Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full- Scale Testing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD The goal of this project is to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The two specific objectives of this project are 1) ninety percent (90%) total mercury removal and 2) costs below 1/4 to 1/2 of today's commercially available activated carbon mercury removal technologies. Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc's (B&W/MTI's) will demonstrate their wet scrubbing mercury removal technology (which uses very small amounts of a liquid reagent to achieve increased mercury removal) at two locations burning high-sulfur Ohio bituminous coal: 1) Michigan South Central Power Agency's (MSCPA) 55 MWe Endicott Station located in Litchfield, Michigan and 2) Cinergy's 1300 MWe Zimmer Station located near Cincinnati, Ohio.

2

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-scale Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrostatic precipitator for particulate control, and a wet FGD system for SO2 control. The FGD system has three modules, two of which are normally operated....

3

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-Scale Field Trial of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process CONSOL R&D, PPL, Lechler, and Martin Marietta propose to conduct a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process at Unit 1 of the PPL Martins Creek Station. LTMC has the ability to reduce mercury emissions by over 90% as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41181. The next step is to demonstrate the performance, operability, and economics on a full-scale utility boiler. In addition this project will demonstrate that magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 ) slurry injection into the flue gas reduces SO3 concentration sufficiently to avoid corrosion at the low-temperature conditions, and will demonstrate that water spray humidification can maintain ESP performance under low-SO3 conditions.

4

FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

Gary Blythe

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

DOE/NETL's Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing Air Quality III September 12, 2002 Arlington, Va Scott Renninger, Project Manager for Mercury Control Technology Enviromental Projects Division Presentation Outline * Hg Program goals & objectives * Focus on Future Hg control R&D * Q&As President Bush's Clear Skies Initiative Current Mid-Term 2008-2010 2018 SO 2 11 million tons 4.5 million tons 3 million tons NOx 5 million tons 2.1 million tons 1.7 million tons Mercury 48 tons 26 tons 15 tons Annual U.S. Power Plant Emissions Mercury Control * Developing technologies ready for commercial demonstration: - By 2005, reduce emissions 50-70% - By 2010, reduce emissions by 90% - Cost 25-50% less than current estimates 2000 Year 48 Tons $2 - 5 Billion @ 90% Removal w/Activated

9

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230 °F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energyâ??s R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230 °F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

James Locke; Richard Winschel

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

11

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 2008 contacts thomas J. Feeley III Technology Manager Environmental & Water Resources National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6134 thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov charles E. Miller Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5745 charles.miller@netl.doe.gov Gary Blythe Principal Investigator URS Corp. 9400 Amberglen Blvd. P.O. Box 201088 Austin, Texas 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com Environmental and Water Resources Full-Scale TeSTing oF a Mercury oxidaTion caTalyST upSTreaM oF a WeT Fgd SySTeM Background To provide alternatives for power plant owners to comply with the Clean Air Mercury Rule promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NETL is

12

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) in flue gas from coal combustion. The project was conducted from July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. It was conducted with cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, "Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System." Private secto...

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Mercury Control Technology Selection Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, and various other organizations have undertaken extensive RD programs over the past decade to develop cost-effective methods for reducing mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. The field tests sponsored by these organizations have produced a significant amount of pilot and full-scale mercury control data for a variety of technologies at power plant sites with different boiler types, firing different coals, and equipped with various air emiss...

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Mercury Control For Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD URS Group, Inc., in collaboration with EPRI, Apogee Scientific, AEP, Texas Genco, and TXU Power, ADA-ES, will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control in an 85/15 blend Texas lignite/PRB derived flue gas, upstream of a cold-side ESP – wet FGD combination. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted with various sorbents and combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices (APCD) have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. For example, sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite, which represent approximately 10% of the annual U.S. power plant mercury emissions. The low and variable chloride content of Texas lignite may pose a challenge to achieving high levels of mercury removal with sorbent injection. Furthermore, activated carbon injection may render the fly ash unsuitable for sale, posing an economic liability to Texas lignite utilities. Alternatives to standard activated carbon, such as non-carbon sorbents and alternate injection locations (Toxecon II), have not been fully explored. Toxecon II involves sorbent injection in the middle field(s) of an ESP, thus preserving the integrity of the fly ash in the first fields.

25

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Development of Comprehensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection DOE has identified technologies (based on past DOE and other R&D organizations' mercury measurement and control achievements) that are expected to be important in developing possible strategies on mercury control for the coal-fired electric utility industry. To address critical questions related to cost and efficiency of these mercury control technologies, DOE has funded the first of a kind large-scale initiative aimed at testing and evaluating large-scale mercury control technologies for coal-based power systems. These tests will collect cost and performance data with parametric and long term field experiments at power plants with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) utilized to control other pollutants as well as mercury in hopes of providing the cheapest control options for the utility industry in mid-term application (5 to 10 years).

26

Mercury Emissions Control in Wet FGD Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) and McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) have had a continuing program over the past decade for characterizing and optimizing mercury control in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. These efforts have led to the characterization of mercury emissions control at two utility installations and full-scale demonstration (55 MW and 1300 MW) of the effect of a mercury control performance enhancement additive for wet FGD systems. This paper presents the results of the mercury emissions control testing conducted at these two sites. The performance is related to EPA Information Collection Request (ICR) data from an FGD system supplier’s perspective, highlighting the need to consider the effects of system design and operation when evaluating mercury emissions control performance.

Paul S. Nolan; Babcock Wilcox; Kevin E. Redinger; Babcock Wilcox; Gerald T. Amrhein; Gregory A. Kudlac

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

28

DOE Mercury Control Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Research Mercury Control Research Air Quality III: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter September 9-12, 2002 Rita A. Bajura, Director National Energy Technology Laboratory www.netl.doe.gov 169330 RAB 09/09/02 2 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: 2007 Clean Power Act of 2001 * 4-contaminant control * 90% Hg reduction by 2007 Clear Skies Act of 2002 * 3-contaminant control * 46% Hg reduction by 2010 * 70% Hg reduction by 2018 * Hg emission trading President Bush Announcing Clear Skies Initiative February 14, 2002 169330 RAB 09/09/02 3 Uncertainties Mercury Control Technologies * Balance-of-plant impacts * By-product use and disposal * Capture effectiveness with low-rank coals * Confidence of performance 169330 RAB 09/09/02 4

29

Mercury Control Update 2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been evaluating cost-effective methods for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This report summarizes the current status of mercury control technologies and offers detailed discussion of boiler bromide addition balance-of-plant impacts and activated carbon injection (ACI) tests at selected sites.

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

30

Investigation of the Relationship Between Particulate Bound Mercury and Properties of Fly Ash in a Full-Scale 100 MWE Pulverized Coal Combustion Boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is an increasing concern over mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. Coal-fired power generation accounts for approximately 33% of total mercury emission in the United… (more)

Li, Sen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Mercury Control Update 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A February 2008 decision by the U.S. District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals remanded the Clean Air Mercury Rule back to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, opening the possibility of more stringent federal emission limits similar to those already adopted by some states. To meet these stringent limits, high mercury removals based on Maximum Achievable Control Technology for individual power plants may be needed. To help electric power companies comply with tightening emission standards in a ...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

SAP for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) have developed and patented a technology for the on-site production of activated carbon (AC). The basic approach of the sorbent activation process (SAP) is to use coal from the plant site to form AC for direct injection into flue gas, upstream of the particulate control device, for mercury adsorption. The SAP is designed to help significantly reduce the cost of AC for power plant mercury control. This report summarizes laboratory and Phase 1 field test...

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

34

Mercury Controls Update 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In light of the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) ruling for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on March 16, 2011, the requirement to reduce emissions of mercury and other HAPs is one of the key challenges for coal-fired power plants. The proposed MACT ruling limits mercury emissions to 1.2 lb/TBtu at the stack (4.0 lb/TBtu for lignite-fired units), based on a 30-day rolling average including startup and shutdown periods. To help electri...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

35

Pilot-Scale and Full-Scale Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Mercury and Selenium in Flue Gas Desulphurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall evaluation of the various advanced treatment technologies that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested for removal of mercury and selenium from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water. EPRI conducted a literature survey followed by a preliminary laboratory-scale evaluation to screen promising technologies. For the technologies that were selected based on the success of laboratory-scale testing, EPRI worked with treatment vendors to further evaluate these techn...

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

36

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Testing of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX, will demonstrate at the pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project's pilot tests, conducted at electric generating plants using wet flue gas desulfurization systems and particulate collection systems, will be conducted for periods up to 14 months to provide data for future, full-scale designs. Mercury-oxidation potential will be measured periodically to provide long-term catalyst life data. The project is applicable to about 90,000 megawatts of generation capacity. Project partners are the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, which will co-manage and co-fund the pilot tests, and five utilities.

37

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration of Mer-Cure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control ALSTOM Power, Inc. – U.S. Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM-PPL) proposes herein a consortium-based program to demonstrate ALSTOM-PPL's Mer-Cure™ technology – a novel, sorbent-based (Mer-Clean™ ) mercury control technology in coal-fired boilers. The program objective is (i) to demonstrate at a full scale greater than 90% mercury capture based on baseline mercury level (ii) at a cost significantly less than 50% of the $60,000/lb of mercury removed. The proposed full-scale demonstration program is to perform two- to six-month test campaigns in three independent host sites with various boiler configurations over a two-year period. The demonstration program will include a two- to four-week short-term field test followed by two- to six-month long-term demonstration for each of the three selected sites.

38

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Testing of Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama Subcontractor- ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller The overall goal of this project is to test the effectiveness of calcium-based sorbents and oxidizing agents for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plant boilers. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, with EPA support, has developed calcium-based sorbents to remove SO2 and mercury simultaneously. The sorbents consist of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and an added oxidant and a silica-modified calcium (CaSiO3) with an added oxidant. The mercury capacity in ug Hg/g sorbent for the two sorbents is 20 and 110-150, respectively, verses a mercury capacity for the current standard sorbent, activated carbon, of 70-100. The advantages of a lime based sorbent verses carbon is lower cost, simultaneous removal of sulfur, and allowance of ash to be utilized for a cement additive.

39

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

40

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems CONSOL is evaluating the mercury removal co-benefits achieved by SCR-FGD combi nations. Specific issues that will be addressed include the effects of SCR, catalyst degradation, and load changes on mercury oxidation and capture. This objective will be achieved by measuring mercury removal achieved by SCR-FGD combinations at ten plants with such equipment configurations. These plants include five with wet limestone, three wet lime, and two with dry scrubbing. Material balance will be conducted. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - April 2006 [PDF-377KB] Topical Report # 11 - January 2006 [PDF-19MB] Topical Report # 9 - January 2006 [PDF-6MB]

42

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Integrated Approach to Mercury Control This project will demonstrate a novel multi-pollutant control technology for coal-fired power plants that can reduce...

43

Amended Silicated for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where fly ash is sold as a by-product.

James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Impacts of NOx Controls on Mercury Controllability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Past tests have led researchers and air pollution regulators to hypothesize that nitrogen oxides (NOx) controls can enhance mercury capture by particulate collection devices and sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers. This technology review presents results obtained to date from a comprehensive program designed to confirm, qualify, and quantify these hypotheses.

2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

45

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Methods Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods Development Methods Development EPRI and NETL collaboratively funded a $3-million program under the DOE/ University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) to evaluate, develop, and validate a mercury speciation method for coal-fired produced flue gas. There was a 60/40 percent split of the funding, as required under the JSRP for this two-year effort. The work conducted by the EERC identified the Ontario Hydro Method as the best mercury speciation method. The EERC has validated the Ontario Hydro Method at both pilot- and full-scale levels. Radian International aided in the full-scale validation, with a written protocol of the method being finalized through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

46

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using SCR and SNCR NOx Control Technologies Determination of the Speciated Mercury Inventory at Four Coal-Fired Boilers Using Continuous Hg Monitors Longer-Term Testing of...

47

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Modifications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Jointly funded by DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), this project's purpose is to investigate novel approaches of capturing elemental and...

48

Cost Estimate of Activated Carbon Injection for Controlling Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mercury reductions of between 60% and 70% at injection rates around 10-15 lbsmillion acf (see Figure 1). Although regression analysis of full-scale ACIESP data shows that it...

49

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

50

Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

2006 Mercury Control Technology Conference Proceedings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Technology Conference Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2006 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introduction Sorbent Injection By-Product Characterization/Management Mercury Oxidation and Co-Removal with FGD Systems Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussions Posters New 2006 Phase III Mercury Field Testing Projects Sorbent Injection Pretreatment of Coal Oxidation of Mercury Environmental Studies on Mercury Mercury in CUBs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

52

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Speciation from NOx Control University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) is addressing the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR),...

53

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

THE EFFECT OF MERCURY CONTROLS ON WALLBOARD MANUFACTURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pending EPA regulations may mandate 70 to 90% mercury removal efficiency from utility flue gas. A mercury control option is the trapping of oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization systems (FGD). The potential doubling of mercury in the FGD material and its effect on mercury volatility at temperatures common to wallboard manufacture is a concern that could limit the growing byproduct use of FGD material. Prediction of mercury fate is limited by lack of information on the mercury form in the FGD material. The parts per billion mercury concentrations prevent the identification of mercury compounds by common analytical methods. A sensitive analytical method, cold vapor atomic fluorescence, coupled with leaching and thermodecomposition methods were evaluated for their potential to identify mercury compounds in FGD material. The results of the study suggest that the mercury form is dominated by the calcium sulfate matrix and is probably associated with the sulfate form in the FGD material. Additionally, to determine the effect of high mercury concentration FGD material on wallboard manufacture, a laboratory FGD unit was built to trap the oxidized mercury generated in a simulated flue gas. Although the laboratory prepared FGD material did not contain the mercury concentrations anticipated, further thermal tests determined that mercury begins to evolve from FGD material at 380 to 390 F, consequently dropping the drying temperature should mitigate mercury evolution if necessary. Mercury evolution is also diminished as the weight of the wallboard sample increased. Consequently, mercury evolution may not be a significant problem in wallboard manufacture.

Sandra Meischen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR The overall objective of this project is to assess the potential for significant mercury control, between 50 and 90% above baseline, by sorbent injection for the challenging technical process configuration at Public Service of New Hampshire Company Merrimack Station Unit No. 2. The primary emphasis of this project is to evaluate the performance of mercury sorbent injection, but the effect of co-benefits from SO3 mitigation on mercury control will also be explored. Also in this program the performance capabilities of mercury measurement techniques in challenging flue-gas environment will be assessed and the impact of activated carbon injection on fly ash disposal options will be investigated.

57

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

58

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

59

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

62

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) brought about new awareness regarding the overall health-effects of stationary source fossil combustion emissions. Title III of the CAAA identified 189 pollutants, including mercury, as hazardous or toxic and required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate their emissions by source, health effects and environmental implications, including the need to control these emissions. These pollutants are collectively referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The provisions in Title III specific to electric generating units (EGU) were comprehensively addressed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaborative air toxic characterization programs conducted between 1990 and 1997. This work provided most of the data supporting the conclusions found in EPA's congressionally mandated reports regarding air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility boilers; the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1997)1 and the "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress" (1998).2 The first report identified coal-fired power plants as the largest source of human-generated mercury emissions in the U.S. and the second concluded that mercury from coal-fired utilities was the HAP of "greatest potential concern" to the environment and human health that merited additional research and monitoring.

63

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

MERCURY CONTROL FOR MWCs USING THE SODIUM TETRASULFIDE PROCESS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for mercury control for flue gases of Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) not only ecological hydrochloric acid (HCl) and elemental mercury (Hg") under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream to the decreasing gas temperature, the elemental mercury is able to react with other flue gas components. The main

Columbia University

65

Mercury and Dioxin Control for Municipal Waste Combustors Anthony Licata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

66

MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS  

SciTech Connect

The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

Thomas K. Gale

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control In this project, The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center...

70

NETL: News Release - DOE Licenses Mercury Control Patent to Help...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2007 DOE Licenses Mercury Control Patent to Help Meet Clean Air Regulations Research Aims at Trace Element Reduction from Power Generation Facilities by 2010 Washington, DC - A...

71

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-term Operation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Papers and Publications: Long-Term Evaluation of Activated Carbon Injection for Mercury Control Upstream of a COHPAC Fabric Filter PDF-298KB presented at Air Quality IV...

72

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

73

Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 FEBRUARY 2008 6 FEBRUARY 2008 Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant * Bottom left: AES Greenidge Power Plant * Bottom right: Presque Isle Power Plant A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy and: * Consol Energy * Pegasus Technologies * We Energies  Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Executive Summary ............................................................................ 4 Background ......................................................................................... 5 Mercury Removal Projects ................................................................ 7 TOXECON(tm) Retrofit For Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers ........................................7

74

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

75

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Apogee Scientific, Inc. (Apogee) will lead a Team comprised of Southern Company Services, TXU, Tennessee Valley Authority, EPRI, URS Group, University of Illinois-Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Southern Research Institute (SRI), Calgon Carbon, and TDA Research, Inc., to evaluate a number of advanced sorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas that have minimal impact on by-product utilization and/or on existing particulate collection devices (PCD). The main objective of this program is to evaluate several advanced sorbents for removing mercury from coal-fired flue gas while posing minimal impact on plant operations through three advanced sorbent concepts: 1) Sorbents which minimize impact on concrete production through selective chemical passivation of activated carbon and use of non-carbon material, 2) sorbents that minimize baghouse pressure drop and ESP emissions, and 3) sorbents that can be recovered and reused.

76

WEFTEC 2006, Dallas, Texas FULL SCALE EVALUATION OF THE UPFLOTM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WEFTEC 2006, Dallas, Texas FULL SCALE EVALUATION OF THE UPFLOTM FILTER - A CATCHBASIN INSERT *** Hydro International, Portland, ME 04102, USA **** StormTrain, LLC. Ann Arbor MI USA ABSTRACT Stormwater of problem contaminants or heavy equipment. The control of runoff from relatively small critical source areas

Pitt, Robert E.

77

Controls on Fluxes of Mercury in Aquatic Food Webs: Application of the Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model to Four Enclosure Experiments w ith Additions of Stable Mercury Isotopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New controls on utility mercury emissions are under consideration in order to limit human exposure to mercury resulting from fish consumption. Evaluation of such measures requires an understanding of how mercury cycles through lakes and streams. This report describes the application of EPRI's Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model (D-MCM) to experiments involving the addition of stable mercury Hg(II) isotopes to four 10-meter-diameter enclosures in a lake.

2001-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Preliminary Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications General Electric – Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a new technology that reduces the cost of mercury removal from flue gas by combining it with carbon reduction in a burnout system and simultaneously controlling nitrogen oxides emissions. Data on mercury removal at Western Kentucky Electric’s Green Station will be obtained and used to assess options to improve the efficiency of mercury removal. These options will be further investigated in pilot-scale testing on a 300 kW combustor. Related Papers and Publications: Preliminary Field Evaluation of Hg Control Using Combustion Modifications [PDF-732KB] - Presented at the 2004 Electric Utilities Environmental Conference, Tucson, AZ - January 19-22, 2004.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Amended Silicates for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Amended Silicates for Mercury Control Amended Silicates for Mercury Control The project is designed to implement a comprehensive demonstration of the use of Amended Silicates for mercury control on a commercial-scale generating unit. Miami Fort Unit 6 burns eastern bituminous coal, has a nominal output of 175 MW, and a flue gas volumetric flow of 535,000 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) at full load. The demonstration includes a baseline phase with no injection of mercury control sorbents, injection of carbon to develop a mercury-control technology baseline for sorbent performance comparison, and the injection of Amended Silicates at several rates. All sorbent will be injected upstream of the existing electro-static precipitators (ESPs) on the host unit, providing a nominal 1-second contact time before the gas flow enters an ESP. Mercury measurements will be made upstream of the sorbent injection and downstream of the first ESP to characterize the performance of the sorbent technologies. In addition, samples of coal and fly ash will be collected and analyzed to provide data for a mercury mass balance for the unit. The mercury measurements will be made with continuous emissions monitors as well as with Ontario-Hydro wet-chemistry sampling. Samples of fly ash plus sorbent from demonstration cases which include Amended Silicate sorbent injection will be collected from ESP hoppers for use in concrete testing to confirm the suitability of the material as a portland cement replacement.

83

Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

Carl Richardson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

BARRIER SYSTEM FULL SCALE FIRE TESTING ADDRESSEES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All holders of operating licenses for nuclear power reactors, except those who have permanently ceased operations and have certified that fuel has been permanently removed from the reactor vessel, and fuel facilities licensees. PURPOSE The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this information notice (IN) to inform addressees of the results of Hemyc electrical raceway fire barrier system (ERFBS) full-scale fire tests. The Hemyc ERFBS did not perform for one hour as designed because shrinkage of the Hemyc ERFBS occurred during the testing. It is expected that recipients will review the information for applicability to their facilities and consider actions as appropriate to avoid similar problems. However, suggestions contained in this information notice are not NRC requirements; therefore, no specific action or written response is required. BACKGROUND The Hemyc ERFBS, manufactured by Promatec, Inc., has been installed at nuclear power plants (NPPs) to protect circuits in accordance with regulatory requirements (Reference 1) and plant-specific commitments. As a result of fire protection inspections, unresolved items (URIs) were opened at some nuclear power stations due to questions raised regarding the fire resistance capability of the Hemyc ERFBS (Reference 2). The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) performed a review of the Hemyc ERFBS (Reference 3) and requested the NRC’s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to perform confirmatory testing of this ERFBS. RES performed the testing at the Omega Point Laboratories in Elmendorf, Texas. DISCUSSION This information notice describes the results of the investigation of the fire resistance capability of the Hemyc ERFBS (Attachment 1). The NRC performed two ASTM E 119 furnace tests on a number of cable raceway types that are protected by the Hemyc ERFBS (with and without air gaps) in accordance with the Hemyc ERFBS test plan (see ADAMS Accession No. ML043210141 for a preliminary version of the test plan). The test plan provides ML050890089 IN 2005-07

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of North Dakota,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table Of Contents for Field Testing Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems Mercury Oxidation Upstream of an ESP and Wet FGD Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems The scope of the project consists of attempting to control mercury at four different power plants using two novel concepts. The first concept is using furnace additives that will enhance the sorbent effectiveness for mercury capture. The other concept involves using novel treated carbons to significantly increase sorbent reactivity and resultant capture of Hg. The furnace additives will be tested at Leland Olds Station and Antelope Valley Station while the novel sorbents will be tested at Stanton Station Units 1 &10. Related Papers and Publications:

86

A proposed sensor deployment to investigate biogeochemical controls on mercury cycling in Mugu Lagoon, California (CON 5)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biogeochemical controls on mercury cycling in Mugu Lagoon,of UCLA, is impaired for mercury, a potent neurotoxin, whichhealth and wildlife t o •Mercury methylation is the process

Sarah Rothenberg; Jenny Jay

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: News Releases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Releases The following are links to various recent news stories related to mercury in the environment. These links are provided strictly as a convenience to the general...

88

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Brominated Sorbents...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ESPs, and Fly Ash Use in Concrete Sorbent Technology will test two technologies for mercury removal from flue gas. Their concrete safe brominated sorbent will be tested at...

89

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Testing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or without performance additives, to reduce mercury emissions from a Texas utility burning either Texas lignite or a blend of Texas lignite and subbituminous coals. Sorbents...

92

JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury monitors (CMMs) at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) inlet (ESP In), scrubber inlet, and scrubber outlet of San Miguel Unit 1, and a dry sorbent trap method was used to take samples periodically to measure mercury concentrations at the each of the CMM sampling locations described above. A limited number of Ontario Hydro (OH) measurements were also conducted. Removal efficiencies were calculated from mercury-in-coal values to scrubber out CMM values. Sorbent trap samples taken at the each sampling location outlet were found to be fairly consistent with CMM values. A maximum mercury removal of 78.5% was achieved with the SEA2 + DARCO Hg sorbent combination at injection rates of 50 ppm and 4 lb/Macf, respectively. An injection rate of 4 lb/Macf for DARCO Hg-LH and DARCO Hg resulted in mercury removals of 70.0% and 64.2%, respectively. These mercury reduction values were achieved at full load and at stable plant operating conditions. Scrubber reemission was observed during sorbent injection and had a significant effect on coal to scrubber out mercury removal values. When the sorbents were injected into San Miguel Unit 1 at the AH inlet, no effects on unit operations were observed. ESP performance throughout the test period was fairly steady, with only one minor breakdown. However, it should be noted that test durations were short.

Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Evaluation of MerCAP^TM for Power Plant Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MErCaP(tm) for PowEr Plant MErCury Control Background Several technologies are under development for removing mercury from power plant flue gas streams. The mercury...

94

NETL: Conference Proceedings - 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2007 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Overview Sorbent Injection Panel Discussion #1: Sorbents for Mercury Control Mercury Oxidaton and Co-Removal with FGD Systems By-Product Characterization/Management Panel Discussion #2: Mercury Measurements / CEMS Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussion #3: Non-Sorbent Mercury Control Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

95

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Sorbent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ADA Environmental Solutions will evaluate injection of activated carbon and other sorbents to remove mercury for a variety of coal and air pollution control equipment configurations. The scope of work is for 36 months and intended to gather operating data that will document actual performance levels and accurate cost information to assess the costs of controlling mercury from coal fired utilities. Testing will be conducted at four different host sites that represent a significant percentage of unit configurations. The subsequent cost analyses will include capital costs, by-product utilization issues, sorbent usage, any necessary enhancements, such as SO3 control or flue gas conditioning, balance of plant, manpower requirements and waste issues. The host sites are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station and American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Station.

96

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - On-Site Production of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact The detrimental health effects of mercury are well documented. Furthermore, it has been reported that U.S. coal-fired plants emit approximately 48 tons of mercury a year. To remedy this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) on March 15, 2005. A promising method to achieve the mandated mercury reductions is activated carbon injection (ACI). While promising, the current cost of ACI for mercury capture is expensive, and ACI adversely impacts the use of the by-product fly-ash for concrete. Published prices for activated carbon are generally 0.5-1 $/lb and capital costs estimates are 2-55 $/KW. Because of the high costs of ACI, Praxair started feasibility studies on an alternative process to reduce the cost of mercury capture. The proposed process is composed of three steps. First, a hot oxidant mixture is created by using a proprietary Praxair burner. Next, the hot oxidant is allowed to react with pulverized coal and additives. The resulting sorbent product is separated from the resulting syngas. In a commercial installation, the resulting sorbent product would be injected between the air-preheater and the particulate control device.

97

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

98

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ALSTOM will test their proprietary activated carbon-based sorbent which promotes oxidation and capture of mercury via preparation with chemical additives. ALSTOM proposes to test the sorbents at three utilities burning different coals, PacificCorp’s Dave Johnston (PRB), Basin Electric’s Leland Olds (North Dakota Lignite) and Reliant Energy’s Portland Unit (bituminous). Other project partners include Energy and Environmental Research Center, North Dakota Industrial Commission and Minnkota Power who will be a non-host utility participant. Upon completion of this two year project, ALSTOM will demonstrate the capability of controlling mercury emissions from units equipped with electrostatic precipitators, a configuration representing approximately 75% of the existing units.

99

Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

Alan Beamon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Utilization of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for mercury removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at coal burning plant. The main objective of this project is to obtained technical information...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

SCR Catalyst Management for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of EPRI projects conducted over the past several years have examined the effects of SCR catalyst on mercury speciation. These projects have focused on the various factors influencing mercury oxidation, related to both the flue gas conditions and the catalysts themselves. However, the majority of these studies have only examined the speciation at the SCR inlet and outlet. Much less is known about the interlayer speciation, however, which is very important when developing catalyst management ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The overall objective of the test program described in this quarterly report is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants with configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. This technology was successfully evaluated in NETL's Phase I tests at scales up to 150 MW, on plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals and with ESPs and fabric filters. The tests also identified issues that still need to be addressed, such as evaluating performance on other configurations, optimizing sorbent usage (costs), and gathering longer-term operating data to address concerns about the impact of activated carbon on plant equipment and operations. The four sites identified for testing are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station, AEP's Conesville Station, and Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant. In addition to tests identified for the four main sites, parametric testing at Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3 has been scheduled and made possible through additional costshare participation targeted by team members specifically for tests at Holcomb or a similar plant. This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. Long-term testing was completed at Meramec during this reporting period. Preliminary results from parametric, baseline and long-term testing at Meramec are included in this report. Planning information for the other three sites is also included. In general, quarterly reports will be used to provide project overviews, project status, and technology transfer information. Topical reports will be prepared to present detailed technical information.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

103

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation, will test an advanced halgenated activated carbon to determine the mercury removal performance and relative costs of sorbent injection for advanced sorbent materials in large-scale field trials of a variety of combinations of coal-type and utility plant-configuration. These include one site (Detroit Edison's St. Clair Station) with a cold-side ESP using subbituminous coal, or blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal, and one site (Duke Energy's Buck Plant) with a hot-side ESP which burns a bituminous coal. Related Papers and Publications: Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period April 1 - October 31, 2004 [PDF-2275KB] Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period of October 2003 - March 2004 [PDF-1108KB]

104

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest that were varied included SO{sub 3} conditioning on/off, injection concentrations, and distribution spray patterns. The original test plan called for parametric testing of NORIT FGD carbon at 1, 3, and 10 lbs/MMacf. These injection concentrations were estimated based on results from the Pleasant Prairie tests that showed no additional mercury removal when injection concentrations were increased above 10 lbs/MMacf. The Brayton Point parametric test data indicated that higher injection concentrations would achieve higher removal efficiencies and should be tested. The test plan was altered to include testing at 20 lbs/MMacf. The first test at this higher rate showed very high removal across the second ESP (>80%). Unlike the ''ceiling'' phenomenon witnessed at Pleasant Prairie, increasing sorbent injection concentration resulted in further capture of vapor-phase mercury. The final phase of field-testing was a 10-day period of continuous injection of NORIT FGD carbon. During the first five days, the injection concentration was held at 10 lbs/MMacf, followed by nominally five days of testing at an injection concentration of 20 lbs/MMacf. The mercury removal, as measured by the semi-continuous emission monitors (S-CEM), varied between 78% and 95% during the 10 lbs/MMacf period and increased to >97% when the injection concentration was increased to 20 lbs/MMacf. During the long-term testing period, mercury measurements following EPA's draft Ontario Hydro method were conducted by TRC Environmental Corporation at both 10 and 20 lbs/MMacf test conditions. The Ontario Hydro data showed that the particulate mercury removal was similar between the two conditions of 10 or 20 lbs/MMacf and removal efficiencies were greater than 99%. Elemental mercury was not detected in any samples, so no conclusions as to its removal can be drawn. Removal of oxidized mercury, on the other hand, increased from 68% to 93% with the higher injection concentration. These removal rates agreed well with the S-CEM results.

Michael D. Durham

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

105

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

106

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

Michael D. Durham

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Assessment of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control Technologies Testing of Mercury Control Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants by Thomas J. Feeley, III 1. , Lynn A. Brickett 1. , B. Andrew O'Palko 1. , and James T. Murphy 2. 1. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 2. Science Applications International Corporation The U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal- fired power plants. The program also includes evaluating the fate of mercury in coal by-products and studying the transport and transformation of mercury in power plant plumes. This paper presents results from ongoing full-scale and slip-stream field testing of several mercury control

109

Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Full-Scale Production Full-Scale Production Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production Find resources to help you design a production and manufacturing process for a new clean energy technology or product. For full-scale production, other areas to consider include workforce development; R&D funding; and regional, state, and local resources. For more resources, see the Clean Energy Manufacturing Federal Resource Guide. Design Production and Manufacturing Process Advanced Research Projects Agency: Tech-to-Market Resources - general tech-to-market (T2M) resources. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office: Manufacturing Demonstration Facility - a collaborative manufacturing community that works to provide real data to

110

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

Katherine Dombrowski

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Full-Scale Tornado-Missile Impact Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The testing described in this report provides data from full-scale simulated tornado-missile impacts on reinforced concrete walls. These data can be used directly for design and for the development of improved design and analysis techniques.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Full-Scale Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Full-Scale Test (FST) program was performed by Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions to assess the performance of full-scale centrifugal contactors specified for the Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, to be located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, will remove highly radioactive waste constituents, principally actinides, strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) radionuclides, from salt waste solutions currently stored in SRS high-level waste tanks. Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) removes Cs from waste feed that has been treated upstream to remove actinides and Sr. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract Cs from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. The test system comprised (a) eleven 25.4 cm (10'') full-scale contactors (versus 36 in SWPF) for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash stages; (b) two solvent recovery coalescers; and (c) the associated hardware and control system, packaged in four skid mounted modules. This paper describes the results of tests performed to define both hydraulic performance parameters (maximum hydraulic capacity and phase carryover) and solvent extraction performance parameters (Cs mass transfer efficiencies) using simulated SWPF waste and actual CSSX solvent. The test results confirmed key design features of the CSSX process and, as a consequence, the use of CSSX in the SWPF. In conclusion: Total throughput was initially limited to 85% of maximum flow during FST. Minor system modifications performed prior to mass transfer testing series resulted in the realization of 100% throughput. The 100% flow equates to slightly more than 35.6 x 10{sup 6} L/yr (9.4 Mgal/yr) of waste processed in SWPF which is anticipated to be the peak plant throughput. To achieve the best hydraulic performance in extraction, it is recommended that the extraction contactors be operated at the highest reasonable speed possible (>2100 rpm). Vibration, hardware limitations, bearing life, and other factors should be considered prior to final selection of extraction contactor speeds in SWPF. In strip (also scrub and wash) aqueous carryover decreased and organic carryover increased as the rotor speeds increased. It is recommended that the strip, scrub, and wash contactors be operated at intermediate speeds (between 1500 and 2100 rpm) to achieve a performance compromise between aqueous and organic carryover. Curved-vane bottom plates showed a significant hydraulic performance (aqueous and organic carryover) advantage over straight-vane bottom plates in extraction. There was no significant mass transfer performance advantage for either plate type in extraction. Thus, curved-vane bottom plates in extraction may be the better option for use in SWPF. There was no significant hydraulic performance difference between the plate types in strip. Straight-vanes provided significantly better mass transfer performance in strip compared to curved-vanes. Based solely on mass transfer performance, straight-vane bottom plates in the strip, scrub, and wash contactors are recommended for use in SWPF. Utilizing straight-vanes in the stripping section, the overall SWPF CSSX performance is expected to meet or exceed the target DF of 40,000 with minimum extraction D{sub Cs} of 10. (authors)

Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bartling, K.E. [Parsons, Aiken, SC (United States); Singer, S.A. [Energy Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Investigation of modified speciation for enhanced control of mercury  

SciTech Connect

The control of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions was addressed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which provided an initial list of 189 elements and compounds of concern. The combustion of coal has the potential to produce a number of those species, either directly as a result of the trace elements found in coal, or as products of chemical reactions occurring in combustion. However, field studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and others have shown that the actual emissions are very low and that effective particulate-matter capture can control most of the inorganic species. The most significant exception is mercury, which has also been singled out for particular regulatory attention because of its behavior in the environment (bioaccumulation) and the potential for deleterious health effects. In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. The very small amount of mercury (on the order of a few micrograms per cubic meter) in flue gas, its occurrence in several chemical forms that vary from system to system, the very low solubility of the elemental form, and the fact that it is usually in the vapor phase combine to make the achievement of cost-effective control a challenging task.

Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for mercury control for flue gases of Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) not only ecological hydrochloric acid (HCl) and elemental mercury (Hg") under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream to the decreasing gas temperature, the elemental mercury is able to react with other flue gas components. The main

117

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Non-Thermal Plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Thermal Plasma Based Removal of Mercury Project Summary Powerspan Corp. will pilot test a multi-pollutant technology that converts mercury into mercuric oxide, nitrogen oxide...

119

ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS  

SciTech Connect

Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m3). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORBź carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

control technologies at the pilot scale that show promise for application at plants burning Gulf Coast lignite, or a blend with subbituminous coal. Gulf Coast lignite is one of...

122

Property:Full-Scale Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Full-Scale Test Full-Scale Test Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Full-Scale Test Property Type Text Pages using the property "Full-Scale Test" Showing 13 pages using this property. M MHK Technologies/Atlantis AN 150 + The AN150 system was connected to the SPAusNet Victorian electricity grid exporting renewable power for from 2008 to 2012 Atlantis received power sales revenue and RECs Renewable Energy Certificates during this period of operation MHK Technologies/Atlantis AR 1000 + Atlantis connect its 1MW AR1000 tidal turbine to the grid at the European Marine Energy Centre EMEC in Orkney Scotland on Thursday the 11th August 2011 Atlantis Resources Corporation will continue its AR1000 tidal turbine testing programme at the National Renewable Energy Centre Narec in Blyth Northumberland The company s AR1000 nacelle was retrieved from its test berth at the European Marine Energy Centre EMEC in Orkney in late November following successful open ocean testing It will be transported to Blyth for preparation ahead of the spring opening of Narec s 3MW capacity turbine drive train testing facility The independent onshore facility has been developed to de risk in field activities conducting reliability and performance appraisals of new devices and system components through accelerated lifetime testing

123

Operational experience from three full scale methane digesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three full scale anaerobic digesters are described and operational experience is discussed. The digesters are located in Monroe, Washington on a 200 head dairy; in Bartow, Florida on a 10,000 head feedlot; and in Bedford, Virginia on a 100 head dairy. 11 refs.

Coppinger, E.R.; Richter, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (completed May 31, 2011)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (Completed May 31, 2010) Description NeuCo, Inc. (which acquired original participant Pegasus Technologies), a developer of power plant control and optimization technologies, demonstrated the capability to optimize mercury speciation and control of emissions from an existing power plant. This demonstration took place at an 890 megawatt (MW) utility boiler in Jewett,

125

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

restrictions started with particulate and now includes nitrogen oxides and acid gases. This constant industry. The additives and flue gases mix and a reaction will occur between the acid gases and additives. Usually are removed by getting trapped on the bag while the cleaned flue gases pass through. Semi-dry Acid Gas Control

126

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Enhanced High Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and In-Situ Active Carbon Generation for Low Cost Mercury Capture Mercury oxidation phenomenon and the studies of this phenomenon have generally focused on lower temperatures, typically below 650°F. This has been based on the mercury vapor equilibrium speciation curve. The baseline extents of mercury oxidation as reported in the ICR dataset and observed during subsequent tests has shown a tremendous amount of scatter. The objective of this project is to examine, establish and demonstrate the effect of higher temperature kinetics on mercury oxidation rates. Further, it is the objective of this project to demonstrate how the inherent mercury oxidation kinetics can be influenced to dramatically increase the mercury oxidation.

128

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT enhancemenT aDDiTive TechnoLogy for mercury conTroL Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The combustion of subbituminous coals typically results in higher fractions of elemental mercury emissions than the combustion of bituminous coals. This complicates mercury capture efforts, particularly for technologies using powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection, because elemental mercury is not readily captured by PAC injection alone. In short, unmodified PACs are better suited for bituminous coals than for subbituminous coals. Various proprietary sorbent enhancement additives (SEA) have been developed to increase the mercury reactivity of PACs, and perhaps fly

129

2010 EPRI-Southern Company Services Activated Carbon Mercury Control Workshop Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a maximum achievable control technology ruling for air toxics on March 16, 2011. The proposed rule would impose new emission limits on mercury, acid gases, and particulate matter (as a surrogate for non-mercury metallic pollutants such as arsenic) from coal-fired power plants. These new limits are in addition to already existing mercury emissions limits imposed by many states. Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one of the leading control options to...

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon injecTion opTions For Mercury conTrol AT TXu's big brown sTATion Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. Lignite coal is unique because of its highly variable ash content (rich in alkali and alkaline-earth elements), high moisture levels, low chlorine content, and high calcium content. Unique to Texas lignite coals are relatively high iron and selenium concentrations. When combusting Texas lignite coals, up to 80 percent of the mercury in the flue gas is present as elemental mercury, which is not readily captured by downstream pollution control devices. To better understand the factors that influence mercury control at units firing

131

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

133

The Evaluation of Mercury Emissions and Control Options for Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Canada-wide standards for mercury are being developed, and draft requirements will likely be available in 2002 (with a revised version by 2005) for potential implementation in the 2007 to 2010 period. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are also likely to be subjected to regulatory control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing proposed mercury regulations and plans to issue final regulations on mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers by December 15, 2004 for full comp...

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

134

Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

McLouth, Lawrence D.

2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

135

Development and Demonstration of Mercury Control by Dry Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, with compliance slated for December 2007. It is thus very important for power producers to determine the amount of mercury emissions from their power plants, options for reducing mercury emissions, the cost-effectiveness of various removal technologies, and the potential impact on power plant operation and other air pollutant emissions.

2003-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

136

Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Temperature Measurements in Full-Scale Wood Stud Shear Walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 10 full-scale fire resistance tests conducted at the National Fire Laboratory on load-bearing gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies with and without resilient channels on the fire-exposed side. The two assembly arrangements studied were: symmetrical installation 1x1 (one layer of gypsum board on each of the exposed and unexposed sides) and asymmetrical installation of the shear membrane (one layer of gypsum board on both the exposed and unexposed sides and a shear wall membrane as a base layer alternating between the exposed (2x1) and unexposed sides (1x2)) on a wood stud frame. The gypsum board was 12.7 mm thick Type X. The insulations used were glass and rock fibres. The shear membranes used were plywood and oriented strand board (OSB). Tests were conducted to determine the effects of the placement of the shear membrane on the exposed/unexposed face, type of shear membrane, insulation type, load intensity and resilient channel installations on the fire resistance of gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies. Details of the results, including the temperatures and deflections measured during the fire tests, are presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is part of a consortium project on the fire resistance and sound performance of wall assemblies - Phase II, among the following partners: . Canadian Wood Council . Canadian Home Builders Association . Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute . Gypsum Manufacturers of Canada . Owens-Corning Canada . Roxul Inc.

V. K. R. Sultan; M. A. Denham; V. K. R. Kodur; M. A. Sultan; E. M. A. Denham; Canadian Wood Council; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Measurement and Verification for Behavioral Programs: Evaluating Programs That Have Gone Full-Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaluation of behavioral programs requires rigorous measurement and verification. While the randomized controlled trial (RCT) lies at the core of modern program evaluation, in most situations it is not feasible to implement a randomized approach. This is particularly true when programs have gone full-scale and the success of the program needs to be evaluated outside of the confines of an experimental framework involving the random allocation of households to treatment and control ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The AEO2006 reference case assumes that States will comply with the requirements of the EPAs new CAMR regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

Information Center

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

140

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Update on Enhanced Mercury Capture by SO2 Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the interim results of two projects that focus on understanding and enhancing mercury capture by wet gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first project is collecting data from bench scale experiments to determine the reactions and kinetics governing the fate of oxidized memory absorbed by wet FGD liquors. The second project is a 200-MW-scale demonstration of a low-temperature mercury oxidation catalyst at Lower Colorado River Authority's (LCRA's) Fayette Power Project.

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities  

SciTech Connect

An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

2005-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

NETL: CCPI - TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Control Devices - Multi-Pollutant Control Technologies Environmental Control Devices - Multi-Pollutant Control Technologies TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers - Project Brief [PDF-63KB] Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Marquette, Michigan PROJECT FACT SHEET TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers [PDF-761KB] (May 2011) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers Final Report [PDF-113MB] (Apr 2004 - Sept 2009) Quarterly Progress Reports January - March 2009 [PDF-970KB] (Apr 2009) October -December 2008 [PDF-3MB] (Jan 2009) July - September 2008 [PDF-630KB] (Oct 2008) April - June 2008 [PDF-1.5MB] (July 2008) January - March 2008 [PDF-610KB] (Apr 2008)

146

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D Photo Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery 500 LB/HR Pilot Combustor and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter Most of the research on mercury measurement and control has been conducted on a pilot combustion unit with a design rate of 500 pounds of coal per hour and a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate control. P S Analytical Sir Gallahad CEM Installed on Pilot Combustion Unit Filter Oven and Sample Line Analyzer with Computer, Switching Box and Calibration Module Conditioning Box Recently, an on-line analyzer for mercury measurement was purchased and installed to obtain near-real-time readings of mercury concentration and speciation in flue gas. Typical Output of CEM The on-line analyzer shows trends in total mercury concentration as a function of time.

147

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D In-House R&D The scrutiny of mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired utilities that began with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) resulted in a determination by the U.S. EPA that such emissions should be regulated. A number of techniques for control of mercury emissions from power plants have been evaluated at various scales. One technique that received a great deal of attention by the EPA, utilities, and technology developers was dry sorbent injection upstream of an existing particulate control device. The in-house, air toxics research effort at NETL consisted of two distinct efforts: the first was aimed at characterizing an existing pilot unit for distribution and fate of hazardous air pollutants, including mercury ; the second was examining sorbents and photochemical oxidation as means for mercury removal from flue gas at laboratory-scale.

148

Development of a sorbent-based technology for control of mercury in flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results of research being, conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases by using dry sorbents. Experimental results from investigation of various sorbents and chemical additives for mercury control are reported. Of the sorbents investigated thus far, an activited-carbon-based sorbent impregnated with about 15% (by weight) of sulfur compound provided the best results. The key parameters affecting mercury control efficiency in a fixed-bed reactor, such as reactor loading, reactor temperature, sorbent size distribution, etc., were also studied, and the results ire presented. In addition to activated-carbon-based sorbents, a non-carbon-based sorbent that uses an inactive substrate treated with active chemicals is being developed. Preliminary, experimental results for mercury removal by this newly developed sorbent are presented.

Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.; Livengood, C.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

C. Jean Bustard

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the fifteenth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) Test Sites--Final Reports for the two remaining plants are being written (Salem Harbor and Brayton Point). (2) Technology Transfer--Technical information about the project was presented to a number of organizations during the quarter including members of congress, coal companies, architect/engineering firms, National Mining Association, the North Carolina Department of Air Quality, the National Coal Council and EPA.

Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal 'above and beyond' the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166 000/lb Hg removed. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Andrew P. Jones; Jeffrey W. Hoffmann; Dennis N. Smith; Thomas J. Feeley III; James T. Murphy [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

An empirical study of a full-scale polymer thermochromic window...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An empirical study of a full-scale polymer thermochromic window and its implications on material science development objectives Title An empirical study of a full-scale polymer...

156

In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

identifier identifier In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL identifier BACKGROUND T Over 32% of man-made emissions of Hg in U.S. are from coal-fired utilities. T Future regulation of utility emissions has been proposed by EPA. T Control of Hg emissions is complicated by low concentrations (~1 ppbv) and speciation variability. T EPA report suggests sorbent injection as a low- cost technique for mercury removal. T NETL's in-house research effort is conducted at both pilot and lab scales. identifier PILOT RESEARCH OBJECTIVES T Evaluate methods for measurement of mercury concentration and speciation. T Assess the technical performance of sorbent-based control technology by developing engineering databases. identifier identifier identifier PILOT WORK TESTING GOALS T Determine mass balances around pilot

157

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Department of Energy's U.S. Department of Energy's Mercury Control Technology Phase II Field Testing Program Mercury Experts' Conference 2 May 24-25, 2005 Ottawa, Canada Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory SEC Meeting June 2005 Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program Performance/Cost Objectives * Have technologies ready for commercial demonstration by 2007 for all coals * Reduce "uncontrolled" Hg emissions by 50-70% * Reduce cost by 25-50% compared to baseline cost estimates Baseline Costs: $50,000 - $70,000 / lb Hg Removed 2000 Year Cost SEC Meeting June 2005 Stages of Mercury Control Technology Development DOE RD&D Model Lab/Bench/Pilot-Scale Testing Field Testing (Slip Stream/Full Scale) 1993 1999-2000 2007-2010 2012-2015

158

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Assessment Of Low Cost Novel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessment Of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents Assessment Of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents Project Summary: Apogee Scientific Inc. will assess up to a dozen carbon-based and other sorbents that are expected to remove more than 90 percent of mercury and cost 40 to 75 percent less than commercial sorbents because they feature inexpensive precursors and simple activation steps. Six to 12 sorbents will undergo fixed-bed adsorption tests with the most promising three to six being further evaluated by injecting them into a pilot-scale electrostatic precipitator and baghouse. Commercial flue gas desulfurization activated carbon will provide the baseline for comparisons. A portable pilot system will be constructed and would accommodate a slipstream ESP or baghouse at minimal cost. Tests will be conducted at Wisconsin Electric's Valley power plant in Milwaukee, WI, and Midwest Generation's Powerton Station in Pekin, IL. The project team consists of URS Radian, Austin, TX; the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA; the Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL; ADA Environmental Solutions, Littleton, CO; and Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA.

159

Sorbent Activation Process for Mercury Control: Field Testing at the Ameren Meredosia Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Illinois State Geological Survey have developed and patented a technology for the on-site production of activated carbon (AC). The basic approach of the sorbent activation process (SAP) is to use coal from the plant site to form AC for direct injection into flue gas upstream of the particulate control device for mercury adsorption. The SAP process is designed to help significantly reduce the cost of AC for power plant mercury control. This report summa...

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W. [and others

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

DOE-NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions from Coal Mercury Emissions from Coal 1 st International Experts' Workshop May 12-13, 2004 Glasgow, Scotland Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley _Scotland_ 2004 Presentation Outline * Who is NETL * Why mercury control? * NETL mercury control R&D * NETL coal utilization by-products R&D TJ Feeley _Glasgow_May 2004 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley Feb. 2004 * R&D Activities - Mercury control - NO x control - Particulate matter control - Air quality research - Coal utilization by-products - Water management Innovations for Existing Plants

163

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury is a leading concern among the air toxic metals addressed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) because of its volatility, persistence, and bioaccumulation as methylmercury in the environment and its neurological health impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals that are emitted in particulate form, mercury is released in vapor phase in elemental (Hg0) or oxidized (Hg2+, mainly HgCl2) form. To date, there is no post combustion treatment which can effectively capture elemental mercury vapor, but the oxidized form of mercury can be captured in traditional emission control devices such as wet flue gas defulrization (WFGD) units, since oxidized mercury (HgCl2) is soluble in water. The chlorine concentration present during coal combustion plays a major role in mercury oxidation, which is evident from the fact that plants burning coal having high chlorine content have less elemental mercury emissions. A novel method of co-firing blends of low chlorine content coal with high chlorine content cattle manure/biomass was used in order to study its effect on mercury oxidation. For Texas Lignite and Wyoming coal the concentrations of chlorine are 139 ppm and 309 ppm on dry ash free basis, while for Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass it is 2,691 ppm. Co-firing experiments were performed in a 100,000 BTU/hr (29.3 kWt) Boiler Burner facility located in the Coal and Biomass Energy laboratory (CBEL); coal and biomass blends in proportions of 80:20, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 were investigated as fuels. The percentage reduction of Hg with 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 blends were measured to be 28- 50%, 42-62% and 71-75% respectively. Though cattle biomass serves as an additive to coal, to increase the chlorine concentration, it leads to higher ash loading. Low Ash and High Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass have 164% and 962% more ash than Wyoming coal respectively. As the fraction of cattle biomass in blend increases in proportion, ash loading problems increase simultaneously. An optimum blend ratio is arrived and suggested as 90:10 blend with good reduction in mercury emissions without any compromise on ash loading.

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review July 14-15, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Program Review Overview Sorbent Injection Research Panel Discussion: Sorbent Injection for Hg Control Mercury Control Technology R&D I Poster Session Mercury Control Technology R&D II By-Product Characterization Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

165

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 2 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installation...

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

167

OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

Nick Soelberg

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1992-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Los Alamos National Laboratory marks 20 years without full-scale...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nuclear testing Los Alamos National Laboratory marks 20 years without full-scale nuclear testing The test, code named "Divider," was detonated on Sept. 23, 1992 as the...

170

Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

DOE/NETL's Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions Control Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program LRC and Lignite Industry Meeting August 27-28, 2002 Bismarck, ND Thomas J. Feeley, III, Product Manager Innovations for Existing Plants LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Presentation Outline * About NETL * IEP Program * Hg Background * Hg and lignite coals * Hg Control R&D LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 About NETL LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining &

172

Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station  

SciTech Connect

General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further reduce mercury emissions. The program was comprised of field and pilot-scale tests, engineering studies and consisted of eight tasks. As part of the program, GE conducted pilot-scale evaluation of sorbent effect on mercury reduction, supplied and installed adjustable riffle boxes to assist in combustion optimization, performed combustion optimization, supplied mobile sorbent injection and flue gas humidification systems, conducted CFD modeling of sorbent injection and flue gas humidification, and performed mercury testing including a continuous 30-day sorbent injection trial. Combustion optimization was the first step in reduction of mercury emissions. Goals of combustion optimization activities were to improve 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and reduce NO{sub x}. Combustion optimization included balancing of coal flow through individual burners to eliminate zones of carbon-rich combustion, air flow balancing, and burner adjustments. As part of the project, the original riffle boxes were replaced with Foster-Wheeler's adjustable riffle boxes to allow for biasing the coal flow between the coal pipes. A 10-point CO/O{sub 2}/NO{sub x} grid was installed in the primary superheater region of the back pass to assist in these activities. Testing of mercury emissions before and after combustion optimization demonstrated that mercury emissions were reduced from 2.9 lb/TBtu to 1.8 lb/TBtu due to boiler operation differences in conjunction with combustion optimization, a 38% improvement in 'native' mercury capture on fly ash. Native mercury reduction from coal was {approx}42% at baseline conditions and 64% at optimized combustion conditions. As a result of combustion optimization NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by 18%. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to study the flow distribution and sorbent injection in the post air heater duct in Lee Station Unit 3. Modeling of the flow pattern exiting the air pre-heater demonstrated that because of the duct transition from a circular opening at the exit of air-pre-heater to a rectangular ESP inlet duct, flow separation occurred at the corners afte

Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal  

SciTech Connect

The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

176

NETL: News Release - We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7, 2006 7, 2006 We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury Control Test in Michigan Coal-Fired Power Plant TOXECON(tm) Process Could Achieve 90 Percent Mercury Removal Washington, DC - The nation's first full-scale test of the patented TOXECON(tm) pollution control process began operations at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant located in Marquette, MI. The $52.9 million TOXECON(tm) project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2003 as part of the President's Clean Coal Power Initiative. Under their agreement with DOE, We Energies is designing, installing, operating and evaluating the TOXECON(tm) process as an integrated system to control emissions of mercury, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the operations of its Presque Isle plant.

177

Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Clack, H.L. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Approximating game-theoretic optimal strategies for full-scale poker  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computation of the first complete approximations of game-theoretic optimal strategies for full-scale poker is addressed. Several abstraction techniques are combined to represent the game of 2-player Texas Hold'em, having size O(1018), ...

D. Billings; N. Burch; A. Davidson; R. Holte; J. Schaeffer; T. Schauenberg; D. Szafron

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

component of the DOE Fossil Energy Coal R&D Program and then demonstrated under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative. A full-scale demonstration of the Advanced Hybrid(tm) was...

180

Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. May 2004, Monterey, California. Gorm Heron, Steven Carroll, Hank Sowers, Bruce McGee, Randall Juhlin, Joe Daniel, David S. Ingle Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center More Documents & Publications Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young - Rainey STAR Center Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Plant Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

well. The facility will be composed of an air preheater, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to collect fine particulates, and an alkaline-sorbent injection system to control...

182

Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture in structural concrete were also successfully developed and tested. This project demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of emissions from Presque Isle Units 7, 8, and 9, and substantial progress toward establishing the design criteria for one of the most promising mercury control retrofit technologies currently available. The Levelized Cost for 90% mercury removal at this site was calculated at $77,031 per pound of mercury removed with a capital cost of $63,189 per pound of mercury removed. Mercury removal at the Presque Isle Power Plant averages approximately 97 pounds per year.

Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

MODELING POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITHE FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITH FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS Joseph R. V. Flora Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Richard A. Hargis, William J. O'Dowd, Henry W. Pennline National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box, 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 Radisav D. Vidic * Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 ABSTRACT A two-stage mathematical model for mercury removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter was developed, with the first stage accounting for removal in the ductwork and the second stage accounting for additional removal due to the

184

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

Sharon Sjostrom

2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed  

SciTech Connect

Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

New Mercury Control Technology for the Ft. Dix Waste-to-Energy Plant Sid Nelson Jr.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature. Mercury chloride (HgCI2) tends to be found in incinerator flue gases and this species may be well mercury measurement with no interference from acidic gases, such as S02. Low-Temperature Sorbents After of the oxidized mercury species, such as mercury chloride. Then, the large surface area in the baghouse would

Columbia University

188

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

189

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, M.W.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

191

Carlsbad Area Office unveils full-scale model of new WIPP waste transportation cask  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carlsbad Area Office Unveils Full-Scale Model Carlsbad Area Office Unveils Full-Scale Model Of New WIPP Waste Transportation Cask CARLSBAD, N.M., February 23, 2000 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office today unveiled a full-scale model of its newest waste transportation cask, the RH-72B, during a ceremony at the local DOE offices. "This is another milestone for the Department of Energy," said Dr. Inés Triay, Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office, describing the importance of the new container for those attending the ceremony. "After we receive approval from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), we plan to add the RH-72B to our fleet, which will help the Department meet its continuing mission to remove transuranic waste from the accessible environment and

192

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Optimization of Preprocessing and Densification of Sorghum Stover at Full-scale Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation costs can be a prohibitive step in bringing biomass to a preprocessing location or biofuel refinery. One alternative to transporting biomass in baled or loose format to a preprocessing location, is to utilize a mobile preprocessing system that can be relocated to various locations where biomass is stored, preprocess and densify the biomass, then ship it to the refinery as needed. The Idaho National Laboratory has a full scale 'Process Demonstration Unit' PDU which includes a stage 1 grinder, hammer mill, drier, pellet mill, and cooler with the associated conveyance system components. Testing at bench and pilot scale has been conducted to determine effects of moisture on preprocessing, crop varieties on preprocessing efficiency and product quality. The INLs PDU provides an opportunity to test the conclusions made at the bench and pilot scale on full industrial scale systems. Each component of the PDU is operated from a central operating station where data is collected to determine power consumption rates for each step in the process. The power for each electrical motor in the system is monitored from the control station to monitor for problems and determine optimal conditions for the system performance. The data can then be viewed to observe how changes in biomass input parameters (moisture and crop type for example), mechanical changes (screen size, biomass drying, pellet size, grinding speed, etc.,), or other variations effect the power consumption of the system. Sorgum in four foot round bales was tested in the system using a series of 6 different screen sizes including: 3/16 in., 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., and 6 in. The effect on power consumption, product quality, and production rate were measured to determine optimal conditions.

Neal A. Yancey; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Craig C. Conner; Christopher T. Wright

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009) Project Description Wisconsin Electric Power Company (We Energies) has designed, installed, operated, and evaluated the TOXECON process as an integrated mercury, particulate matter, SO 2 , and NO X emissions control system for application on coal-fired power generation systems. TOXECON is a process in which sorbents, including powdered activated

196

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

197

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium-based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e., mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium-based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e., mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste from a coal-fired power generation system.

Steven T. Derenne

2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACERC-2008 Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation) · Experimentally demonstrate the existence of stratified flows in boilers Indication: SO2, ash composition, straw

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of doubly fed induction machine (DFIG) and PMSG based wind turbines have been proposed [7-10]. In this paper

Hu, Weihao

202

Radiant Barrier Insulation Performance in Full Scale Attics with Soffit and Ridge Venting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a limited data base on the full scale performance of radiant barrier insulation in attics. The performance of RBS have been shown to be dependent on attic ventilation characteristics. Tests have been conducted on a duplex located in Florida with soffit and ridge venting to measure attic performance. The unique features of these experiments are accurate and extensive instrumentation with heat flow meters, field verification of HFM calibration, extensive characterization of the installed ceiling insulation, ventilation rate measurements and extensive temperature instrumentation. The attics are designed to facilitate experimental changes without damaging the installed insulation. RBS performance has been measured for two natural ventilation levels for soffit and ridge venting. Previously, no full scale data have been developed for these test configurations. Test data for each of the test configurations was acquired for a minimum of two weeks with some acquired over a five week period. The Rl9 insulation performed as expected.

Ober, D. G.; Volckhausen, T. W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-period forcing of Mercury’s libration in longitude.M. : Resonant forcing of Mercury’s libration in longitude.A revised control network for Mercury. J. Geophys. Res. 104,

Margot, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the parent aluminum skin must experience significant yield strains before any damage to the doubler will occur.

Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Full-scale facility for evaluating lost circulation materials and techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built a full-scale facility for the evaluation of lost circulation materials and techniques under simulated down-hole geothermal wellbore conditions. System capabilities include a maximum temperature of 400/sup 0/F, maximum allowed working pressure of 1150 psi, and a variable pumping rate up to 280 gpm at 1000 psi. The system will be utilized to evaluate candidate lost circulation materials and techniques that may be useful to solving geothermal well drilling lost circulation problems.

Loeppke, G.E.; Caskey, B.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Multimedia Mercury Fate at Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped With SCR and Wet FGD Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the current regulatory climate in the United States, a number of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems will be installed at new and existing coal-fired power plants to remove nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury. The multimedia fate of trace metal species, especially mercury, in SCR/wet FGD systems is not well understood. Understanding and quantifying the amount of mercury removed from the flue gas and distributed to the solid and aqueous ...

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

NETL: News Release - Energy Department Approves Full-Scale Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 , 2006 7 , 2006 Energy Department Approves Full-Scale Demonstration of Coal Dryer Innovative Technology Promises More Power, Lower Costs, Reduced Emissions WASHINGTON, DC - Building on the continuous operation of a prototype coal dryer that uses waste heat to remove moisture from coal, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has given the go-ahead to Great River Energy to conduct the first-ever full-scale demonstration of the utility company's innovative technology. Great River Energy will soon begin the demonstration at its Coal Creek Station near Underwood, N.D., during the second phase of a cost-shared project with DOE. The $31.5 million project, which received $13.5 million in funding from DOE, was one of eight projects selected in the first phase of DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, a 10-year $2-billion commitment to advance of clean coal technologies and an integral part of the Administration's National Energy Policy. The projects are managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory.

209

NETL: News Release - Full Scale Direct FuelCell? Completes One Year of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 31, 2000 March 31, 2000 Full Scale Direct FuelCellTM Completes One Year of Operation Confirms Performance and Durability of New Energy Generating Technology A commercial design of an advanced fuel cell - the building block of a family of environmentally super-clean, fuel-flexible power plants - has passed several milestones in a joint public-private development effort. FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell The Direct FuelCell is a versatile, combustion-less power source being developed in the Department of Energy's fuel cell research program. It can use natural gas, methanol, ethanol, bio-gas or other hydrogen-rich fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has completed one year of commercial design validation and endurance testing of a 250 kilowatt-class Direct FuelCellTM

210

Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler #5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry, state, and municipality participation both in critiquing the test plan and in witnessing the actual test runs. Approximately 600 tons of dRDF containing 0%, 4%, or 8% binder were blended with high-sulfur coal at levels of up to 30%, based on the BTU content. This paper describes the dRDF/coal cofiring tests, the emissions and ash samples that were taken, the analyses that were conducted on these samples, preliminary test results, and future research plans.

Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum key distribution (QKD), provides the only intrinsically unconditional secure method for communication based on principle of quantum mechanics. Compared with fiber-based demonstrations-, free-space links could provide the most appealing solution for much larger distance. Despite of significant efforts, so far all realizations rely on stationary sites. Justifications are therefore extremely crucial for applications via a typical Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEOS). To achieve direct and full-scale verifications, we demonstrate here three independent experiments with a decoy-state QKD system overcoming all the demanding conditions. The system is operated in a moving platform through a turntable, a floating platform through a hot-air balloon, and a huge loss channel, respectively, for substantiating performances under rapid motion, attitude change, vibration, random movement of satellites and in high-loss regime. The experiments cover expanded ranges for all the leading parameters of LEOS. Our results pave the way towards ground-satellite QKD and global quantum communication network.

Jian-Yu Wang; Bin Yang; Sheng-Kai Liao; Liang Zhang; Qi Shen; Xiao-Fang Hu; Jin-Cai Wu; Shi-Ji Yang; Hao Jiang; Yan-Lin Tang; Bo Zhong; Hao Liang; Wei-Yue Liu; Yi-Hua Hu; Yong-Mei Huang; Bo Qi; Ji-Gang Ren; Ge-Sheng Pan; Juan Yin; Jian-Jun Jia; Yu-Ao Chen; Kai Chen; Chen-Zhi Peng; Jian-Wei Pan

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

213

Wind response of a tall building with full-scale observations  

SciTech Connect

A 22-story hotel is the subject of a full-scale experimental study conducted as the second phase of a project addressing the wind-induced response of tall buildings. The first phase of this study investigated a 16-story office building. The observations of wind loading and building response obtained at the hotel site reflect similar behavior as was observed at the office building. Consequently, the second phase serves to reinforce and generalize the findings of the phase one study. The results illustrate the significance of wind-induced response for buildings of intermediate height. Based on estimated thresholds of human perceptibility combined with predictions of maximum building response from a theoretical analysis, clearly perceptible wind-induced motion is expected to occur annually at the hotel. Yet, motion will not be sufficient intensity to be unpleasant. A similar analysis suggests that building response will also produce some non-structural damage on an annual basis. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Mills, R.S. (California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 3 Topical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers conducted field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury at a coal-fired power plant equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results, while confounded by measurement difficulties, showed that under bituminous coal flue gas conditions, two catalysts, Pd #1 and Carbon #6, continued to oxidize at least 85 percent of the inlet elemental mercury after three months.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

216

ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury contamination and to increase the TCLP mercury values. IT/NFS investigated ambient temperature amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury-contaminated soils to meet these objectives. Treatment ranged in size from a few ounces to 10 pounds. The treatability study philosophy was to develop working envelops of formulations where reasonable minimum and maximum amounts of each reagent that would successfully treat the contaminated soil were determined. The dosages investigated were based on ratios of stoichiometric reactions and applications of standard sets of formulations. The approach purposely identified formulations that failed short or longer cure-time performance criteria to define the limits of the envelope. Reagent envelops successfully met the project requirements one day after treatment and after greater than 30-day cures. The use of multiple levels of spikes allowed the establishment of reagent dosages that were successful across a broad range of mercury values, e.g., 50 to 6000 mg/kg mercury. The treatment products were damp to slightly wet material. Enough drying reagent, e.g., Portland cement or lime by-product, were added to some formulations to control the leachability of uranium and other hazardous metals and to ensure the product passed the paint filter test. Cost analyzes and conceptual designs for four alternatives for full-scale treatments were prepared. The alternatives included two in-situ treatments and two ex-situ treatments. The cost estimates were based on the results from the bench-scale study. All four alternatives treatment costs were well below the baseline costs.

Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early information about Re and projected Tc-99 levels in the FS box.

Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Determining the basic operational characteristics of a solar thermostat in the conditions of full-scale tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of calculating a heat-receiver-heater and the volume of the heat store is presented, together with the results of full-scale tests of a solar thermostat with stochastic variations of climatic factors.

Gryadunov, A.I.; Mamedova, A.I.; Razaev, P.F.; Sadykov, S.A.; Velieva, B.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125  

SciTech Connect

Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mercury and Other Trace Metals in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the trace metal analyses of more than 150 as-received bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coal samples from full-scale power plants. Analyses for mercury, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead offer a benchmark for utilities to compare and contrast their own estimates and measurements of trace element content in coal.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

222

Full scale field demonstration of unheated anaerobic contact stabilization. Project status report, October 1980-February 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the study reported here is to demonstrate that municipal sewage sludges can be anaerobically digested with little or no heating. To this end, two digesters at the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant in Columbus, Ohio, have been converted to the anaerobic contact stabilization process. This, it is hoped, will permit positive and independent control of the solids retention time (SRT) in the system, so that solids may be retained long enough to ensure substantially complete digestion even at reduced temperatures. Digestion at a temperature of 71/sup 0/F and an SRT of 33 days produces results similar to digestion at a temperature of 91/sup 0/F and an SRT of 11 days. There is no evidence of impaired or unstable digestion at the lower temperature. (DMC)

Sykes, R.M.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Numerical and experimental behaviour of a full-scale RC structure upgraded with steel and aluminium shear panels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In current paper the problem of seismic upgrading of existing reinforced concrete structures by means of metal shear panels is examined. Firstly, according to both a preliminarily experimental-numerical evaluation of the bare RC structure performance ... Keywords: FEM models, Full-scale tests, Metal shear panels, Performance based design, RC buildings, Seismic retrofitting

A. Formisano; G. De Matteis; F. M. Mazzolani

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Wind Scanner: A full-scale Laser Facility for Wind and Turbulence Measurements around large Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Scanner: A full-scale Laser Facility for Wind and Turbulence Measurements around large Wind Turbines Torben Mikkelsen, Jakob Mann and Michael Courtney Wind Energy Department, RisĂž National Laboratory:Torben.Mikkelsen@Risoe.dk Summary RISĂ? DTU has started to build a newly designed laser-based lidar scanning facility for remote wind

225

Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies  

SciTech Connect

In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

Miller, F.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Notes from DOE/EPRI Meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Notes Notes DOE/EPRI meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs Washington DC June 5, 2002 Attendees (phone/e-mail at end of notes) AEP - Gary Spitznogle EPRI - Stu Dalton DOE - Scott Renninger EPRI - George Offen DOE - Tom Feeley GRE - Mark Strohfus Duke - Tim Shawver Southern - Larry Monroe EPA - Jim Kilgroe TVA - Tom Burnett TXU - David Lamb DOE and EPRI jointly convened this meeting to obtain feedback from deeply involved industry members on the needs, scope, schedule, etc. for a second phase of full-scale, longer-term field tests of mercury controls on power plants. The program objectives would be to determine performance and costs of the major near-term control approaches with the hope of using this information both to inform the regulatory (MACT) and legislative (Clear Skies Initiative, CSI) processes as well as industry selections of

227

A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Highlights: > The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. > The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. > Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the anaerobic) and the use of biofertiliser (digestate) from anaerobic treatment as substitution of chemical fertilisers used in an incineration alternative. Net impact related to GWP from the management chain varies from a contribution of 2.6 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/household and year if incineration is utilised, to an avoidance of 5.6 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/household and year if choosing anaerobic digestion and using produced biogas as car fuel. Impacts are often dependent on processes allocated far from the control of local decision-makers, indicating the importance of a holistic approach and extended collaboration between agents in the waste management chain.

Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 124, Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 124, Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Publications | Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A. Afsahi, and R. Ross, Mercury: Enabling Remote Procedure Call for High-Performance Computing, IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing, Sep 2013. DOIslides...

233

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

234

Technical and economical analysis of the conversion of a full-scale scrubber to a biotrickling filter for odor control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.e., including indirect costs and profit, of such a con- version may be between US$45,000 and US$ 55,000. Long-term against temporary changes. Also, a cost-benefit analysis of the conversion was performed. Savings from filter throughout the project indicated that the payback time of the conversion was about 1.3 years. Cost

235

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicated good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg{sup 2+}, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process possesses very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units. These sorbent technologies, used in tandem or individually depending on the treatment needs, can provide DOE sites with a cost-effective method for reducing mercury concentrations to very low levels mandated by the regulatory community. In addition, the technologies do not generate significant amounts of secondary wastes for disposal. Furthermore, the need for improved water treatment technologies is not unique to the DOE. The new, stringent requirements on mercury concentrations impact other government agencies as well as the private sector. Some of the private-sector industries needing improved methods for removing mercury from water include mining, chloralkali production, chemical processing, and medical waste treatment. The next logical step is to deploy one or more of these sorbents at a contaminated DOE site or at a commercial facility needing improved mercury treatment technologies. A full-scale deployment is planned in fiscal year 2000.

Robin M. Stewart

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for presentation to the IESNA 2013 Annual Conference, Huntington Beach, CA, for presentation to the IESNA 2013 Annual Conference, Huntington Beach, CA, October 26-29, 2013 and for publication in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed Anothai Thanachareonkit, Eleanor S. Lee, Andrew McNeil Building Technologies and Urban Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing

239

Report on the design and operation of a full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A full-scale anaerobic digester on the Monroe State Dairy Farm was operated and monitored for 24 months with funding provided by the United States Department of Energy, Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch. During the period of operation, operating parameters were varied and the impact of those changes is described. Operational experiences and system component performance are discussed. Internal digester mixing equipment was found to be unnecessary, and data supporting this conclusion are given. An influent/effluent heat exchanger was installed and tested, and results of the tests are included. Recommendations for digester design and operation are presented. Biological stability was monitored, and test results are given. Gas production rates and system net energy are analyzed. The economics of anaerobic digestion are evaluated based on various financing options, design scales, and expected benefits. Under many circumstances digesters are feasible today, and a means of analysis is given.

Coppinger, E.; Brautigam, J.; Lenart, J.; Baylon, D.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal and Daylighting Performance of an automated venetian blind and lighting system in a full scale private office  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic envelope/lighting systems have the potential to optimize the perimeter zone energy balance between daylight admission and solar heat gain rejection on a real-time basis, and to increase occupant comfort. Two side-by-side full-scale offices in Oakland, California were built to further develop and test this concept. An automated venetian blind was operated in synchronization with a dimmable electric lighting system to block direct sun, provide the design workplane illuminance, and maximize view. The research program encompassed system design refinements, energy measurements, and human factors tests. In this study, we present lighting energy and cooling load data that were monitored in this facility over the course of a year. Significant energy savings and peak demand reductions were attained with the automated venetian blind / lighting system compared to a static venetian blind with the same dimmable electric lighting system. Correlations between key weather parameters and

E. S. Lee; D. L. Dibartolomeo; S. E. Selkowitz; E. S. Lee; D. L. Dibartolomeo; S. E. Selkowitz

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1992-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

242

CX-001298: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-001298: Categorical Exclusion Determination Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control...

243

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Mercury Vapor Pressure Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparent difference between the historical mercury vapor concentration equations used by the mercury atmospheric measurement community ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

Demonstration Test of Iron Addition to a Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Absorber to Enhance Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the findings from a full-scale demonstration test of the effects on trace elements of adding iron to a forced oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Three specific effects were evaluated: lowering mercury emissions to the atmosphere; lowering the concentration of soluble or sub-micron-sized mercury particles in FGD purge water, which could improve removal of mercury in FGD purge water treatment; and lowering the concentration of selenate in FGD purge water, which could i...

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shi, J.B. ; Feng, X.B. Mercury Pollution in China. Environ.J T. DOE/NETL’s Phase II Mercury Control Technology Fieldoxidants for the oxidation of mercury gas. Ind. vEng. Chem.

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Oxidation of elemental mercury by chlorine: Gas phase, Surface, and Photo-induced reaction pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Air Quality III: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate34, 2711. 7. Sloss, L.L. Mercury – Emissions and Control.1996 , Jan. , 60 pp. 2. Mercury Study Report to Congress;

Yan, Nai-Qiang; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

FULL-SCALE, WIND TUNNEL AND CFD WIND ENGINEERING STUDIES A variety of methods can be used to obtain wind engineering design information. These include  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULL-SCALE, WIND TUNNEL AND CFD WIND ENGINEERING STUDIES A variety of methods can be used to obtain wind engineering design information. These include codes of practice, full-scale, wind tunnel are listed in the table below: Table 1. Relative advantages and disadvantages of wind engineering techniques

Savory, Eric

249

Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales  

SciTech Connect

Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

Michael S. Bruno

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark}Burner (LNCB{trademark}) demonstration is to evaluate the applicability of this technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full-scale, cell burner-equipped boilers. More precisely, the program objectives are to: (1) Achieve at least a 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. (2) Reduce NO{sub x} with no degradation to boiler performance or life of the unit. (3) Demonstrate a technically and economically feasible retrofit technology. Cell burner equipped boilers comprise 13% of the Pre-New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) coal-fired generating capacity. This relates to 34 operating units generating 23,639 MWe, 29 of which are opposed wall fired with two rows of two-nozzle cell burners on each wall. The host site was one of these 29. Dayton Power & Light offered use of J.M. Stuart Station`s Unit No. 4 as the host site. It was equipped with 24, two-nozzle cell burners arranged in an opposed wall configuration. To reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the LNCB{trademark} has been designed to delay the mixing of the fuel and combustion air. The delayed mixing, or staged combustion, reduces the high temperatures normally generated in the flame of a standard cell burner. A key design criterion for the burner was accomplishing delayed fuel-air mixing with no pressure part modifications to facilitate a {open_quotes}plug-in{close_quotes} design. The plug-in design reduces material costs and outage time required to complete the retrofit, compared to installing conventional, internally staged low-NO{sub x} burners.

Eckhart, C.F.; Kitto, J.B.; Kleisley, R.J. [and others

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Comparison of the leading candidate combinations of blanket materials, thermodynamic cycles, and tritium systems for full scale fusion power plants  

SciTech Connect

The many possible combinations of blanket materials, tritium generation and recovery systems, and power conversion systems were surveyed and a comprehensive set of designs were generated by using a common set of ground rules that include all of the boundary conditions that could be envisioned for a full- scale commercial fusion power plant. Particular attention was given to the effects of blanket temperature on power plant cycle efficiency and economics, the interdependence of the thermodynamic cycle and the tritium recovery system, and to thermal and pressure stresses in the blanket structure. The results indicate that, of the wide variety of systems that have been considered, the most promising employs lithium recirculated in a closed loop within a niobium blanket structure and cooled with boiling potassium or cesium. This approach gives the simplest and lowest cost tritium recovery system, the lowest pressure and thermal stresses, the simplest structure with the lowest probability of a leak, the greatest resistance to damage from a plasma energy dump, and the lowest rate of plasma contamination by either outgassing or sputtering. The only other blanket materials combination that appears fairly likely to give a satisfactory tritium generation and recovery system is a lithium-beryllium fluoride-Incoloy blanket, and even this system involves major uncertainties in the effectiveness, size, and cost of the tritium recovery system. Further, the Li$sub 2$BeF$sub 4$ blanket system has the disadvantage that the world reserves of beryllium are too limited to support a full-blown fusion reactor economy, its poor thermal conductivity leads to cooling difficulties and a requirement for a complex structure with intricate cooling passages, and this inherently leads to an expansive blanket with a relatively high probability of leaks. The other blanket materials combinations yield even less attractive systems. (auth)

Fraas, A.P.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of Mercury Oxidation Catalyst for Enhanced Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on a mercury control technology development program co-funded by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), and several EPRI-member companies. The mercury control process under development uses catalysts installed downstream of the air heater and particulate control device to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) ...

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

254

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

257

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

258

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001 ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury: elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Tom Millar

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

260

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fate of Mercury in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a bench-scale, laboratory investigation of the fate of flue gas mercury species in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers that are used for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in coal-fired power plants. Data collected in the EPA mercury Information Collection Request (ICR), and in research projects sponsored by EPRI show that most wet scrubbers used for SO2 control achieve high removals of oxidized mercury and little or no elemental mercury removal. However, some scru...

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

Matthew B. Loomis

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

Jessica Sanderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Glossary Term - Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Previous Term (Liquid Nitrogen) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mole) Mole Mercury Mercury as seen by the Mariner 10 spacecraft on March 24, 1974. Mercury is the...

267

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to develop effective Hg0 capture or oxidation technologies. In coal combustion flue gases, Hg0 is oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured and hydrogen bromide gas16 to flue gas was demonstrated to enhance Hg0 oxidation, but the extent of enhancement

Li, Ying

268

Mercury Information Clearinghouse  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through analysis and quality assurance programs; and (4) Create and maintain an information clearinghouse to ensure that all parties can keep informed on global mercury research and development activities.

Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and flue gas samples were obtained using the Ontario Hydro method, mercury continuous emission monitors, and sorbent trap methods. In addition, chlorine and fluorine were determined for solids and in the flue gas stream. Results of this project have indicated a very good mercury mass balance for Rosebud Plant, indicating 105 {+-} 19%, which is well within acceptable limits. The mercury flow through the system was shown to be primarily in with the coal and out with the flue gas, which falls outside of the norm for CFB boilers.

John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

PEER-REVIEW An Experimental Study on Mercury Sorption by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flue gases. These studies have shown the relative ease of controlling oxidized mercury (specifically, Nashville, 1996 8. B. Hall, O . Lindqvist, and E. Ljungstrom, "Mercury Chemistry in Simulated Flue Gases municipal waste combustor (MWC), flue gas mercury is mainly found as HgCI2. They postulated thatHgCl2

Columbia University

271

National Waste Processing Conference Proceedings ASME 1994 ACID GASES, MERCURY,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

272

Implementation of a Two-Axis Servo-Hydraulic System for Full-Scale Fatigue Testing of Wind Turbine Blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, the blade fatigue testing capabilities at NREL were upgraded from single-axis to two-axis loading. To implement this, several practical challenges were addressed, as hardware complexity increased dramatically with two actuators applying the loads at right angles to each other. A custom bellcrank was designed and implemented to minimize the load angle errors and to prevent actuator side loading. The control system was upgraded to accept load and displacement feedback from two actuators. The inherent long strokes uniquely associated with wind turbine blade-tests required substantial real-time corrections for both the control and data systems. A custom data acquisition and control system was developed using a National Instruments LabVIEW platform that interfaces with proprietary servo-hydraulic software developed by MTS Corporation. Before testing, the program is run under quasi-static (slow speed) conditions and iterates to determine the correct operational control parameters for the controller, taking into consideration geometry, test speed, and phase angle errors between the two actuators. Comparisons are made between single-axis and two-axis test loads using actual test load data and load uncertainties are qualitatively described. To date, two fatigue tests have been completed and another is currently ongoing using NREL's two-axis capability.

Hughes, S. D.; Musial, W. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Stensland, T. [Stensland Technologies (US)

1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Oxidation Data to Support Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mercury oxidation can be pivotal for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards compliance, especially for those units that rely on co-benefits as their primary method of mercury control. Much work has been done historically to understand the mercury behavior across SCRs, especially as a function of operating conditions, and in particular, flue gas composition. The present work seeks to integrate the accumulated knowledge into a practical document that will aid utilities in ...

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

October 2001 Mercury Report of Earth Engineering Center to New York Academy of Sciences SOURCES AND MATERIAL BALANCE OF MERCURY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of mercury from MWC flue gases. After MACT controls reduce total mercury emission rates by 90% or greater not address any chemical transformations affecting mercury in soil, water or sediments (oxidation, reduction Speciation in Flue Gases: Overcoming the Analytical Difficulties," Brooks Rand Ltd., Seattle, WA, Fall 1991

Columbia University

275

The Full-Scale Radon Filter The successful radon reduction obtained with the prototype radon filter described in chap-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for connecting the vacuum pump. They are equipped with slip-on flanges. Two smaller 1" flanged ports are provided in the bottom left corner of fig. 5.5. The connections between the drying units and the air blower were made with flexible 6" and 8" plastic hose. Pneumatically controlled solenoid angle valves with aluminum body were

276

Mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators: in-flight adsorption of mercury by charged suspended particulates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrostatic precipitation is the dominant method of particulate control used for coal combustion, and varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across ESPs. Nevertheless, the fate of gas-phase mercury within an ESP remains poorly understood. The present analysis focuses on the gas-particle mass transfer that occurs within a charged aerosol in an ESP. As a necessary step in gas-phase mercury adsorption or transformation, gas-particle mass transfer - particularly in configurations other than fixed beds - has received far less attention than studies of adsorption kinetics. Our previous analysis showed that only a small fraction of gas-phase mercury entering an ESP is likely to be adsorbed by collected particulate matter on the plate electrodes. The present simplified analysis provides insight into gas-particle mass transfer within an ESP under two limiting conditions: laminar and turbulent fluid flows. The analysis reveals that during the process of particulate collection, gas-particle mass transfer can be quite high, easily exceeding the mass transfer to ESP plate electrodes in most cases. Decreasing particle size, increasing particle mass loading, and increasing temperature all result in increased gas-particle mass transfer. The analysis predicts significantly greater gas-particle mass transfer in the laminar limit than in the turbulent limit; however, the differences become negligible under conditions where other factors, such as total mass of suspended particulates, are the controlling mass transfer parameters. Results are compared to selected pilot- and full-scale sorbent injection data. 41 refs., 5 figs.

Herek L. Clack [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Full scale field demonstration of unheated anaerobic contact stabilization. Quarterly project status report, July 1980-September 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on digester operation for the quarter ending September 1980. Gas production data is included. At present, the experimental digester (not heat added) is operating at an SRT of about 17 days and a temperature of 78/sup 0/F and is performing about the same as the control units operating at an SRT of 10 days and a temperature of 94/sup 0/T. (DMC)

Sykes, R.M.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage January 19, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations. Based on these factors, DOE identified the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas, as the preferred alternative for long-term management and storage of mercury. DOE will consider the environmental impact information presented in this

283

Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filter Testing in Support of the Salt Waste Processing Facility Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions conducted a series of tests to assess the constructability and performance of the Cross-Flow Filter (CFF) system specified for the Department of Energy (DOE) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The testing determined the optimum flow rates, operating pressures, filtrate-flow control techniques, and cycle timing for filter back pulse and chemical cleaning. Results have verified the design assumptions made and have confirmed the suitability of cross-flow filtration for use in the SWPF. In conclusion: The CFF Test Program demonstrated that the SWPF CFF system could be successfully fabricated, that the SWPF CFF design assumptions were conservative with respect to filter performance and provided useful information on operational parameters and techniques. The filter system demonstrated performance in excess of expectations. (authors)

Stephens, A.B.; Gallego, R.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Singer, S.A.; Swanson, B.L. [Energy Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States); Bartling, K. [Parsons, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Full scale field demonstration of unheated anaerobic contact stabilization. Quarterly project status report, April-June 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The City of Columbus provided funds for the preliminary shakedown of the anaerobic contact stabilization system. During the shakedown period, the sludge recycle system was tested, and the temperature control system was refurbished. At temperatures as low as 82/sup 0/F there is no noticeable loss in gas production for SRT's over 14 days. Some of the preliminary data on the overflow and underflow liquors from unit 6E suggested that substantial amounts of VS were not settling in 6E and, consequently, were not being recycled. Therefore, an examination of the settleability of the transfer sludge (4E to 6E) is underway. Some typical preliminary results are shown. The occurence of gasification in the scum layer raises the issue of where the mathanogenic bacteria are to be found in the settler (6E). Some preliminary tests have been conducted to answer this question, and a typical set of results demonstrate the relative population densities of methanogens in scum and settled digested solids. It is clear that if scum is not retained in the system, significant losses of system biomass will occur via the settler overflow.

Sykes, R.M.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

Atomic Data for Mercury (Hg)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mercury (Hg) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Mercury (Hg). ...

287

Strong Lines of Mercury ( Hg )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mercury (Hg) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Strong Lines of Mercury ( Hg ). ...

288

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

Jessica Marshall Sanderson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

292

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

293

Large-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Removal for Subbituminous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the mid-1990s to develop advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Anticipating new Federal rules and possible state legislation,...

294

NETL: CCPI - TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2004) Environmental Reports TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control, Environmental Assessment PDF-847KB (Sept 2003) PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS Concrete...

295

DFJ Mercury | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DFJ Mercury DFJ Mercury Jump to: navigation, search Name DFJ Mercury Place Houston, Texas Zip 77046 Product Houston-based seed and early-stage venture capital firm that targets the information technology, advanced materials, and bioscience sectors. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

296

FULL-SCALE FLAMMABILITY MEASURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on the well established oxygen consumption principle [16 ... The energy contribution due to the formation of ... the floor and damaging the load cell and ...

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

297

Mercury and Fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury and Fish Mercury and Fish Name: donna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: how does mercury get into fish in rivers. what is the ecological process involved which could produce toxic levels of mercury in fish and eventually get into humans? Replies: Hi Donna! Nowadays mercury or its compounds are used at a high scale in many industries as the manufacture of chemicals, paints, household itens, pesticides and fungicides. These products can contaminate humans (and mamals) by direct contact, ingestion or inhalation. Besides the air can become contaminated also, and since mercury compounds produce harmful effects in body tissues and functions, that pollution is very dangerous. Now for your question: Efluent wastes containing mercury in various forms sometimes are dropped in sea water or in rivers or lakes. There the mercury may be converted by bacteria, that are in the muddy sediments, into organic mercurial compounds particularly the highly toxic alkyl mercurials ( methyl and di-methyl mercury), which may in turn be concentrated by the fishes and other aquatic forms of life that are used as food by men. The fishes dont seem to be affected but they are able to concentrate mercury in high poisoning levels, and if human beings, mamals or birds eat these containing mercury fishes, algae, crabs or oysters they will be contaminated and poisoned.

298

Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of side-by-side tests was performed using two full scale test houses to determine the effectiveness of a Vented Radiant Barrier System (VRBS) in reducing the ceiling heat flux during the summer cooling season in North Florida. Another series of side-by-side tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of a VRBS on ceiling heat losses under typical North Florida winter conditions. The effect of a VRBS on the expected life of roof shingles was also evaluated.

Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the grant entitled, Ă?Â?Ă?ÂąĂ?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.Ă?Â?Ă?ÂąĂ?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă? The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

Mori, Warren, B.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

Graves, Van B [ORNL; Mcdonald, K [Princeton University; Kirk, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Weggel, Robert [Particle Beam Laser, Inc.; Souchlas, Nicholas [Particle Beam Laser, Inc.; Sayed, H [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Ding, X [University of California, Los Angeles

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Mercury's Protoplanetary Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Recently, by expressing ratios relative to Fe, I discovered a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to Mercury's complement of lost elements. Here, on the basis of that relationship, I derive expressions, as a function of the mass of planet Mercury and the mass of its core, to estimate the mass of Mercury's lost elements, the mass of Mercury's alloy and rock protoplanetary core, and the mass of Mercury's gaseous protoplanet. Although Mercury's mass is well known, its core mass is not, being widely believed to be in the range of 70-80 percent of the planet mass. For a core mass of 75 percent, the mass of Mercury's lost elements is about 1.32 times the mass of Mercury, the mass of the alloy and rock protoplanetary core is about 2.32 times the mass of Mercury, and the mass of the gaseous protoplanet of Mercury is about 700 times the mass of Mercury. Circumstantial evidence is presented in support of the supposition that Mercury's lost elements is identical to the planetary component of ordinary chondrite formation.

J. Marvin Herndon

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Mercury in the Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI periodically issues updates on critical research on environmental mercury, discussing scientific findings of crucial interest for a complete understanding of mercury sources, transport, fate, cycling, human exposure, and health effects. This document is part of that EPRI series, focusing on several critical reviews of mercury sources and impacts.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

305

Understanding Mercury Chemistry via the Reaction Engineering International (REI) ProMerc(tm) Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury chemistry in a coal-fired boiler remains poorly understood. As a result, power company engineers cannot predict with confidence the level of mercury emissions they would experience at a given site if they change coals, add/enhance criteria pollutant controls, or implement mercury controls. Similarly, they cannot predict with confidence how mercury control test results at one site extrapolate to other sites. This report documents a modeling study conducted by Reaction Engineering International (RE...

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

306

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heng Ban Heng Ban Principal Investigator University of Alabama at Birmingham 1150 10th Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-4461 205-934-0011 hban@uab.edu Environmental and Water Resources OxidatiOn Of Mercury in PrOducts Of cOal cOMbustiOn Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. A variety of mercury reduction technologies are under commercial development, but an improved understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the transformations and capture of mercury in boilers and pollution control devices is required to achieve necessary performance and cost reduction levels. Oxidized mercury is more easily captured by pollution control devices, such as Selective

307

LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) processing characteristics of mercury  

SciTech Connect

An experimental-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter was used in a series of tests to evaluate the processing characteristics of mercury in simulated defense waste under various melter operating conditions. This solidification technology had no detectable capacity for incorporating mercury into its borosilicate, vitreous, product, and essentially all the mercury fed to the melter was lost to the off-gas system as gaseous effluent. An ejector venturi scrubber condensed and collected 97% of the mercury evolved from the melter. Chemically the condensed mercury effluent was composed entirely of chlorides, and except in a low-temperature test, mercury chlorides (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) was the primary chloride formed. As a result, combined mercury accounted for most of the insoluble mass collected by the process quench scrubber. Although macroscopic quantities of elemental mercury were never observed in process secondary waste streams, finely divided and dispersed mercury that blackened all condensed Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} residues was capable of saturating the quenched process exhaust with mercury vapor. However, the vapor pressure of mercury in the quenched melter exhaust was easily and predictably controlled with an off-gas stream chiller. 5 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.; Andersen, C.M.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Characterizing Variation in Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the variability of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, using EPRI's continuous mercury monitor (CMM) dataset. Emission variability is important for control technology selection as well as regulatory considerations.

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

309

Bench-scale studies of in-duct mercury capture using cupric chloride-impregnated carbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brominated activated carbon (Darco Hg-LH) and cupric chloride-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl{sub 2}-ACs) sorbent have been tested in a bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system which was developed for simulating in-flight mercury capture in ducts upstream of particulate matter control devices. The bench-scale experimental system has been operated with the conditions of a residence time of 0.75 s and a gas temperature of 140{sup o}C to simulate typical conditions in the duct of coal-fired exhaust gas. In addition, sorbent deposition on walls which can occur in a laboratory-scale system more than in a full-scale system was significantly reduced so that additional mercury capture by the deposited sorbent was minimized. In the entrained-flow system, CuCl{sub 2}-ACs demonstrated similar performance in Hg adsorption and better performance in Hg{sup 0} oxidation than Darco Hg-LH. In addition, the carbon content of those sorbents was found to determine their Hg adsorption capability in the entrained-flow system. The bench-scale entrained-flow system was able to demonstrate the important Hg adsorption and oxidation characteristics of the tested sorbents. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 8, 1 July, 1992--30 September, 1992: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Full Scale Demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) project involves retrofitting the two-nozzle cell burners at Dayton Power and Light`s, 605 MW(e) J.M. Stuart Unit No. 4 boiler near Aberdeen, Ohio with LNCB{trademark} (a burner and integral No{sub x} port). Previous pilot-scale tests have shown such an arrangement to achieve 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emission levels. This full-scale project will determine the commercial applicability of this technology. Long-term testing via a Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) began in August, 1992. CEM testing will continue until Spring of 1993 when Unit No. 4 comes off line for its annual outage which at this time is scheduled for April 4, 1993. A key item remaining to be evaluated as part of the long term testing is furnace tube wall corrosion. H{sub 2}S probing similar to optimized test probing was repeated during the week of August 17, 1992. During the Spring `93 outage, ultrasonic testing of the furnace wall tubes as well as destructive examination of samples from the corrosion test panel will be accomplished.

Not Available

1993-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

311

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

2009 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents results of four research and development projects focused on understanding and enhancing mercury emissions control associated with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The first project was directed at characterizing partitioning of elemental and oxidized mercury species in solid, liquid, and gas phases within process streams involved in an operating commercial system. The second project explored dewatering options with an objective of producing low-mercury-conten...

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Effect of Ammonia on Mercury Partitioning in Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Management options and environmental assessments for fly ash are driven primarily by their physical and chemical characteristics. This report describes the results of a laboratory study on the leaching of mercury from several paired fly ash samples from facilities employing powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for mercury control. While previous EPRI research has shown that mercury leaching from ash with PAC is negligible, it has also been found that ammonia complexes can increase the mobility of so...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

State of Knowledge on Mercury Chemistry in Power Plant Plumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical transformations may occur in the flue gas plume of coal-fired power plants (CFPP) that convert reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) into gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). Since the chemical form of inorganic Hg determines its solubility in water and therefore its deposition rate, understanding this chemistry has important implications for emission control. This fact sheet summarizes the state-of-knowledge of mercury chemistry, kinetics, and thermodynamics in CFPP plumes.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

Mercury Calibration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

316

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

317

Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. J. Warmack, “Detection of mercury vapor using resonatingA surface acoustic wave mercury vapor sensor,” Ieee Trans.N. E. Selin, “Integrating mercury science and policy in the

Crosby, Jeffrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Process for low mercury coal  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Mercury Thermometer Alternatives Training  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tutorials are designed for educating various industrial user groups about the upcoming and current changes that ban the use of mercury products. ...

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

MERCURY & DIMETHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE & EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the dose response data available for several toxic mercury compounds and summarizes the symptoms and health effects associated with each of them.

HONEYMAN, J.O.

2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mercury Risk Assessment II  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protection Agency in 2005, will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. In formulating the regulations, a central point of debate...

326

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted in the first quarter of 2004, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury oxidation and sorption for different forms of carbon. The current quarterly report provides a more extensive quantitative analysis of the data obtained from the CRTF experiments on different carbon types and carbocalcium mixtures than was presented in the last quarterly report. The procedure and basis for normalizing mercury removals, so that they could be compared on an equal residence time basis, is described. The chemisorption rate of mercury on carbon was found to be first order in mercury concentration and half order in HCl concentration, for the facility configuration investigated. The applicable temperature range of the kinetic rates obtained is from 300 F to 700 F, and the applicable chlorine concentration range is from 2 ppmv HCl to 250 ppmv HCl. The gas-sorbent contact time of 0.12 seconds used in this work was shown to be representative of gas-dust cake contact times in full-scale baghouses. All carbon types investigated behaved similarly with respect to Hg sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at sorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because the internal surface area of activated carbon is greater. The synergistic relationship between Ca and C is also discussed in the report.

Thomas K. Gale

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Characterizing Coal-Fired Power Plant Mercury Emissions Variability at Low Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents a further evaluation of the variability of mercury emission from coal-fired power plants, based on additional measurements by continuous mercury monitors (CMMs) at two coal-fired power plants with low-level mercury emissions. Emissions variability is important for control technology selection as well as regulatory considerations.

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

9th Annual North American Waste to Energy Conference MERCURY CEMs: TECHNOLOGY UPDATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Baltimore, MD, Scrubber Dry Adsorber (SDA), SNCR and Mercury APC systems were added to the existing technology (Baghouse). Most large MWCs have to install a Mercury Control system to meet the Federal Emission Guidelines. New Jersey and Florida have developed more stringent mercury standards than the federal limits

Columbia University

329

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

P. Jones May 1, 2010 - April 30, 2011 EERC Facility - Grand Forks, ND Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: ICR Sampling with Mercury Control Elements The EERC facility...

330

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

332

Full-scale hot cell test of an acoustic sensor dedicated to measurement of the internal gas pressure and composition of a LWR nuclear fuel rod  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale hot cell test of the internal gas pressure and composition measurement by an acoustic sensor was carried on successfully between 2008 and 2010 on irradiated fuel rods in the LECA-STAR facility at Cadarache Centre. The acoustic sensor has been specially designed in order to provide a nondestructive technique to easily carry out the measurement of the internal gas pressure and gas composition of a LWR nuclear fuel rod. This sensor has been achieved in 2007 and is now covered by an international patent. The first positive result, concerning the device behaviour, is that the sensor-operating characteristics have not been altered by a two-year exposure in the hot cell ambient. We performed the gas characterisation contained in irradiated fuel rods. The acoustic method accuracy is now {+-}5 bars on the pressure measurement result and {+-}0.3% on the evaluated gas composition. The results of the acoustic method were compared to puncture results. Another significant conclusion is that the efficiency of the acoustic method is not altered by the irradiation time, and possible modification of the cladding properties. These results make it possible to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique on irradiated fuel rods. The transducer and the associated methodology are now operational. (authors)

Ferrandis, J. Y.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Leveque, G. [CNRS - Univ. Montpellier 2, Southern Electronic Inst., UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Baron, D. [EDF, R and D, F-77250 Moret sur Loing (France); Segura, J. C. [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Cecilia, G.; Provitina, O. [CEA - Nuclear Energy Direction DEN - Fuel Studies Dept. - Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Definition: Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal activity and high concentrations in...

334

Mercury Sensing with Optically Responsive Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assume that the mass of mercury adsorbed at saturation istactics, nanoparticle based mercury sensing should advancemost sensitive method for mercury sensing. References "1!

James, Jay Zachary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, S.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE's DOE's Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program American Coal Council's 2005 Mercury & Multi- Emissions Conference March 22-24, 2005 St. Louis, MO Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory MEC2_Ottawa_May 25 2005 Power Plant Mercury Control Baghouse or ESP FGD Boiler Stack Cleaning SCR Hg 75 ton/yr Hg in coal Current Emissions 48 ton/yr out stack Hg Hg Hg Hg 27 ton/yr Sorbent Injection Oxidizing Systems Hg Specific Control Co-Benefit Control ACS Monthly Meeting November 4 2004 DOE Mercury Control RD&D Portfolio Polishing Technology * MerCAP(tm) Sorbent Injection * Activated carbon * Amended silicates * Halogenated AC * Ca-based sorbents * Chemically treated sorbents * COHPAC/Toxecon(tm) * Thief sorbents Boiler * Combustion modification

340

NETL: Control Technology - Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Mercury Control URS Corporation will demonstrate the use of an additive in wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to prevent oxidized mercury that...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

343

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

346

Mercury Risk Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS *T.M. Sullivan 1 , F.D. Lipfert 2 , S.M. Morris 2 , and S. Renninger 3 1 Building 830, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 2 Private Consultants 3 Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not impose an excessive local health risk. The principal health

347

Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

Durham, Michael D. (Castle Rock, CO); Schlager, Richard J. (Aurora, CO); Sappey, Andrew D. (Golden, CO); Sagan, Francis J. (Lakewood, CO); Marmaro, Roger W. (Littleton, CO); Wilson, Kevin G. (Littleton, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Co-Removal of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion conditions, and air pollution control devices upstream of a power plant FGD system have an impact on the types and concentration of flue gas mercury at the...

350

NETL: Mercury Emissions Inactive Mercury Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Completed Mercury Projects Completed Mercury Projects View specific project information by clicking the state of interest on the map. Clickable U.S. Map ALABAMA Characterizing Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants Southern Research Institute The objective of this contract is to perform sampling and analysis of air toxic emissions at commercial coal-fired power plants in order to collect data that the EPA will use in their Congressionally mandated report on Hazardous Air Pollutants from Electric Utilities. CALIFORNIA Assessment of Toxic Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Utilizing an ESP Energy & Environmental Research Corporation – CA The overall objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions of two coal-fired electric utility power plants. The power plant that was assessed for toxic emissions during Phase I was American Electric Power Service Corporation's Cardinal Station Unit 1.

351

Mercury emissions from a simulated in-situ oil shale retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In simulated in-situ retorting, lesser amounts of mercury are distributed to the spent shale, shale oil, and water than to the offgas. The mercury release is controlled by the successive volatilization and removal of mercury as the reaction front progresses down the shale bed. Oil-wet shale, enriched in heavy ends, may selectively remove the mercury from the gaseous phase. If nonuniform gas flow occurs in commercial retorts, mercury may be condensed in cool regions of the shale bed behind the reaction front where it may be subsequently leached by groundwaters. In a 50,000 bpd or larger commercial operation, it is likely that mercury will have to be removed from the gas stream to meet air quality standards or emission standards. Existing control technologies under consideration for oil shale plants need to be evaluated to determine their mercury removal efficiency. Mercury levels in retort waters would exceed water quality standards and criteria for discharge to local streams and mercury would have to be removed from these waters before discharge. Additional work is required to determine the fate and form of the mercury in a stack plume and the effect of the oil-wet zone on the removal of mercury from the gas phase. 5 figures, 9 tables.

Fox, J.P.; Duvall, J.J.; Mason, K.K.; McLaughlin, R.D.; Bartke, T.C.; Poulson, R.E.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Groundwater Discharge of Mercury to California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

too much is consumed. This toxic form of mercury is producedfrom inorganic mercury by sulfur- and iron-reducing bacteriadischarge of total mercury and monomethyl mercury to central

Flegal, Russell; Paytan, Adina; Black, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Pilot-Scale Testing Evaluating the Effects of Bromine Addition on Continuous Mercury Monitors at Low Mercury Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under consent decree, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the utility industry in December 2011. The floor for mercury emissions was determined using the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) basis under Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As a result, many plants both in the eastern and western parts of the United States will be required to control and continuously measure mercury concentrations ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

ORNL DAAC Announces Mercury EOS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Announces Mercury EOS Search and Order April 21, 2003: Mercury EOS, the ORNL DAAC's new search and order system that works with NASA's EOS ClearingHouse (ECHO), is now operational....

355

Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model Upgrade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes the status of activities to upgrade the Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model (D-MCM), an EPRI simulation model that predicts mercury cycling and bioaccumulation in lakes.

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Reducing Mercury Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Combustion (Results of Investigations and Testing at the Camden Resource Recovery Facility)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for mercury control for flue gases of Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) not only ecological hydrochloric acid (HCl) and elemental mercury (Hg") under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream to the decreasing gas temperature, the elemental mercury is able to react with other flue gas components. The main

Columbia University

357

Gas Mileage of 1994 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Mercury Vehicles 4 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 20 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 16 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 16

358

Gas Mileage of 1985 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Mercury Vehicles 5 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 19 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 27 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 17 City 18 Combined 20 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 18 City

359

Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device  

SciTech Connect

Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

Charles Mones

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Water displacement mercury pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "full-scale mercury control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Water displacement mercury pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, M.G.

1984-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

362

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL REDUCTION AND AIR STRIPPING PROCESSES TO REMOVE MERCURY FROM WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

Jackson, D.; Looney, B.; Craig, B.; Thompson, M.; Kmetz, T.

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

364

Mercury in FGD Byproducts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides interim results from two EPRI co-funded projects that pertain to what happens to mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers when the scrubbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first project is co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and by USG Corporation under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080, "Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production." The second project is being co-sponsore...

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

Ronald Landreth

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Evaluation of Fly Ash Carbon and Coal Additives for Mercury Control at AmerenUE's Labadie and Meramec Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests at AmerenUE's Labadie and Meramec Power Plants evaluated the effectiveness of the bromine-based coal additive, KNX (Alstom), on mercury removal and speciation. The effect of carbon content in the ash, both unburned and from activated carbon injection, was also evaluated. These plants fire a variety of coals from the Powder River Basin (PRB) that typically contain low level of halogens. The unburned carbon in the fly ash at Labadie was < 0.5%, which was lower than at Meramec where it was 0.86 8212 2...

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

367

It's Elemental - The Element Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gold Gold Previous Element (Gold) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Thallium) Thallium The Element Mercury [Click for Isotope Data] 80 Hg Mercury 200.59 Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Weight: 200.59 Melting Point: 234.32 K (-38.83°C or -37.89°F) Boiling Point: 629.88 K (356.73°C or 674.11°F) Density: 13.5336 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the planet Mercury. Mercury's chemical symbol comes from the Greek word hydrargyrum, which means "liquid silver." Say what? Mercury is pronounced as MER-kyoo-ree. History and Uses: Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Hindus and has been found in 3500 year old Egyptian tombs. Mercury is not usually found free in nature

368

Gas Mileage of 1986 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Mercury Vehicles 6 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1986 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 18 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 15 City 18 Combined 24 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1986 Mercury Cougar 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline

369

Gas Mileage of 1991 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Mercury Vehicles 1 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri 21 City 22 Combined 24 Highway 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1991 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Cougar 17 City 20 Combined 24 Highway 1991 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1991 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

370

2011 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes recent progress on three EPRI-funded flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research and development projects. The three projects are focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by FGD systems; on how it partitions between the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct; and/or on factors that may affect beneficial use of FGD gypsum. The first project is collecting data at bench scale to determine the reactions that control the changes oxidized mercury can und...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Trujillo, Patricio E. (Santa Fe, NM); Campbell, Evan E. (Los Alamos, NM); Eutsler, Bernard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama Power’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRI’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

373

Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCR Catalyst Blinding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Catalyst Blinding SCR Catalyst Blinding University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) is determining the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. A secondary goal will be to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysts. Specific objectives include (1) identify candidate coals and blends for testing under bench-scale conditions, (2) conduct bench-scale testing to screen coals and identify key conditions for full-scale testing, (3) design and construct an SCR slipstream test chamber for sampling at full-scale facilities, (4) conduct testing at full-scale testing, (5) identify SCR blinding mechanisms, rates, and cleaning methods as well as mercury conversion efficiencies, and (6) interpret data, prepare a report, and attend sponsor meetings to present information and recommendations.

375

Mercury speciation in Galveston Bay, Texas: the importance of complexation by natural organic ligands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The major goal of this research is the development of a competitive ligand equilibration-solvent solvent extraction (CLE-SSE) method to determine organically complexed mercury species in estuarine water. The method was applied to estuarine surface waters of Galveston Bay and the water column of Offatts Bayou. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling estimated organically complexed mercury species in estuarine water using the conditional stability constants of mercury-organic complexes and the concentrations of organic ligands determined by CLE-SSE. Two competing ligands, chloride and thiosalicylic acid (TSA), were used for CLE-SSE. Chloride ion competition determined conditional stability constants for 1 : 1 mercury-ligand complexes ranging from ~1023 to ~1024 with concentrations of organic ligands at low nM levels. TSA competition determined stronger mercury-binding ligands by manipulating the TSA concentration such that a higher binding strength was achieved than that for the mercury-chloride complex. TSA competition determined conditional stability constants for 1 : 1 mercury-ligand complexes ranging from ~1027 to ~1029, with ligand concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 pM. Mercury-organic binding strengths in these ranges are consistent with bidentate mercury complexation by low molecular weight organic thiols. A linear relationship was observed between log stability constants for the mercury-ligand complex and log ligand concentrations, supporting the hypothesis that there is a continuum of mercury binding site strengths associated with dissolved organic matter. In Galveston Bay, organically complexed mercury accounted for > 95 % of the total dissolved mercury in surface water. Organic complexation of mercury coupled with mercury dissolution from particulate phases controls the filter-passing mercury distribution in surface waters of Galveston Bay. The estuarine distributional features of mercury-complexing organic ligands were similar to those of glutathione, supporting mercury complexation by a thiol binding group. In Offatts Bayou, a seasonally anoxic bayou on Galveston Bay, thermodynamic equilibrium modeling suggests that the speciation of dissolved mercury in anoxic systems is dominated by sulfide complexation rather than organic complexation.

Han, Seunghee

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of protecting surface water, groundwater, and ecological receptors. For more information, contact: Eric Pierce Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS 6038 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 pierceem@ornl.gov (865) 574-9968 Kurt Gerdes DOE-EM Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation kurt.gerdes@em.doe.gov (301) 903-7289 Sediment Biota Groundwater Flow Fluctuating Water Table Hg in building structures and rubble Waterborne mercury (mercury being transported via water being released from the facilities to the creeks) Hg currently present in the creek and sediments along the base of the creek

377

Gas Mileage of 2008 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Mercury Vehicles 8 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2008 Mercury Grand Marquis FFV 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2008 Mercury Grand Marquis FFV Gas 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway E85 11 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 19 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 20 City 22 Combined 26 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD

378

Gas Mileage of 1987 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Mercury Vehicles 7 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1987 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automat