Sample records for fuels produces carbon

  1. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  2. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects of global warming. In this article we describe a process which producesa lowProducing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks the electricity production cost by one third. The secondprovides hydrogenor a hydrogen-rich fuel gas

  3. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  4. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  5. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  6. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  7. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  8. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  9. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  10. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  11. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  15. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  16. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  17. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  18. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  19. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flexible-fuel cars, launched the Advanced Battery Consortium and the Partnership for a New Generation

  1. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EORGE O SODI , Fish Pond Oil Pollution, 2004. fuels such asway of reducing vehicular pollution, oil companies responded

  2. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:May 2015 All Issues submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon...

  3. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions for fuels such as biofuels, electric- ity, andcould, for instance, sell biofuels or buy credits fromthat 36 billion gallons of biofuels be sold annu- ally by

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  6. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  7. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  8. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant] [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  9. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

  10. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

  11. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  12. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  13. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  14. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  15. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increase in fuel consumers’ and ethanol producers’ surplusof cane ethanol, higher emissions, lower expenditure on fuelthe sum of fuel consumer, oil producer, and ethanol producer

  16. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.'' This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  18. Producing SNG and other fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1981, PEATGAS process testing advanced into the pilot-plant stage. The modification now in progress is the installation of a pressurized lockhopper system. Along with a series of fluidized-bed gasification tests, studies of a wet-carbonization peat-beneficiation process are underway. Other work includes mapping US peat resources.

  19. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  20. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  1. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  2. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  3. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  4. Table 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel

  5. Table 4.2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.2

  6. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.23

  7. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.233

  8. Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method E to generate carbon-coated transition metal (TM) and TM-carbide nanocrystallites. The magnetic nanocrystallites report here on the synthesis and separation of carbon-coated ferromagnetic transition metal (TM) and TM

  9. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen - carbon monoxide-based gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.J.; Kubasco, A.J.; Lecren, R.T.; Notardonato, J.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental rig program has been conducted with the objective of evaluating the combustion performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Bluewater gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an ''optimum'' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit low NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  10. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  11. Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

  12. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  13. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the program period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance-of-plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  14. Method for producing sintered ceramic, layered, circular fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harlow, John L. (East Berne, NY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compacting die wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  15. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. Once through molten carbonate fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel cell system. It comprises: a plurality of fuel cells connected electrically through a load, each cell comprising a cathode electrode, an anode electrode, an electrolyte disposed therebetween, a cathode chamber, and an anode chamber; an autothermal reformer for partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions; means for introducing fuel wherein the fuel enters the system through the autothermal reformer; means for delivering the gases from the autothermal reformer to the anode chamber; means for delivering the gases from a heat recovery means to a burner; means for introducing pre-heated air, the air being a source of oxygen and nitrogen for the system, to the burner wherein excess fuel is burned; means for delivering the resulting gases to the cathode chamber; means for delivering the effluent gases from the cathode chamber to the autothermal reformer; and means for exhausting excess gases from the system. The water produced in the anode chamber and the excess oxygen in the cathode chamber are utilized in the autothermal reformer for the partial oxidation and steam reformation reactions.

  17. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  18. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    560-49072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler...

  19. Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

    Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell...

  20. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol% of total domestic ethanol production. That is, while the model still covers all alternative fuels and five

  2. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic process that leads to heat absorbing emissions called evaluated with an independent, quality assured, fuel consumption data set. Furthermore, anecdotal evidenceWildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption Roger D. Ottmar U

  3. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change Request |82:91:4Applications |

  4. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, ``Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.`` This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  6. Supporting Information Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 Supporting Information Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black Xiaoyuan Zhang 1 , Xue Xia 2 , Ivan Ivanov 1 , Xia Huang 2 , Bruce E. Logan *1 1, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R.China *Corresponding Author: Phone: (1

  7. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maricle, Donald L. (226 Forest La., Glastonbury, CT 06033); Putnam, Gary C. (47 Walker St., Manchester, CT 06040); Stewart, Jr., Robert C. (1230 Copper Hill Rd., West Suffield, CT 06093)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  8. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Browall, Kenneth W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  9. A microbial fuel cell built by the researchers produces electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    discussed Penn State's progress with direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications and fuel cell cold Yoshizawa and Hideyuki Tamura discussed Nissan Motor Co. Ltd.'s strides in fuel cell vehicle development, this hybrid electric EV1 is being converted to a fuel cell vehicle. top ^ A graduate student explains her

  10. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    production, carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) research was a main focus over the last several years.1

  12. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat AnnualGreen BusinessGreenGovGreening up

  13. Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.J.; Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an efficient pressurized, medium-Btu steam-oxygen-blown fluidized-bed biomass gasification process was conducted. The overall program included initial stages of design-support research before the 12-ton-per-day (TPD) process research unit (PRU) was built. These stages involved the characterization of test-specific biomass species and the characteristics and limits of fluidization control. Also obtained for the design of the adiabatic PRU was information from studies with bench-scale equipment on the rapid rates of biomass devolatilization and on kinetics of the rate-controlling step of biomass char and steam gasification. The development program culminated with the sucessful operation of the PRU through 19 parametric-variation tests and extended steady-state process-proving tests. the program investigated the effect of gasifier temperature, pressure, biomass throughput rate, steam-to-biomass ratio, type of feedstock, feedstock moisture, and fludized-bed height on gasification performance. A long-duration gasification test of 3 days steady-state operation was conducted with the whole tree chips to indentify long-term effects of fluidized process conditions; to establish gasifier material and energy balances; to determine the possible breakthrough of low concentration organic species; and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the system components. Results indicate that the pressurized fludizied-bed process, can achieve carbon conversions of about 95% with cold gas thermal efficiences about 75% and with low and tar production. New information was collected on the oil and tar fraction, which relate to the process operating conditions and feedstock type. The different feedstocks studied were very similar in elemental compositions, and produced similar product gas compositions, but each has a different distribution and character of the oil and tar fractions. 11 refs., 45 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  15. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSSDepartmentDepartment ofCity and County of

  16. Producing Transportation Fuels via Photosynthetically-derived Ethylene

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S. by6 (April 2012)77 Self-Guided3,

  17. activated carbon produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blackhawk Road, APG, MD USA 21010 ABSTRACT The impregnated active carbon in active carbon filters by combining the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS Giurgiutiu, Victor...

  18. activated carbons produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blackhawk Road, APG, MD USA 21010 ABSTRACT The impregnated active carbon in active carbon filters by combining the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS Giurgiutiu, Victor...

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential direction for technological innovation in transportation fuels. Therefore, we recommended that fuels produced using CCS

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential direction for technological innovation in transportation fuels. Therefore, we recommended that fuels produced using CCS

  1. Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

  2. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. Feedstock &EnergyDepartment ofTreatment Facility

  3. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJuneWaste To Wisdom: UtilizingDepartment of Energyof

  4. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority FirmTechxx by ASME 31additives

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program & Renewable Fuels1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals.Carbon Fuel Standard For California Energy crops and biomass

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program & Renewable Fuels1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals.Carbon Fuel Standard For California Energy crops and biomass

  7. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  8. Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: TechnicalEnergy Air Quality, and Fuels 2000. Schwarzenegger, Arnold.Order S-01-07: Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Sacramento, CA.

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ITS—RR—07—07 A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California PartEnergy Commission. A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For CaliforniaPont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To Tank

  11. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  12. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Table 6. Sales of fossil fuel production from federal and Indian lands by statearea, FY 2003-13 trillion Btu State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Alabama...

  13. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the key facts? Grand Junction built a five mile pipeline to transport compressed natural gas (CNG) from its local wastewater treatment facility to its CNG station to fuel the city...

  14. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Chao M. (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  15. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  16. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  17. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuelcomparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel121, 2011. C. Fischer. Renewable Portfolio Standards: When

  18. Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (“EPRI”) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energy’s coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana...

  19. The ongoing University of Minnesota low carbon fuels policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    · Most of our CO2 emissions come from electricity production and from transportation · Compared to these · Greenhouse gases are messing with the climate · Most of our GHG emissions are in the form of carbon dioxide-human environment effects of fuels' production and use ·Consider great range of uncertainty for some impacts

  20. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  1. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  2. Lithium intercalation carbon and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550); Guidotti, Ronald A. (3019 Florida St. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87110)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disordered carbons were synthesized at 700.degree. C. from methacrylonitrile-divinylbenzene precursors. The disorder, even at the free surface, was confirmed with TEM. These powdered carbons were subjected to rapid surface heating by a pulsed infrared laser (59 MW pulses). While the bulk structure remained essentially unchanged, there was substantial "surface reconstruction" to a depth of 0.25 .mu.m presumably due to ablation, re-deposition, and "recrystallization" of the surface carbon after heating by the laser. The surface ordering appears similar to the bulk microstructure of carbons isothermally annealed at 2,200.degree. C. (i.e., turbostatic). Improvements were observed in first cycle irreversible loss, rate capability, and coulombic efficiencies of the "reconstructed" carbons, relative to the untreated carbon.

  3. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  4. Method of produce ultra-low friction carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Eryilmaz, Osman Levent (Istanbul, TK); Lee, Richard H. (Lemont, IL)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of amorphous diamond-like carbon. The method involves providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a mixture of a carbon containing gas and hydrogen gas with the mixture adjusted such that the atomic molar ratio of carbon to hydrogen is less than 0.3, including all carbon atoms and all hydrogen atoms in the mixture. A plasma is formed of the mixture and the amorphous diamond-like carbon film is deposited on the substrate. To achieve optimum bonding an intervening bonding layer, such as Si or SiO.sub.2, can be formed from SiH.sub.4 with or without oxidation of the layer formed.

  5. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation systems have the potential for capturing at least 90% of the emissions from the greenhouse gases generated by power plants and other industrial exhaust streams, and yet entail in less than 20% increase in the cost of energy services for long-term deployment (beyond 2012). The anticipated cost of energy increase is in line with DOE's goal for post-combustion systems as outlined in the ''Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines'', published by NETL, April 2005. During the course of this study certain enabling technologies were identified and the needs for further research and development were discussed.

  6. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  7. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  8. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  9. Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications Aboubakr to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cells cores to be integrated in original compact stability; Transport properties. 1. Introduction Micro fuel cells have received considerable attention over

  10. Fuel-producing Geobacter receives support from new research May 3rd, 2010 in Technology / Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    genetically modified the Geobacter bacterium so that it acts like a reverse fuel cell, using electricity electricity, Geobacter could be used as a microbial fuel cell, converting organic waste matter - includingFuel-producing Geobacter receives support from new research grant May 3rd, 2010 in Technology

  11. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  13. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  14. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems These findings will help focus future research and development efforts on technology improvements

  15. Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.05CarBen

  16. Optical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon-Based Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Optical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon characteristics of nanofluid fuels with stable suspension of carbon-based nanostructures under radiation-based nanofluids containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are both higher

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  18. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  19. Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa , Frédéric MAILLARDb , Jean, France ABSTRACT Carbon xerogels have been used to replace carbon black as catalyst support at the cathode in this electrode. Carbon xerogels are very clean nanostructured carbons with well-defined pore texture, which

  20. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  1. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g--1,000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  2. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  3. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  4. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  5. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  6. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  7. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamali, Ali Reza, E-mail: ark42@cam.ac.uk; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: {yields} Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. {yields} The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. {yields} A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. {yields} The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  8. Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

  9. Method for producing electricity using a platinum-ruthenium-palladium catalyst in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing electricity using a fuel cell that utilizes a ternary alloy composition as a fuel cell catalyst, the ternary alloy composition containing platinum, ruthenium and palladium. The alloy shows increased activity as compared to well-known catalysts.

  10. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  11. Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) Produced by CO Disproportionation on Co-Mo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) Produced by CO Disproportionation on Co Received November 15, 2001. Revised Manuscript Received February 6, 2002 The disproportionation of CO over Co-Mo/SiO2 catalysts with low Co/Mo ratios results in a high selectivity to single-walled carbon

  12. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  13. Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

  14. Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior dur- ing DEA operation

  15. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Carbon-14 in waste packages for spent fuel in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Smith, C.F.; Culham, H.W.; Smith, H.D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-14 is produced naturally by cosmic ray neutrons in the upper atmosphere. It is also produced in nuclear reactors, in amounts much smaller than the global inventory. About one-third of this is released directly to the atmosphere, and the other two-thirds remains in the spent fuel. Both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established limits on release of the {sup 14}C in spent fuel. This is of particular concern for the proposed repository in tuff, because of the unsaturated conditions and the consequent possibility of gaseous transport of {sup 14}C as CO{sub 2}. Existing measurements and calculations of the {sup 14}C inventory in spent fuel are reviewed. The physical distribution and chemical forms of the {sup 14}C are discussed. Available data on the release of {sup 14}C from spent fuel in aqueous solutions and in gaseous environments of air, nitrogen, and helium are reviewed. Projected {sup 14}C behavior in a tuff repository is described. It is concluded that {sup 14}C release measurements from spent fuel into moist air at temperatures both above and below the in situ boiling point of water as well as detailed transport calculations for the tuff geological environment will be needed to determine whether the 10CFR60 and 40CFR191 requirements can be met. 56 refs., 1 tab.

  17. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  18. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  19. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for diesel and the other oil products aggregate as gasoline.range of the elasticities for diesel and other oil products.the price of other oil products. A carbon tax increases

  20. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  1. Carbon Pollution Being Captured, Stored and Used to Produce More Domestic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26,ComputersTrinity / NERSC-8 DesignCarbonOil

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies for making fluid fuels from coal." Energy andfuels. For this reason, carbon must be rejected from the crude oil in refining (through fluid

  3. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies for making fluid fuels from coal." Energy andfuels. For this reason, carbon must be rejected from the crude oil in refining (through fluid

  4. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  5. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  6. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  7. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  8. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Association, Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production. http://state subsides for fuel ethanol are excluded. The constantblending more ethanol into the fuel supply. The assumption

  10. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Association, Historic U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production. http://state subsides for fuel ethanol are excluded. The constantblending more ethanol into the fuel supply. The assumption

  11. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Lee, Jog-Won (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini P. (Kennesaw, GA); Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC); Nallathambi, Vijayadurga (T-Nagar, IN); Li, Xuguang (Columbia, SC); Wu, Gang (West Columbia, SC)

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  12. Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use 1 Howard Herzog and Dan Golomb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute of Technology Laboratory for Energy and the Environment Glossary Carbon sequestration: captureCarbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use 1 Howard Herzog and Dan Golomb Massachusetts gas wells. Carbon capture: the separation and entrapment of CO2 from large stationary sources. CO2

  14. A TEM study of soot, carbon nanotubes, and related fullerene nanopolyhedra in common fuel-gas combustion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murr, L.E. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)]. E-mail: fekberg@utep.edu; Soto, K.F. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle aggregates collected by thermophoretic precipitation from natural gas-air and propane-air kitchen stove top flame exhausts, natural gas-air water heater roof-top exhausts, and other common fuel-gas combustion sources were observed by transmission electron microscopy to consist of occasional aggregates of mostly turbostratic carbon spherules, aggregates of crystalline graphite nanoparticles mixed with other fullerene nanoforms; and aggregates of various sizes of multiwall carbon nanotubes and other multishell, fullerene polyhedra for optimal blue-flame combustion. The carbon nanotube structures and end cap variations as well as fullerene polyhedral structures were observed to be the same as those for arc-evaporation produced nanoaggregates. Nanoparticle aggregation or the occurrence of carbon nanoforms always occurred as aggregates with nominal sizes ranging from about 0.5 {mu}m to 1.5 {mu}m.

  15. Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

  16. Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean M. C. Honda,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean interior M. C. Honda,1 H. Kawakami±10%,whichissignificantly higher than that in other oceans. Citation: Honda, M. C., H. Kawakami, K. Sasaoka, S. Watanabe at 150 m that is ca. 50 m below the late winter mixed layer at station K2 (M. C. Honda, unpublished data

  17. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  18. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  19. Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S. energy and carbon intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a lower energy-and-carbon-intensive mix of economicintensity into fuel mix and energy intensity terms. Thisof fuel mix and weather on energy and carbon intensity using

  20. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  1. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

  2. Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment ofEnergy fuels

  3. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts |Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions |

  4. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at £12 per Jet fuel Heating oil Minimum octane 8.5 7 4.5 Price (£) 18 16 14 Minimum production 2500 3000 3500

  5. Carbonate fuel cell system development for industrial cogeneration. Final report Mar 80-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnacke, A.W.; Reinstrom, R.M.; Najewicz, D.J.; Dawes, M.H.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey of various industries was performed to investigate the feasibility of using natural gas-fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants as a cogeneration heat and power source. Two applications were selected: chlorine/caustic soda and aluminum. Three fuel processor technologies, conventional steam reforming, autothermal reforming and an advanced steam reformer concept were used to define three thermodynamic cycle concepts for each of the two applications. Performance and economic studies were conducted for the resulting systems. The advanced steam reformer was found among those studied to be most attractive and was evaluated further and compared to internally reforming the fuel within the fuel cell anodes. From the results of the studies it was concluded that the issues most affecting gas-fired carbonate fuel cell power plant commercial introduction are fuel cell and stack development, fuel reformer technology and the development of reliable, cost-effective heat transfer equipment.

  6. Fabrication of carbon-aerogel electrodes for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tharp, Ronald S

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experiment was done to determine the ability to fabricate carbon aerogel electrodes for use in a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). It was found that the use of a 25% solution of the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammonium ...

  7. Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

    2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid ...

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    some market failures and provides a useful analysis of thePolicy Analysis Page 21 A third market failure comes aboutfailures occur due to A Low Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part II: Policy Analysis

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide." Sciencefor CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyCTLs, or CTL synfuels), and oil shale-based synthetic crude

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide." Sciencefor CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyCTLs, or CTL synfuels), and oil shale-based synthetic crude

  13. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell Liangbing Hu,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    available graphite-based electrodes, such as graphite rods,10 graphite discs,5 graphite felt,11 carbon cloth developed for chemical fuel cells and batteries, but neglects the biological role of MFC electrodes

  14. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  15. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 26 carbon supported PtRh catalysts and compare their catalytic activities with that of Pt/C in alkaline

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CDC 2005). Heavy oil resources require additional energyin California Low-quality oil resources produce fuels withthan high-quality oil resources. The differences between

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CDC 2005). Heavy oil resources require additional energyin California Low-quality oil resources produce fuels withthan high-quality oil resources. The differences between

  18. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  19. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  20. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural and sustainable energy from wastewaters, replace energy intensive wastewater treatment processes, and produce

  3. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  4. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  5. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  6. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  7. Functional Stability Of A Mixed Microbial Consortia Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), naturally-occurring biological polyesters that are microbially synthesized from a myriad of carbon sources, can be utilized as biodegradable substitutes for petroleum-derived thermoplastics. However, current PHA commercialization schemes are limited by high feedstock costs, the requirement for aseptic reactors, and high separation and purification costs. Bacteria indigenous to municipal waste streams can accumulate large quantities of PHA under environmentally controlled conditions; hence, a potentially more environmentally-effective method of production would utilize these consortia to produce PHAs from inexpensive waste carbon sources. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum, in cultures grown on real wastewaters. PHA production averaged 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. The PHA-producing microbial consortia were examined to explore the microbial community changes that occurred during reactor operations, employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts. Distinctly different communities were observed both between and within wastewaters following enrichment. More importantly, stable functions were maintained despite the differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  8. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  9. Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Second quarter 1995 technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaViers, H.

    1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on carbon-ion fuel cells. This period, the project is proceeding with the construction of an apparatus to create a solid electrolyte in the form of castings, or highly pressed and sintered pellets of CeC{sub 2} and LaC{sub 2} and to test the castings or pellets for the ionic conduction of carbon-ions across the electrolyte.

  10. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  11. Optimal Design of a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Case Study in Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ni, Jason; Johnson, Joshua; Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, Joan M

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.W. , Initiating hydrogen infrastructures: preliminaryNatural Gas Based Hydrogen Infrastructure – Optimizingof a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon

  12. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

  13. An option making for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Shimada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Ichiro [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-year-research has been completed as a collaborative work by Nagoya University Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corporation and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in order to develop a super critical carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) based technology, 'SUPER-DIREX process', for nuclear fuel reprocessing. As a result obtained in Phase II of the Japan's feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems, this technology was evaluated as one of the alternatives for the advanced Purex process for he future FBR fuel cycle. Although further investigation is required for a scaled-up demonstration of processing spent fuels by SUPER-DIREX process, we could conclude that an option has been made for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide. (authors)

  14. Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

  15. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  16. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  17. OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

  18. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L. [Univ. Federico II of Naples, Napoli (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. Federico II of Naples, Napoli (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Arena, U. [National Research Council, Napoli (Italy). Inst. for Combustion Research] [National Research Council, Napoli (Italy). Inst. for Combustion Research; [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-92MC28065, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test (PDT) during the period of October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. Information is presented on stack design, manufacturing, stack assembly, procurement, site preparation, and test plan.

  20. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  1. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  2. Author's personal copy Radiation transfer in photobiological carbon dioxide fixation and fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    and fuel production by microalgae Laurent Pilon a,Ã, Halil Berberoglu b,1 , Razmig Kandilian a a Mechanical a c t Solar radiation is the energy source driving the metabolic activity of microorganisms able to photobiologically fixate carbon dioxide and convert solar energy into biofuels. Thus, careful radiation transfer

  3. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  4. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  5. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  6. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE0-1of EnergyIndiaAs theFuture

  7. Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer-Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIANManagement1,InnovativeDepartment

  8. Progress on project to produce SNG and other fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in peat gasification research projects at the Institute of Gas Technology are briefly described. This includes developments in the Peatgas pilot plant and in the wet carbonization process. US peat resources are tabulated.

  9. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  10. Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

  11. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic Feet)3

  12. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic Feet)3

  13. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic

  14. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table 2.

  15. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table 2.6

  16. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table

  17. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table8

  18. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table89

  19. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table890

  20. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubicIndia (Million Cubic(Million Cubic3 Table8901

  1. SEP Success Story: City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR -DepartmentRetailEnergySEA-04:SECURITY

  2. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe VBA1

  3. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe VBA12

  4. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe VBA123

  5. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe

  6. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4 July

  7. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4 July

  8. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4 July1

  9. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4

  10. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe43

  11. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe436

  12. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4367

  13. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe43678

  14. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe436789

  15. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April19. AverageForecast ChangeThe4367890

  16. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  17. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  18. The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    : Q41, Q43 Keywords: oil, marginal costs, producer surplus, gasoline, wealth transfer, drilling costs, exploratory wells, development wells 1 We received financial support from the Sustainable Transportation

  19. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  1. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper was prepared in response to recent requests that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide updated summary information regarding fossil fuel production on federal and...

  2. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  3. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  4. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, Ashok C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  5. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  8. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

  9. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recovery TF Total fuel used TWh Terra-watt hours UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Repair BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics Btu British thermal unit CalCARS California Conventional IPP Independent Power Producer Kbbl Thousand barrels kLBS Thousand pounds of Steam kst Thousand

  10. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  11. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

  12. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  13. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  14. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department of ii iii2014 UpdateRobertRound-UpDataS T R A T E G

  15. Array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes and method of producing the array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T; Hendricks, Troy R

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes includes an elongate drawn body including a plurality of channels extending therethrough from a first end to a second end of the body, where the channels have a number density of at least about 100,000 channels/mm.sup.2 over a transverse cross-section of the body. A plurality of carbon nanotubes are disposed in each channel, and the carbon nanotubes are sufficiently dispersed and aligned along a length of the channels for the array to comprise an average resistivity per channel of about 9700 .OMEGA.m or less.

  16. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  17. Novel Intergrated Process to Process to Produce Fuels from Coal and Other Carbonaceous Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    BioConversion Technology, LLC has developed a novel gasifier design that produces a clean, medium to high BTU synthesis gas that can be utilized for a variety of applications. The staged, indirectly heated design produces high quality synthesis gas without the need for costly pure oxygen. This design also allows for extreme flexibility with respect to feedstocks (including those with high moisture contents) in addition to high throughputs in a small gasifier footprint. A pilot scale testing project was proposed to assist BCT with commercializing the process. A prototype gasifier constructed by BCT was transported to WRI for installation and testing. After troubleshooting, the gasifier was successfully operated with both coal and biomass feedstocks. Instrument upgrades are recommended for further testing.

  18. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  19. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  20. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

  1. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  2. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  3. System to Continuously Produce Carbon Fiber via Microwave-Assisted Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(Insert DirectiveSyntheticProcessing - Energy

  4. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  5. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

  6. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  7. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    61 4.3 Carbon capture andPart II: Policy Analysis Page 5 R12: Carbon capture andstorage If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    61 4.3 Carbon capture andPart II: Policy Analysis Page 5 R12: Carbon capture andstorage If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that are12: If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies thatof carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that are

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that are12: If carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies thatof carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that are

  12. Uranyl nitrate pouring solution for producing nuclear fuel particles and a method for its preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, K.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbitol, or another polyalcohol such as erythritol, dulcitol or xylitol, is added to a solution containing uranyl nitrate which may also contain another heavy metal, such as thorium or plutonium, prior to preneutralization with ammonia in order to provide a highly viscous solution that can be preneutralized to a great extent without premature precipitation of uranium. The high viscosity makes possible the formation of favorably large drops when the solution is dripped into an ammonia containing bath for external gelification of the drops. According to the pouring apparatus used, the particles after washing, drying and sintering have a diameter between 0.6 and 1.5 mm. The polyalcohol is added to a hydrosol containing from 1.5 to 2 moles per liter of heavy metal, the polyalcohol being added until concentration of onethird mole of polyalcohol per mole of heavy metal is reached. In certain cases up to four moles of ammonium nitrate per liter are added. The solution so produced can be preneutralized with up to 90% of the amount of ammonia stoichiometrically necessary for T separation of uranium without the formation of any precipitate, preferably by first adding ammonia gas under strong stirring and then adding ammonium bicarbonate in excess, which decomposes to liberate ammonia to an extent determined by the temperature, which is to be precisely controlled. It is possible to obtain this way a solution of predetermined viscosity from which the excess ammonium bicarbonate can readily be separated.

  13. A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

  14. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  15. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement Washington state agencies must consider purchasing low carbon fuel vehicles or converting conventional vehicles...

  17. Analysis of Strategies of Companies under Carbon Constraint: Relationship between Profit Structure of Companies and Carbon/Fuel Price Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashimoto, Susumu

    This paper examines the relationship between future carbon prices and the expected profit of companies by case studies with model companies. As the future carbon price will vary significantly in accordance with the political ...

  18. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  19. Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German; Charlet, L; Tisserand, Delphine; Renard, F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 1/4 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2-CaCO3 conversion), a significant production rate (48 kg/m3 h) and high purity of product (about 96%). However, the various initial physicochemical conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals. The present study is focused on the estimation of the textural properties of synthesized calcite (morphology, specific surface area, average particle size, particle size distribution and particle size evolution with reaction time), using Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This study demonstrate that the pressure, the temperatu...

  20. Corrosion behavior and interfacial resistivity of bipolar plate materials under molten carbonate fuel cell cathode conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoeler, A.C.; Kaun, T.D.; Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material is needed for bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) that combines the low oxide resistivity of 316L stainless steel (SS) with the low corrosion rate of the type 310 SS. The authors tested a group of materials that included Nitronic 50 SS and a newly developed high-temperature nickel-rich alloy, having chromium contents ranging from 16 to 31 wt %. Their results indicate that chromium content is the primary determinant of oxide scale composition and resistivity. In the MCFC cathode compartment, all tested alloys formed a duplex structure with an inner Cr-rich layer and an outer Fe-rich one. The composition of the inner Cr-rich layer was determined by the chromium content of the base alloy and has a controlling effect on scale resistivity. Oxide scale resistivity was measured for three electrolyte compositions: Li/K, Li/Na, and newly developed (Li, Na, Ca, Ba) carbonates. Changes in the physical/mechanical properties (spallation/cracking) in the oxide scale of 316L SS provided an understanding of its resistivity fluctuations over time.

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel energy exceeds ethanol fuel energy on a GGE basis.the production of ethanol and other fuels. Both grain foral. (1999). Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel energy exceeds ethanol fuel energy on a GGE basis.production of ethanol and other fuels. Cereals are generallyal. (1999). Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy

  3. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

  5. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  6. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

  7. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  8. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Fuel Combustion in 2004.. 34Emissions from Fuel Combustion in California, Million MetricEmission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells,” Organization forquiet and powerful. .Hydrogen and fuel cells also offer thevehicles (PHEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by electricity generation/CHP facilities by distillate fuelFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat GenerationFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat Generation

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Rutherford. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToLarry Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Tos digest. TIAX LLC, “Full Fuel Cycle Assessment – Well to

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Rutherford. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToLarry Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Tos digest. TIAX LLC, “Full Fuel Cycle Assessment – Well to

  13. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    reforming) or with air and water (autothermal reforming). In the second step, carbon monoxide is reduced

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  15. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  16. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  17. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology [6,7] .carbon dioxide emissions by major fuel, 2009…………….2 Fig.1.4 Schematic of CO 2 capture systems and technologies……………………………..carbon footprint. One unique technique is using in-situ CO 2 capture technology,

  18. Optimization of chemical compositions in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel produced by ultra-fast continuous annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Futao, E-mail: dongft@sina.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, Fei [College of Electrical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of Mn,S and B contents on microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and hydrogen trapping ability of low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel was investigated. The materials were produced and processed in a laboratory and the ultra-fast continuous annealing processing was performed using a continuous annealing simulator. It was found that increasing Mn,S contents in steel can improve its hydrogen trapping ability which is attributed by refined ferrite grains, more dispersed cementite and added MnS inclusions. Nevertheless, it deteriorates mechanical properties of steel sheet. Addition of trace boron results in both good mechanical properties and significantly improved hydrogen trapping ability. The boron combined with nitrogen segregating at grain boundaries, cementite and MnS inclusions, provides higher amount of attractive hydrogen trapping sites and raises the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from them. - Highlights: • We study microstructures and properties in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel. • Hydrogen diffusion coefficients are measured to reflect fish-scale resistance. • Manganese improves hydrogen trapping ability but decrease deep-drawing ability. • Boron improves both hydrogen trapping ability and deep-drawing ability. • Both excellent mechanical properties and fish-scale resistance can be matched.

  19. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location at the Naval Air Station Miramar, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: Inverter, Reformer, Desulfurization Vessels, Hot Gas Recycle Blower, Heat Recovery Steam Generator, and Recycle Gas Cooler. SDG and E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  1. Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the carbon intensity of biofuels. London: E4tech, ECCM,85 Mathews, John A. 2007. Biofuels: What a Biopact betweenLehman. 2006. Carbon-Negative Biofuels from Low- Input High-

  3. Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  6. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  7. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the combustion of residual fuel oil and distillate fuelfrom oil and gas systems except from fuel combustion (IPCC,SEDS from combustion of residual fuel oil from international

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To TankJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Toand L. Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To TankJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well ToM. Chan, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank To

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and L. Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well ToM. Chan, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Sao Paulo,and mandates, ethanol tariffs, vehicle and fuel testingthe decision over which fuel and ethanol they should buy and

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Sao Paulo,and mandates, ethanol tariffs, vehicle and fuel testingthe decision over which fuel and ethanol they should buy and

  13. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

  14. Rabi Waves and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

    2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes, produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves - has been experimentally identified for the first time. Raman spectra in perfect quasi-1D carbon nanotubes are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D carbon nanotubes of larger diameter. They characterized by vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice and its revival part in frequency representation, which is the consequence of Rabi wave packet formation.

  15. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Klass, D.L. 1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, andLakes Regional Biomass Energy Program & Renewable Fuelsto accrue to renewable diesel fuels from biomass, whether as

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Klass, D.L. 1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, andLakes Regional Biomass Energy Program & Renewable Fuelsto accrue to renewable diesel fuels from biomass, whether as

  18. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  19. 10 Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK Yasmin E. Bushby Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage, School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10 Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK Yasmin E. Bushby ­ Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage fossil fuels which in turn produces approximately one third of total UK CO2 emissions. Carbon Capture stations and industrial facilities. Existing power stations can be retrofitted with carbon capture

  20. From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy Forrestal NTFusion Energy SciencesFrom

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the carbon intensity of biofuels. London: E4tech, ECCM,85 Mathews, John A. 2007. Biofuels: What a Biopact betweenPolicy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withmethane reforming or coal gasification are well established,central plant) Coal Coal gasification with Carbon Capture

  3. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  4. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  5. Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aerogels J. Mariea , S. Berthon-Fabrya , P. Acharda , M. Chatenetb , E. Chainetb , R. Pirardc , N. Cornetd and characterized carbon aerogels which exhibit high surface area, high porous volume and adjustable pore carbon aerogels with 2 different Nafion loadings. Finally, we characterized the structure

  6. Design and analysis of microalgal open pond systems for the purpose of producing fuels: A subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The designs and systems developed include many innovative concepts and experiments, including the design and operation of a low-cost system. Cost-effectiveness is realized by minimizing capital costs of the system and achieving efficient use of inputs. Extensive engineering analysis of carbonation, mixing, and harvesting subsystems has elucidated both the lowest cost, most efficient options and the essential parameters needed to construct, test, and evaluate these subsystems. The use of growth ponds sealed with clay and lined with crushed rock results in construction cost savings of 50% over ponds lined with synthetic membranes. In addition a low-cost but efficient design allows improvements in technology to have maximum impact on final product cost reductions. In addition to the innovations in low-cost construction, the operational efficiency of the design is both higher and more feasible than that attained by any previous system concept of comparable scale. The water analysis has led to operational specifications that minimize water use and virtually eliminate losses of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide injection system is designed for 95% efficiency, but is still low in cost. The construction of a large-scale, covered anaerobic lagoon to recycle carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus has not been attempted at the scale analyzed here. Yet efficient recycling is essential for achieving economic affordability. 23 refs., 21 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  8. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel combustion are attributable to natural gas consumption.Combustion in 2004 (million metric tonne (Mt) of CO 2 ) Fuel Motor Gasoline Natural Gascombustion in 2004. California relies heavily on imported natural gas.

  9. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue...

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel-based compliance strategy with no significant advancesthese low-GHG biofuel blends. Significant advances in fuel

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel-based compliance strategy with no significant advancesthese low-GHG biofuel blends. Significant advances in fuel

  12. Assessment of Technologies for Compliance with the Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Parker, Nathan C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (e.g. , compressed natural gas, oil derived from tar20% by volume), compressed natural gas, electricity, and

  13. Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources for countries heavily reliant on imported fuels4 . Why CCS is not just a synonym for `clean coal

  14. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Unit Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery Total fuel useduse of thermally enhanced oil recovery process (TEOR). TEOR

  15. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  16. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised FindingDepartment ofStatement |Statement |of EnergyDepartment ofCounty,

  17. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of Energy ScoreEnergy 9: May 4,3: June

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. , T. Howes, et al. (2004). Biofuels For Transport. Paris,the carbon intensity of biofuels. London: E4tech, ECCM,Markets for Green Biofuels. In Transportation Sustainability

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. , T. Howes, et al. (2004). Biofuels For Transport. Paris,the carbon intensity of biofuels. London: E4tech, ECCM,Markets for Green Biofuels. In Transportation Sustainability

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and biogas produced from sewage and waste-water treatment.produced at present primarily for high value protein and for its nutrient management capacity in waste-water treatment,

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and biogas produced from sewage and waste-water treatment.produced at present primarily for high value protein and for its nutrient management capacity in waste-water treatment,

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    similar to conventional hydrocarbons, but they have extremehydrocarbon molecules. Producing Resource Production and Transport Refining End use (combustion) Conventional

  3. Modelling Correlation in Carbon and Energy Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koenig, Philipp

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper examines correlations between daily returns of month-ahead baseload electricity, fuel input and carbon emission allowance (EU-ETS) prices for Great Britain. The perspective of a CCGT plant operator is assumed, producing baseload...

  4. Assessment of Technologies for Compliance with the Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Parker, Nathan C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gasesthe indirect Effects of Biofuels Production. Renewable FuelsTyner, W. E. ; Birur, D. K. Biofuels for all? Understanding

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prepared by Booz-Allen & Hamilton. January. California AirRail Fuel In 1991 Booz-Allen & Hamilton developed a 1987

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the use of natural gas in transportation. V. Hydrogenas a transportation fuel in compressed natural gas vehiclesand transportation, the cost of electricity from natural gas

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the use of natural gas in transportation. V. Hydrogenas a transportation fuel in compressed natural gas vehiclesand transportation, the cost of electricity from natural gas

  8. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions by fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742Coalbed2011 State

  9. The Challenge of Achieving Californias Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S.6, 2014 Independent Statistics

  10. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average Price2011 State

  11. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia S ACarbon Clear JumpSources

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimental VehicleNaturalPropaneAtlanta

  13. Stirling engine sensitivity to fuel characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evers, L.W.; Fleming, R.D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling engine was tested to determine the influence of fuel properties on various aspects of engine performance. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the various operating parameters to the influence of fuel, three different distillation ranges of fuel were selected. Generally, the results indicated that the Stirling engine efficiency was not sensitive to the type of fuel. The emissions, though low, were influenced by the fuel type. The carbon monoxide emissions were lowest for gasoline. Gasoline also produced the lowest hydrocarbon emissions, while diesel fuel produced the greatest.

  14. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport markets;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections

  15. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

    2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  16. Methods of making transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  17. Optimal Design of a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Case Study in Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ni, Jason; Johnson, Joshua; Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, Joan M

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrastructure with Carbon Capture and Sequestration: CaseINFRASTRUCTURE WITH CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION: CASEhydrogen production with carbon capture and sequestration,

  18. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel in compressed natural gas vehicles or reformed toare over 125,000 natural gas vehicles in the United Statesthat peak natural gas demand for vehicles should not pose a

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel in compressed natural gas vehicles or reformed toare over 125,000 natural gas vehicles in the United Statesthat peak natural gas demand for vehicles should not pose a

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that biofuels constitute 2.5% of total road transport fuelstransport sector, while avoiding unintended negative impacts associated with biofuels,transport fuel certificates under the RTFO, and under which different biofuels

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that biofuels constitute 2.5% of total road transport fuelstransport sector, while avoiding unintended negative impacts associated with biofuels,transport fuel certificates under the RTFO, and under which different biofuels

  3. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power viahigher value is for Fischer-Tropsch liquids. See Section 4.cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel from wood

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the case of oil and extraction, consumption of natural gasGas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBOil and Gas Extraction (Mcf) Re-pressuring Lease Fuel Consumption

  5. An assessment of carbon sources for the production of synthetic fuels from nuclear hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, MinWah

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the transportation sector, the current dependence on petroleum to satisfy large transportation fuel demand in the US is unsustainable. Oil resources are finite, and causing heavy US reliance on oil imports. Therefore, ...

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Greenhouse Gases of NExBTL. Heidelberg, IFEU - InstituteR. Linnaila, et al. (2005). NExBTL - Biodiesel fuel of therenewable diesel, such as the NexBTL process, are in active

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Greenhouse Gases of NExBTL. Heidelberg, IFEU - InstituteR. Linnaila, et al. (2005). NExBTL - Biodiesel fuel of therenewable diesel, such as the NexBTL process, are in active

  8. Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Philip Douglas

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by...

  9. A dependence of carbon impurity transport coefficients on fuel ions in hydrogen and helium plasmas of Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozato, H.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Amano, T.; Tanaka, K.; Inagaki, S. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Goshikien 1-1706, Nisshin, Aichi 470-0105 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity transport of carbon has been studied using a new method combined carbon pellet injection with high-spatial resolution bremsstrahlung measurement on the Large Helical Device [A. Iiyoshi et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 169 (1990)]. The carbon pellets are injected into a steady phase in neutral beam heated discharges with a standard configuration of R{sub ax}=3.6 m. The particle transport coefficients (diffusion coefficient D and convective velocity V) are inferred using a diffusive/convective model. The results are compared between hydrogen and helium plasmas. As a result, it is found that the analyzed D has a constant radial profile with almost closed values of 0.2 m{sup 2}/s in both plasmas. On the other hand, the inward V is required only at the plasma outer region ({rho}>0.6) where the electron density gradient exits, and the inward V in helium plasmas (-0.4 m/s at {rho}=0.8 and n{sub e}{approx}4.0x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) is nearly half as much as that in hydrogen plasmas (-0.7 m/s). This difference of the inward V between hydrogen and helium plasmas suggests a dependence on the charge state of fuel ions predicted from neoclassical theory.

  10. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part II: analysing the chemical structure of the films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.043209jes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical structure of cobalt--polypyrrole -- produced by a dual plasma process -- is analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS).It is shown that only nanoparticles of a size of 3\\,nm with the low temperature crystal structure of cobalt are present within the compound. Besides that, cobalt--nitrogen and carbon--oxygen structures are observed. Furthermore, more and more cobalt--nitrogen structures are produced when increasing the magnetron power. Linking the information on the chemical structure to the results about the catalytic activity of the films -- which are presented in part I of this contribution -- it is concluded that the cobalt--nitrogen structures are the probable catalytically active sites. The cobalt--nitrogen bond length is calculated as 2.09\\,\\AA\\ and the carbon--nitrogen bond length as 1.38\\,\\AA.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  12. Preface: Forum on small molecules related to carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. This transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by themore »tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  13. Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured as shown in Figure 1, where the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45--53% (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

  14. Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured as shown in Figure 1, where the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45--53% (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

  15. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ralph E. White

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Microencapsulation of the NiO cathode has been adopted as a surface modification technique to increase the stability of NiO cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. A simple first principles model was developed to understand the influence of exchange current density and conductivity of the electrode material on the polarization of MCFC cathodes. The model predictions suggest that cobalt can be used to improve the corrosion resistance of NiO cathode without affecting its performance. Cobalt was deposited on NiO cathode by electroless deposition. The morphology and thermal oxidation behavior of Co coated NiO was studied using scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis respectively. The electrochemical performance of cobalt encapsulated NiO cathodes were investigated with open circuit potential measurement and current-potential polarization studies. These results were compared to that of bare NiO. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of cobalt-coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt was less in case of cobalt encapsulated nickel cathodes. Co coated on the surface prevents the dissolution of Ni in the melt and thereby stabilizes the cathode. Finally, cobalt coated nickel shows similar polarization characteristics as nickel oxide. A similar surface modification technique has been used to improve the performance of the SS 304 current collectors used in MCFC cells. SS 304 was encapsulated with nanostructured layers of NiCo and NiMo by electroless deposition. The corrosion behavior of bare and surface modified SS 304 in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential studies, Tafel polarization, impedance analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. This study confirms that the presence of surface modification leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

  17. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness. With this control approach, the existing analog boiler controls remain intact and continue to function. No costly retrofit of computer compatible controllers and actuators is required and full analog backup.... The control output to the boiler control interface, such as a pUlse-to pneumatic converter linked to an air bias station that adjusts the air:fuel ratio, is calculated based on the time domain response of the boiler. The control algorithm recognizes...

  18. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.

  20. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  1. Determination of structural characteristics of saturates from diesel and kerosene fuels by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cookson, D.J.; Smith, B.E.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two saturated hydrocarbon fractions, one mainly consisting of n-alkanes and the other containing only branched plus cyclic saturates, have been separated from each of a variety of diesel fuels (approximate boiling range 230-320/sup 0/C) and kerosene fuels (approximately 190-230/sup 0/C) using silica chromatography and urea clathration. The n-alkane fractions have been simply characterized by using conventional /sup 13/C NMR spectrometry, yielding average carbon chain lengths. The branched plus cyclic saturates fractions have been characterized by using the gated spin echo (GASPE) /sup 13/C NMR subspectra for each CH/sub n/ group type (n = 0 to 3) and allows the fractional abundances of CH/sub n/ groups to be measured. These data have been employed in devising and calculating a number of novel average structure parameters which report on the extent of branching and occurrence of ring structures in the fractions investigated. Spectral data are also used to identify some specific submolecular structures. 29 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  3. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  5. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  6. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology. Technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Component development concentrated on two objectives: development of a creep resistance ribbed anode and development of an internal reforming catalyst for steam-methane reforming in the MCFC anode. Satisfactory anode creep strength has been achieved with Ni + 16 wt % LiAlO composite anodes. Efforts concentrated on fabrication methods to directly produce a ribbed anode from the Ni + LiAlO/sub 2/ powder mixture. Encouraging results were obtained by mold compression in a machined graphite mold followed by in-mold sintering which was promoted by the use of a few percent LiKCO/sub 3/ as a sintering agent. Internal reforming catalyst development focused on preparation techniques for high surface area Ni catalyst supported on ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The approach which is being most actively pursued involves first pelletizing the LiAlO/sub 2/ into suitable granule size followed by multiple impregnation in nickel salt solution and heat treatment. Several impregnations are necessary to obtain a nominal Ni loading of 15 wt %. Out-of-cell catalyst testing has been initiated in planar integral reactors as well as differential tube reactors. The LiAlO/sub 2/ supported catalyst granules have demonstrated high activity for the methane-steam reforming reaction and kinetic parameters compare favorably with those for commercially available reforming catalysts. Results are detailed. (WHK)

  7. Filamentous carbon particles for cleaning oil spills and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact hydrogen generator is coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. The hydrogen generator can be conveniently integrated with high temperature fuel cells to produce an efficient and self-contained source of electrical power.

  8. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  9. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  10. Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air-Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China Department of Civil and Environmental States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst

  11. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements All hydrogen fuel produced and sold in Michigan must meet state fuel quality requirements. Any retailer offering hydrogen fuel for sale...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    interest in the qualified property. Renewable fuel is defined as a fuel produced from biomass that is used to replace or reduce conventional fuel use. (Reference Florida Statutes...

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand Durairajan; Bala Haran; Branko N. Popov; Ralph E. White

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cathode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) must have low dissolution rate, high structural strength and good electrical conductivity. Currently available cathodes are made of lithiated NiO which have acceptable structural strength and conductivity. However a study carried out by Orfeld et al. and Shores et al. indicated that the nickel cathodes dissolved, then precipitated and reformed as dendrites across the electrolyte matrix. This results in a decrease in cell utilization and eventually leads to shorting of the cell. The solubility of NiO was found to depend upon the acidity/basicity of the melt (basicity is directly proportional to log P{sub CO2}), carbonate composition, H{sub 2}O partial pressure and temperature. Urushibata et al. found that the dissolution of the cathode is a primary life limiting constraint of MCFCs, particularly in pressurized operation. With currently available NiO cathodes, the goal of 40,000 hours for the lifetime of MCFC appears achievable with cell operation at atmospheric pressure. However, the cell life at 10 atm and higher cell pressures is in the range between 5,000 to 10,000 hours. The overall objective of this research is to develop a superior cathode for MCFC's with improved catalytic ability, enhanced corrosion resistance with low ohmic losses, improved electronic conductivity. We also plan to understand the corrosion processes occurring at the cathode/molten carbonate interface. The following cathode materials will be subjected to detailed electrochemical, performance, structural and corrosion studies. (i) Passivated NiO alloys using chemical treatment with yttrium ion implantation and anodic yttrium molybdate treatment; (ii) Novel composite materials based on NiO and nanosized Ce, Yt, Mo; (iii) Co doped LiNiO{sub 2} LiNiO{sub 2} doped with 10 to 20% Co (LiCo{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 2}) and NiO cathodes; and (iv) CoO as a replacement for NiO. Passivation treatments will inhibit corrosion and increase the stability of the cathode at high temperatures. Deposition of refractory metals (Mo, W, Li{sub 2}NiCrO{sub 4}) will impart stability to the cathode at high temperatures. Further it will also increase the electrocatalytic activity and corrosion resistance of the cathode. Doping with Co will decrease the alloy dissolution and increase the cycle life of the cathode. In the reporting period the oxidation behavior of Ni and Co in Li + Na carbonate eutectic was investigated under oxidizing environment using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic technique. The open circuit potential was monitored as a function of time in order to evaluate the material's reactivity in the melt.

  15. House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Howard Herzog Principal Research Engineer Massachusetts Institute to the Technical Group of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (see www.cslforum.org). Just two weeks ago, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

  16. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  17. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  18. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  19. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hen it comes to energy security and climate change concerns,petroleum—usually for energy security reasons but also tomore concerned with energy security than with cli- mate

  20. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  1. Implementing Performance-Based Sustainability Requirements for the Low Carbon Fuel Standard – Key Design Elements and Policy Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Sumner, Daniel A.; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Ogden, J; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Wilhelm. 2008. Sustainable Biofuels Redux. Science 322 (Dileep K. Birur. 2008. Biofuels for all? Understanding theof carbon labels for biofuels in the UK. London, UK: Home

  2. Hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells: a study of carbon formation on autothermal reforming catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, J.G.; Sheridan, D.M.; Wise, H.; Wood, B.J.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of carbon formation on nickel autothermal steam reforming catalysts has been studied by temperature-programming, thermogravimetric and electron microscopic techniques. Temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of carbon deposited on nickel reforming catalysts by the decomposition of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exhibit seven forms of carbon that are distinguished by their characteristic reactivity with H/sub 2/ and 3.0-vol % H/sub 2/O/He. The relative population of the different carbon states depends primarily on the temperature during deposition. C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exposure populates the same carbon states as C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ exposure but at approximately 100/sup 0/K lower deposition temperature. Similar carbon states were found on all nickel catalysts studies including Ni/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ni/MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ leading to the conclusion that the support has little effect on carbon deposit formation and reactivity. The reactivity of the carbon states is not altered by exposure to steam in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O mixtures, but the amount of carbon deposited decreases to zero as H/sub 2/O/C increases past a critical ratio.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption The first 1,000 gallons of renewable fuel that an individual produces each year are exempt from the motor vehicle fuel...

  4. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  5. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    the optimal conditions to operate a molten carbonate fuel cell, can be used to garner fundamental insightNational Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS STEADY STATE MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS FOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OVERVIEW Development of steady

  6. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  7. Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gmeindl, Frank D. (Morgantown, WV); Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Toolsearch keywordsclear search showFUELS

  9. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu., E-mail: blandinsky@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  10. Electrospun carbon nanofiber electrodes decorated with palladium metal nanoparticles : fabrication and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurpiewski, John Paul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method was investigated to produce a novel oxygen reduction electrode comprised of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ...

  11. The Effect of Simulated Barium Carbonate Waste Stream on the Hydration of Composite Cement Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Claire Utton*, Dr N B Milestone, Dr J Hill Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering of spent uranium oxide fuel and passed through a caustic scrubber producing a sodium carbonate waste form

  12. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  13. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  14. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  15. Size fractionation of black and organic particulate carbon from fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dod, R.L.; Mowrer, F.; Gundel, L.A.; Williamson, R.B.; Novakov, T.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission factors to total smoke particulates as well as organic and black carbon have been measured as a function of size for a set of building materials typical of those used in urban construction. Black carbon emissions (mass per fuel mass) were similar among the wood fuels studied, although the dominant form of combustion varied from flaming to smoldering. Black carbon was found predominantly in the finest size ranges (less than or equal to 0.20 ..mu..m). Polyurethane foam produced a greater emission of black carbon, and the particle size distribution of that carbon extended to much larger aerodynamic diameters than did those of the wood samples. For the fuels tested, total smoke particle emissions ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 percent of fuel mass; black carbon emissions were 0.03 to 0.3 percent of fuel mass.

  16. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL); Carter, John David (Bolingbrook, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myers, Deborah J. (Lisle, IL)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  17. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  18. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  19. Nuclear fuel particles and method of making nuclear fuel compacts therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVelasco, Rubin I. (Encinitas, CA); Adams, Charles C. (San Diego, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making nuclear fuel compacts exhibiting low heavy metal contamination and fewer defective coatings following compact fabrication from a mixture of hardenable binder, such as petroleum pitch, and nuclear fuel particles having multiple layer fission-product-retentive coatings, with the dense outermost layer of the fission-product-retentive coating being surrounded by a protective overcoating, e.g., pyrocarbon having a density between about 1 and 1.3 g/cm.sup.3. Such particles can be pre-compacted in molds under relatively high pressures and then combined with a fluid binder which is ultimately carbonized to produce carbonaceous nuclear fuel compacts having relatively high fuel loadings.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blend Retailer Tax Credit Biofuel Infrastructure Grants Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Deduction Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Demonstration Grants...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools Biodiesel fuel manufactured by a public or private secondary school is exempt from the diesel fuel excise tax and the...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Reduction Requirements Recognizing the impact of carbon-emitting fuels on climate change and to foster economic growth in the state by spurring technological innovation,...

  3. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    categories used to represent biomass-burning sources in North America/Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America-fuel and- biofuel combustion sources in North America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia and the Middle

  4. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  5. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  6. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  9. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  10. SABICs Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the Worlds First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA lSelectBuilding Technologies

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Exemption Biodiesel producers that produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil feedstock are exempt from the state special fuel tax. Waste vegetable oil is used...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax Municipalities, counties, or school districts producing biodiesel must file a return documenting their biodiesel production activities and pay 0.03 of...

  13. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  14. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  15. Two-stage hydrotreating of a bitumen-derived middle distillate to produce diesel and jet fuels, and kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yui, S.M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The middle distillate from a synthetic crude oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was further hydrotreated in a downflow pilot unit over a typical NiMo catalyst at 330 to 400 C, 7 to 11 MPa and 0.63 to 1.39 h{sup {minus}1} LHSV. Feed and liquid products were characterized for aromatics, cetane index (CI) and other diesel specification items. Aromatics were determined by a supercritical fluid chromatography method, while CI was determined using the correlation developed at Syncrude Canada Ltd. Also feed and selected products were distilled into a jet fuel cut (150/260 C) by spinning band distillation for the determination of smoke point and other jet fuel specification items. A good relationship between aromatics content and CI was obtained. Kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were investigated, employing a simple-first order reversible reaction model.

  16. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Plevin, RJ; Hochman, G; Zilberman, DD

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon policies on the renewable fuels standard: economicreport: 2009 update. REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Networktransportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and

  17. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  18. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  19. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Willow brook, IL)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ralph E. White

    2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SS 304 was encapsulated with thin layers of Co-Ni by an electroless deposition process. The corrosion behavior of SS304 and Co-Ni-SS304 was investigated in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere with electrochemical and surface characterization tools. Surface modification of SS304 reduced the dissolution of chromium and nickel into the molten carbonate melt. Composition of the corrosion scale formed in case of Co-Ni-SS304 is different from SS304 and shows the presence of Co and Ni oxides while the latter shows the presence of lithium ferrite. Polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction and conductivity of corrosion values for the corrosion scales were obtained using impedance analysis and current-potential plots. The results indicated lower polarization resistance for oxygen reduction reaction in the case of Co-Ni-SS304 when compared to SS304. Also, the conductivity of the corrosion scales was considerably higher in case of Co-Ni-SS304 than the SS304. This study shows that modifying the current collector surface with Co-Ni coatings leads to the formation of oxide scales with improved barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

  1. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  2. Fuel cell systems for personal and portable power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fateen, S. A. (Shaheerah A.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are devices that electrochemically convert fuel, usually hydrogen gas, to directly produce electricity. Fuel cells were initially developed for use in the space program to provide electricity and drinking water for astronauts. Fuel cells are under development for use in the automobile industry to power cars and buses with the advantage of lower emissions and higher efficiency than internal combustion engines. Fuel cells also have great potential to be used in portable consumer products like cellular phones and laptop computers, as well as military applications. In fact, any products that use batteries can be powered by fuel cells. In this project, we examine fuel cell system trade-offs between fuel cell type and energy storage/hydrogen production for portable power generation. The types of fuel cells being examined include stored hydrogen PEM (polymer electrolyte), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and indirect methanol fuel cells, where methanol is reformed producing hydrogen. These fuel cells systems can operate at or near ambient conditions, which make them potentially optimal for use in manned personal power applications. The expected power production for these systems is in the range of milliwatts to 500 watts of electrical power for either personal or soldier field use. The fuel cell system trade-offs examine hydrogen storage by metal hydrides, carbon nanotubes, and compressed hydrogen tanks. We examine the weights each system, volume, fuel storage, system costs, system peripherals, power output, and fuel cell feasibility in portable devices.

  3. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  4. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Belle Mead, NJ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-based Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels and stack revealed that the planner fuel cell stack is not suitable for operation with carbon and coal fuels due to lack of mechanical strength and difficulty in sealing. We have developed scalable processes for manufacturing of process for planner and tubular cells. Our studies suggested that tubular cell stack could be the only option for scaling up the coal-based fuel cell. Although the direct feeding of coal into fuel cell can significantly simplify the fuel cell system, the durability of the fuel cell needs to be further improved before scaling up. We are developing a tubular fuel cell stack with a coal injection and a CO2 recycling unit.

  6. Purification and Processing of Graphitic Carbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worsley, Kimberly Anne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Petroleum Asphaltenes. Liq. Fuels Tech. 1985,fibers, 2, petroleum asphaltenes, 4 carbon xerogels, 5

  7. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_capture_and_storage 5. Johnsonrole of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS).liquids (CTL) plants with carbon capture and sequestration.

  8. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  9. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and ``weatherproofed`` pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    green diesel producers are eligible for a tax credit of 0.01 per gallon of biodiesel or green diesel fuels produced. This credit is available for producers who generate up to two...

  11. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupporting Data-Producing Facilities and

  12. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    publication 442-880 There are broad and increasing interests across the nation in using domestic, renewable bioenergy. Virginia farmers and transportation fleets use considerable amounts of diesel fuel in their operations. Biodiesel is an excellent alternative fuel for the diesel engines. Biodiesel can be produced from crops commonly grown in Virginia, such as soybean and canola, and has almost the same performance as petrodiesel. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of biodiesel fuel and address some myths and answer some questions about biodiesel fuel before farmers and fleet owners use this type of fuel. ASTM standard for biodiesel (ASTM D6751) Biodiesel fuel, hereafter referred to as simply biodiesel,

  14. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  15. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake of Pu in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the U.S. Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site were used to estimate parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining greater than resuspension of soil to grain surfaces greater than root uptake. Approximately 3.9 X 10(-5) of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 X 10(-9) of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 X 10(-10) of the soil Pu inventory is absorbed and translocated to grains.

  16. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  17. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy`s H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year`s atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  18. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  19. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  20. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  1. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.2008 Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and

  2. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  3. Adding value to coal conversion`s char: A strategy for lower-priced fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Corporation, Naperville, IL (United States); Feizoulof, C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal`s low hydrogen to carbon ratio gives coal physical properties that are not the most desired in fuel markets. The problem is dealt with in conversion technologies designed to upgrade coal to more desirable fuels by either: (1) chemically adding hydrogen, as in liquefaction or high-BTU gasification, or (2) the production of char, as in mild gasification. The first option is neither cost-effective nor environmentally sound. Liquefaction results in the production of one mole of carbon dioxide for each mole of hydrogen needed. The result is that despite the preferred hydrogen to carbon ratio in the fuel, carbon dioxide is produced in greater quantities than it would be by simply burning the coal. The depressed market value of char is the primary drawback of coal utilization technologies exercising the second option. Making value-added, non-fuel products from char could significantly improve the economics of overall operations and result in competitively-priced premium hydrocarbon fuels. The research goal of a growing number of groups, including ours, is to produce and describe carbon products which will command higher prices than the carbon (coal) from which they were produced.

  4. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removal from dry fuel gas streams using an ionic liquid as a physical solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yannick J. Heintz; Laurent Sehabiague; Badie I. Morsi; Kenneth L. Jones; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline [United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mole fraction solubilities (x{asterisk}) and volumetric liquid-side mass-transfer coefficients (kLa) for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in the ionic liquid, TEGO IL K5, (a quaternary ammonium polyether) were measured under different pressures (up to 30 bar) and temperatures (up to 500 K) in a 4 L ZipperClave agitated reactor. CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, as single gases, and a H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} gaseous mixture were used in the experiments. The solubilities of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} were found to increase with pressure and decrease with temperature within the experimental conditions used. The H{sub 2}S solubilities in the ionic liquid (IL) were greater than those of CO{sub 2} within the temperature range investigated (300-500 K) up to a H{sub 2}S partial pressure of 2.33 bar. Hence, the IL can be effectively used to capture both H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} from dry fuel gas stream within the temperature range from 300 to 500 K under a total pressure up to 30 bar. The presence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} mixture created mass-transfer resistance, which decreased k{sub L}{alpha} values for N{sub 2}. The k{sub L}{alpha} and x{asterisk} values of CO{sub 2} were found to be greater than those of N{sub 2} in the IL, which highlight the stronger selectivity of this physical solvent toward CO{sub 2} than toward N{sub 2}. In addition, within the temperature range from 300 to 500 K, the solubility and k{sub L}{alpha} of H{sub 2}S in the IL were greater than those of CO{sub 2}, suggesting that not only can H{sub 2}S be more easily captured from dry fuel gas streams but also a shorter absorber can be employed for H{sub 2}S capture than that for CO{sub 2}. 56 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  7. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  8. Differential Supply of Autochthonous Organic Carbon and Nitrogen to the Microbial Loop in the Delaware Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as terrestrial organic C supply, inorganic N speciation and concentrations, and extracellular release% of organic carbon (C) produced through primary production is used to fuel bacterial production (Ducklow 2000 is fueled by a combination of autochthonous and allochthonous DOM. Differen- tiating between the two sources

  9. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  10. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  11. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  12. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  13. atmospheric carbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (N2O) 13 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 13 Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Geosciences Websites Summary: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon...

  14. Method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Carter, John David; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquefaction technologies. Liquid Fuels from Biomass Liquid fuels converted from biomass feedstocks are produced primarily through two processes: Gasification-heating biomass by...

  16. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  17. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  18. Fuel cell apparatus and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Krueger, Roger; Cherepy, Nerine

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly efficient carbon fuels, exemplary embodiments of a high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cell are capable of directly converting ash-free carbon fuel to electrical energy. Ash-free, turbostratic carbon particles perform at high efficiencies in certain direct carbon conversion cells.

  19. Preparation of highly loaded Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells by the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalbuto, John R.

    and composition, such as carbon xerogels and aerogels, constitute an interesting alternative to carbon blacks [4, the samples were filtered, dried and reduced. In order to increase the Pt weight percentage, up to three

  20. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  1. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for eachindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    person whose only activities with respect to motor fuel are: 1) the conversion of any biomass materials into biodiesel fuel that is produced exclusively for personal use and not...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Fuel Tax Exemption An individual that produces biodiesel for personal use or use by a member of his or her immediate family is exempt from the state fuel excise tax....

  6. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    a motor vehicle fuel. LNG is defined as pipeline-quality natural gas treated to remove water, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other components that will freeze and condense...

  8. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  9. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    30 likes How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells produce electrical power without any combustion and operate on fuels like hydrogen, natural gas and propane. This clean energy technology...

  10. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  12. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Ming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Helm, Monte L.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Films electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrodes from acidic acetonitrile solutions of [Bu4N][Ni(bdt)2] (bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate) are active toward electrocatalytic hydrogen production at potentials 0.2-0.4 V positive of untreated electrodes. This activity is preserved on rinsing the electrode and transfer to fresh acid solution. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the deposited material contains Ni and S. Correlations between voltammetric and spectroscopic results indicate that the deposited material is active, i.e. that catalysis is heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Control experiments establish that obtaining the observed catalytic response requires both Ni and the 1,2 benzenedithiolate ligand to be present during deposition. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a 17 national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  14. Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Technology Management Inc.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

  15. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

  16. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuels Production Grants The Biofuels Production Incentive Grant Program provides grants to producers of neat advanced biofuels, which include fuels derived from any cellulose,...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuels Definitions and Specifications Biodiesel is a fuel that is produced from nonpetroleum renewable resources and meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency registration...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    vehicle fuel that is produced from grain, starch, oilseeds, vegetable, algae, animal materials, or other biomass. To be eligible for the tax credit, the capital costs of the...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    station. Alternative fuels are defined as combustible liquids derived from grain starch, oil seed, animal fat, or other biomass, or produced from a biogas source. Excess credits...