Sample records for fuels solid renewable

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  2. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsFuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous FuelsSarah Studer, ORISE Fellow—Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  3. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

  4. A Biennially Renewable Fuel Resource: Woodchips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krantz, B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BIENNIALLY RENEWABlE FUEL RESOURCE: WOOOCHIPS Bruce Krantz Urban Forestr,y Services Oconolllowoc. Wisconsin Abstract: Recent genetic improvements with some tree species has given us hybrids that have disease resistance, rapid growth... tissues, particularly wood. Wood was the fuel used by man in his scientific and industrial advancement and is probably the most acceptable of all the solid fuels available today. Ergo, trees are a valuable energy resource; and, of course...

  5. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuelcomparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel121, 2011. C. Fischer. Renewable Portfolio Standards: When

  6. Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl.,RenGenAmes,RenewableRFL Jump

  7. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsThe Promise of Renewable Gaseous FuelsJeffrey Reed, Director of Business Strategy and Development, Southern California Gas Company/San Diego Gas &...

  8. A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

  9. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  10. GRANT SOLICITATION Alternative and Renewable Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Area - Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/index.html State of California RENEWABLE HYDROGEN SET-ASIDE D

  11. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Plevin, RJ; Hochman, G; Zilberman, DD

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon policies on the renewable fuels standard: economicreport: 2009 update. REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Networktransportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and

  12. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension is Biodiesel as Attractive Is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a renewable fuel alternative to standard on-road diesel. Biodiesel is made from-three percent of biodiesel produced in the United States comes from soybean oil. The remaining 27% is produced

  13. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension Meeting the ethanol demand #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy Meeting the Ethanol Demand: Consequences profitable than the corn- soybean rotation, even when relative commodity prices point to a preference

  14. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension The Value of distillers and global marketplaces as the price of corn increases to meet the ethanol demand. An estimated 1.4 to 1 Nutrient Digestibility and Availability #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy Variation

  15. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  16. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  17. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  18. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

  19. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Download presentation...

  20. August 19, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    August 19, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Solicitation Number-Commercial Demonstrations APPLICATIONPACKAGE GRANT SOLICITATION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor............................................................. 18 20. Grounds for Rejection

  1. Solid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

    1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  4. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  5. Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Brochure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCalifornia State0ButtonWeb site The

  6. Autothermal Reforming of Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Lanny D

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of biomass into energy and chemicals is a major research and technology challenge of this century, comparable to petroleum processing in the last century. Recently we have successfully transformed both volatile liquids and nonvolatile liquids and solids into syngas with no carbon formation in autothermal catalytic reactors with residence times of ~10 milliseconds. In the proposed research program we explore the mechanisms of these processes and their extensions to other biomass sources and applications by examining different feeds, catalysts, flow conditions, and steam addition to maximize production of either syngas or chemicals. We will systematically study the catalytic partial oxidation in millisecond autothermal reactors of solid biomass and the liquid products formed by pyrolysis of solid biomass. We will examine alcohols, polyols, esters, solid carbohydrates, and lignocellulose to try to maximize formation of either hydrogen and syngas or olefins and oxygenated chemicals. We will explore molecules and mixtures of practical interest as well as surrogate molecules that contain the functional groups of biofuels but are simpler to analyze and interpret. We will examine spatial profiles within the catalyst and transient and periodic operation of these reactors at pressures up to 10 atm to obtain data from which to explore more detailed mechanistic models and optimize performance to produce a specific desired product. New experiments will examine the conversion of syngas into biofuels such as methanol and dimethyl ether to explore the entire process of producing biofuels from biomass in small distributed systems. Experiments and modeling will be integrated to probe and understand detailed reaction kinetics and the processes by which solid biomass particles are transformed into syngas and chemicals by reactive flash volatilization.

  7. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/RenewableBiofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty EditProperty Edit

  8. An overview of renewable energy utilization from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    An overview of renewable energy utilization from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Taiwan by imported fuels. In this regard, renewable energy like waste-to-energy is become attractive. The objective to promote the use of MSW-to-energy. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Waste-to-energy

  9. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension economics of ethanol Chris.S. agriculture. Biofuels include both ethanol (corn) and biodiesel (soybean oil), but ethanol is far in the lead of the process to produce ethanol from cellulose (plant material) (Mosier, 2006). Why is there such startling

  10. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension The effect of ethanol The rapid growth of ethanol production in Indiana is leading to drastic changes in grain marketing movements of ethanol and byproducts. With no end in sight for the expansion of ethanol plants in the state

  11. October 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard Waiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    for four different biofuel categories and their effects on agricultural commodity markets. This report no waiver of the RFS in response to the drought. Analysis reported here estimates the effects of a waiverOctober 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard Waiver Options during the Drought of 2012 FAPRI-MU Report #11

  12. Renewable Transportation Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History FacebookRegenesysRenewable Hawaii Inc

  13. Renewable Fuel Standard Schedule | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | RoadmapRenewable Energyobtained from sources which

  14. Renewable Fuel Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | RoadmapRenewable Energyobtained from sources whichJump to:

  15. Renewable Fuel Standards Resources | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010InJanuaryGeothermalRenewable Energy andErin

  16. Renewable Fuels Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl.,RenGenAmes,Renewable

  17. Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl.,RenGenAmes,RenewableRFL Jump to:

  18. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P

    2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  19. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" The Impact of Low Octane...

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  2. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgenda Workshop AgendaGraphic of aEnergyResearchSolid

  3. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  5. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport fuel use come from renewable sources (including biofuels).transport fuel use to come from renewable sources (including biofuels).

  6. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel produced from renewable biomass sources, such as fattyfuel is produced from renewable biomass sources, such aswith Oxygenated Biomass Fuels. Renewable and Sustainable

  7. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewables 2025 Renewable Generation Wind Biomass (solidy sal es. • Renewable generation from biomass units appears20% RPS 2025 Renewable Generation Wind Biomass (solid fuel,

  8. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan Lewis

    2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  9. ,"Energy","Water","Renewable","Petroleum","Alt. Fuel",,"On-Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy","Water","Renewable","Petroleum","Alt. Fuel",,"On-Line Data Collection System",,"Report Period","Due In",,,"Primary","Secondary","Secondary" 2003,,,"EMS4","Environmental...

  10. Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells Qun Li, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes J. Appl. Phys oxide fuel cell/gas turbine cycle J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4, 043115 (2012) Electric

  11. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

  12. California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter "Program") to be administered by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission).1 AB 118 authorizes

  13. California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory by the Energy Commission. Under the Program, the following shall be eligible for funding: 3 · Alternative, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter

  14. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

  15. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  16. Solid and gaseous fuels. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Mima, M.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as reference sources. The volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review. 386 references.

  17. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  18. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  19. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

  20. Alternative Renewable Fuels 'Plus' Research and Development Fund (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Exploration of new markets and new uses for bioproducts, alternative renewable fuels and their co-products will contribute to the long term sustainability of Ontario's agri-food, energy and rural...

  1. Timing for Startup of the Renewable Fuel Standard

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper responds to whether or not moving the start date of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from its currently proposed January 2004 to October 2004 would improve the chances of a smooth transition.

  2. EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the November 6, 2008 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Paul Argyropoulos (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality) explained the EISA 2007, Renewable Fuel Standards.

  3. PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts State of California California Energy Commission August 12, 2013 #12;8-9-13 Page i PON-13-603 Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans TablePROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program

  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  5. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  6. Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview FuelStorage,Cells & Fuel

  7. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat...

  8. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Renewable Electrolysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isData andEvaluation

  9. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  10. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  11. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  12. Elastomer Compatibility Testing of Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the integrity and performance of six elastomers were tested with ethanol-diesel and biodiesel fuel blends.

  13. Renewable Fuels Assocation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History FacebookRegenesys

  14. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and water concerns associated with fossil fuel based electric power generation. The NETL Fuel Cell Program maintains a portfolio of RD&D projects that address the technical issues...

  15. Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen h y d r o g e n fandand

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someone byPlug-InCritical

  17. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15 Feb-15 Mar-15

  18. Calgren Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LP Biomass Facilityin Charts Jump28 2013 Next »OctoberCalgren

  19. Patriot Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian,Parle Biscuits Pvt Ltd

  20. Victory Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt ManagementVera IrrigationVestas WindVictory Power

  1. American Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwikiAgouraAlbatechFuelsdiesel LLCCleanAGHAmerican

  2. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  3. Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 Fuel Cell2|& Renewable Portfolio

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehicles andFAQs

  5. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an...

  6. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  7. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low...

  8. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

  9. NREL: State and Local Governments - Renewable Fuel Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6Data TheNews TheEnergy RebatesFuel

  10. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  11. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  12. The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of Government energy policy be cheaper than other fuels The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of Government

  13. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  14. A Biennially Renewable Fuel Resource: Woodchips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krantz, B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the production of 'hybrid poplars' one acre can generate the wood fuel equivalent of 40 barrels of oil ($8/bbl) or 2500 therms of natural gas ($0.13/therm) per year and can be harvested every other year. Beyond the economic and environmental benefits...

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehicles andFAQsSolid Oxide Fuel

  16. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL ScientistFeedSolid Oxide Fuel

  17. 2015 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, 2014Energy, Office2015 Solid Oxide Fuel

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof Energy (SOFC)Solid Oxide

  19. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  20. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  1. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  2. Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife EnergyFreight BestFuel Cell Control

  3. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdf Flash2008-50.pdf4.pdf0 Flash2011-40 Issue aTechnologies

  4. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources What Is Biodiesel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawn P. Conley; Department Of Agronomy

    The use of vegetable oil as a fuel source in diesel engines is as old as the diesel engine itself. However, the demand to develop and utilize plant oils and animal fats as biodiesel fuels has been limited until recently. The technical definition of biodiesel is: “The mono alkyl esters of long fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock such as vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines ” (National Biodiesel Board, 1996). In simple terms, biodiesel is a renewable fuel manufactured from methanol and vegetable oil, animal fats, and recycled cooking fats (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006). The term “biodiesel ” itself is often misrepresented and misused. Biodiesel only refers to 100 % pure fuel (B100) that meets the definition above and specific standards given

  5. Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS Manufacturer: Advanced Recycling Equipment efficiency of natural gas combustion) The facility is designed to meet additional future heating loads, so annual output will increase when the Research Support Facility comes online What it will heat

  6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. Margaret K. Mann Hydrogen Analysis to address the nation's energy and environmental goals. · The NREL Hydrogen Analysis Group provides

  7. Renewable Fuel Supply Ltd RFSL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl.,RenGenAmes,Renewable EnergyRFSL

  8. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  9. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  10. List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouseEvaporative Coolers

  11. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  12. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Westernof renewable energy – the value of the price risk mitigationof Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk:

  13. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  14. Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

  15. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  16. Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

  20. Economic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    t The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuelEconomic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US* Niven Winchester and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US q Niven Winchester a, , Dominic Mc

  1. Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

  2. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  3. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  4. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/AdvancedBiofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty Edit with form

  5. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/CellulosicBiofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty Edit

  6. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty EditProperty

  7. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/UndifferentiatedAdvancedBiofuel | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty

  8. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With ŤRenewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert Wagner, 062111 Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Brian West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge...

  9. Overview of An Analysis Project for Renewable Biogas / Fuel Cell Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on renewable biogas: as an opportunity for commercialization of fuel cells presented as part of a panel discussion at the 2009 Fuel Cell Seminar, Palm Springs, CA.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  11. May 19-21, 2003 Ris International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel #12;May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 3 IntroductionIntroduction · "Fuel cells few moving parts" · "Solid oxide technology may prove to be the most reliable of fuel cell power

  12. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  13. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable transportation energy capable system. The prime energy for this project comes from an agreement with a wind turbine operator.

  14. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNL S t D l t t PNNL System Development at PNNL System Development at PNNL Larry Chick Energy Materials...

  16. Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1 burak@ieee.org Zhong Du2 zdu1 of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell Laboratory P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Abstract-According to SECA program guidelines, solid oxide

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Biao

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

  18. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

  19. Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Components manufacturingReview article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells F. Tietz *, H.-P. Buchkremer, D

  20. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  1. Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2007 Paper Højgaard Jensen1, Jørgen B. Bilde-Sørensen3, Mogens Mogensen1 1Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry-Sørensen3 , Mogens Mogensen1 1 Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Risø National Laboratory

  2. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  3. Updated: March 22, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technologies Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Updated: March 22, 2011 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technologies Program FY 2011 Biomass Collaborative (courtesy of University of California, Davis) Howard Levenson ­ California ­ Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies Jananne Sharpless ­ Member at Large Eileen Tutt

  4. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  5. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  6. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.

    1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

  8. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

  10. Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel Cell System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel Cell System by Alvin Peter, hydrogen and electricity storage, and fuel cells. A special design feature of this test bed is the ability of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel

  11. Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled "Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies," originally presented on August 19, 2014.

  12. Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms Gabriel E Workshop and at the Stanford University Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  16. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

  17. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  18. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  19. POLYMERIC MICROCOMBUSTORS FOR SOLID-PHASE CONDUCTIVE FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustor for the ignition and reaction of solid conductive fuels. Solid fuels can he made conductive, the hum rate of fuel in the overall combustor can he decoupled from the chemical reaction rate by changing igniter volume density; the combustor housing can be made of a low-temperature, low-cost mate

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn Introduction to Multiscale Engineering technology has become important and vital to further advancement in energy production. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are of great interest because of their ability to generate energy using different fuel sources

  1. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Energy Policy Network and Worldwatch Institute, 2009. National ties Energy and Board, challenges to Canada.

  2. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  3. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher than fossil fuels. f > 0 because demand function hasfossil fuel increases. Proof : By reducing domestic demand,fossil fuel, then fuel price increases (decreases) if mc b ? f + 1 demand

  4. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

  5. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N. -O. Field Testing of NExBTL Renewable Diesel in HelsinkiAakko, P. ; Harju, T. NExBTL-Biodiesel Fuel of the SecondAakko, P. ; Harju, T. NExBTL-Biodiesel Fuel of the Second

  6. Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Toms, James M. (Irwin, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Schmidt, Douglas S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

  7. Climate policy and the airline industry : emissions trading and renewable jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnachie, D. (Dominic Alistair)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I assess the impact of the current EU Emissions Trading Scheme and a hypothetical renewable jet fuel mandate on US airlines. I find that both the EU Scheme up until 2020 and a renewable jet fuel mandate of ...

  8. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  9. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  10. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GHG intensity among fossil fuels. We ?nd that the relativeunder a RFS while world fossil fuel price is the same orwith the more-polluting fossil fuels being consumed abroad

  11. Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in termsUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical of the SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated

  12. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  13. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  14. Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

  15. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  16. Tubular screen electrical connection support for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Jaszcar, Michael P. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made of fuel cells (16, 16', 18, 24, 24', 26), each having an outer interconnection layer (36) and an outer electrode (28), which are disposed next to each other with rolled, porous, hollow, electrically conducting metal mesh conductors (20, 20') between the fuel cells, connecting the fuel cells at least in series along columns (15, 15') and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  18. Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells--- monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is currently under development for a variety of applications including coal-based power generation. The MSOFC is a design concept that places the thin components of a solid oxide fuel cell in lightweight, compact, corrugated structure, and so achieves high efficiency and excellent performance simultaneously with high power density. The MSOFC can be integrated with coal gasification plants and is expected to have high overall efficiency in the conversion of the chemical energy of coal to electrical energy. This report describes work aimed at (1) assessing manufacturing costs for the MSOFC and system costs for a coal-based plant; (2) modifying electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the electrochemical performance of the MSOFC; and (3) testing the performance of the MSOFC on hydrogen and simulated coal gas. Manufacturing costs for both the coflow and crossflow MSOFC's were assessed based on the fabrication flow charts developed by direct scaleup of tape calendering and other laboratory processes. Integrated coal-based MSOFC systems were investigated to determine capital costs and costs of electricity. Design criteria were established for a coal-fueled 200-Mw power plant. Four plant arrangements were evaluated, and plant performance was analyzed. Interfacial modification involved modification of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the MSOFC electrochemical performance. Work in the cathode and cathode/electrolyte interface was concentrated on modification of electrode porosity, electrode morphology, electrode material, and interfacial bonding. Modifications of the anode and anode/electrolyte interface included the use of additives and improvement of nickel distribution. Single cells have been tested for their electrochemical performance. Performance data were typically obtained with humidified H{sub 2} or simulated coal gas and air or oxygen. 68 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  20. Economic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnachie, Dominic

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the economic and emissions impacts of this goal ...

  1. A techno-economic and environmental assessment of hydroprocessed renewable distillate fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearlson, Matthew Noah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a model to quantify the economic costs and environmental impacts of producing fuels from hydroprocessed renewable oils (HRO) process. Aspen Plus was used to model bio-refinery operations and supporting ...

  2. Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, N.

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the cost to US airlines of meeting this goal ...

  3. What Has the Federal Renewable Fuels Standard Accomplished - A National Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwab, A.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of the nation's biofuels industry accomplishments and a perspective on the challenges and implications of reaching goals set in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

  4. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  5. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  6. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

  7. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and BiofuelsOversight Board TheOverview of Data

  8. Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a webinar titled "Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies" on Tuesday, August 19, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). The webinar will feature representatives from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presenting a unique opportunity for the integration of multiple sectors including transportation, industrial, heating fuel, and electric sectors on hydrogen.

  9. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  10. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production...

  11. FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In FY 2014, nine research projects focused on advancing the reliability, robustness, and endurance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been selected for funding by Office of Fossil Energy’s...

  12. Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Grid 3.43 7.9 0.19 1,408 Average US Fossil Fuel Plant 5.06 11.6 0.27 2,031 Microturbine (60 kW) 0

  13. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E?ect of Biofuels on Crude Oil Markets. Agbioforum, 2010(assumption is that the oil market is competitive while it isemissions and market share of non-crude oil fuels. Thirdly,

  14. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relates domestic crude oil consumption q c to the marginalDomestic ROW Total Crude oil consumption (mbpd) Domestic ROWcrude oil fuels while achieving a total level of biofuel consumption.

  15. Connections for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

  16. Stack configurations for tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Trammell, Michael P. (Clinton, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell unit includes an array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes having porous metallic exterior surfaces, interior fuel cell layers, and interior surfaces, each of the tubes having at least one open end; and, at least one header in operable communication with the array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes for directing a first reactive gas into contact with the porous metallic exterior surfaces and for directing a second reactive gas into contact with the interior surfaces, the header further including at least one busbar disposed in electrical contact with at least one surface selected from the group consisting of the porous metallic exterior surfaces and the interior surfaces.

  17. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  18. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Principles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL ScientistFeed

  19. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  20. The Evolving Bioeconomy and Renewable Fuels Professional Networking Event |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy TechConnect World Innovation Conference andFederal

  1. EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multi Media Issues Multi- -Media Issues Fuel Blends Market Fuel Blends Market Absorption Absorption 5 Program Considerations Throughout the Supply Chain What's our baseline?...

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risř National Laboratory N. Hagenb a Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Nymřllevej 55, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark b Risř National Laboratory, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark ABSTRACT Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC) and Risř National Laboratory (Risř

  3. Environmental Law and Fossil Fuels: Barriers to Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outka, Uma

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is concerned with renewable energy’s too-slow transition and with how existing legal regimes work to preserve fossil energy dominance. It develops from two related claims: that an implicit support structure for fossil energy is written...

  4. Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator apparatus is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode, an outer fuel electrode, and solid electrolyte there between, placed between a fuel distribution board and a board which separates the combustion chamber from the generating chamber, where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end, the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board and the open end being inserted through the separator board where the plug is completely within the fuel distribution board. 3 figures.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision TreeinSolid Oxide Fuel

  6. Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 Fuel Cell2|&Fuel Cells

  7. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low, Director Product Development & Federal Programs #12;Project Background f Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  8. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liso, Vincenzo

    Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system. Keywords: Energy system modeling, Solid oxide fuel cell, Absorption heat pump. 1. Introduction 1

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean

  10. Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    choice o Combined heat and power applications maximize SOFC benefit of high grade waste heat o Critical and remote power are good early market applications o Biomass-fueled SOFCs...

  11. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  12. Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview FuelStorage,Cells &

  13. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l t t PNNLSystem Development at PNNLSystem Development at PNNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l;Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CharacteristicsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell Characteristics High temperature (~700 ­ 800

  15. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increase in fuel consumers’ and ethanol producers’ surplusof cane ethanol, higher emissions, lower expenditure on fuelthe sum of fuel consumer, oil producer, and ethanol producer

  16. Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

  17. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCITON AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30,CraftyChair's Overview DEERI Office of ENERGYTHEPROGRAM

  19. Iowa Renewable Fuels Association IRFA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInterias Solar Energy Jump to:IESIntervalIosilPark, Texas: EnergyFuels

  20. List of Renewable Fuel Vehicles Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy

  1. List of Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy Jump to: navigation,

  2. List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy Jump to:

  3. City of Tulare Renewable Biogas Fuel Cell Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag" | Department ofAddressingCity ofSacramentoC C

  4. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent

  5. US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and Battery TechnologyDepartmentIndia Joint Center for

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someone

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someoneRefuse Vehicles

  8. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of theResponses to Public

  9. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of theResponses to PublicHydrogen Energy

  10. Renewable Fuel Standards Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3 *Activities)of2013

  11. Renewable Fuel Vehicle Modeling and Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3

  12. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200016 A Light-Assisted Biomass Fuel Cell for Renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200016 A Light-Assisted Biomass Fuel Cell for Renewable Electricity Generation, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that can degrade biomass in wastewater (glucose, fats, proteins, ammonia in the cell with a solution of oxidizable biomass, as it occurs in municipal wastewater. Under these altered

  13. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCITON AND FUEL CELL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech Education and Outreach Fact Sheet Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University...

  15. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJuneWaste To Wisdom: UtilizingDepartment of Energyof

  16. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Renewable Fuels Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil and Gas Supply

  17. Safe Renewable Corporation formerly Safe Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to:Energysource History ViewJump to:Safe

  18. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Year | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/Organization RAPID/Contact/ID8/Positionmaterial Jump to:Property Edit

  19. Southeast Renewable Fuels LLC SRF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,Southeast Colorado Power Assn Jump to: navigation, searchSRF Jump

  20. Template:Set RenewableFuelStandard | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained ByManagement IncDrillbe nice if logos could

  1. Renewable & Alternative Fuels - U.S. Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/) ReleaseRemoteRemotelyRenae

  2. Mass spectrometry on bio-renewable fuels | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMAR Os ZD15netMaryspectrometry on

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.TierIdaho County EmploysCNG

  4. Baylor University - Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBay County, Florida: Energy ResourcesBayWaEnergy

  5. COLLOQUIUM: Renewable Fuels and Chemicals | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26, 2014, 4:00pm to|Physics Lab19, 2014,

  6. Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    Uncertainties in our understanding of the oxygen reduction mechanism (ORR) at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCProceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July studies have shown that cathodic or anodic dc polarization of the solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  8. 21st Century Renewable Fuels, Energy, and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, K J; Das, Susanta K

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were multi-fold: (i) conduct fundamental studies to develop a new class of high temperature PEM fuel cell material capable of conducting protons at elevated temperature (180oC), (ii) develop and fabricate a 5kWe novel catalytic flat plate steam reforming process for extracting hydrogen from multi-fuels and integrate with high-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, (iii) research and develop improved oxygen permeable membranes for high power density lithium air battery with simple control systems and reduced cost, (iv) research on high energy yield agriculture bio-crop (Miscanthus) suitable for reformate fuel/alternative fuel with minimum impact on human food chain and develop a cost analysis and production model, and (v) develop math and science alternative energy educator program to include bio-energy and power.

  9. Dynamic First-Principles Molecular-Scale Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells V. Hugo Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic First-Principles Molecular-Scale Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells V. Hugo Schmidt vs. current density i characteristics applies both to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Solid

  10. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010. Measuring energy security: can the United StatesCBO, 2010. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2010: Achange Transportation Energy security Renewable energy

  11. 2011 RENEWABLE ENERGY: SOLAR FUELS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Hupp

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The conference will present and discuss current science that underlies solar fuels production, and will focus on direct production pathways for production. Thus, recent advances in design and understanding of molecular systems and materials for light capture and conversion of relevance for solar fuels will be discussed. An important set of topics will be homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological catalysts for the multi-electron processes of water oxidation, hydrogen production and carbon dioxide reduction to useful fuels. Also, progress towards integrated and scalable systems will be presented. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  14. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner56: MitigationEnergyRenewable Energy

  15. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe Borhan M of Engineering Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (MIMO) Systems Are... fuel

  16. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Larry Chick/Mike Rinker Energy Materials Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 30, 2010 #12;2 2 SOFC Technology Development at PNNL PNNL has been active in SOFC development since 1987. Major participant in SECA Core Technology

  18. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  20. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Dieseland Specifications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewstheir Reduction Approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  2. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  3. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  4. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

  5. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  6. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  7. Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation,* Dominic McConnachie, Christoph Wollersheim and Ian A. Waitz Abstract The US Federal Aviation model of the aviation industry. If soybean oil is used as a feedstock, we find that meeting the aviation

  8. Ris Energy Report 5 Renewable-based fuels for transport 4 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and future technologies for renewable fuel pro- duction. First-generation biofuels Most "first-generation increase dramatically in the 1960s and 1970s. The overall potential of first-generation biofuels in unmodified diesel engines, but low temperatures can cause the oil to con- geal, clogging the filters

  9. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  10. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

  12. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the July 2001 to September 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. An internal program kickoff was held at Honeywell in Torrance, CA. The program structure was outlined and the overall technical approach for the program was presented to the team members. Detail program schedules were developed and detailed objectives were defined. Initial work has begun on the system design and pressurized SOFC operation.

  13. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  14. Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliability Technology

  15. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  16. Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szreders, B.E.; Campanella, N.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to solid oxide fuel power generators and is particularly directed to improvements in the assembly and coupling of solid oxide fuel cell modules. A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing. 17 figs.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks Modeling and Control Mohammad and maintenance of the truck engine. While still in the research phase, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) based APUs

  18. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power...

  19. Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  1. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)...

  2. Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when

  3. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

  4. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

  5. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cellsan FFV? An FFV, as

  6. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStation LocationsGeneseeValley of theEthanol8 F l e e t

  7. MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

  8. A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b , Laura Schaefer c online 7 November 2006 Abstract This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating

  9. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  10. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  11. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications V Abstract: Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy factor. One of the technologies in focus in EU research programmers is solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC

  12. Stability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaut, Rosemary

    at the electrodeelectrolyte interfaces of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is investigated physically using Electrochemical describe the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell requires the solution of an inverse problem. TwoStability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel

  13. Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

  14. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design

  15. Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologyOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

  16. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risř-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risř-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)UTCLiftEnergy

  18. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetalcost

  19. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/BiomassBasedDiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty Edit with

  20. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  1. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  2. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    in order to facilitate rapid mass transport of reactant gas to the reaction site. Numerous doped oxides have been studied for zirconia based SOFCs and the most common materials for cathodes are perovskite-type lanthanum strontium manganite, La 1-x Sr x... Fig.1.3. Schematic diagram of SOFC operating on hydrogen fuel 1.3.1 History of SOFCs Solid oxide electrolytes were first investigated by Emil Baur and his colleague H. Preis in the late 1930s using lanthanum, yttrium, cerium, tungsten...

  3. Electroless deposition of electrodes in solid-oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.M.; Van Herle, J.; McEvoy, A.J.; Thampi, K.R. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Chimie Physique)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates the use of electroless deposition for depositing anode and cathode electrocatalysts in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Ni, Pd, and Ag films produced by electroless deposition techniques were in intimate contact with the electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia, and were found to catalyze SOFC anodic and cathodic reactions. Power densities of such cells were in the range of 0.33 W/cm[sup 2] at 800 C. The operating life is low due to agglomeration of the anode and densification of the cathode. For intermediate temperature/range SOFCs electroless deposition is an alternative technique for electrode preparation, if long-term stability can be attained.

  4. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  5. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  6. Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

    2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

  7. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  8. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  9. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

  10. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

  11. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  12. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  13. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  14. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide

  15. EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris N. Christiansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risř N. Christiansen1 , J. Hansen2 , H. Holm-Larsen1 , S. Linderoth3 , P. Larsen3 , P. Hendriksen3 , M. Mogensen3 1 Topsře Fuel Cell A Background Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC) and Risř National Laboratory (Risř) are jointly carrying out

  17. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has been used for the storage of solid waste including transuranic and low-level mixed wastes. The storage and handling of solid waste presents some fire safety questions because most of the solid waste contains combustible components. This report addresses the composition, average fuel loading, and some general observations about performance of steel-drummed solid waste in fire situations.

  18. Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herceg, J.E.

    1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  1. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  3. Use of Alternative Fuels in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Ris National Laboratory, Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the production of electricity and heat. The application of SOFCs can decrease the emission of CO2 as the system uses carbon based fuels more efficiently. In addition, the concentrated formation of CO2 at the anode side of the SOFC makes CO2 sequestration an option. The current ene

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  5. Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

  6. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  7. Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

  8. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  9. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power

  10. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  11. In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy of Lanthanum Manganite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    . Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has potential to produce energy with high efficiency, especiallyIn Situ Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy of Lanthanum Manganite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes Kee fuel cells (SOFC) under long term cathodic or anodic polarization, termed `current conditioning

  12. Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel at the latest, design and development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been in the focus of research electrochemical reactions in each individual fuel cell. We consider different model dimensions resulting

  13. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC) (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar Energy Harvestingproducts (CDPs) that show the status

  14. Diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, T.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) as 3--10 kW auxiliary power units for trucks and military vehicles operating on diesel fuel. It discusses the requirements and specifications for such units, and the advantages, challenges, and development issues for SOFCS used in this application. Based on system design and analysis, such systems should achieve efficiencies approaching 40% (lower heating value), with a relatively simple system configuration. The major components of such a system are the fuel cell stack, a catalytic autothermal reformer, and a spent gas burner/air preheater. Building an SOFC-based auxiliary power unit is not straightforward, however, and the tasks needed to develop a 3--10 kW brassboard demonstration unit are outlined.

  15. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  16. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  17. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  18. Probabilistic Based Design Methodology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic-based component design methodology is developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This method takes into account the randomness in SOFC material properties as well as the stresses arising from different manufacturing and operating conditions. The purpose of this work is to provide the SOFC designers a design methodology such that desired level of component reliability can be achieved with deterministic design functions using an equivalent safety factor to account for the uncertainties in material properties and structural stresses. Multi-physics-based finite element analyses were used to predict the electrochemical and thermal mechanical responses of SOFC stacks with different geometric variations and under different operating conditions. Failures in the anode and the seal were used as design examples. The predicted maximum principal stresses in the anode and the seal were compared with the experimentally determined strength characteristics for the anode and the seal respectively. Component failure probabilities for the current design were then calculated under different operating conditions. It was found that anode failure probability is very low under all conditions examined. The seal failure probability is relatively high, particularly for high fuel utilization rate under low average cell temperature. Next, the procedures for calculating the equivalent safety factors for anode and seal were demonstrated such that uniform failure probability of the anode and seal can be achieved. Analysis procedures were also included for non-normal distributed random variables such that more realistic distributions of strength and stress can be analyzed using the proposed design methodology.

  19. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Acumentrics Corporation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration March 16, 2010 fuelcellpre-solicitationwkshopmar10bessette.pd...

  1. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MANUFACTURING COST ANALYSIS OF 1 KW AND 5 KW SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC) FOR AUXILLIARY POWER APPLICATIONS Prepared by: BATTELLE Battelle Memorial Institute 505 King Avenue...

  2. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  3. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumlin, Ethan J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop...

  6. Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

  7. Design and development of a cooling device for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandi, Asis

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell (PAFC), (iv) molten carbonate I'uel cell (AICFC j, and (vj solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). One of the most promising, in respect to achieving the high energy efficiencies and the high power densities. uses a, solid polyiner electrolyte. The solid...

  8. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  9. Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT); Campanella, Nicholas (O'Fallon, MO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. The vanes, which each include a plurality of spaced slots along the facing edges thereof, may be pivotally displaced from a generally vertical orientation, wherein each jet air tube is positioned within and engaged by the aligned slots of a plurality of paired upper and lower vanes to facilitate their insertion in respective aligned SOFC tubes arranged in a matrix array, to an inclined orientation, wherein the jet air tubes may be removed from the positioning/insertion assembly after being inserted in the SOFC tubes. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing.

  10. Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide fuel cell systems for the advantage of reusing a fraction of the exhaust rich in steam

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  12. Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999 Contracts no. ENS 1443/97-0003, ENS 1443 the format of annual- and final reporting from the Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell projects. From then on, Denmark #12;Preface It was decided medio 2000 at the 22th DK-SOFC programme board meeting to change

  13. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

  14. 2007 Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Gordon Research Conference - January 21-26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel G. Nocera

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to brings together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The ''grand challenge'' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: solid-oxide fuel cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide fuel cell More Efficient Fuel Cells under Development by Engineers On July 10, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI), Energy, Energy Storage,...

  16. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  17. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  18. Byrne, et al., 2008. In Peter Droege eds. Urban Energy Transition: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Power.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    Byrne, et al., 2008. In Peter Droege eds. Urban Energy Transition: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable to significantly increase the share of such emissions attributed to Southern countries. Nevertheless, on a per and industrializing countries are derived by assuming the same trend for change in the national shares of emissions

  19. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and other matching funds instead of federal dollars, does this exclude us from the process? Will the Energy and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program. Questions and Answers as of 4/27/09 1 1) Our county is working on a joint proposal for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds with other agencies

  20. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  1. P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for Integrating in a Generator fuel cell (SOFC) with the aim to perform a simulation of the whole generator. Three sub-models have at the catalytic sites and gas flows at fuel cell input and output. The electrical response is based

  2. Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell "TuffCell" J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph, R. Kumar · Objective: Develop an improved SOFC for APUs ­ SOFC advantages · High power density and efficiency · Fuel versatility/simplified fuel processing · Well-suited to duty cycle of APU ­ SOFC issues · Startup time

  3. Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Woldman, Cornell University, 2009 SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Milhans Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air side life of the fuel cell. An ideal sealant is chemically compatible with neighboring fuel cell components

  4. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the

  5. Reactive Flash Volatilization of Solid, Nonvolatile Fuel - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising funds forAdvanced Materials

  6. Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximatelyBoostingandDOEBreaking3: Water4:

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof Energy (SOFC) Technology

  8. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/)Renewable Energy Renewable

  9. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/)Renewable Energy Renewable!

  10. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dtu.dk/rispubl/art/2008_65.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008 Paper: www neutron diffraction F. Brćstrup a, , B. C. Hauback b, K. K. Hansen a a Fuel Cells and Solid State.1016/j.jssc.2008.05.028 #12;Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008

  11. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184­191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell Performance and Durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell of solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC) power-conditioning system (PCS) at the subsystem/component and system Terms--Power-conditioning system (PCS), power-elec- tronics subsystem (PES), solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC

  13. CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

  14. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalies, William D.

    of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

  15. Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seven projects that will help develop low-cost solid oxide fuel cell technology for environmentally responsible central power generation from the Nation’s abundant fossil energy resources have been selected for further research by the Department of Energy.

  16. Thermo-mechanical modeling of a micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ie, Tze Yung Andrew, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell is currently being designed by the Micro-chemical Power Team(funded under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative(MURI) Research Program). In the current design a plate ...

  17. Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 2: A detailed study of a gas turbine cycle with an integrated internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, S.P.; Richter, H.J. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion efficiency can be improved if immediate contact of air and fuel is prevented. One means to prevent this immediate contact is the use of fuel cell technology. High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have many features that make them attractive for utility and industrial applications. However, in view of their high operating temperatures and the incomplete nature of the fuel oxidation process, such fuel cells must be combined with conventional power generation technology to develop power plant configurations that are both functional and efficient. Most fuel cell cycles proposed in the literature use a high-temperature fuel cell running at ambient pressure and a steam bottoming cycle to recover the waste heat generated by the fuel cell. With such cycles, the inherent flexibility and shorter start-up time characteristics of the fuel cell are lost. In Part 1 of this paper, a pressurized cycle using a solid oxide fuel cell and an integrated gas turbine bottoming cycle was presented. The cycle is simpler than most cycles with steam bottoming cycles and more suited to flexible power generation. In this paper, the authors will discuss this cycle in more detail, with an in-depth discussion of all cycle component characteristics and losses. In particular, they will make use of the fuel cell's internal fuel reforming capability. The optimal cycle parameters were obtained based on calculations performed using Aspen Technology's ASPEN PLUS process simulation software and a fuel cell simulator developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The efficiency of the proposed cycle is 68.1%. A preliminary economic assessment of the cycle shows that it should compare favorable with a state-of-the-art combined cycle plant on a cost per MWe basis.

  18. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehicles and

  20. Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎SolarCity Corp Jump to:Solibro AB Jump to: navigation,

  1. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLEChallenges|Advancedof EnergytoofEfficiencyStudies |

  2. HeteroFoam | Solid Oxide Fuel Center at USC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are here ‹FIRST CenterAbout

  3. Automated brush plating process for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, Jeffrey William (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a metal coating (28) on the interconnect (26) of a tubular, hollow fuel cell (10) contains the steps of providing the fuel cell (10) having an exposed interconnect surface (26); contacting the inside of the fuel cell (10) with a cathode (45) without use of any liquid materials; passing electrical current through a contacting applicator (46) which contains a metal electrolyte solution; passing the current from the applicator (46) to the cathode (45) and contacting the interconnect (26) with the applicator (46) and coating all of the exposed interconnect surface.

  4. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6 (2002) 433455

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6 (2002) 433­455 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser Solid oxide reserved. PII: S1364-0321(02)00014-X #12;434 A.B. Stambouli, E. Traversa / Renewable and Sustainable Energy fuel cells (SOFCs): a review of an environmentally clean and efficient source of energy A. Boudghene

  5. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. LBNL-Effects of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy PracticesCan Deployment of Renewable Energy Put Downward Pressure on

  6. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. LBNL-Can Deployment of Renewable Energy Put Downward Pressure onEfficiency and Renewable Energy Practices and Policies.

  7. Microbial Fuel Cell Coupling: Clean, renewable energy generated from wastewater amongst other potential uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Mark

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5] Logan, Bruce. ”Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology andin a flat plate microbial fuel cell. Environ. Sci. Technol.Korneel, et al. ”Microbial fuel cells: performances and

  8. Tri-County solid waste-to-fuel production project feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis and preliminary findings of refuse-derived fuel and recovered components markets are presented. Other topics covered are: municipal solid waste composition, quantity and constraints; technical assessment and capital cost assessment; economic feasibility of burning process residue to generate steam; review of commercially available equipment for the densification of refuse-derived fuel; final pre-feasibility analysis for the Tri-County Municipal Solid Waste to Fuel Production Project; preliminary economic and sensitivity analysis for the Tri-County Project; risks assessment for the Tri-County Project; and environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic assessment for the Tri-County Project. (MHR)

  9. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  10. Renewable Diesel Fuels: Status of Technology and R&D Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    global warming gases *Rural economic development Renewable Diesel Options Near-Term Biodiesel: neat or up to 20% blend Ethanol: up to 15% blend (E-diesel) Medium-Term Biomass...

  11. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  12. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects, driven by fuel chemistry and fluid dynamics, andeffects, driven by fuel chemistry and fluid dynamics, and

  13. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  14. Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anurag Garg; Richard Smith; Daryl Hill; Nigel Simms; Simon Pollard [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. 63 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  16. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  17. FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of.pdf6-OPAMDepartment6 FY 2007FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof Energy (SOFC)Solid

  19. High Solids Enzymatic Hydrolysis Reactors (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork at High

  20. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

  1. Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

  2. Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 1. Process analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first in a series of two, where we present the concept of a CLC process of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed with three loop seals. The riser of this circulating fluidized bed was used as the oxidizer of the oxygen carrier; one of the loop seals was used as the reducer of the oxygen carrier and the separator for ash and oxygen carrier, and the other two loop seals were used for pressure balance in the solid recycle process. Pressure profiles of recycled solids using this process are presented in detail. For the development of an oxygen carrier, we focused on the establishment of a theoretical frame of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, a chemical equilibrium, and kinetics. Analysis results indicated that Cu-, Ni-, and Co-based oxygen carriers may be the optimum oxygen carriers for the CLC of solid fuels. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} can be concentrated and purified to at least 99% purity for the gas-solid reaction mode or even higher for the solid-solid reaction mode on the basis of the selected oxygen carriers. A Cu-based oxygen carrier is the choice that has the potential to make the reducer self-sustaining or autothermal because of its exothermic nature during reduction. This would be beneficial for simplifying the operation of the reducer. The tendency of the Cu-based oxygen carriers to agglomerate can be eliminated by decreasing the operating temperature in the CLC system. In the second part of the series, we will evaluate the reduction kinetics of selected Cu-based oxygen carriers by coal and other 'opportunity solid fuels' using a simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis to simulate a microreactor, using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues, and a thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectra to characterize the evolved gas compositions. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry

  4. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_343.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, National of NO and O2 on La2-xSrxCuO4 Based Electrodes Vibe L.E. Simonsen, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel

  5. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat oxide fuel cell, Cogeneration, Storage heat Tank 1. Introduction In residential sector, energy

  6. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons4­6 , but have not been seriously con- sidered

  7. In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a largeIn situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q phase can occur during SOFC stack operation due to air leakage through the sealing, leakage of fuel

  8. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    its lower heating value compared to diesel fuel. Biodiesellower in heating value compared to typical diesel fuel on aGTL diesel fuel, which is due to the lower heating value of

  9. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. FuelE. ; Natarajan, M. Effects of Biodiesel Fuels Upon Criteria

  10. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a 10% aromatic, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel used inequivalent 10% aromatic ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel used inx emissions compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD).

  11. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCalifornia State0 Cleanr Clean C

  12. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalFueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalToxic pollutants from Compressed Natural Gas and Low Sulfur

  13. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  14. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  15. Design and development of a cooling device for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandi, Asis

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN AND DEVEI OPMENT OF A COOLING DEVICE FOR SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A Thesis by- ASIS NANDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALA'I Ifniversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements I' or the degree ot...' MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A COOLING DEVICE FOR SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A Thesis ASIS lVAiVDI Approved as to style and content by: q. v, 4~. V. K. Anand (' Chair...

  16. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  17. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieke, Peter C. (Pasco, WA); Coffey, Gregory W. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Singh, Prabhaker (Richland, WA); Thomsen, Edwin C. (Richland, WA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  18. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  19. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Hill, D. [DPH Environment and Energy Ltd., c/o Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Simms, N.J. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: n.j.simms@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ({approx}2500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and {approx}1500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  20. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, D.C. [Monsanto Copany, Sauget, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  1. A MULTI-LENGTH SCALE APPROACH TO CORRELATING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POROUS CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE TO ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    1 A MULTI-LENGTH SCALE APPROACH TO CORRELATING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POROUS CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE.....................................................................................................18 2.2 Mixed Conductor SOFC Cathode

  2. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation: Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -Alicia Moulton About

  3. Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A.sub.1-xA'.sub.x).sub.1-yFeO.sub.3-.delta. or of general formula A.sub.1-x-yA'.sub.xFeO.sub.3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

  4. Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Raj

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  6. Renewal Application

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliability TechnologyRenewal Individual Permit Renewal

  7. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/)Renewable Energy Renewable! Activities

  8. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  9. EERE SBIR Case Study: Improving Hybrid Poplars as a Renewable Source of Ethanol Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western22, 2014FluidLaboratoryDesertEEREEEREEthanol Fuel

  10. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENTTechnologies09Combustion2/2010 1Fuel

  11. Expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Antol, Ronald F. (North Huntingdon, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 24) of fuel cells (16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30), each having an outer interconnection (36) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions (40) and bottom shoulder portions (42), where the top crown portion (40) contacts outer interconnections (36) of the fuel cells (16, 18, 20) in a first row (14), and the bottom shoulder portions (42) contacts outer electrodes (32) of the fuel cells in a second row (24), said mesh electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  12. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  13. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco [Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Universitŕ degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours.

  17. Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell Portable Power Workshop End User Perspective Industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usage :KU 19901980 :KU 2000 :KU 2010 :KU On Body Energy Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell · Notebook - ~20.0W ·High unit growth of Mobile phones driving energy demand ·Laptop computer power demands) Power(W) Energy & Power of Portable Devices Cellular Phone Laptop Computer Palm III Palm VII 2-way Radio

  18. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  19. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Risř National Laboratory 2008 2 Summary This project aimed at development and optimization of Danish SOFC stack technology and by optimization of the spacer components. Decoupling between end plates and the outermost interconnects has been

  20. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With “Renewable Super Premium”

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2–B: End Use and Fuel Certification Brian West, Deputy Director for the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  1. Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action Title:Sustainable

  2. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  3. City of Tulare Renewable Biogas Fuel Cell Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSSDepartmentDepartment ofCity and CountyDepartment

  4. On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil's Impact on Our NationalCombustion |Department of

  5. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuick Guide: PowerFrequency | Department ofEnvergent

  6. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENTTechnologies PlenaryEnergy 09 Federal

  7. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S. by6 (AprilProduction andDepartment

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Vehicles to Harness Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew Hampshire FleettoSurpasses 1in

  9. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |Energy NovemberC O OR DI N AT ORNationalNational

  10. Renewable Diesel Fuels: Status of Technology and R&D Needs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3 * August

  11. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  12. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  13. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  14. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  15. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Andriulli, John B. (Kingston, TN); Strain, Paul D. (Eads, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  16. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  17. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Elisha

    2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815­2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

  18. Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well-defined electrode structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well. Introduction Dramatic breakthroughs in the materials, particularly electrode materials, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been reported in recent years.1­3 Fundamental understanding of the electro- catalytic

  19. The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    in a multiphase ceramic material. I. Introduction THE active cathode regions of many solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Shen J. Dillon, Lam Helmick,§,¶ Herbert M. Miller,§ Lane Wilson relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture

  20. Novel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Introduction The need to develop new cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCsNovel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University) is driven by the temperature conditions required for IT-SOFC operation. Designing SOFCs to operate at lower

  1. Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parry, G.W.

    1988-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperature resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC. 11 figs.

  2. Renewable Natural Gas- Developer Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsRenewable Natural Gas - Developer PerspectiveDavid Ross, Managing Director, MultiGen International, LLC

  3. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas Liquids Natural Gas Vehicle Ammonia Non-methanein emissions for natural gas vehicles (NGVs), emissions for226. Timmons, S. Natural Gas Fuel Effects on Vehicle Exhaust

  4. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuelof Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuelof Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuel

  5. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions. SAE Technical Paper 2008,Energy Laboratory Diesel Emissions Control - Sulfur Effectsbetween NOx, Particulate Emission, and Fuel Consumption of a

  6. On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM PolicyOf EnvironmentalGuide,(ONG-C2M2) |Department of

  7. Green Racing Series Revs Engines with Renewable Fuel from INEOS Bio |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of aLoggingsubscriber to the GreenOne of

  8. Light-Powered Microbial Fuel Cell Offering Clean, Renewable Hydrogen-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count

  9. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010In addition to 1 |D I S P URFIof CleanEnergy

  10. renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply s

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting8.pdfand Characterization of aHome *NRC FORM 741OFrenewable

  11. Environmental improvements resulting from the use of renewable energy sources and nonpolluting fuels and technologies with district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kainlauri, E.O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of district heating and cooling (DHC) for a group of buildings or on a city-wide basis does by itself usually improve the local environmental conditions, regardless of the type of fuel used, as the DHC system replaces a larger number of individual units and is able to utilize anti-pollution and emission-cleaning devices at a central location. The DHC system may also be able to use several alternative choices for fuel, including renewable energy sources, depending on both economic and environmentally required conditions. The DHC systems are also safe and clean for the users, eliminating the need for fuel-burning equipment in their buildings. Solar energy is being utilized to a small degree in district heating systems, sometimes with the assistance of energy storage facilities, to reduce the amount of fuel needed to burn for the total system. The use of municipal and industrial waste as fuel helps reduce the amount of fossil fuel being burned and also reduces the areas of landfill needed to dispose wastes, but special care must be exercised to avoid releases of toxic gases into the atmosphere. This paper describes a few examples of the use of solar energy and energy storage in community-wide systems (Lyckebo in Sweden, Kerava in Finland), the use of natural gas in DHC (Lappenranta and Lahti in Finland), and applications of heat pump utilization in DHC (Uppsala wastewater and Stockholm preheat system in Sweden). Some projections are made of several alternative fuels derived from biomass, recycling, and other possible technologies in the future development of waste-handling and DHC systems. A brief discussion is included regarding the environmental concerns and legislative development in the US and elsewhere in the world.

  12. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

  13. Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

  14. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

  16. Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

  17. Fuels generated from renewable energy: a possible solution for large scale energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    conversion Conclusions and Outlook Fuel processing from CO2 and H2O: syngas Basically production of syngas H2 and H2O: syngas Basically production of syngas H2

  18. Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

  19. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  20. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  1. Testing of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation Diesel Reformer with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyman Frost; Bob Carrington; Rodger McKain; Dennis Witmer

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed in rural Alaska. The reformer will convert the diesel to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as a fuel by the fuel cell. The high temperature nature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is capable of using this mixture to generate electricity and provide usable heat with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The high temperature nature of the SOFC is more compatible with the arctic climate than are low temperature technologies such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This paper will look at the interaction of a SOFC system that is designed to internally reform methane and a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer. The diesel reformer produces a reformate that is approximately 140 BTU per scf (after removal of much of the reformate water) as compared to a methane based reformate that is over twice that value in BTU content. The project also considers the effect of altitude since the test location will be at 4800 feet with the consequential drop in oxygen content and necessary increases in flow rates.

  2. The Renewable Energy Footprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outka, Uma

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the shift toward renewable energy comes the potential for staggering land impacts – many millions of acres may be consumed to meet demand for electricity and fuel over the next 20 years. To conservationists’ dismay, the more renewable energy we...

  3. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  4. FEMP Renewable Energy Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This four-page overview describes how Federal agencies can contact the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to obtain assistance in acquiring renewable energy systems, renewable fuels, and renewable ("green") power for use in their facilities and vehicles. Renewable resources, technologies, and fuels are described, as well as Federal goals for using clean, sustainable renewable energy; the current goal is to supply 2.5% of the Federal Government's energy with renewable sources by 2005. Also included is a description of the resources and technologies themselves and associated benefits.

  5. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  6. Evaluation of thermal stresses in planar solid oxide fuel cells as a function of thermo-mechanical properties of component materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manisha,

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are the direct energy conversion devices which convert the chemical energy of a fuel to electrical energy with much greater efficiency than conventional devices. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is one of the various types of available fuel...

  7. Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC

  8. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    , and by law refiners must add to gasoline oxygenating additives like methyl ter- tiary-butyl ether (MTBE better, thus reducing carbon monoxide and other emissions. MTBE is the fuel oxygenate preferred by oil as gaso- line, mixes well with gasoline, and does not increase the gasoline vapor pressure. MTBE has

  9. Production of renewable jet fuel range alkanes and commodity chemicals from integrated catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    and techno-economic analysis of a catalytic process for the conversion of whole biomass into drop-in aviation processing of biomass Jesse Q. Bond,a Aniruddha A. Upadhye,b Hakan Olcay,c Geoffrey A. Tompsett,d Jungho Jae fuels with maximal carbon yields. The combined research areas highlighted include biomass pretreatment

  10. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  11. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  12. Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  14. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1 Eric M. Fleming Ian A. Hiskens Department-- The paper presents a model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack operating at relatively low pressures. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cells, microgrid dynamics, inverter control. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed

  15. ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for ReaxReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion temperature, leading to applications as oxygen sensors and as membranes for high temperature solid oxide fuel

  16. Transient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Ccile Pra, Raynal Glises, Jean Marie Kauffmann and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Electrochemical modelling. 1- Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technologyTransient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Cécile Péra, Raynal provided by HTceramix. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; Transient thermal modelling; Fluidic

  17. Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parry, Gareth W. (East Windsor, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperture resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. The piping thus forms a manfold for directing fuel and air to each module in a string and makes electrical contact with the module's anode and cathode to conduct the DC power generated by the SOFC. The piping also provides structureal support for each individual module and maintains each string of modules as a structurally integral unit for ensuring high strength in a large 3-dimensional array of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC.

  18. Solid-fuel combustion. Final report, 1 August 1985-31 October 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T'ien, J.S.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical analyses were performed on several different types of diffusion flames to study the flame radiation effect. In the first problem, a soot formation and oxidation scheme was incorporated into a turbulent diffusion flame model adjacent to a solid fuel. The computed results for the natural convective fire showed good agreement with experimentally measured solid fuel burning rate. Soot radiation increased its importance with flame height. With flames greater than 1 meter, the radiative heat flux exceeded that by convection. In the second problem, matched asymptotic expansions were employed to study the spherical diffusion flame around a droplet or solid particle with flame radiation. It was found that the importance of radiation increased with droplet radius. The theory predicted that there was a maximum droplet or particle size above which a spherical flame could not be supported due to radiative loss. In the third problem, the thermophoretic motion of small particles (e.g., soot) were studied in a stagnation-point laminar flow next to a heated plate with and without combustion. It was found that both the thermophoretic motion and this Brownian particle diffusion can have a profound effect on the particle concentration distributions.

  19. MEMBERS ONLY | Join | Renew | Shop | About | Contact Us | Home ASME.ORG > News & Public Policy > Press Releases > Research Begun on New Fuel Cell Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEARCH ASME: MEMBERS ONLY | Join | Renew | Shop | About | Contact Us | Home ASME.ORG > News Type NEW YORK, June 25, 2004 - In the June 2004 issue of Mechanical Engineering, a publication of ASME the potential to generate 2.3 megawatts of electricity, or enough energy to power 1,500 homes. One of the fuel

  20. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity – in particular for BWR’s, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR’s and BWR’s without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR’s and BWR’s were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density – on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR’s more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel – reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWR’s. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry – 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWR’s to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.