA which was deployed in Moore's Bay on the Ross Ice Shelf in December 2009, discuss the design and deployment, and present some initial figures on performance. The ice shelf thickness was measured to be 572 +- 6 m at the deployment site.

  18. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (ABL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  19. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (AHL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  20. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.

    2015-09-16

    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  1. EIS-0274: Disposal of S3G and D1G Prototype Reactor Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the options and alternatives for the handling of the S3G and D1G Prototype reactor plants. Alternatives include their of prompt dismantlement, a deferred dismantlement alternative, and a no action alternative of keeping the defueled S3G and D1G Prototype reactor plants in protective storage indefinitely.

  2. Interlaboratory comparison program for nondestructive assay of prototype uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trahey, N.M.; Smith, M.M.; Voeks, A.M.; Bracey, J.T.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBS), designed and administered an interlaboratory comparison program based on the measurement of NBL-produced prototype uranium nondestructive assay (NDA) reference materials for scrap and waste. The objectives of the program were to evaluate the reliability of NDA techniques as applied to nuclear safeguards materials control and accountability needs and to investigate the feasibility of providing practical NDA scrap and waste reference materials for use throughout the nuclear safeguards community. Fourteen facilities representing seven DOE contractors, four US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees, one EURATOM Laboratory, and NBL, participated in this program. Three stable, well-characterized uranium reference materials were developed and certified for this program. Synthetic calcined ash, cellulose fiber, and ion-exchange resin simulate selected uranium scrap and waste forms which are often encountered in fabrication and recovery operations. The synthetic calcined ash represents an intermediate density inorganic matrix while the cellulose fiber and ion-exchange resin are representative of low-density organic matrices. The materials, containing from 0 to 13% uranium enriched at 93% /sup 235/U, were sealed in specially selected containers. Nineteen prototype reference samples, plus three empty containers, one to accompany each set, was circulated to the participants between August 1979 and May 1984. Triplicate measurements for /sup 235/U on each of the 19 filled containers were required. In addition, participants could opt to perform modular configuration measurements using containers from Sets IIA and IIB to simulate non-homogeneously dispersed uranium in waste containers. All data were reported to NBL for evaluation.

  3. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  4. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are

  5. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; Anders, David; Martineau, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  6. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.

  7. Is the price squeeze doctrine still viable in fully-regulated energy markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiwak, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Simply stated, a price squeeze occurs when a firm with monopoly power on the primary, or wholesale, level engages in a prolonged price increase that drives competitors out of the secondary, or retail level, and thereby extends its monopoly power to the secondary market. A price squeeze will not be found, however, for any short-term exercise in market power. Rather, because anticompetitive effects of a price squeeze are indirect, the price squeeze must last long enough and be severe enough to produce effects on actual or potential competition in the secondary market. In regulated electric industries, a price squeeze claim usually arises from the complex relationship between the supplier, the wholesale customer, the retail customer, and the federal and state regulators. The supplier sells electric power to both wholesale and retail customers. Wholesale transactions are regulated by federal regulators, and retail transactions are regulated at the state level. The wholesale customers in turn sell power to their retail customers. Over the last several years, there have been substantial developments in the application of the price squeeze doctrine to fully-regulated electric utilities. This article will examine the current developments in this area, and attempt to highlight the burdens potential litigants, both plaintiffs and defendants, must overcome to succeed.

  8. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less

  9. SATBOT I: Prototype of a biomorphic autonomous spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, J.; Tilden, M.W.

    1995-12-01

    Our goal is to produce a prototype of an autonomous satellite robot, SATBOT. This robot differs from conventional robots in that it has three degrees of freedom, uses magnetics to direct the motion, and needs a zero gravity environment. The design integrates the robot`s structure and a biomorphic (biological morphology) control system to produce a survival-oriented vehicle that adapts to an unknown environment. Biomorphic systems, loosely modeled after biological systems, use simple analog circuitry, low power, and are microprocessor independent. These analog networks called Nervous Networks (Nv), are used to solve real-time controls problems. The Nv approach to problem solving in the robotics has produced many surprisingly capable machines which exhibit emergent behavior. The network can be designed to respond to positive or negative inputs from a sensor and produce a desired directed motion. The fluidity and direction of motion is set by the neurons and is inherent to the structure of the device. The robot is designed to orient itself with respect to a local magnetic field; to direct its attitude toward the greatest source of light; and robustly recover from variations in the local magnetic field, power source, or structural stability. This design uses a two neuron network which acts as a push-pull controller for the actuator (air core coil), and two sun sensors (photodiodes) as bias inputs to the neuron. The effect of sensor activation as it relates to an attractive or repulsive torque (directional motion) is studied. A discussion of this system`s power (energy) efficiency and frequency, noise immunity, and some dynamic characteristics is presented.

  10. Application of organosilicon pre-sic polymer technology to optimize rapid prototyping of ceramic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, C.K.; Zank, G. [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI (United States); Ghosh, A. [Philips Display Components Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Developments of applications of advanced ceramics e.g., SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, CMCs need to be on a faster track than what the current processing technologies can afford. Rapid reduction in time to market of new and complex products can be achieved by using Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Technologies (RP&M) e.g., 3D-printing, selective laser sintering, stereolithography etc. These technologies will help advanced ceramics meet the performance challenges at an affordable price with reliable manufacturing technologies. The key variables of the RP&M technologies for ceramics are the nature of the polymer carrier and/or the binder, and the powder. Selection and/or the production of a proper class of polymer carrier/binder, understanding their impact on the processing of ceramics such as polymer-powder interaction, speed of hardening the green body in a controlled manner, ability to retain shape during forming and consolidation, delivering desirable properties at the end, are crucial to develop the low cost, high quality ceramic products. Organosilicon pre-SiC polymer technology route to advanced ceramics is currently being commercialized by Dow Corning. Methods to use this class of polymer as a processing aid in developing potentially better RP&M technologies to make better ceramics have been proposed in this work.

  11. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Prototype and Component...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research, development, and demonstration of power system components such as PV ... research, development, and demonstration of key components of near-market technologies. ...

  12. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  13. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M.

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  14. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules.

  15. LANL OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH THE WAND AND HERCULES PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. GRUETZMACHER; C. L. FOXX; S. C. MYERS

    2000-09-01

    The Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal (WAND) and the High Efficiency Radiation Counters for Ultimate Low Emission Sensitivity (HERCULES) prototype systems have been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Solid Waste Operation's (SWO'S) non-destructive assay (NDA) building since 1997 and 1998, respectively. These systems are the cornerstone of the verification program for low-density Green is Clean (GIC) waste at the Laboratory. GIC waste includes all non-regulated waste generated in radiological controlled areas (RCAS) that has been actively segregated as clean (i.e., nonradioactive) through the use of waste generator acceptable knowledge (AK). The use of this methodology alters LANL's past practice of disposing of all room trash generated in nuclear facilities in radioactive waste landfills. Waste that is verified clean can be disposed of at the Los Alamos County Landfill. It is estimated that 50-90% of the low-density room trash from radioactive material handling areas at Los Alamos might be free of contamination. This approach avoids the high cost of disposal of clean waste at a radioactive waste landfill. It also reduces consumption of precious space in the radioactive waste landfill where disposal of this waste provides no benefit to the public or the environment. Preserving low level waste (LLW) disposal capacity for truly radioactive waste is critical in this era when expanding existing radioactive waste landfills or permitting new ones is resisted by regulators and stakeholders. This paper describes the operating experience with the WAND and HERCULES since they began operation at SWO. Waste for verification by the WAND system has been limited so far to waste from the Plutonium Facility and the Solid Waste Operations Facility. A total of461 ft3 (13.1 m3) of low-density shredded waste and paper have been verified clean by the WAND system. The HERCULES system has been used to verify waste from four Laboratory facilities. These are the

  16. A prototype decision aid for evaluating and selecting R&D proposals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Lamont, A.; Sicherman, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes a prototype decision aid which has been developed to assist the Institutional Research and Development (IR&D) Committee in selecting proposals for funding. This tool was requested to help address the following concerns about the IR&D proposal selection process: Some good proposals might be overlooked simply because no one on the Committee advocates them forcefully. The process takes a lot of time. The final portfolio of proposals selected may not maximize the long-run benefits to the Laboratory. These concerns stem from the observation that there is no formal framework for making distinctions between proposals, or weighing and comparing those distinctions. It was felt that the process could be improved by a framework that: Provides explicit descriptors that Committee members can use to evaluate and compare different features of proposals. Encourages the Committee to use a uniform, systematic scheme for evaluating the proposals. Helps the Committee focus more quickly on the issues that are truly relevant for distinguishing between proposals.

  17. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  18. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  19. Fully Nonlinear Edge Gyrokinetic Simulations of Kinetic Geodesic-Acoustic Modes and Boundary Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X Q; Belli, E; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Chang, C S; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Dimits, A M; Dorr, M R; Gao, Z; Hittinger, J A; Ko, S; Krasheninnikov, S; McKee, G R; Nevins, W M; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Suh, J; Umansky, M V

    2008-09-18

    We present edge gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson Equation. We demonstrate the following: (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high-q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain both the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q{sub 95} in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation, and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

  20. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resulting operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.

  1. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resultingmore » operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.« less

  2. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  3. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  4. Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

  5. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services took over the DUF6 Project on March 29 of this year, the company had one thing in mind: Bring all seven conversion lines at both plants to fully operational status by Sept. 30, 2011.

  6. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  7. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report. Advanced Technology Vehicle Evaluation: Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Data Report Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report By Kevin Chandler, Battelle Ken Proc, National Renewable Energy Laboratory February 2005 This report provides detailed data and analyses from the U.S. Department of Energy's evaluation of prototype liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks operated by Norcal Waste Systems, Inc. The final report for this evaluation, published in July 2004, is available from the Alternative Fuels Data Center at www.eere.energy.gov/afdc or by

  8. Transient Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine Transient Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference PresentationL Caterpillar 2004_deer_rutan.pdf (6.14 MB) More Documents & Publications Heavy-Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program: 2007 Demonstration Truck

  9. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  10. On the design of a prototype model of the floating wave power device ``Mighty Whale``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hotta, H.; Washio, Y.; Yokozawa, H.; Pizer, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Mighty Whale is a floating wave power device to convert the wave energy to other convenient energy for the conservation of the sea, and to create the calm sea area such as a floating breakwater. JAMSTEC (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center) has been promoting the R and D on this Mighty Whale since 1986. Already, the authors have finished fundamental development by theoretical, numerical and experimental study on the basic Mighty Whale. By 1996, they will finish designing the prototype model of the Mighty Whale, will start to construct it, and will carry out the open sea test between 1998 and 1999 at the coastal sea of Japan. The dimensions of the Mighty Whale are 50m in length, 30m in breadth and it has 3 air chambers, 3 units of the air turbines and generators of 50 kW rated power. It will be moored by mooring chains and anchors at the site of about 35m water depth. The mechanism to absorb the wave energy is of the OWC (Oscillating Water Column) type with the Wells Turbine. Its efficiency to absorb the wave energy is about 40--50% on average in regular waves, and it can make in the lee zone the height of incident waves about one half under 8 sec of the significant wave period. Because of such behavior, and from the view point of sustainable development at the coastal zone, the authors recognize the Mighty Whale can be a convenient and beneficial structure for the coastal development. In this paper, they introduce this design, and discuss the utilization of the Mighty Whale for the coastal development.

  11. $13.5M Moore Grant to Develop Working ‘Accelerator on a Chip’ Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-19

    An international team of researchers has begun a 5-year effort to build a working particle accelerator the size of a shoebox based on an innovative technology known as “accelerator on a chip.”

  12. Presentation of a prototype absorption boiler. The features and possible developments of the system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Tests on an absorption-type space-heating boiler confirmed that the absorption principle holds promise as a means of recovering the heat energy in the water vapor of the combustion products at a temperature much higher than allowed in current condensation-boiler designs. The system is basically a conventional boiler with an added lithium-bromide absorption circuit. Because the absorbent separates the water from the rest of the stack gases, the condensate is less acidic - and thus not as corrosive - as that produced in other condensing systems. However, because the complex structure of the recuperator poses significant maintenance problems, the absorption heating system would probably be most practical in large multifamily or industrial space-heating applications.

  13. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3—Design Development and Prototyping

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America report describes the Advanced Envelope Research project, which will provide factory home builders with high-performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs.

  14. MOWII Webinar: OCGen Prototype Testing: Evaluating Buoyancy Pod/Tension Leg Platforms for Tidal Energy Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) will present the results of the company's design, permitting, and testing of a mooring system for ocean energy devices in partnership with the U.S. Department...

  15. Developing the Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver for a Prototype Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe their design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under development for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide the functions of highly precise 2-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Their PSMA design employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminium cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six degree of freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  17. Combined experimental and numerical evaluation of a prototype nano-PCM enhanced wallboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; LuPh.D., Jue; Soroushian, Parviz; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, forty-eight (48) percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced building envelopes can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Combined experimental testing and numerical modeling of PCM-enhanced envelope components are two important aspects of the evaluation of their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conductive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. A wall with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards was built and tested in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in a hot-humid climate location. The test wall contained PCM wallboards and regular gypsum wallboard, for a side-by-side annual comparison study. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboard was performed to determine its actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The model was first validated using experimental data, and then used for annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis evaluating the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced wallboard.

  18. Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Iacomino, Amilcare; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2013-08-07

    Photocatalytic activity depends on the optimal alignment of electronic levels at the molecule? semiconductor interface. Establishing the level alignment experimentally is complicated by the uncertain chemical identity of the surface species. We address the assignment of the occupied and empty electronic levels for the prototypical photocatalytic system consisting of methanol on a rutile TiO2(110) surface. Using many-body quasiparticle (QP) techniques, we show that the frontier levels measured in UV photoelectron and two-photon photoemission spectroscopy experiments can be assigned to molecularly chemisorbed methanol rather than its dissociated product, the methoxy species. We find that the highest occupied molecular orbital of the methoxy species is much closer to the valence band maximum, suggesting why it is more photocatalytically active than the methanol molecule. We develop a general semiquantitative model for predicting many-body QP energies based on the electronic screening within the bulk, molecular, or vacuum regions of the wave functions at molecule?semiconductor interfaces.

  19. A prototype catalogue: DOE National Laboratory technologies for infrastructure modernization. Letter report made publicly available December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currie, J.W.; Wilfert, G.L.; March, F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) with information about selected technologies under development in the Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Laboratory System and its Program Office operations. The technologies selected are those that have the potential to improve the performance of the nation`s public works infrastructure. The product is a relational database that we refer to as a ``prototype catalogue of technologies.`` The catalogue contains over 100 entries of DOE-supported technologies having potential application to infrastructure-related problems. The work involved conceptualizing an approach, developing a framework for organizing technology information, and collecting samples of readily available data to be put into a prototype catalogue. In developing the catalogue, our objectives were to demonstrate the concept and provide readily available information to OTA. As such, the catalogue represents a preliminary product. The existing database is not exhaustive and likely represents only a fraction of relevant technologies developed by DOE. In addition, the taxonomy we used to classify technologies is based on the judgment of project staff and has received minimal review by individuals who have been involved in the development and testing of the technologies. Finally, end users will likely identify framework changes and additions that will strengthen the catalogue approach. The framework for the catalogue includes four components: a description of the technology, along with potential uses and other pertinent information; identification of the source of the descriptive information; identification of a person or group knowledgeable about the technology; and a classification of the described technology in terms of its type, application, life-cycle use, function, and readiness.

  20. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  1. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2014-10-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  2. Localization of quenches and mechanical disturbances in the Mu2e transport solenoid prototype using acoustic emission technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marchevsky, M.; Ambrosio, G.; Lamm, M.; Tartaglia, M. A.; Lopes, M. L.

    2016-02-12

    Acoustic emission (AE) detection is a noninvasive technique allowing the localization of the mechanical events and quenches in superconducting magnets. Application of the AE technique is especially advantageous in situations where magnet integrity can be jeopardized by the use of voltage taps or inductive pickup coils. As the prototype module of the transport solenoid (TS) for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab represents such a special case, we have developed a dedicated six-channel AE detection system and accompanying software aimed at localizing mechanical events during the coil cold testing. The AE sensors based on transversely polarized piezoceramic washers combined with cryogenicmore » preamplifiers were mounted at the outer surface of the solenoid aluminum shell, with a 60° angular step around the circumference. Acoustic signals were simultaneously acquired at a rate of 500 kS/s, prefiltered and sorted based on their arrival time. Next, based on the arrival timing, angular and axial coordinates of the AE sources within the magnet structure were calculated. Furthermore, we present AE measurement results obtained during cooldown, spot heater firing, and spontaneous quenching of the Mu2e TS module prototype and discuss their relevance for mechanical stability assessment and quench localization.« less

  3. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Yingssu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Gonzlez, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M.; Zinn, Daniel; Cohen, Aina E.; Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David; Ludaescher, Bertram; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Soltis, S. Michael

    2013-05-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  4. Kaiser Permanente-Sandia National Health Care Model: Phase 1 prototype final report. Part 2 -- Domain analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R.; Mason, W.; Napolitano, L.; Mariano, R.; Eddy, D.; Schlessinger, L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C{sup 2}, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology.

  5. Cold Test Measurements on the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierman, S.M.

    2010-12-03

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. Based on longitudinal phase space measurements showing a correlated energy spread the gun was removed and re-characterized in 2002. The low power RF measurements performed on the gun are described below. Perturbative bead measurements were performed to determine the field ratio in the two-cell gun, and network analyzer measurements were made to characterize the mode structure. A second probe was installed to monitor the RF field in the first cell, and a diagnostic was developed to monitor the high-power field ratio. Calibration of the RF probes, a model for analyzing RF measurements, and Superfish simulations of bead and RF measurements are described.

  6. The Home Depot Upgrades its Corporate Building Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The Home Depot partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  7. Half-Wave, beta=0.43 Cavity Prototyping for a Heavy Ion Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popielarski, John; Compton, Chris C.; Hartung, Walter; Johnson, Mat; Oliva, John; York, R. C.; Marti, Felix

    2008-04-01

    A medium velocity half wave resonator has been designed and prototyped at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) for use in a heavy ion linac. The cavity is designed to provide 3.7 MV of accelerating voltage at an optimum beta = v/c = 0.53, with peak surface electric and magnetic fields of 32.5 MV/m and 79 mT, respectively. The cavity was designed for stiffness and tunability, as well as straightforward fabrication, assembly and cleaning. Measurements were performed to confirm Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions for modal analysis, bath pressure sensitivity, tuner stiffness and tuning range. A copper cavity prototype has been fabricated to confirm tolerances and formability. A tuner prototype has been built. The helium vessel and power coupler have been designed.

  8. Testing and monitoring plan for the permanent isolation surface barrier prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Cadwell, L.L.; Freeman, H.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.; Romine, R.A.; Walters, W.H. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This document is a testing and monitoring plan for a prototype barrier to be constructed at the Hanford Site in 1993. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system, designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. These features include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, vegetated with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions.

  9. ProDeGe: A Computational Protocol for fully Automated Decontamination of Genomic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    The Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline is a fully-automated software tool which classifies unscreened contigs from single cell datasets through a combination of homology and feature-based methodologies using the organism's nucleotide sequences and known NCBI taxonomony. The software is freely available to download and install, and can be run on any system.

  10. Toward fully self-consistent simulation of the interaction of E-Clouds and beams with WARP-POSINST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLNL; Furman, M.A.; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Sonnad, K.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2012-04-09

    To predict the evolution of electron clouds and their effect on the beam, the high energy physics community has relied so far on the complementary use of 'buildup' and 'single/multi-bunch instability' reduced descriptions. The former describes the evolution of electron clouds at a given location in the ring, or 'station', under the influence of prescribed beams and external fields [1], while the latter (sometimes also referred as the 'quasi-static' approximation [2]) follows the interaction between the beams and the electron clouds around the accelerator with prescribed initial distributions of electrons, assumed to be concentrated at a number of discrete 'stations' around the ring. Examples of single bunch instability codes include HEADTAIL [3], QuickPIC [4, 5], and PEHTS [6]. By contrast, a fully self-consistent approach, in which both the electron cloud and beam distributions evolve simultaneously under their mutual influence without any restriction on their relative motion, is required for modeling the interaction of high-intensity beams with electron clouds for heavy-ion beam-driven fusion and warm-dense matter science. This community has relied on the use of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods through the development and use of the WARP-POSINST code suite [1, 7, 8]. The development of novel numerical techniques (including adaptive mesh refinement, and a new 'drift-Lorentz' particle mover for tracking charged particles in magnetic fields using large time steps) has enabled the first application of WARP-POSINST to the fully self-consistent modeling of beams and electron clouds in high energy accelerators [9], albeit for only a few betatron oscillations. It was recently observed [10] that there exists a preferred frame of reference which minimizes the number of computer operations needed to simulate the interaction of relativistic objects. This opens the possibility of reducing the cost of fully self-consistent simulations for the interaction of ultrarelativistic

  11. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  12. Hardware design document for the Infrasound Prototype for a CTBT IMS station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Hardware Design Document (HDD) describes the various hardware components used in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype and their interrelationships. It divides the infrasound prototype into hardware configurations items (HWCIs). The HDD uses techniques such as block diagrams and parts lists to present this information. The level of detail provided in the following sections should be sufficient to allow potential users to procure and install the infrasound system. Infrasonic monitoring is a low cost, robust, and effective technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. Low frequencies from explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors.

  13. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep; Pfefferle, William

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines

  14. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  15. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and

  16. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Models And Initial Active Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-04-23

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNPX model simulations and initial testing of the active mode variation of the Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was previously reported.

  17. EIS-0275: Disposal of the S1C Prototype Reactor Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, WA (Navy Document)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the Office of Naval Reactors (Naval Reactors) proposed action to dismantle the defueled S1C Prototype reactor plant.

  18. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  19. Perfect Power Prototype for Illinois Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2014-09-30

    Starting in October 2008, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), in collaboration with over 20 participating members, led an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, promote, and commercialize a microgrid system and offer supporting technologies that will achieve Perfect Power at the main campus of IIT. A Perfect Power system, as defined by the Galvin Electricity Initiative (GEI), is a system that cannot fail to meet the electric needs of the individual end-user. The Principle Investigator of this Perfect Power project was Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, Director of the Robert W. Galvin Center for Electricity Innovation at IIT. There were six overall objectives of the Perfect Power project: (1) Demonstrate the higher reliability introduced by the microgrid system at IIT; (2) Demonstrate the economics of microgrid operations; (3) Allow for a decrease of fifty percent (50%) of grid electricity load; (4) Create a permanent twenty percent (20%) decrease in peak load from 2007 level; (5) Defer planned substation through load reduction; (6) Offer a distribution system design that can be replicated in urban communities.

  20. RF Processing Experience with the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, J.F.

    2010-11-24

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. A total of five different metal cathodes (4 Cu and 1 Mg) have been installed on the GTF gun. The rf processing history with the different cathodes will be presented including peak field achieved at the cathode. The LCLS gun is intended to operate at 120 MV/m and fields up to 140 MV/m have been achieved in the GTF gun. After installing a new cathode the number of rf pulses required to reach 120 MV/m is approximately 5-10 million. Total emitted dark current and Fowler Nordheim plots are also shown over the life of the cathode. The GTF photo-injector gun is an S-band standing-wave structure, with two resonant cavities and an intervening thick washer (Figure 1). The flat, back wall of the first cavity is a copper plate that serves as photocathode when illuminated with ultraviolet light from a pulsed, high-power laser. RF power enters the gun through an iris on the outer wall of the second cavity, and is coupled to the first through the axial opening of the washer. The first cavity is often referred to as a half cell, because its full-cell length has been truncated by the cathode plate and the second cavity is called the full cell. The gun is designed to operate in a {pi} mode, with the peak field on axis in each cell approximately equal. The maximum in the half cell occurs at the cathode, and in the full cell near the center of the cavity. The field profile and tuning procedures are discussed in a separate tech note [1].

  1. High Efficiency Spectrum Splitting Prototype Submodule Using Commercial CPV Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keevers, M.; Lau, J.; Green, M.; Thomas, I.; Lasich, J.; King, R.; Emery, K.

    2014-11-01

    This presentation summarizes progress on the design, fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept, prototype spectrum splitting CPV submodule using commercial CPV cells, aimed at demonstrating an independently confirmed efficiency above 40% at STC (1000 W/m2, AM1.5D ASTM G173-03, 25 degrees C).

  2. Prototype Programmatic Agreement Between DOE, State Energy Offices, and State Historic Preservation Offices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prototype programmatic agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, state energy offices and state historic preservation offices regarding the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) State Energy Program (SEP), Weatherization Assistance Program, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program regarding the responsibility to address historic preservation requirements.

  3. Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

    1987-04-01

    The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

  4. Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particles | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode Particles Friday, July 29, 2016 Figure. A transmission x-ray micrograph of an individual secondary particle charged to 30% global SOC at a 100 h rate, showing overcharged (green) domains even at this slow charging rate. Lithium ion batteries are used ubiquitously for portable energy storage in today's modern electronic devices and have served in that capacity for

  5. Fully Differential Monte-Carlo Generator Dedicated to TMDs and Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghasyan, Mher M.; Avakian, Harut A.

    2013-10-01

    We present studies of double longitudinal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator, which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model based on the fully differential cross section for the process. Additionally, we apply Bessel-weighting to the simulated events to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and also discuss possible uncertainties due to kinematic correlation effects.

  6. Direct Simulation of Fully Resolved Vaporizing Droplets in a Turbulent Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Direct Simulation of Fully Resolved Vaporizing Droplets in a Turbulent Flow PI Name: Said Elghobashi PI Email: selghoba@uci.edu Institution: University of California, Irvine Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 20,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Engineering This project will enhance the understanding of liquid droplet vaporization and mixing processes in a turbulent flow. All liquid fuel combustion devices, mobile or stationary, use

  7. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for integrating an external source of high-energy neutrons with a conventional moderated high conversion ratio molten salt reactor, thereby creating a self-contained hybrid system which fissions any

  8. Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, Luis

    2015-07-16

    The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ωpeΔt >> 1, and Δx >> λD. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing NFE, leading to an optimal algorithm.

  9. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust.

  10. Simulated performance of CIEE's 'Alternatives to Compressive Cooling' prototype house under design conditions in various California climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yu Joe

    1999-12-01

    To support the design development of a compressorless house that does not rely on mechanical air-conditioning, the author carried out detailed computer analysis of a prototypical house design to determine the indoor thermal conditions during peak cooling periods for over 170 California locations. The peak cooling periods are five-day sequences at 2{percent} frequency determined through statistical analysis of long-term historical weather data. The DOE-2 program was used to simulate the indoor temperatures of the house under four operating options: windows closed, with mechanical ventilation, evaporatively-cooled mechanical ventilation, or a conventional 1 1/2-ton air conditioner. The study found that with a 1500 CFM mechanical ventilation system, the house design would maintain comfort under peak conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area out to Walnut Creek, but not beyond. In southern California, the same system and house design would maintain adequate comfort only along the coast. With the evaporatively-cooled ventilation system, the applicability of the house design can be extended to Fairfield and Livermore in northern California, but in southern California a larger 3000 CFM system would be needed to maintain comfort conditions over half of the greater Los Angeles area, the southern half of the Inland Empire, and most of San Diego county. With the 1 1/2-ton air conditioner, the proposed house design would perform satisfactorily through most of the state, except in the upper areas of the Central Valley and the hot desert areas in southern California. In terms of energy savings, the simulations showed that the prototypical house design would save from 0.20 to 0.43 in northern California, 0.20 to 0.53 in southern California, and 0.16 to 0.35 in the Central Valley, the energy used by the same house design built to Title-24 requirements.

  11. Advanced Fuels for LWRs: Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated and Related Concepts FY 2012 Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; John D. Bess; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress in the Deep Burn project at Idaho National Laboratory during the first half of fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). The current focus of this work is on Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) uranium nitride (UN) fuel kernels. UO2 fuel kernels have not been ruled out, and will be examined as later work in FY2012. Reactor physics calculations confirmed that the FCM fuel containing 500 mm diameter kernels of UN fuel has positive MTC with a conventional fuel pellet radius of 4.1 mm. The methodology was put into place and validated against MCNP to perform whole-core calculations using DONJON, which can interpolate cross sections from a library generated using DRAGON. Comparisons to MCNP were performed on the whole core to confirm the accuracy of the DRAGON/DONJON schemes. A thermal fluid coupling scheme was also developed and implemented with DONJON. This is currently able to iterate between diffusion calculations and thermal fluid calculations in order to update fuel temperatures and cross sections in whole-core calculations. Now that the DRAGON/DONJON calculation capability is in place and has been validated against MCNP results, and a thermal-hydraulic capability has been implemented in the DONJON methodology, the work will proceed to more realistic reactor calculations. MTC calculations at the lattice level without the correct burnable poison are inadequate to guarantee zero or negative values in a realistic mode of operation. Using the DONJON calculation methodology described in this report, a startup core with enrichment zoning and burnable poisons will be designed. Larger fuel pins will be evaluated for their ability to (1) alleviate the problem of positive MTC and (2) increase reactivity-limited burnup. Once the critical boron concentration of the startup core is determined, MTC will be calculated to verify a non-positive value. If the value is positive, the design will be changed to require

  12. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  13. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  14. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The

  15. Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.

  16. A Prototype Performance Assessment Model for Generic Deep Borehole Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste - 12132

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joon H.; Arnold, Bill W.; Swift, Peter N.; Hadgu, Teklu; Freeze, Geoff; Wang, Yifeng

    2012-07-01

    A deep borehole repository is one of the four geologic disposal system options currently under study by the U.S. DOE to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The immediate goal of the generic deep borehole repository study is to develop the necessary modeling tools to evaluate and improve the understanding of the repository system response and processes relevant to long-term disposal of UNF and HLW in a deep borehole. A prototype performance assessment model for a generic deep borehole repository has been developed using the approach for a mined geological repository. The preliminary results from the simplified deep borehole generic repository performance assessment indicate that soluble, non-sorbing (or weakly sorbing) fission product radionuclides, such as I-129, Se-79 and Cl-36, are the likely major dose contributors, and that the annual radiation doses to hypothetical future humans associated with those releases may be extremely small. While much work needs to be done to validate the model assumptions and parameters, these preliminary results highlight the importance of a robust seal design in assuring long-term isolation, and suggest that deep boreholes may be a viable alternative to mined repositories for disposal of both HLW and UNF. (authors)

  17. Planning and Prototyping for a Storage Ring Measurement of the Proton Electric Dipole Moment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Electron and proton EDM's can be measured in "frozen spin" (with the beam polarization always parallel to the orbit, for example) storage rings. For electrons the "magic" kinetic energy at which the beam can be frozen is 14.5 MeV. For protons the magic kinetic energy is 230 MeV. The currently measured upper limit for the electron EDM is much smaller than the proton EDM upper limit, which is very poorly known. Nevertheless, because the storage ring will be an order of magnitude cheaper, a sensible plan is to first build an all-electric electron storage ring as a prototype. Such an electron ring was successfully built at Brookhaven, in 1954, as a prototype for their AGS ring. This leaves little uncertainty concerning the cost and performance of such a ring. (This is documentedin one of the Physical Review papers mentioned above.)

  18. Prototype Testing for a Copper Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Anzalone, Gene; Doyle, Eric; Keller, Lewis; Lundgren, Steven; Markiewicz, Thomas Walter; Rogers, Reggie; /SLAC

    2009-01-20

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the robust Phase I graphite collimators with high Z Phase II collimators. The design for the collimation upgrade has not been finalized. One option is to use metallic rotatable collimators and testing of this design will be discussed here. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. A prototype collimator jaw referred to as RC0 has been tested for both mechanical and thermal compliance with the design goals. Thermal expansion bench-top tests are compared to ANSYS simulation results. The prototype has also been tested in vacuum bake-out to confirm compliance with the LHC vacuum spec. CMM equipment has been used to verify the flatness of the jaw surface after heat tests and bake-out.

  19. Measurement of Time Resolution of the Mu2e LYSO Calorimeter Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanov, N.

    2015-09-16

    In this paper we present the time resolution measurements of the LutetiumYttrium Oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) calorimeter prototype for the Mu2e experiment. The measurements have been performed using the e- beam of the Beam Test Facility (BTF) in Frascati, Italy in the energy range from 100 to 400 MeV. The calorimeter prototype consisted of twenty five 30x30x130 mm3, LYSO crystals read out by 10x10 mm2 Hamamatsu Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs). The energy dependence of the measured time resolution can be parametrized as σt(E) = a/pE/GeV⊕b, with the stochastic and constant terms a = (51±1) ps and b = (14 ± 1) ps, respectively. This corresponds to the time resolution of (162 ± 3) ps at 100 MeV.

  20. A highly miniaturized electron and ion energy spectrometer prototype for the rapid analysis of space plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedington, R.; Kataria, D. O.; Smith, A.

    2014-02-15

    MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) plasma analyzers are a promising possibility for future space missions but conventional instrument designs are not necessarily well suited to micro-fabrication. Here, a candidate design for a MEMS-based instrument has been prototyped using electron-discharge machining. The device features 10 electrostatic analyzers that, with a single voltage applied to it, allow five different energies of electron and five different energies of positive ion to be simultaneously sampled. It has been simulated using SIMION and the electron response characteristics tested in an instrument calibration chamber. Small deviations found in the electrode spacing of the as-built prototype were found to have some effect on the electron response characteristics but do not significantly impede its performance.

  1. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-15

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  2. A two-fold reduction in measurement time for neutron assay: Initial tests of a prototype dual-gated shift register

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J.E.; Bourret, S.C.; Krick, M.S.; Hansen, W.J.; Harker, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Neutron coincidence counting (NCC) is used routinely around the world for nondestructive mass assay of uranium and plutonium in many forms, including waste. Compared with other methods, NCC is generally the most flexible, economic, and rapid. Many applications of NCC would benefit from a reduction in counting time required for a fixed random error. We have developed and tested the first prototype of a dual- gated, shift-register-based electronics unit that offers the potential of decreased measurement time for all passive and active NCC applications.

  3. Design and prototyping of HL-LHC double quarter wave crab cavities for SPS test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdu-Andres, S.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Alberty, L.; Artoos, K.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Carra, F.; Leuxe, R.; Kuder, N.; Zanoni, C.; Li, Z.; Ratti, A.

    2015-05-03

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  4. Structural Polymorphism of the Actin-Espin System: A Prototypical System of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Filaments and Linkers in Stereocilia Polymorphism of the Actin-Espin System: A Prototypical System of Filaments and Linkers in Stereocilia Filamentous actin (F-actin), a biological rod-shaped protein, provides the structural framework in living cells. The assembly and organization of F-actin in vivo is controlled predominantly by actin binding proteins which locally crosslink actin into a rich variety of phases, including bundles and networks. Espins are one type of actin binding protein

  5. Advanced product realization through model-based design and virtual prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    Several government agencies and industrial sectors have recognized the need for, and payoff of, investing in the methodologies and associated technologies for improving the product realization process. Within the defense community as well as commercial industry, there are three major needs. First, they must reduce the cost of military products, of related manufacturing processes, and of the enterprises that have to be maintained. Second, they must reduce the time required to realize products while still applying the latest technologies. Finally, they must improve the predictability of process attributes, product performance, cost, schedule and quality. They must continue to advance technology, quickly incorporate their innovations in new products and in processes to produce them, and they need to capitalize on the raw computational power and communications bandwidth that continues to become available at decreasing cost. Sandia National Laboratories initiative is pursuing several interrelated, key concepts and technologies in order to enable such product realization process improvements: model-based design; intelligent manufacturing processes; rapid virtual and physical prototyping; and agile people/enterprises. While progress in each of these areas is necessary, this paper only addresses a portion of the overall initiative. First a vision of a desired future capability in model-based design and virtual prototyping is presented. This is followed by a discussion of two specific activities parametric design analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) and virtual prototyping of miniaturized high-density electronics -- that exemplify the vision as well as provide a status report on relevant work in progress.

  6. Evaluation of GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorovic, M.; Fischer, M.; Cremers, F.; Thom, E.; Schmidt, R.

    2006-05-15

    The capability of the new GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification is investigated in this paper. First the general characteristics of this film (dose response, postirradiation coloration, influence of calibration field size) were derived using a flat-bed scanner. In the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy, the sensitivity of the EBT prototype B film is ten times higher than the response of the GafChromic HS, which so far was the GafChromic film with the highest sensitivity. Compared with the Kodak EDR2 film, the response of the EBT is higher by a factor of 3 in the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy. The GafChromic EBT almost does not show a temporal growth of the optical density and there is no influence of the chosen calibration field size on the dose response curve obtained from this data. A MatLab program was written to evaluate the two-dimensional dose distributions from treatment planning systems and GafChromic EBT film measurements. Verification of external beam therapy (SRT, IMRT) using the above-mentioned approach resulted in very small differences between the planned and the applied dose. The GafChromic EBT prototype B together with the flat-bed scanner and MatLab is a successful approach for making the advantages of the GafChromic films applicable for verification of external beam therapy.

  7. Summary report on safety and licensing strategy support for the ABR prototype.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-09-18

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing support to the US Department of Energy in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in certification of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast reactor. The reactor is to be constructed as a prototype for future commercial power reactors that will produce electricity while consuming actinides recovered from light water reactor spent fuel. This prototype reactor has been called the Advanced Burner Reactor, or ABR, and is now often referred to as the advanced recycle reactor. As part of its activities, Argonne is providing technical services to assist definition of a safety and licensing strategy for the ABR prototype, and to further implementation of the strategy. In FY06, an organizational meeting was held for DOE and its laboratory contractors to discuss licensing alternatives and review previous licensing experience for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). Near the end of FY06, a report summarizing the discussions and conclusions was written. One of the top-level conclusions recorded in the report was a recommendation to follow a licensing strategy that included the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as the regulatory review and licensing authority. In FY07, activities ar Argonne to support safety and licensing progress have continued. These activities have focused on further evaluation of licensing alternatives; assessment of design, analysis, and documentation implications of licensing paths; and initial technical interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes FY07 activities.

  8. Design of 9-meter carbon-fiberglass prototype blades : CX-100 and TX-100 : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Derek

    2007-09-01

    TPI Composites, Inc. (TPI), Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), and MDZ Consulting (MDZ) have collaborated on a project to design, manufacture, and test prototype carbon-fiberglass hybrid wind turbine blades of 9-m length. The project, funded by Sandia National Laboratories, involves prototype blades in both conventional (unidirectional spar fibers running along the blade span) and ''adaptive'' (carbon fibers in off-axis orientation to achieve bend-twist-coupling) configurations. After manufacture, laboratory testing is being conducted to determine the static and fatigue strength of the prototypes, in conjunction with field testing to evaluate the performance under operational conditions.

  9. Final Report: Development of Large Area Gas Electron Multiplier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We also have been monitoring the long term behavior of one of the prototype detectors ... GEM detector development, we have been monitoring the long term response of a 30cmx30cm ...

  10. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Photo of a bird. DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a ...

  11. Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-05-00158

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringer, M.

    2010-07-01

    NREL and Nuclear Filter Technology collaborated to develop a prototype product for a hydrogen threshold sensor that was used to monitor hydrogen production in the transport of nuclear waste transport containers.

  12. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  13. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  14. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  15. Effects of dynamic screening on the electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmer, R.A.; Roepke, G.; Morales, F.; Kilimann, K. )

    1990-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma is expressed within the Zubarev method by equilibrium correlation functions. Using the Green's function technique, the Lenard--Balescu--Gurnsey collision integral of a generalized Boltzmann equation is derived that accounts for the effects of dynamic screening. Applying the usual random phase approximation, numerical results for the collision integral and the electrical conductivity are compared with the case of static screening ({omega}=0) and the long-wavelength limit ({ital q}{r arrow}0) for the dielectric function {Epsilon}({ital q},{omega}). Effective low-density expansions are given for the collision integrals as well as for the electrical conductivity that are applicable for a wide range of density and temperature.

  16. Vacancies in fully hydrogenated boron nitride layer: implications for functional nanodevices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Nie, JL; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-01

    Using density functional theory, a series of calculations of structural and electronic properties of hydrogen vacancies in a fully hydrogenated boron nitride (fH-BN) layer were conducted. By dehydrogenating the fH-BN structure, B-terminated vacancies can be created which induce complete spin polarization around the Fermi level, irrespective of the vacancy size. On the contrary, the fH-BN structure with N-terminated vacancies can be a small-gap semiconductor, a typical spin gapless semiconductor, or a metal depending on the vacancy size. Utilizing such vacancy-induced band gap and magnetism changes, possible applications in spintronics are proposed, and a special fH-BN based quantum dot device is designed.

  17. SU-E-T-508: End to End Testing of a Prototype Eclipse Module for Planning Modulated Arc Therapy On the Siemens Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, L; Sarkar, V; Spiessens, S; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Salter, B; Zhao, H; Szegedi, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The latest clinical implementation of the Siemens Artiste linac allows for delivery of modulated arcs (mARC) using full-field flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams. The maximum doserate of 2000 MU/min is well suited for high dose treatments such as SBRT. We tested and report on the performance of a prototype Eclipse TPS module supporting mARC capability on the Artiste platform. Method: our spine SBRT patients originally treated with 12/13 field static-gantry IMRT (SGIMRT) were chosen for this study. These plans were designed to satisfy RTOG0631 guidelines with a prescription of 16Gy in a single fraction. The cases were re-planned as mARC plans in the prototype Eclipse module using the 7MV FFF beam and required to satisfy RTOG0631 requirements. All plans were transferred from Eclipse, delivered on a Siemens Artiste linac and dose-validated using the Delta4 system. Results: All treatment plans were straightforwardly developed, in timely fashion, without challenge or inefficiency using the prototype module. Due to the limited number of segments in a single arc, mARC plans required 2-3 full arcs to yield plan quality comparable to SGIMRT plans containing over 250 total segments. The average (3%/3mm) gamma pass-rate for all arcs was 98.5±1.1%, thus demonstrating both excellent dose prediction by the AAA dose algorithm and excellent delivery fidelity. Mean delivery times for the mARC plans(10.5±1.7min) were 50-70% lower than the SGIMRT plans(26±2min), with both delivered at 2000 MU/min. Conclusion: A prototype Eclipse module capable of planning for Burst Mode modulated arc delivery on the Artiste platform has been tested and found to perform efficiently and accurately for treatment plan development and delivered-dose prediction. Further investigation of more treatment sites is being carried out and data will be presented.

  18. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J.

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  19. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  20. Note: Neutron bang time diagnostic system on Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Qi; Chen, Jiabin; Liu, Zhongjie; Zhan, Xiayu; Song, Zifeng

    2014-04-15

    A neutron bang time (NBT) diagnostic system has been implemented on Shenguang-III prototype. The bang time diagnostic system is based on a sensitive fusion neutron detector, which consists of a plastic scintillator and a micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (PMT). An optical fiber bundle is used to couple the scintillator and the PMT. The bang time system is able to measure bang time above a neutron yield of 10{sup 7}. Bang times and start time of laser were related by probing x-ray pulses produced by 200 ps laser irradiating golden targets. Timing accuracy of the NBT is better than 60 ps.

  1. Mechanical and Thermal Prototype Testing for a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Phase II Collimation Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Doyle, Eric; Keller, Lewis; Lundgren, Steven; Markiewicz, Thomas Walter; ,

    2010-08-26

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the robust Phase I graphite collimators with high Z, low impedance Phase II collimators. The design for the collimation upgrade has not been finalized. One option is to use metallic rotatable collimators and testing of this design will be discussed here. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. A prototype collimator jaw has been tested for both mechanical and thermal compliance with the design goals. Thermal expansion bench-top tests are compared to ANSYS simulation results.

  2. Building and Calibration of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.; Ng, E. Y. K.

    2013-09-01

    Present efforts to verify and validate aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical simulation tools that predict the dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine are primarily limited to code-to-code comparisons or code-to-data comparisons using data from wind-wave basin tests. In partnership with SWAY AS, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating wind system to collect data to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), through a collaboration with NREL, assisted in this validation.

  3. A prototype functional language implementation for hierarchical- memory architectures. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolski, R.; Feo, J.; Cann, D.

    1992-01-14

    Programming languages are the most important tool at a programmers` disposal. All other tools correct, visualize, or evaluate the product crafted by this tool. The advent of multiprocessor computer systems has greatly complicated the programmer`s task an increased his need for high-level languages capable of automatically taming these architectures. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation of Sisal for multiprocessor, hierarchical-memory systems. The implementation includes explicit compiler and runtime control that effectively exploits the different levels of memory and manages interprocess communications (IPC). We give preliminary performance results for this system on the BBN TC2000.

  4. Study of quasi-elastic scattering in the NOνA near detector prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betancourt, M.

    2015-05-15

    NOvA is a 14 kTon long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment currently being installed in the NuMI off-axis neutrino beam produced at Fermilab. A 222 Ton prototype NOνA detector was built and operated in the neutrino beam for over a year to understand the response of the detector and its construction. Muon neutrino interaction data collected in this test are being analyzed to identify quasi-elastic charged-current interactions and measure the behavior of the quasi-elastic muon neutrino cross section.

  5. Integral Validation of Minor Actinide Nuclear Data by using Samples Irradiated at Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-05-24

    The reliability of nuclear data for minor actinides was evaluated by using the results of the post-irradiation experiment for actinide samples irradiated at the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor. The burnup calculations with JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI.8, and JEFF-3.0 were performed. From the comparison between the experimental data and the calculational results, in general, the reliability of nuclear data for the minor actinides are at an adequate level for the conceptual design study of transmutation systems. It is, however, found that improvement of the accuracy is necessary for some nuclides, such as 238Pu, 242Pu, and 241Am.

  6. Performance of the moving voxel image reconstruction (MVIR) method in the fixed site detection system (FSDS) prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Robert J.

    2012-05-31

    We have developed a dynamic image reconstruction method called MVIR (Moving Voxel Image Reconstruction) for lane detection in multilane portal monitor systems. MVIR was evaluated for use in the Fixed Site Detection System, a prototype three-lane portal monitor system for EZ-pass toll plazas. As a baseline, we compared MVIR with a static image reconstruction method in analyzing the same real and simulated data sets. Performance was judged by the distributions of image intensities for source and no-source vehicles over many trials as a function of source strength. We found that MVIR produced significantly better results in all cases. The performance difference was greatest at low count rates, where source/no-source distributions were well separated with the MVIR method, allowing reliable source vehicle identification with a low probability of false positive identifications. Static reconstruction of the same data produced overlapping distributions that made source vehicle identification unreliable. The performance of the static method was acceptable at high count rates. Both algorithms reliably identified two strong sources passing through at nearly the same time.

  7. Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    proposed development provides a practical approach to assess long-term performance of EGS systems as well as optimum design and operation strategies, by consideration of fully...

  8. Fully coupled simulation of cosmic reionization. II. Recombinations, clumping factors, and the photon budget for reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Geoffrey C.; Norman, Michael L.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Wise, John H.

    2014-07-10

    We use a fully coupled cosmological simulation including dark matter dynamics, multispecies hydrodynamics, nonequilibrium chemical ionization, flux-limited diffusion radiation transport, and a parameterized model of star formation and feedback (thermal and radiative) to investigate the epoch of hydrogen reionization in detail. In this paper, the first of several application papers, we investigate the mechanics of reionization from stellar sources forming in high-z galaxies, the utility of various formulations for the gas clumping factor on accurately estimating the effective recombination time in the intergalactic medium (IGM), and the photon budget required to achieve reionization. We also test the accuracy of the static and time-dependent models of Madau et al. as predictors of reionization completion/maintenance. We simulate a WMAP7 ?CDM cosmological model in a 20 comoving Mpc cube, resolved with 800{sup 3} uniform fluid cells and dark matter particles. By tuning our star formation recipe to approximately match the observed high-redshift star formation rate density and galaxy luminosity function, we have created a fully coupled radiation hydrodynamical realization of hydrogen reionization, which begins to ionize at z ? 10 and is completed at z ? 5.8 without further tuning. We find that roughly two ionizing photons per H atom are required to convert the neutral IGM to a highly ionized state. After reionization concludes, we find that the quantity n-dot{sub ion}(1 Gyr)/n{sub H} is ?9 at z = 5, in rough agreement with measurements of the ionizing emissivity by Becker and Bolton. The complicated events during reionization that lead to this number can be generally described as inside-out, but in reality, the narrative depends on the level of ionization of the gas one attributes as being ionized. We find that the formula for the ionizing photon production rate needed to maintain the IGM in an ionized state derived by Madau et al. should not be used to predict the

  9. NOvA detector technology with intial performance from the surface prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muether, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    NOvA, the NuMI Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance experiment, will study {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations characterized by the mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. Provided {Theta}{sub 13} is large enough, NOvA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed {approx}14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillator tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOvA program.

  10. Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

    2006-10-01

    Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

  11. A continuous emissions monitor for metals: Field demonstration of a prototype probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flower, W.; Peng, L.; Woods, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted field tests of a prototype continuous emissions monitor for metals at Clemson University, August 5-11, 1994, in cooperation with the joule-melter vitrification project at Clemson and Savannah River. The monitor is based on Laser Spark Spectroscopy, an established laboratory diagnostic technique that has been adapted for monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment facilities. In the field tests described in this report, emissions were measured from a joule melter that was processing a surrogate waste-water treatment sludge from Oak Ridge. Data from this test provides the first insight into how emissions change (in real time) as operating parameters such as waste feed rate are changed. We detected all metals that were present above the estimated minimum detectability limits (in the parts-per-billion range for Clean Air Act metals), in addition to glass-making species such as calcium, boron, and silicon. This report summarizes the Clemson field tests, including design of the prototype probe, preparations leading up to the tests, the tests themselves, and analysis of results.

  12. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less

  13. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  14. A curvilinear, fully implicit, conservative electromagnetic PIC algorithm in multiple dimensions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chacon, L.; Chen, G.

    2016-04-19

    Here, we extend a recently proposed fully implicit PIC algorithm for the Vlasov–Darwin model in multiple dimensions (Chen and Chacón (2015) [1]) to curvilinear geometry. As in the Cartesian case, the approach is based on a potential formulation (Φ, A), and overcomes many difficulties of traditional semi-implicit Darwin PIC algorithms. Conservation theorems for local charge and global energy are derived in curvilinear representation, and then enforced discretely by a careful choice of the discretization of field and particle equations. Additionally, the algorithm conserves canonical-momentum in any ignorable direction, and preserves the Coulomb gauge ∇ • A = 0 exactly. Anmore » asymptotically well-posed fluid preconditioner allows efficient use of large cell sizes, which are determined by accuracy considerations, not stability, and can be orders of magnitude larger than required in a standard explicit electromagnetic PIC simulation. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with numerical experiments in mapped meshes in 1D-3V and 2D-3V.« less

  15. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse. In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.

  16. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  17. Fully Autonomous Multiplet Event Detection: Application to Local-Distance Monitoring of Blood Falls Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel; Carr, Christina; Pettit, Erin C.

    2015-06-18

    We apply a fully autonomous icequake detection methodology to a single day of high-sample rate (200 Hz) seismic network data recorded from the terminus of Taylor Glacier, ANT that temporally coincided with a brine release episode near Blood Falls (May 13, 2014). We demonstrate a statistically validated procedure to assemble waveforms triggered by icequakes into populations of clusters linked by intra-event waveform similarity. Our processing methodology implements a noise-adaptive power detector coupled with a complete-linkage clustering algorithm and noise-adaptive correlation detector. This detector-chain reveals a population of 20 multiplet sequences that includes ~150 icequakes and produces zero false alarms on the concurrent, diurnally variable noise. Our results are very promising for identifying changes in background seismicity associated with the presence or absence of brine release episodes. We thereby suggest that our methodology could be applied to longer time periods to establish a brine-release monitoring program for Blood Falls that is based on icequake detections.

  18. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M.; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; et al

    2016-01-27

    We report that wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information13, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other noninvasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state14–18. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanicallymore » flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Lastly, our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plasticbased sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing.« less

  19. Ripeness sensor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    About 20--25% of the total production of fruits and vegetables in the USA must be discarded after harvest About 25--30% of this loss is the result of over-ripening and this loss represents about 8.39 [times] 10[sup 12] BTU of invested energy every year. This invested energy could be saved by non-destructive ripeness sensing. Sweetness is an important indicator of fruit quality and highly correlated with ripeness in most fruits. Research to develop a non-destructive fruit ripeness sensor has been conducted in the Agricultural Engineering Department at Purdue University. It is based on [sup 1]H-MR (proton Magnetic Resonance). A first generation prototype of the ripeness sensor based on [sup 1]H-MR was built and tested with. Results show that the sensor can discriminate small fruit (0.75 in diameter or smaller) differing in sugar content by 6%. This prototype can separate the fruit into at least two groups: one ripe and the other not ripe. The estimated cost for such a ripeness sensor is around $4,000. The signal sensitivity of the prototype can be improved to enable it to differentiate between fruits varying in sugar content by only 1 or 2% by using water peak suppression techniques to recover relatively weak sugar resonance signals in intact fruits, modifying circuits to eliminate noise, leakage and distortion of input/output signals, improving the magnetic console to get a higher magnetic field and better homogeneity, and designing a probe to achieve a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. As research continues a second generation ripeness sensor will be developed which will incorporate many of the improvements and which will be suitable for commercial use. Additional research will allow application of the technique to a wider range of fruit sizes (from blueberries to watermelons). This report describes estimated energy savings, feasibility studies, development of the initial prototype, and preliminary evaluation of the first generation prototype.

  20. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  1. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnction in semi-collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daughton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim S; Albright, Brian J; Yin, Lin; Bowers, Kevin J; Karimabadi, Homa

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Coulomb collisions on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection is examined using fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This powerful first-principles approach offers a bridge between kinetic and fluid regimes, which may prove useful for understanding the applicability of various fluid models. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the collision algorithm is first carefully bench marked for a homogeneous plasma against theoretical predictions for beam-plasma interactions and electrical resistivity. Next, the collisional decay of a current layer is examined as a function of guide field, allowing direct comparisons with transport theory for the parallel and perpendicular resistivity as well as the thermoelectric force. Finally, the transition between collisional and collision less reconnection is examined in neutral sheet geometry. For modest Lundquist numbers S {approx}< 1000, a distinct transition is observed when the thickness of the Sweet-Parker layers falls below the ion inertia length {delta}{sub sp} {approx}< d,. At higher Lundquist number, deviations from the Sweet-Parker scaling are observed due to the growth of plasmoids (secondary-islands) within the elongated resistive layer. In certain cases, this instability leads to the onset of fast reconnection sooner than expected from {delta}{sub sp} {approx} d, condition. After the transition to fast reconnection, elongated electron current layers are formed which are unstable to the formation of new plasmoids. The structure and time-dependence of the electron diffusion region in these semi-collisional regimes is profoundly different than reported in two-fluid simulations.

  2. Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinneken, Johannes Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

    2014-09-01

    An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes.

  3. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  4. Argonne National Laboratory Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator | Department of Energy Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator Argonne National Laboratory Partners with Advanced Magnet Lab to Develop First Fully Superconducting Direct-Drive Generator December 19, 2011 - 9:24am Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The Department of Energy (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is

  5. Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALEXANDER,JEFF A.; SHOPE,STEVEN L.; PATE,RONALD C.; RINEHART,LARRY F.; JOJOLA,JOHN M.; RUEBUSH,MITCHELL H.; CROWE,WAYNE; LUNDSTROM,J.; SMITH,T.; ZAGAR,D.; PRESTWICH,K.

    2000-09-01

    The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.

  6. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of multiple enclosures in prototype fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velusamy, K.; Balaubramanian, V.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe sodium cooled reactor under design. The main vessel of the reactor serves as the primary boundary. It is surrounded by a safety vessel which in turn is surrounded by biological shield. The gaps between them are filled with nitrogen. Knowledge of temperature distribution prevailing under various operating conditions is essential for the assessment of structural integrity. Due to the presence of cover gas over sodium free level within the main vessel, there are sharp gradients in temperatures. Also cover gas height reduces during station blackout conditions due to sodium level rise in main vessel caused by temperature rise. This paper describes the model used to analyse the natural convection in nitrogen, conduction in structures and radiation interaction among them. Results obtained from parametric studies for PFBR are also presented.

  7. Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D.

    1985-05-01

    The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

  8. Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

  9. Bright microwave pulses from PSR B0531+21 observed with a prototype transient survey receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dea, J. Andrew; Cheng, Tsan-Huei; Buu, Chau M.; Asmar, Sami W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Jenet, F. A.; Beroiz, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent discoveries of transient radio events have renewed interest in time-variable astrophysical phenomena. Many radio transient events are rare, requiring long observing times for reliable statistical study. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network (DSN) tracks spacecraft nearly continuously with 13 large-aperture, low system temperature radio antennas. During normal spacecraft operations, the DSN processes only a small fraction of the pre-detection bandwidth available from these antennas; any information in the remaining bandwidth, e.g., from an astronomical source in the same antenna beam as the spacecraft, is currently ignored. As a firmware modification to the standard DSN tracking receiver, we built a prototype receiver that could be used for astronomical transient surveys. Here, we demonstrate the receiver's utility through observations of bright pulses from the Crab pulsar and describe attributes of potential transient survey observations piggybacking on operational DSN tracks.

  10. Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry platform that provides the highest levels of performance for mass accuracy and resolving power, there is room for improvement in analyzer cell design as the ideal quadrupolar trapping potential has yet to be generated for a broadband MS experiment. To this end, analyzer cell designs have improved since the field’s inception, yet few research groups participate in this area because of the high cost of instrumentation efforts. As a step towards reducing this barrier to participation and allowing for more designs to be physically tested, we introduce a method of FT-ICR analyzer cell prototyping utilizing printed circuit boards at modest vacuum conditions. This method allows for inexpensive devices to be readily fabricated and tested over short intervals and should open the field to laboratories lacking or unable to access high performance machine shop facilities because of the required financial investment.

  11. Evaluation of Static Mixer Flow Enhancements for Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Prototype for ITER Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C; Baylor, Larry R; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Ha, Tam T; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, Theodore M; Rasmussen, David A; Hechler, Michael P; Pearce, R.J.H.; Dremel, M.; Boissin, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype

  12. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P.; Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias; Boissin, J.-C.

    2014-01-29

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  13. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Müller, Mark Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-15

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  14. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining should more fully recover or eliminate its costs of regulating coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-28

    The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is spending about $65 million annually to implement regulatory program requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The act requires the regulatory authority, whether OSM or that of a state with an OSM-approved program, to charge fees to mining operators for reviewing, enforcing, and administering coal mine operating permits and authorizes that the amount of such fees can fully recover costs. The OSM and states assess certain fees, but the fees recover only a small portion of their program costs. GAO found that if OSM and states fully recovered their regulatory costs, OSM could save over $50 million a year and the impact on coal demand and production would be minimal. GAO recommends that the Secretary of the Interior collect fees that fully recover OSM's regulatory costs, phase out or substantially reduce financial assistance to states, and encourage states to fully recover their own costs.

  15. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  16. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10.5 microm pixel back-illuminated p-channel CCD developed for the SuperNovaAcceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposed satellite-based experiment designed to study dark energy. ...

  17. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  18. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water

  19. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-25

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  20. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-15

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  1. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeger, Calvin D.; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  2. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  3. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option.

  4. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large-scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F.; Brooks, W.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; et al

    2016-02-11

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed withmore » the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. As a result, the tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.« less

  5. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devicesmore » were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.« less

  6. Multipacting in a grooved choke joint at SRF gun for BNL ERL prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Holmes, D.; Kayran, D.; McIntyre, G.; Sheehy, B.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for BNL ERL prototype was tested at JLab with and without choke-joint and cathode stalk. Without choke-joint and cathode stalk, the gradient reached was 25 MV/m with Q{sup 0} {approx} 6E9. The gun cathode insertion port is equipped with a grooved choke joint for multipacting suppression. We carried out tests with choke-joint and cathode stalk. The test results show that there are at least two barriers at about 3.5 MV/m and 5 MV/m. We considered several possibilities and finally found that fine details of the grooved shape are important for multipacting suppression. A triangular groove with round crest may cause strong multipacting in the choke-joint at 3.5 MV/m, 5 MV/m and 10 MV/m. This paper presents the primary test results of the gun and discusses the multipacting analysis in the choke-joint. It also suggests possible solutions for the gun and multipacting suppressing for a similar structure.

  7. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devices were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.

  8. Preliminary results from direct-drive cryogenic target implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-dong, Pu; Tian-Xuan, Huang; Ping, Li; Hai-le, Lei; Jun, Li; Shao-En, Jiang; Huang, Li; Zhi-Wen, Yang; Jian, Teng; Bo, Wu; Kai, Wang; Wei, Lin; Ming, Su; Xia-Yu, Zhan; Li, Chen; Xiao-Shi, Peng; Tang-Qi,; Zi-Feng, Song; Jia-Bin, Chen; Ming, Chen; and others

    2014-01-15

    Since ignition target design with layered deuterium and triterium ice had been proposed several decades ago, much effort was devoted to fabricate and implode cryogenic targets. Until recently, direct-drive cryogenic target implosion experiment was carried out on SGIII prototype laser facility. The target consisted of a plastic capsule supported by fill tube. Cryogenic helium gas was used to cool the capsule to a few degrees below the deuterium triple point. The resulting deuterium ice layer was characterized by optical shadowgraph and smoothed by applied temperature gradient. Eight laser beams with total energy of 7 kJ were used to directly drive the implosion. On the path of laser light to the capsule, there were 500 nm sealing film and helium gas of mm length. X-ray pinhole images were analyzed to confirm that the sealing film, and helium gas had little effect on aiming accuracy but caused some loss of laser energy especially when condensation on the sealing film was observed.

  9. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  10. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.

  11. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within themore » Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.« less

  12. FULLY EXECUTED DE-AC27-01RV14136. M149.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was

  13. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  14. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-07

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me. In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me. The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory.more » Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location where k⃗• B⃗ =0, consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, B⃗ is the equilibrium magnetic field and k⃗ is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at k⃗ •B⃗ ≠0. Additionally, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me, the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.« less

  15. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  16. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  17. Fully Coupled Geomechanics and Discrete Flow Network Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Hao, Y; Carrigan, C R

    2011-01-18

    The primary objective of our current research is to develop a computational test bed for evaluating borehole techniques to enhance fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Simulating processes resulting in hydraulic fracturing and/or the remobilization of existing fractures, especially the interaction between propagating fractures and existing fractures, represents a critical goal of our project. To this end, we are continuing to develop a hydraulic fracturing simulation capability within the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC), a combined FEM/DEM analysis code with explicit solid-fluid mechanics coupling. LDEC simulations start from an initial fracture distribution which can be stochastically generated or upscaled from the statistics of an actual fracture distribution. During the hydraulic stimulation process, LDEC tracks the propagation of fractures and other modifications to the fracture system. The output is transferred to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to capture heat transfer and flow at the reservoir scale. This approach is intended to offer flexibility in the types of analyses we can perform, including evaluating the effects of different system heterogeneities on the heat extraction rate as well as seismicity associated with geothermal operations. This paper details the basic methodology of our approach. Two numerical examples showing the capability and effectiveness of our simulator are also presented.

  18. Challenges in OLED Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OLED Research and Development Challenges in OLED Research and Development View the video about OLED technology's advantages and what is needed to move it fully into the lighting market

  19. Development of strong-sense validation benchmarks for the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blandford, E. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of reactor concepts currently under development for the U. S. Dept. of Energy. The FHR is defined as a Generation IV reactor that features low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. Recent experimental work using simulant fluids have been performed to demonstrate key 'proof of principle' FHR concepts and have helped inform the reactor design process. An important element of developing FHR technology is to sufficiently validate the predictive accuracy of the computer codes used to model system response. This paper presents a set of thermal-hydraulics experiments, defined as Strong-Sense Benchmarks (SSB's), which will help establish the FHR validation domain for simulant fluid suitability. These SSB's are more specifically designed to investigate single-phase natural circulation which is the dominant mode of FHR decay heat removal during off-normal conditions. SSB s should be viewed as engineering reference standards and differ from traditional confirmatory experiments in the sense that they are more focused on fundamental physics as opposed to reproducing high levels of physical similarity with the prototypical design. (authors)

  20. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier Annual Monitoring Report for Fiscal Years 2005 Through 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Link, Steven O.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2008-02-01

    A prototype Hanford barrier was deployed over the 216-B-57 Crib at the Hanford Site in 1994 to prevent percolation through the underlying waste and to minimize spreading of buried contaminants. This barrier is being monitored to evaluate physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. This report summarizes data collected during the period FY 2005 through FY 2007. In FY 2007, monitoring of the prototype Hanford barrier focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, evidence of plant and animal intrusion, and the main components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and deep percolation. Owing to a hiatus in funding in FY 2005 through 2006, data collected were limited to automated measurements of the water-balance components. For the reporting period (October 2004 through September 2007) precipitation amount and distribution were close to normal. The cumulative amount of water received from October 1994 through September 2007 was 3043.45 mm on the northern half of the barrier, which is the formerly irrigated treatment, and 2370.58 mm on the southern, non-irrigated treatments. Water storage continued to show a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and declining in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm in response to evapotranspiration. The 600-mm design storage has never been exceeded. For the reporting period, the total drainage from the soil-covered plots ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to almost 20 mm under the side slopes. Over the 13-yr monitoring period, side slope drainage accounted for about 20 percent of total precipitation while the soil-covered plots account for only 0.12 mm total. Above-asphalt and below-asphalt moisture measurements show no evidence of deep percolation of water. Topographic surveys show the barrier and protective side slopes to be stable. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation

  1. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; et al

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  2. An efficient, three dimensional, fully-coupled hydro-thermo- mechanical simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, S.; Zyvoloski, G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro-thermo-mechanical effects in fractured rocks are important in many oilfield processes. Modeling these effects is made difficult by the fact that the governing equations are nonlinear and coupled, and the problems to be solved are three dimensional. In this paper the authors describe a numerical code developed for this purpose. The code is finite element based to allow for complicated geometries, and the time differencing is implicit, allowing for large time steps. The use of state-of-the-art equation solvers has resulted in a practical code. An example is presented to demonstrate the effects of matrix expansion, due to pore pressure and heating, on fracture opening due to fluid injection, and induced stress changes at a distant well bore. 19 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  4. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral

  5. Direct-drive cryogenic-target implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Yudong; Huang, Tianxuan; Lei, Haile; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Jiahua; Yang, Zhiwen; Tang, Qi; Song, Zifeng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun

    2015-04-15

    Directly driven cryogenic target implosion experiments are performed on the SGIII prototype laser facility. X-ray pinhole images reveal frozen condensation on the sealing film. The influence of the condensation on the delivery of laser energy to the capsule surface is then quantified experimentally. It is found that, with a carefully chosen pre-pulse duration, the influence can be reduced, and the neutron yield is increased by an order of magnitude. Subsequently, the cryogenic layered capsule and cryogenic gas-filled capsule are imploded using 6.5-kJ laser energy. The implosion performance is characterized by the neutron yield, the 2D self-emission images of the in-flight shell, and the primary proton spectrum. The neutron yield is 2 × 10{sup 7} for the gas-filled capsule and 2.8 × 10{sup 7} for the layered capsule. The 2D self-emission images of the in-flight shell exhibit significant implosion asymmetry. The energy downshift of the proton spectrum is used to infer the areal density. For the gas-filled capsule, the spectrum is downshifted by 0.1 MeV, yielding an areal density of 1–3 mg/cm{sup 2}. For the layered capsule, the spectrum is downshifted by 0.5 MeV, yielding an areal density of 4–6 mg/cm{sup 2}. Improving the implosion symmetry would help to further increase the areal density.

  6. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    1999-10-01

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about $20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over $30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations.

  7. Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-08-14

    Engineered surface barriers are used to isolate underlying contaminants from water, plants, animals, and humans. To understand the flow processes within a barrier and the barrier’s ability to store and release water, the field hydraulic properties of the barrier need to be known. In situ measurement of soil hydraulic properties and their variation over time is challenging because most measurement methods are destructive. A multiyear test of the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) has yielded in situ soil water content and pressure data for a nine-year period. The upper 2 m layer of the PHB is a silt loam. Within this layer, water content and water pressure were monitored at multiple depths at 12 water balance stations using a neutron probe and heat dissipation units. Valid monitoring data from 1995 to 2003 for 4 depths at 12 monitoring stations were used to determine the field water retention of the silt loam layer. The data covered a wide range of wetness, from near saturation to the permanent wilt point, and each retention curve contained 51 to 96 data points. The data were described well with the commonly used van Genuchten water retention model. It was found that the spatial variation of the saturated and residual water content and the pore size distribution parameter were relatively small, while that of the van Genuchten alpha was relatively large. The effects of spatial variability of the retention properties appeared to be larger than the combined effects of added 15% w/w pea gravel and plant roots on the properties. Neither of the primary hydrological processes nor time had a detectible effect on the water retention of the silt loam barrier.

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3.

  9. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN LARGE ASPECT-RATIO SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with both finite and zero net magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite thermal diffusivity. The latter is chosen to be small enough so that vigorous convective states develop. The properties of these convective solutions are analyzed as the aspect ratio of the computational domain is varied and as the value of the mean field is increased. For the cases with zero net flux, we find that a well-defined converged state is obtained for large enough aspect ratios. In the converged state, the dynamo can be extremely efficient and can generate substantial toroidal flux. We identify solutions in which the toroidal field is mostly symmetric about the mid-plane and solutions in which it is mostly anti-symmetric. The symmetric solutions are found to be more efficient at transporting angular momentum and can give rise to a luminosity that is up to an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding value for the anti-symmetric states. In the cases with a finite net flux, the system appears to spend most of the time in the symmetric states.

  10. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  11. Ripeness sensor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    About 20--25% of the total production of fruits and vegetables in the USA must be discarded after harvest About 25--30% of this loss is the result of over-ripening and this loss represents about 8.39 {times} 10{sup 12} BTU of invested energy every year. This invested energy could be saved by non-destructive ripeness sensing. Sweetness is an important indicator of fruit quality and highly correlated with ripeness in most fruits. Research to develop a non-destructive fruit ripeness sensor has been conducted in the Agricultural Engineering Department at Purdue University. It is based on {sup 1}H-MR (proton Magnetic Resonance). A first generation prototype of the ripeness sensor based on {sup 1}H-MR was built and tested with. Results show that the sensor can discriminate small fruit (0.75 in diameter or smaller) differing in sugar content by 6%. This prototype can separate the fruit into at least two groups: one ripe and the other not ripe. The estimated cost for such a ripeness sensor is around $4,000. The signal sensitivity of the prototype can be improved to enable it to differentiate between fruits varying in sugar content by only 1 or 2% by using water peak suppression techniques to recover relatively weak sugar resonance signals in intact fruits, modifying circuits to eliminate noise, leakage and distortion of input/output signals, improving the magnetic console to get a higher magnetic field and better homogeneity, and designing a probe to achieve a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. As research continues a second generation ripeness sensor will be developed which will incorporate many of the improvements and which will be suitable for commercial use. Additional research will allow application of the technique to a wider range of fruit sizes (from blueberries to watermelons). This report describes estimated energy savings, feasibility studies, development of the initial prototype, and preliminary evaluation of the first generation prototype.

  12. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  13. Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAITRA, ARINDAM; LITWIN, RAY; lai, Jason; Syracuse, David

    2012-12-30

    This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected Cdv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is

  14. Effect of the radio frequency discharge on the dust charging process in a weakly collisional and fully ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motie, Iman; Bokaeeyan, Mahyar

    2015-02-15

    A close analysis of dust charging process in the presence of radio frequency (RF) discharge on low pressure and fully ionized plasma for both weak and strong discharge's electric field is considered. When the electromagnetic waves pass throughout fully ionized plasma, the collision frequency of the plasma is derived. Moreover, the disturbed distribution function of plasma particles in the presence of the RF discharge is obtained. In this article, by using the Krook model, we separate the distribution function in two parts, the Maxwellian part and the perturbed part. The perturbed part of distribution can make an extra current, so-called the accretion rate of electron (or ion) current, towards a dust particle as a function of the average electron-ion collision frequency. It is proven that when the potential of dust grains increases, the accretion rate of electron current experiences an exponential reduction. Furthermore, the accretion rate of electron current for a strong electric field is relatively smaller than that for a weak electric field. The reasons are elaborated.

  15. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Alexander J.

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  16. Research & Evaluation Prototypes (REP) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research & Development Projects Research & Development Projects Research & Development Projects AMO's R&D projects explore novel energy-efficient, next-generation materials and innovative process technologies for both specific industry sectors and a wider range of manufacturing industries. AMO's R&D projects also pursue foundational or advanced energy technologies for multiple industry sectors. All of AMO's R&D investments have high impact, use project diversity to spread

  17. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill outmore » a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.« less

  18. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill out a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.

  19. Search for Bbar to Lambda_c+ X l- nu Decays in Events with a Fully Reconstructed B Meson

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-19

    We present a search for semileptonic B decays to the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} based on 420 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. By fully reconstructing the recoiling B in a hadronic decay mode, we reduce non-B backgrounds and determine the flavor of the signal B. We statistically correct the flavor for the effect of the B{sup 0} mixing. We obtain a 90% confidence level upper limit of {Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X) < 3.5%.

  20. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corona, Edmundo; Gullerud, Arne S.; Haulenbeek, Kimberly K.; Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  1. A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng; Pan, Xiaoning; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Xiaochun; Du, Weiliang; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

  2. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  3. New two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique for measurement of hohlraum inner radiation in Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zhiwen; Wei, Minxi; Deng, Keli; Yao, Li; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli; Yi, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The space-resolving measurement of X-ray flux from a specific area (laser spot, re-emitting wall, or capsule) inside the hohlraum is an ongoing and critical problem in indirectly driven inertial-confinement fusion experiments. In this work, we developed a new two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique to measure the X-ray flux from specific areas inside the hohlraum by using the time- and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted at the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the X-ray flux and radiation temperature from an area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures detected using the SRFD from the inner area of the LEH were compared with the result measured using the flat-response X-ray detector from the entire LEH. This comparison was also analyzed theoretically. The inner area detected using the SRFD was found to be the re-emitting wall area alone. This important improvement in space-resolving X-ray flux measurement will enhance the current X-ray flux space characterization techniques, thereby furthering the quantitative understanding of X-ray flux space behavior in the hohlraum.

  4. Analysis of stimulated Raman backscatter and stimulated Brillouin backscatter in experiments performed on SG-III prototype facility with a spectral analysis code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Liang; Zhao, Yiqing; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Shiyang; Yang, Dong; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Xu, Tao; Wei, Huiyue; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang

    2014-07-15

    Experiments about the observations of stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) in Hohlraum were performed on Shenguang-III (SG-III) prototype facility for the first time in 2011. In this paper, relevant experimental results are analyzed for the first time with a one-dimension spectral analysis code, which is developed to study the coexistent process of SRS and SBS in Hohlraum plasma condition. Spectral features of the backscattered light are discussed with different plasma parameters. In the case of empty Hohlraum experiments, simulation results indicate that SBS, which grows fast at the energy deposition region near the Hohlraum wall, is the dominant instability process. The time resolved spectra of SRS and SBS are numerically obtained, which agree with the experimental observations. For the gas-filled Hohlraum experiments, simulation results show that SBS grows fastest in Au plasma and amplifies convectively in C{sub 5}H{sub 12} gas, whereas SRS mainly grows in the high density region of the C{sub 5}H{sub 12} gas. Gain spectra and the spectra of backscattered light are simulated along the ray path, which clearly show the location where the intensity of scattered light with a certain wavelength increases. This work is helpful to comprehend the observed spectral features of SRS and SBS. The experiments and relevant analysis provide references for the ignition target design in future.

  5. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  6. Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin parallel lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Horrom, Travis; Belcher, Nathan; Novikova, Irina

    2010-03-15

    We report on the performance of the first table-top prototype atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances with parallel linearly polarized optical fields (lin parallel lin configuration). Our apparatus uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) tuned to the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb with the current modulation at the {sup 87}Rb hyperfine frequency. We demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by the proper choice of rf modulation power and further improve our prototype clock stability by optimizing the parameters of the microwave lock loop. Operating in these optimal conditions, we measured a short-term fractional frequency stability (Allan deviation) 2x10{sup -11}{tau}{sup -1/2} for observation times 1 s{<=}{tau}{<=}20 s. This value is limited by large VCSEL phase noise and environmental temperature fluctuation. Further improvements in frequency stability should be possible with an apparatus designed as a dedicated lin parallel lin CPT resonance clock with environmental impacts minimized.

  7. Data mining for ontology development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, George S.; Strasburg, Jana; Stampf, David; Neymotin,Lev; Czajkowski, Carl; Shine, Eugene; Bollinger, James; Ghosh, Vinita; Sorokine, Alexandre; Ferrell, Regina; Ward, Richard; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2010-06-01

    A multi-laboratory ontology construction effort during the summer and fall of 2009 prototyped an ontology for counterfeit semiconductor manufacturing. This effort included an ontology development team and an ontology validation methods team. Here the third team of the Ontology Project, the Data Analysis (DA) team reports on their approaches, the tools they used, and results for mining literature for terminology pertinent to counterfeit semiconductor manufacturing. A discussion of the value of ontology-based analysis is presented, with insights drawn from other ontology-based methods regularly used in the analysis of genomic experiments. Finally, suggestions for future work are offered.

  8. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Sensitive Species

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)—an important wildlife species that has been affected by energy development in the western United States.

  9. Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doverbratt, Isa; Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven

    2013-01-15

    The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, was prepared as a part of a systematic investigation of the Ca-Pd-Ge ternary phase diagram. The structure was determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase with the space group R-3m, Z=3, a=5.6191 (5) A, c=12.1674 (7) A, wR{sub 2}=0.054 (all data) and is isostructural to Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si (Noreus et al., 1985 [17]) but due to the larger size of all elements in Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge, the cell axes are approximately 10% longer. The compound may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and compared with CaPd{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). - Graphical abstract: The title compound, Ca{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}Ge is a new fully ordered ternary Laves phase which may formally be considered as a Zintl compound, with [Pd{sub 3}Ge]{sup 4-} forming a poly-anionic network and divalent Ca cations located in truncated tetrahedral interstices. The structure is composed of Kagome net layers, consisting of Pd atoms only, which are stacked in an ABC sequence. Band structure calculations show that the Fermi level is located at a local minimum of the DOS (pseudo-gap) indicating that the charge is roughly optimized in the structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Site specific segregation in a Laves phase that is also a Zintl phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pseudo-gap at the Fermi level in a Laves phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distorted Frank-Kasper polyhedron.

  10. NREL Demonstrates Game-Changing Air Conditioner Technology (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of DEVAP prototype validates modeled predictions of 40% to 85% energy savings. Researchers in the NREL Buildings group are moving the award-winning desiccant enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air conditioning technol- ogy further toward commercialization by demonstrating that its energy-saving perfor- mance matches closely with thermodynamic model predictions. Industry partners Synapse Product Development and AIL Research built two prototypes of DEVAP based on NREL's design and modeling,

  11. High gain, low noise, fully complementary logic inverter based on bi-layer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Saptarshi; Roelofs, Andreas; Dubey, Madan

    2014-08-25

    In this article, first, we show that by contact work function engineering, electrostatic doping and proper scaling of both the oxide thickness and the flake thickness, high performance p- and n-type WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized. We report record high drive current of 98??A/?m for the electron conduction and 110 ?A/?m for the hole conduction in Schottky barrier WSe{sub 2} FETs. Then, we combine high performance WSe{sub 2} PFET with WSe{sub 2} NFET in double gated transistor geometry to demonstrate a fully complementary logic inverter. We also show that by adjusting the threshold voltages for the NFET and the PFET, the gain and the noise margin of the inverter can be significantly enhanced. The maximum gain of our chemical doping free WSe{sub 2} inverter was found to be ?25 and the noise margin was close to its ideal value of ?2.5?V for a supply voltage of V{sub DD}?=?5.0?V.

  12. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses through long-term testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of glass reactivity between radioactive sludge based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of both glass types for SRL 165, SRL 131, and SRL 200 frit compositions. The data demonstrate that for time periods through 280 days, differences in elemental release to solution up to 400% are observed. However, in general, differences in glass reactivity as measured by the release of boron, lithium, and sodium are less than a factor of two. The differences in reactivity are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions or to change the controlling glass dissolution mechanism. A radiation effect exists, mainly in the influence on the leachate pH, which in turn affects the glass reaction mechanism and rate. The differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and the simulated glasses can be reasonably explained if the controlling reaction mechanism is accounted for. Those differences are glass composition and leaching mechanism dependent. Lithium is found to have the highest elemental release in an ion-exchange dominated glass reaction process, while lithium has a lower release than boron and sodium in a matrix dissolution dominated process, where boron and sodium are usually among the most concentrated solution species.

  13. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  14. Fully gapped superconductivity in In-doped topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Guan; Gu, G. D.; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Yang, Huan; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2015-07-27

    In this study, superconductors derived from topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators by chemical doping have long been considered to be candidates as topological superconductors. Pb0.5Sn0.5Te is a topological crystalline insulator with mirror symmetry protected surface states on (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented surfaces. The superconductor (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te is produced by In doping in Pb0.5Sn0.5Te, and is thought to be a topological superconductor. Here we report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting state as well as the superconducting energy gap in (Pb0.5Sn0.5)0.7In0.3Te on a (001)-oriented surface. The spectrum can be well fitted by an anisotropic s-wave gap function of Δ =more » 0.72 + 0.18cos4θ meV using Dynes model. The results show that the superconductor seems to be a fully gapped one without any in-gap states, in contradiction with the expectation of a topological superconductor.« less

  15. Fully automated dual-frequency three-pulse-echo 2DIR spectrometer accessing spectral range from 800 to 4000 wavenumbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leger, Joel D.; Nyby, Clara M.; Varner, Clyde; Tang, Jianan; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Yue, Yuankai; Kireev, Victor V.; Burtsev, Viacheslav D.; Qasim, Layla N.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Rubtsov, Grigory I.

    2014-08-15

    A novel dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared instrument is designed and built that permits three-pulse heterodyned echo measurements of any cross-peak within a spectral range from 800 to 4000 cm{sup −1} to be performed in a fully automated fashion. The superior sensitivity of the instrument is achieved by a combination of spectral interferometry, phase cycling, and closed-loop phase stabilization accurate to ∼70 as. The anharmonicity of smaller than 10{sup −4} cm{sup −1} was recorded for strong carbonyl stretching modes using 800 laser shot accumulations. The novel design of the phase stabilization scheme permits tuning polarizations of the mid-infrared (m-IR) pulses, thus supporting measurements of the angles between vibrational transition dipoles. The automatic frequency tuning is achieved by implementing beam direction stabilization schemes for each m-IR beam, providing better than 50 μrad beam stability, and novel scheme for setting the phase-matching geometry for the m-IR beams at the sample. The errors in the cross-peak amplitudes associated with imperfect phase matching conditions and alignment are found to be at the level of 20%. The instrument can be used by non-specialists in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid Development of Disruptive Photovoltaic Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Rapid Development of Disruptive Photovoltaic Technologies PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid Development of Disruptive Photovoltaic Technologies Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $2,000,000 This project aims to demonstrate potentially disruptive, novel photovoltaic (PV) absorbers by developing proof-of-concept PV device prototypes composed of defect-tolerant inorganic thin film

  17. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  18. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  19. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  20. Prototype Power and Communications System for EeV Cosmic Rays Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, James S.

    2010-08-31

    An analysis of improving the power output of small wind turbines by adding a venturi housing was done. Including the effects of back pressure developed at the input to the housing lowers the efficiency gain from a factor of 5 to a factor of 2 for a turbine blade radius of 24 inches. The gain is small enough that only large systems could profit from the application.

  1. Users guide for SAMM: A prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyermann, D.L.; Fight, R.D.; Garrett, F.D.

    1991-08-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on using the southeast Alaska multiresource model (SAMM). SAMM is an interactive microcomputer program that allows users to explore relations among several resources in southeast Alaska (timber, anadromous fish, deer, and hydrology) and the effects of timber management activities (logging, thinning, and road building) on those relations and resources. This guide assists users in installing SAMM on a microcomputer, developing input data files, making simulation runs, and strong output data for external analysis and graphic display.

  2. The design of the AIE: An object-oriented application development system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuja, R.S.; Widing, M.A.

    1992-02-27

    Three years ago, in response to our challenging development context, the Advanced Modeling and Analysis Section designed and implemented an object-oriented environment -- the Application Interface Engine (AIE). Our prototyping requirements forced existing application development systems beyond their capabilities. Programmers at AMAS and its contractors have developed over twenty applications using AIE. Our initial experience has been very positive. AIE extends an object-oriented programming language with syntax and classes to support applications specification. This extended system improves all stages of the application engineering life cycle, from rapid prototyping to long term maintenance.

  3. RELAP5-3D Validation Study Using MB-2 Prototypical Steam Generator Steady-State Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, A.; Williamson, M.; Zhao, K.; Ruggles, A.

    2005-09-15

    A validation study of RELAP5-3D is performed using data from the Model Boiler Number 2 (MB-2) Prototypical Steam Generator Testing Program. The MB-2 is a 6.67-MW(thermal) power-scaled representation of the Westinghouse Model F steam generator. Comparisons with previous simulations using RELAP5/MOD3.2 are also offered. Limit cycles predicted by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 simulation are reduced in the RELAP5-3D simulation using identical nodalization. Steady-state data from the MB-2 tests used in the validation do not exhibit a limit cycle. The sources of the predicted limit cycles are investigated and feedback mechanisms contributing to the limit cycles are explained.

  4. The CMS forward calorimeter prototype design studies and Omega(c)0 search at E781 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayan, Ahmet Sedat

    2004-05-01

    In the fit part, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward calorimeter design studies are presented. The forward calorimeter consists of quartz fibers embedded in a steel absorber. Radiation damage studies of the quartz fiber and the absorber as well as the results of the first pre-production prototype PPP-I are presented. In the second part, the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0}search studies at the SELEX (E781) experiment at FermiLab are presented. 107 {+-} 22 {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} events are observed in three decay modes. The relative branching ratio ({Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} {yields} {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/{Beta}({Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} {yields} {Omega}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) is measured as 2.00 {+-} 0.45(stat) {+-} 0.32(sys).

  5. A neutronic feasibility study of the AP1000 design loaded with fully ceramic micro-encapsulated fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, C.; Ji, W.

    2013-07-01

    A neutronic feasibility study is performed to evaluate the utilization of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in the AP1000 reactor design. The widely used Monte Carlo code MCNP is employed to perform the full core analysis at the beginning of cycle (BOC). Both the original AP1000 design and the modified design with the replacement of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with FCM fuel compacts are modeled and simulated for comparison. To retain the original excess reactivity, ranges of fuel particle packing fraction and fuel enrichment in the FCM fuel design are first determined. Within the determined ranges, the reactor control mechanism employed by the original design is directly used in the modified design and the utilization feasibility is evaluated. The worth of control of each type of fuel burnable absorber (discrete/integral fuel burnable absorbers and soluble boron in primary coolant) is calculated for each design and significant differences between the two designs are observed. Those differences are interpreted by the fundamental difference of the fuel form used in each design. Due to the usage of silicon carbide as the matrix material and the fuel particles fuel form in FCM fuel design, neutron slowing down capability is increased in the new design, leading to a much higher thermal spectrum than the original design. This results in different reactivity and fission power density distributions in each design. We conclude that a direct replacement of fuel pellets by the FCM fuel in the AP1000 cannot retain the original optimum reactor core performance. Necessary modifications of the core design should be done and the original control mechanism needs to be re-designed. (authors)

  6. Gyrokinetic neoclassical study of the bootstrap current in the tokamak edge pedestal with fully non-linear Coulomb collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hager, Robert; Chang, C. S.

    2016-04-08

    As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steepmore » edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. In conclusion, a new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.« less

  7. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  8. Prosperity Games prototyping with the American Electronics Association, March 8--9, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, M.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the American Electronics Association in conjunction with the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee of the National Science and Technology Council. Players were drawn from government, national laboratories, and universities, as well as from the electronics industry. The game explored policy changes that could enhance US competitiveness in the manufacturing of consumer electronics. Two teams simulated a presidentially appointed commission comprised of high-level representatives from government, industry, universities and national laboratories. A single team represented the foreign equivalent of this commission, formed to develop counter strategies for any changes in US policies. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  9. The Solar Development Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, C.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a proposed stand alone company, the Solar Development Corporation (SDC), to be a business development and financing entity for photovoltaic operations with the potential to be commercially sustainable. SDC will have a fully integrated policy advocacy link to the World Bank. SDC will define target countries where the potential exists for significant early market expansion. In those countries it will provide: market and business development services that will accelerate the growth of private firms and deepen the penetration of Solar Home Systems (SHS) and other rural PV applications in the market; and access to pre-commercial and parallel financing for private firms to (1) expand their capability in PV distribution businesses, and (2) strengthen their ability to provide credit to end users. SDC itself will not engage in direct financing of the final consumer. It is intended that as far as possible SDC`s finance will be provided in parallel with financing from Financial Intermediaries.

  10. Systematic study of electric dipole excitations with fully self-consistent Skyrme HF plus RPA calculation from light to medium-mass deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inakura, Tsunenori; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2009-05-04

    We undertake a systematic calculation on electric dipole responses of even-even nuclei for a wide mass region employing a fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus RPA approach. For an easy implementation of the fully self-consistent calculation, the finite amplitude method which we have proposed recently is employed. We calculated dipole responses in Cartesian mesh representation, which can deal with deformed nuclei but does not include pairing correlation. The calculated results show reasonable agreement for heavy nuclei while the average excitation energy are underestimated for light nuclei. The systematic calculation have reached Nickel isotopes. We show a compilation of calculated peak energies of giant dipole resonances.

  11. A prototype clamp-on magneto-optical current transducer for power system metering and relaying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, J.; McLaren, P.G.; Thomson, D.J.; Middleton, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    A new type of Faraday effect based magneto-optical current transducer (MOCT) has been developed. This paper presents the theoretical background, engineering design, and test results of this clamp-on MOCT. The sensor consists of two separate clamp-on parts. This design avoids the need to brake the current carrying circuit in order to have the conductor enclosed by the optical path. A feedback scheme has been designed to stabilize the light source. The MOCT has two output stages, 1KA and 20KA, so that it can provide current signals for both power system metering and relaying devices. The theoretical background of maintaining the light travelling through the glass prism to be linearly polarized and the analysis on the effects of dielectric and metal reflections on the linearly polarized light is presented in the appendix.

  12. The Full Scale Seal Experiment - A Seal Industrial Prototype for Cigeo - 13106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebon, P.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Foin, R.; Armand, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Full Scale Seal (FSS) Experiment is one of various experiments implemented by Andra, within the frame of the Cigeo (the French Deep Geological Repository) Project development, to demonstrate the technical construction feasibility and performance of seals to be constructed, at time of Repository components (shafts, ramps, drifts, disposal vaults) progressive closure. FSS is built inside a drift model fabricated on surface for the purpose. Prior to the scale 1:1 seal construction test, various design tasks are scheduled. They include the engineering work on the drift model to make it fit with the experimental needs, on the various work sequences anticipated for the swelling clay core emplacement and the concrete containment plugs construction, on the specialized handling tools (and installation equipment) manufactured and delivered for the purpose, and of course on the various swelling clay materials and low pH (below 11) concrete formulations developed for the application. The engineering of the 'seal-as-built' commissioning means (tools and methodology) must also be dealt with. The FSS construction experiment is a technological demonstrator, thus it is not focused on the phenomenological survey (and by consequence, on the performance and behaviour forecast). As such, no hydration (forced or natural) is planned. However, the FSS implementation (in particular via the construction and commissioning activities carried out) is a key milestone in view of comforting phenomenological extrapolation in time and scale. The FSS experiment also allows for qualifying the commissioning methods of a real sealing system in the Repository, as built, at time of industrial operations. (authors)

  13. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of beta-alumina, a prototype glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Steven Ross

    1980-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance techniques are used to study single crystal Na, K, and Li beta-alumina. Color centers are introduced into this material by irradiating the samples with electrons at liquid nitrogen temperature. Using electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance, the color centers generated in this manner are identified, and their location within the material is determined. For one of these centers, an F/sup +/ center, the electron spin relaxation rate is measured over the range 2 to 20/sup 0/K using the pulse saturation and recovery technique. These measurements reveal an exceptionally fast relaxation rate with anomalous temperature and microwave frequency dependence. Beta-alumina is a structurally unique system. It is partially disordered and consists of ordered blocks of aluminum oxide separated by planar disordered regions. Extensive measurements have shown that beta-alumina displays properties identical to those observed for glasses at low temperature as a result of this limited structural disorder. These glass-like properties have been explained by proposing that atomic tunneling occurs in beta-alumina at low temperature producing a system of localized two level states. A model is developed which quantitatively describes the electron spin relaxation data. The proposed relaxation mechanism couples the color center spin to the phonon induced relaxation of a nearby localized two level tunneling state. A detailed comparison shows that this model is in good agreement with earlier heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and dielectric susceptibility measurements in beta-alumina.

  15. Development of LNG-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Commercial Hauling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detroit Diesel Corporation; Trucking Research Institute

    1998-12-03

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development, deployment, and evaluation of alternative fuels, NREL and the Trucking Research Institute contracted with Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) to develop and operate a liquid natural gas fueled tractor powered by a DDC Series 50 prototype natural gas engine. This is the final report on the project.

  16. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  17. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  18. CMI Develops Critical Materials Museum Exhibit | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute Develops Critical Materials Museum Exhibit People view CMI exhibit at Colorado School of Mines Geology Museum The Critical Materials Institute developed a museum exhibit at the Colorado School of Mines Geology Museum. The Critical Materials Museum Exhibit is a prototype exhibit for education professionals interested in building a similar exhibit. A series of "how to" reports is being generated at key stages of the design-build process: First report: Critical Materials

  19. ALMA observations of the Antennae galaxies. I. A new window on a prototypical merger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Brogan, Crystal; Evans, Aaron; Hibbard, John; Leroy, Adam; Remijan, Anthony; Sheth, Kartik; Chandar, Rupali; Johnson, Kelsey; Privon, George

    2014-11-10

    We present the highest spatial resolution (≈0.''5) CO (3-2) observations to date of the 'overlap' region in the merging Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39), taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We report on the discovery of a long (3 kpc), thin (aspect ratio 30/1), filament of CO gas that breaks up into roughly 10 individual knots. Each individual knot has a low internal velocity dispersion (≈10 km s{sup –1}); the dispersion of the ensemble of knots in the filament is also low (≈10 km s{sup –1}). At the other extreme, we find that the individual clouds in the supergiant molecular cloud 2 region discussed by Wilson and collaborators have a large range of internal velocity dispersions (10 to 80 km s{sup –1}), and a large dispersion among the ensemble (≈80 km s{sup –1}). Other large-scale features observed in CO emission, and their correspondence with historical counterparts using observations in other wavelengths, are also discussed. We compare the locations of small-scale CO features with a variety of multi-wavelength observations, in particular broad- (BVIJH) and narrow-band data (H{sub α} and Pa{sub β}) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and radio (3.6 cm) continuum observations taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This comparison leads to the development of an evolutionary classification system that provides a framework for studying the sequence of star cluster formation and evolution—from diffuse supergiant molecular clouds (SGMCs) to proto, embedded, emerging, young, intermediate/old clusters. The relative timescales have been assessed by determining the fractional population of sources at each evolutionary stage. The main uncertainty in this estimate is the identification of four regions as candidate protoclusters (i.e., strong compact CO emission but no clearly associated radio emission). Using the evolutionary framework, we estimate that the maximum age range of clusters in a single GMC is ≈10 Myr

  20. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; ,

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  1. Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul; Oborn, Brad

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 0 to 2020?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was

  2. Tests of a Prototype for Assessing the Field Homogeneity of the Iseult/Inumac 11.7T Whole Body MRI Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quettier, Lionel

    2010-06-01

    A neuroscience research center with very high field MRI equipments has been opened in November 2006 by the CEA life science division. One of the imaging systems will require a 11.75 T magnet with a 900 mm warm bore, the so-call Iseult/Inumac magnet. Regarding the large aperture and field strength, this magnet is a challenge as compared to the largest MRI systems ever built, and is then developed within an ambitious R&D program. With the objective of demonstrating the possibility of achieving field homogeneity better than 1 ppm using double pancake windings, a 24 double pancakes model coil, working at 1.5 T has been designed. This model magnet has been manufactured by Alstom MSA and tested at CEA. It has been measured with a very high precision, in order to fully characterize the field homogeneity, and then to investigate and discriminate the parameters that influence the field map. This magnet has reached the bare magnet field homogeneity specification expected for Iseult and thus successfully demonstrated the feasibility of building a homogenous magnet with the double pancake winding technique.

  3. Five-cell superconducting RF module with a PBG coupler cell: design and cold testing of the copper prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsenyev, Sergey Andreyevich; Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Boulware, Chase; Grimm, Terry; Rogacki, Adam

    2015-04-29

    We report the design and experimental data for a copper prototype of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator module. The five-cell module has an incorporated photonic band gap (PBG) cell with couplers. The purpose of the PBG cell is to achieve better higher order mode (HOM) damping, which is vital for preserving the quality of high-current electron beams. Better HOM damping raises the current threshold for beam instabilities in novel SRF accelerators. The PBG design also increases the real-estate gradient of the linac because both HOM damping and the fundamental power coupling can be done through the PBG cell instead of on the beam pipe via complicated end assemblies. First, we will discuss the design and accelerating properties of the structure. The five-cell module was optimized to provide good HOM damping while maintaining the same accelerating properties as conventional elliptical-cell modules. We will then discuss the process of tuning the structure to obtain the desired accelerating gradient profile. Finally, we will list measured quality factors for the accelerating mode and the most dangerous HOMs.

  4. Eltron Research & Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard; Faull, John

    2014-03-01

    This topical report covers technical work conducted under contract DE-FC26-05NT42469 between FY06 Q1 through FY14 Q2. The project evolved through several budget periods, budget revisions and continuation applications. This report covers work performed under the “base” program. In 2010 ARRA funding was added to the project. A separate report covering the ARRA portion of the project was submitted to DOE. The original project was focused on research and development for scale-up of hydrogen separation membrane for a FutureGen type power plant. The work included membrane testing and evaluation of metal alloy flat plates vs. tubes and metal membranes vs. cermet membranes. In addition, economic analysis and process modeling was performed. The original project team included CoorsTek, NORAM, and Praxair. In FY10Q2 a continuation application was filed for conducting a scale-up test at Eastman Chemical. In this part of the project a Subscale Engineering Prototype (SEP) membrane skid was designed, fabricated, and operated on a gasified coal slip-stream on Eastman’s site in Kingsport, TN. Following operation, the project was reorganized and a second continuation application with a new statement of work was initiated in FY12Q1. Finally, based on DOE’s decision not to proceed with a Process Development Unit (PDU) field test, a third continuation application and statement of work was initiated in FY13Q1 to close out the project.

  5. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction

  6. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VI. FBC-Data Base-Management-System (FBC-DBMS) development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base, (FBCDB), situated in MIT's Energy laboratory, is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. It is anticipated that the FBCDB would play an active and a direct role in the development of FBC technology as well as in the FBC commercial application. After some in-house experience and after a careful and extensive review of commercially available database systems, it was determined that the Model 204 DBMS by Computer Corporation of America was the most suitable to our needs. The setup of a prototype in-house database also allowed us to investigate and understand fully the particular problems involved in coordinating FBC development with a DBMS. Various difficult aspects were encountered and solutions had been sought. For instance, we found that it was necessary to rename the variables to avoid repetition as well as to increase usefulness of our database and, hence, we had designed a classification system for which variables were classified under category to achieve standardization of variable names. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the database from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results.

  7. Digital Library Research & Prototyping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This data model specification, merging with the Harvard-based Annotation Ontology work and intensive community feedback in a W3C Community Group, led to the recent approval by the ...

  8. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  9. Concord Cape Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-09

    This case study describes a house that is designed to achieve an 87% reduction in source energy use when compared to the 2009 Building America Benchmark, and features high-R walls, roof, and foundation along with a high efficiency mechanical system.

  10. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.

  11. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s} = 8$$ TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-06-17

    We searched for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states and presented them using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. Furthermore, no excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark productionmore » in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.« less

  12. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the contextmoreof simplified models of supersymmetry.less

  13. Magnetic Field Mapping and Integral Transfer Function Matching of the Prototype Dipoles for the NSLS-II at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, P.; Jain, A., Gupta, R., Skaritka, J., Spataro, C., Joshi, P., Ganetis, G., Anerella, M., Wanderer, P.

    2011-03-28

    The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be equipped with 54 dipole magnets having a gap of 35 mm, and 6 dipoles having a gap of 90 mm. Each dipole has a field of 0.4 T and provides 6 degrees of bending for a 3 GeV electron beam. The large aperture magnets are necessary to allow the extraction of long-wavelength light from the dipole magnet to serve a growing number of users of low energy radiation. The dipoles must not only have good field homogeneity (0.015% over a 40 mm x 20 mm region), but the integral transfer functions and integral end harmonics of the two types of magnets must also be matched. The 35 mm aperture dipole has a novel design where the yoke ends are extended up to the outside dimension of the coil using magnetic steel nose pieces. This design increases the effective length of the dipole without increasing the physical length. These nose pieces can be tailored to adjust the integral transfer function as well as the homogeneity of the integrated field. One prototype of each dipole type has been fabricated to validate the designs and to study matching of the two dipoles. A Hall probe mapping system has been built with three Group 3 Hall probes mounted on a 2-D translation stage. The probes are arranged with one probe in the midplane of the magnet and the others vertically offset by {+-}10 mm. The field is mapped around a nominal 25 m radius beam trajectory. The results of measurements in the as-received magnets, and with modifications made to the nose pieces are presented.

  14. The influence of laser clipped by the laser entrance hole on hohlraum radiation measurement on Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-03-15

    Measuring the x-ray flux exiting the target's laser entrance hole (LEH) is the most common diagnostic that quantifies the x-ray intensity inside the laser-driven hohlraum. However, this signal accounts for only a small portion of the incident laser power and thus is likely to be affected by unwanted x-ray background from non-target area, leading to an overestimation of the hohlraum drive. Unwanted emission might be produced when the laser light is clipped by the LEH (LEH clipping) because of a lack of clearance for laser spot, or with a laser spot comprising of discrete structure, or even with a poor pointing accuracy. Its influence on the hohlraum radiation diagnostic is investigated on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility with the typical 1 ns square pulse. The experiment employed three types of targets to excite the unwanted x-ray background from LEH clipping, unconverted light, and both effects, respectively. This work gives an absolute evaluation of x-ray produced by the LEH clipping, which is measured by flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRD) at multiple view angles. The result indicates that there is little variation in measured emission to various view angles, because the unwanted x-rays are mainly generated at the side face of the LEH lip when laser is obliquely incident. Therefore, the LEH clipping brings more overestimation in hohlraum radiation measurement at larger view angle since the hohlraum LEH as an emitting source viewed by FXRD is decreased as the view angle increases. In our condition, the LEH clipping contributes 2%–3.5% overestimation to the hohlraum flux measurement.

  15. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  16. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; Feezel, Paul; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototype and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.

  17. Final Report for the Scaled Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Encryption Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This effort studied the integration of innovative methods of key management crypto synchronization, and key agility while scaling encryption speed. Viability of these methods for encryption of ATM cell payloads at the SONET OC- 192 data rate (10 Gb/s), and for operation at OC-48 rates (2.5 Gb/s) was shown. An SNL-Developed pipelined DES design was adapted for the encryption of ATM cells. A proof-of-principle prototype circuit board containing 11 Electronically Programmable Logic Devices (each holding the equivalent of 100,000 gates) was designed, built, and used to prototype a high speed encryptor.

  18. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  19. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  20. On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaw, D. L.; Horrell, W. A.

    2001-09-24

    Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.