National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuels produces carbon

  1. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  2. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  3. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  4. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  5. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  6. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    describetwo applications of this fuel. The first involves a combined cycle power plant integrated of suchan option basedon the use of commercially ready technologies involving coal gasification for power energy quantities are given both as lower heating values (LHV) and as higher heating values (ffi

  7. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  8. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  9. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  10. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  11. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  15. Protection of porous carbon fuel particles from boudouard corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2015-05-26

    A system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O.sub.2=CO.sub.2 to produce electrical energy.

  16. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Zarnoch, Kenneth P. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  17. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  18. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  19. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  20. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  3. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, Richard C. (East Hartford, CT)

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  6. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  7. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Wolfgang M. (Glastonbury, CT); Smith, Stanley W. (Vernon, CT)

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  9. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  10. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  11. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility April...

  12. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to the cathode and sustainable energy from wastewaters, replace energy intensive wastewater treatment processes, and produce

  13. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

  14. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  15. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

  16. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  17. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  18. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  19. Producing Transportation Fuels via Photosynthetically-derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology using cyanobacteria. This technology has potential to produce biofuels and green chemicals (1) at cost that is competitive with conventional ethylene and derivatives...

  20. NaturallyProduced CarbonSources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (e.g., methane) to generate electricity, drive a petroleum-powered car, or cut down a forest, CO2 element in our universe. Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the most abundant car- bon bearing gas, and plays a special role in Earth's carbon cycle. From an atmospheric perspective, sources emit or release carbon

  1. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN UNDESIRABLE CRYSTAL PRECIPITATE IN A DEVELOPMENTAL CARBON FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN UNDESIRABLE CRYSTAL PRECIPITATE IN A DEVELOPMENTAL CARBON FUEL CELL Thesis Advisor Dr. Michael Jerry Antal Jr. #12;iv Abstract Carbon fuel cells have the potential composition and formula of an unwanted crystal precipitate being produced from a carbon fuel cell

  2. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  3. Method for producing gasoline-alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.

    1983-05-10

    A process for producing gasoline-ethanol blends comprises purifying dilute ethanol by extractive distillation and concentrating the ethanol by distillation followed by one or both of the following steps: (A) liquid extraction of ethanol into heated gasoline or (B) azeotropic distillation of ethanol with an entrainer followed by blending with gasoline.

  4. A microbial fuel cell built by the researchers produces electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A microbial fuel cell built by the researchers produces electricity from biomass using bacteria of Energy revealed potential hydrogen and fuel cell funding opportunities for 2007. Dr. Chao-Yang Wang discussed Penn State's progress with direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications and fuel cell cold

  5. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  6. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  7. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  8. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2011-03-29

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  9. Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More...

  10. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  13. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  14. Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbon Capture,and

  15. Method for producing sintered ceramic, layered, circular fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harlow, John L. (East Berne, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A compacting die wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  16. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Zarnoch, Kenneth P. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  17. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  18. The Design and Economics of Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    The Design and Economics of Low Carbon Fuel Standards Gabriel E. Lade and C.-Y. Cynthia Lin January greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the vast majority of those emissions are the direct result of fossil fuel in the sector. Proposals include using carbon taxes, fuel economy standards for new vehicles, renewable fuel

  19. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  20. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  1. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  3. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  5. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  6. Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell...

  7. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    production, carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) research was a main focus over the last several years.1

  8. The Renewable and Low Carbon Fuel Requirement Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for emissions released during production (e.g. growing biofuel crops and refining them for fuel) and consumption.6% of transportation energy consumption. This uptake of alternative fuels, which has been supported by the RLCFRR, has by increasing the consumption of low carbon fuels (offsetting the use of fossil fuels). For example

  9. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department ofBusinessCEA90:2:09California

  10. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol

  11. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETOof Energy Office04 Calendar

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  13. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maricle, Donald L. (226 Forest La., Glastonbury, CT 06033); Putnam, Gary C. (47 Walker St., Manchester, CT 06040); Stewart, Jr., Robert C. (1230 Copper Hill Rd., West Suffield, CT 06093)

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  14. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Browall, Kenneth W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  15. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Wastewater Treatment Facility April 29, 2015 - 6:05pm Addthis Grand Junction's CNG station fuels the city's fleets and county buses and is available to fuel public...

  16. Table 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With

  17. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low We want USDOE to vitrifyGreenGov

  18. The Future of Low Carbon Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of Sustainable Energy: Efficiency and Renewables, University of California, Berkeley #12;University of California's Transportation Fuels 5 The externalities of fossil fuels were addressed by the previous panel thus" Gas processing" Coal/Gas PP/CHP" Solar PV/thermal" Biomass PP/CHP" Nuclear" Wind converter" Ethanol

  19. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories News Events Find More Like This...

  20. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.6 73.9 70.53.3

  1. Table 4.2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7,Year Jan995 1555. Light

  2. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7,Year Jan995 1555. Light3

  3. Chapter 7 - Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann39.1_Acquisition_of_Information_Resources_0.pdfEnablingManufacturing | Department of

  4. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann39.1_Acquisition_of_Information_Resources_0.pdfEnablingManufacturing | DepartmentActions

  5. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station inWin"near Paducah

  6. Lithium intercalation carbon and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550); Guidotti, Ronald A. (3019 Florida St. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87110)

    2001-01-01

    Disordered carbons were synthesized at 700.degree. C. from methacrylonitrile-divinylbenzene precursors. The disorder, even at the free surface, was confirmed with TEM. These powdered carbons were subjected to rapid surface heating by a pulsed infrared laser (59 MW pulses). While the bulk structure remained essentially unchanged, there was substantial "surface reconstruction" to a depth of 0.25 .mu.m presumably due to ablation, re-deposition, and "recrystallization" of the surface carbon after heating by the laser. The surface ordering appears similar to the bulk microstructure of carbons isothermally annealed at 2,200.degree. C. (i.e., turbostatic). Improvements were observed in first cycle irreversible loss, rate capability, and coulombic efficiencies of the "reconstructed" carbons, relative to the untreated carbon.

  7. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Table 6. Sales of fossil fuel production from federal and Indian lands by statearea, FY 2003-13 trillion Btu State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Alabama...

  8. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  9. Method of produce ultra-low friction carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Eryilmaz, Osman Levent (Istanbul, TK); Lee, Richard H. (Lemont, IL)

    2003-04-15

    A method and article of manufacture of amorphous diamond-like carbon. The method involves providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a mixture of a carbon containing gas and hydrogen gas with the mixture adjusted such that the atomic molar ratio of carbon to hydrogen is less than 0.3, including all carbon atoms and all hydrogen atoms in the mixture. A plasma is formed of the mixture and the amorphous diamond-like carbon film is deposited on the substrate. To achieve optimum bonding an intervening bonding layer, such as Si or SiO.sub.2, can be formed from SiH.sub.4 with or without oxidation of the layer formed.

  10. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  11. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Chao M. (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  12. The Impact of Border Carbon Adjustments under Alternative Producer Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, Niven

    Border carbon adjustments (BCAs) have been proposed to address leakage and competitiveness concerns. In traditional assessments, firms regard BCAs as output taxes rather than implicit emissions taxes. Using a stylized ...

  13. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  14. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  15. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from nationalRotty, R. M. : Carbon-dioxide Emissions From Fossil-fuels –Dis- tribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel

  16. Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    and diesel fuel, but not LPG, jet fuel, residual oil, orbaseline year, 2004 Fuel LPG Motor gasoline Jet fuel Dieseland diesel fuel, but not LPG, A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and diesel fuel, but not LPG, jet fuel, residual oil, orbaseline year, 2004 Fuel LPG Motor gasoline Jet fuel Dieseland diesel fuel, but not LPG, A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For

  19. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  20. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  2. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementwith CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,

  3. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  4. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles · New and aged lubricants representative fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    S. Denning, C. B. A Low Carbon Fuel Standard for Californiaunder the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation: TechnicalOrder S-01-07: Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Sacramento, CA.

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    S. Denning, C. B. A Low Carbon Fuel Standard for Californiaunder the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation: TechnicalOrder S-01-07: Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Sacramento, CA.

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: TechnicalEnergy Air Quality, and Fuels 2000. Schwarzenegger, Arnold.Order S-01-07: Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Sacramento, CA.

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    ITS—RR—07—07 A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California PartEnergy Commission. A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For CaliforniaPont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To Tank

  9. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  10. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuelcomparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel121, 2011. C. Fischer. Renewable Portfolio Standards: When

  11. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  12. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  13. An Innovative Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix, Abstract #188

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Surendranath, Arun; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2015-05-28

    The electrolyte matrix in direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) is a microporous ceramic structure sandwiched between the electrodes to isolate the fuel from the oxidant, store electrolyte and facilitate ionic transport. FCE has advanced DFC electrolyte matrix over the years and demonstrated that the matrix meets the requirements for greater than 5 year life based on accelerated tests and field stack operations. However, development of advanced designs and materials that can further increase the performance and extend cell life will enable accelerated MCFC deployment. This paper will report the progress on the development of an unique and innovative matrix design that offers numerous benefits to the carbonate fuel cell performance and durability. In addition, this paper will also review parameters that affect matrix material stability and approaches to extend cell life.

  14. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  15. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1998-08-04

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g--1,000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  16. Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications Aboubakr to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cells cores to be integrated in original compact stability; Transport properties. 1. Introduction Micro fuel cells have received considerable attention over

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  18. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  19. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  20. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  1. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  2. Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

    2011-09-08

    ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid carbon fuel and electrolyte...

  3. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  4. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  5. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D.

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  6. Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model N-phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell MCFC cathode received June 18, 2002. Available electronically November 15, 2002. Molten carbonate fuel cells MCFCs

  7. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  9. Method for producing electricity using a platinum-ruthenium-palladium catalyst in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-01-27

    A method for producing electricity using a fuel cell that utilizes a ternary alloy composition as a fuel cell catalyst, the ternary alloy composition containing platinum, ruthenium and palladium. The alloy shows increased activity as compared to well-known catalysts.

  10. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  11. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  12. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  13. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    policies, the world price of fossil fuel, domestic fossilreduce the world price of fossil fuel except when the supplywhich case the world price of fossil fuel is unchanged. The

  14. Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

  15. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of Alternative Fossil Fuel Price and Carbon Regulationthe past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We findfossil price scenarios, respectively, but in both cases these are integrated scenarios developed by altering numerous input assumptions, not just fuel price

  16. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells. Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, Robert; Wheeler, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  17. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  18. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  19. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  20. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    for diesel and the other oil products aggregate as gasoline.range of the elasticities for diesel and other oil products.the price of other oil products. A carbon tax increases

  1. Casting Engineer Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    AK Steel Casting Engineer ­ Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless, will act in support of primary and secondary steelmaking as well as casting operations for carbon

  2. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N.

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  4. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  5. Carbon-14 in waste packages for spent fuel in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Smith, C.F.; Culham, H.W.; Smith, H.D.

    1986-10-14

    Carbon-14 is produced naturally by cosmic ray neutrons in the upper atmosphere. It is also produced in nuclear reactors, in amounts much smaller than the global inventory. About one-third of this is released directly to the atmosphere, and the other two-thirds remains in the spent fuel. Both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established limits on release of the {sup 14}C in spent fuel. This is of particular concern for the proposed repository in tuff, because of the unsaturated conditions and the consequent possibility of gaseous transport of {sup 14}C as CO{sub 2}. Existing measurements and calculations of the {sup 14}C inventory in spent fuel are reviewed. The physical distribution and chemical forms of the {sup 14}C are discussed. Available data on the release of {sup 14}C from spent fuel in aqueous solutions and in gaseous environments of air, nitrogen, and helium are reviewed. Projected {sup 14}C behavior in a tuff repository is described. It is concluded that {sup 14}C release measurements from spent fuel into moist air at temperatures both above and below the in situ boiling point of water as well as detailed transport calculations for the tuff geological environment will be needed to determine whether the 10CFR60 and 40CFR191 requirements can be met. 56 refs., 1 tab.

  6. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  7. Carbon-based composite electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Lee, Jog-Won (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini P. (Kennesaw, GA); Kumaraguru, Swaminatha P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC); Nallathambi, Vijayadurga (T-Nagar, IN); Li, Xuguang (Columbia, SC); Wu, Gang (West Columbia, SC)

    2009-12-08

    A process for synthesis of a catalyst is provided. The process includes providing a carbon precursor material, oxidizing the carbon precursor material whereby an oxygen functional group is introduced into the carbon precursor material, and adding a nitrogen functional group into the oxidized carbon precursor material.

  8. Fuel-producing Geobacter receives support from new research May 3rd, 2010 in Technology / Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    efficiency than traditional photosynthesis. This efficiency is partly due to the fact that solar panels can generated from solar panels to produce fuels and other useful products. The researchers are currently growing the bacteria on the surface of graphite electrodes located on a rooftop. A rooftop solar panel

  9. Shaping Reactor Microbiomes to Produce the Fuel Precursor nButyrate from Pretreated Cellulosic Hydrolysates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    - butyrate production rate of 0.47 g COD l-1 d-1 in bioreactors that were fed with dilute-acid pretreatedShaping Reactor Microbiomes to Produce the Fuel Precursor nButyrate from Pretreated Cellulosic the production of carboxylic acids with open cultures of microbial consortia (reactor micro- biomes), we

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    technologies for making fluid fuels from coal." Energy andfuels. For this reason, carbon must be rejected from the crude oil in refining (through fluid

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    technologies for making fluid fuels from coal." Energy andfuels. For this reason, carbon must be rejected from the crude oil in refining (through fluid

  12. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  13. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  14. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  15. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  16. Ammonia treatment of carbon cloth anodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammonia treatment of carbon cloth anodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells Shaoan to increase power generation by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It is shown here that using a phosphate buffer

  17. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    derived diesel fuel can be produced by the hydrogenation of animal or plant oils, possibly including both waste

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    derived diesel fuel can be produced by the hydrogenation of animal or plant oils, possibly including both waste

  20. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley of energy, the solar panels, can also harvest energy 100 times more effectively than plants. Other

  1. Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

  2. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  3. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  4. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  5. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  6. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  7. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof EnergyGap Analysis | Department of

  8. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  9. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at £12 per

  10. Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa , Frédéric MAILLARDb , Jean of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells in order to decrease the mass transport limitations The catalytic layer configuration is a key-element in the design of PEM fuel cells [1]. Indeed, besides

  11. Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1 V. Ramanathan,2 J. E the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil- fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about

  12. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell Liangbing Hu,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes Xing Xie,a Meng Ye to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC matter can also drive electron flow. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that exploit this understanding have

  13. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  14. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  15. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  16. Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning a l a b s t r a c t STXM is used to analyze polymer membrane fuel cell cathodes. Carbon corrosion Keywords: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells X-ray microscopy Ionomer Carbon corrosion Platinum

  17. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells Eric N. Coker Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    innovation and development of new technologies that can dramatically lower GHG emissions at low costsinnovation and thus A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For California are somewhat lower than current production costs

  20. Fabrication of carbon-aerogel electrodes for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tharp, Ronald S

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was done to determine the ability to fabricate carbon aerogel electrodes for use in a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). It was found that the use of a 25% solution of the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammonium ...

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

  3. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    California States at a fraction of the energy and environmental cost.California 2006). Major breakthroughs in biomass yields, production cost reductions, and energyenergy A Low Carbon Fuel Standard For California costs

  4. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  5. Process of making electrolyte structure for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Ronald H. [Schenectady, NY; Curran, Matthew J. [Schenectady, NY

    1980-08-05

    An electrolyte structure is produced by forming matrix material powder into a blank at room temperature and impregnating the resulting matrix blank with molten electrolyte.

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    CDC 2005). Heavy oil resources require additional energyin California Low-quality oil resources produce fuels withthan high-quality oil resources. The differences between

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    CDC 2005). Heavy oil resources require additional energyin California Low-quality oil resources produce fuels withthan high-quality oil resources. The differences between

  8. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  9. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  10. Microbial production of multi-carbon chemicals and fuels from water and carbon dioxide using electric current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek R; Nevin, Kelly

    2015-11-03

    The invention provides systems and methods for generating organic compounds using carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and electrical current as an energy source. In one embodiment, a reaction cell is provided having a cathode electrode and an anode electrode that are connected to a source of electrical power, and which are separated by a permeable membrane. A biological film is provided on the cathode. The biological film comprises a bacterium that can accept electrons and that can convert carbon dioxide to a carbon-bearing compound and water in a cathode half-reaction. At the anode, water is decomposed to free molecular oxygen and solvated protons in an anode half-reaction. The half-reactions are driven by the application of electrical current from an external source. Compounds that have been produced include acetate, butanol, 2-oxobutyrate, propanol, ethanol, and formate.

  11. NAS Miramar Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell demonstration status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scroppo, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Part of M-C Power`s Technology Development Program, this MCFC power plant is designed to supply 250 kW of electricity to Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar. It also cogenerates steam for the district heating system. The power plant is a fully integrated unit incorporating an advanced design fuel cell based on years of laboratory tests and a prior field test. This demonstration incorporates many innovative features, one of which is the plate type reformer which processes the natural gas fuel for use in the fuel cell. M-C Power Corp. has completed the design, fabrication, and conditioning of a 250-cell fuel cell stack, which was shipped to the site where it will be installed, tested, and evaluated as a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept MCFC Power Plant. (Originally going to Kaiser Permanente`s Sand Diego Medical Center, it was relocated to Miramar.)

  12. Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources for countries heavily reliant on imported fuels4 . Why CCS is not just a synonym for `clean coal'? CCS technology is most frequently discussed in the context of capturing CO2 from coal-fired powerCarbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change DR N FloRiN aND DR

  13. * Corresponding author -kfingerman@berkeley.edu 1 Integrating Water Sustainability into the Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    sustainability as a task under the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (AB 118 Carbon Fuel Standard Kevin Fingerman1* , Daniel Kammen1,2 , and Michael O'Hare2 1 Energy & Resources crops are displaced by energy feedstocks. Often, however, a tradeoff exists between minimizing

  14. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  15. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  16. 93FY 2006 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program Produce ultra-pure hydrogen fuel, at 99.999% purity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    will include separation of both clean shifted syngas and raw shifted syngas, both coal-derived. To prepare of hydrogen from coal, due to its low cost and abundance in the U.S. A critical part of this process is to separate the hydrogen from carbon dioxide, resulting in a pure clean fuel (hydrogen) stream, and a separate

  17. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather bymore »the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  18. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.

  19. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Raj N. (Downers Grove, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  1. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  2. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  3. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  4. Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer-Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCEPueblo, New Mexico |

  5. SEP Success Story: City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesA TokenCommercial Buildings » Analysis

  6. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  8. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  9. Dissolution of Irradiated Commercial UO2 Fuels in Ammonium Carbonate and Hydrogen Peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Hanson, Brady D.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Carson, Katharine J.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-18

    We propose and test a disposition path for irradiated nuclear fuel using ammonium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide media. We demonstrate on a 13 g scale that >98% of the irradiated fuel dissolves. Subsequent expulsion of carbonate from the dissolver solution precipitates >95% of the plutonium, americium, curium, and substantial amounts of fission products, effectively partitioning the fuel at the dissolution step. Uranium can be easily recovered from solution by any of several means, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, or direct precipitation. Ammonium carbonate can be evaporated from solution and recovered for re-use, leaving an extremely compact volume of fission products, transactinides, and uranium. Stack emissions are predicted to be less toxic, less radioactive, chemically simpler, and simpler to treat than those from the conventional PUREX process.

  10. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  11. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

  12. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  13. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  14. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION JSTEM-ing the TideautomotiveSafety,Sales of Fossil

  15. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  16. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas Streams (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

  17. Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers B. Ne´meta,*, K. Musiolb , I. Sa´ntaa , J. Zachorowskib a Institute of Physics, Janus Pannonius and the CN radical in the plasma obtained by Nd:YAG laser ablation of graphite and polymers in atmospheric

  18. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  19. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  1. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

  3. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 20151

  4. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 201512 May

  5. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 201512

  6. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 2015123

  7. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 20151234

  8. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 20151234

  9. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 201512341

  10. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016, 2015123412

  11. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,

  12. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,6 Table 3.

  13. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,6 Table 3.7

  14. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,6 Table

  15. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,6 Table9

  16. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic2009Decade Year-016,6 Table90

  17. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels | Hydrogen Production and Delivery Technology Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk toRoadmapsMaterialsActions |7:

  18. Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

    1999-07-01

    Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

  19. The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    : Q41, Q43 Keywords: oil, marginal costs, producer surplus, gasoline, wealth transfer, drilling costs the average long-run cost ­ is an important part of social cost-benefit analyses of changes in petroleum use, and then applies the estimates of producer surplus to two kinds of social cost-benefit analyses related

  20. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon electricity generation: A technical note Robert Gross Ausilio Bauen ICEPT October 2005 #12;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections ................................................................................................................. 3 Current and projected medium-term costs of electricity generating technologies....... 4 Biofuels

  1. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  2. Gauging citizen support for a low carbon fuel standard Ekaterina Rhodes n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon fuel standard (LCFS). We observe passive support: low awareness and high support of the policy. An LCFS achieves broad support among British Columbia's and Canadian citizens. Households relying support it. We refer to this combination of low knowledge and high support as "passive support." We find

  3. Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    monoxide can lead to poisoning of platinum electrocatalysts used in the fuel cells [1,2]. The reforming are converted to hydrogen and carbon mon- oxide by reactions with air (partial oxidation), with water (steam. In the third step, the gas mixture is reacted with air over a preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst, so

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-92MC28065, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test (PDT) during the period of October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. Information is presented on stack design, manufacturing, stack assembly, procurement, site preparation, and test plan.

  5. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper was prepared in response to recent requests that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide updated summary information regarding fossil fuel production on federal and...

  6. Array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes and method of producing the array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T; Hendricks, Troy R

    2013-06-11

    An array of aligned and dispersed carbon nanotubes includes an elongate drawn body including a plurality of channels extending therethrough from a first end to a second end of the body, where the channels have a number density of at least about 100,000 channels/mm.sup.2 over a transverse cross-section of the body. A plurality of carbon nanotubes are disposed in each channel, and the carbon nanotubes are sufficiently dispersed and aligned along a length of the channels for the array to comprise an average resistivity per channel of about 9700 .OMEGA.m or less.

  7. Studies on the practical application of producer gas from agricultural residues as supplementary fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gasification of various agricultural residues in down-draft, fixed bed gas producers and the utilization of the gas in small diesel engines converted for dual-fuel operation were studied at the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines. Such agricultural residues as coconut shells, wood waste, rice hulls and corn cobs were readily gasified in gas producers of simple design. Cleaning of the gas before its use in diesel engines presented some problems. Use of charcoal in the gas producers to provide gas to a 5-brake horsepower single cylinder engine and a 65-brake horsepower six cylinder engine proved satisfactory. With charcoal as fuel, the percentage of the total energy from diesel oil replaced by producer gas and utilized in the single cylinder engine was higher (79%) compared to that in the six cylinder engine (73%). The thermal efficiency of the bigger gas producer, however was significantly better (85%) compared to the smaller gas producer (70%). The total gasification rate of the bigger reactor (20 kg/h) was 8 times that (2.5 kg/h) of the smaller reactor.

  8. Method of evaluating the integrity of the outer carbon layer of triso-coated reactor fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN); Costanzo, Dante A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Layton, Frank L. (Clinton, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for determining defective final layers of carbon on triso-coated fuel particles and the like. Samples of the particles are subjected to a high temperature treatment with gaseous chlorine and thereafter radiographed. The chlorine penetrates through any defective carbon layer and reacts with the underlying silicon carbide resulting in the volatilization of the silicon as SiCl.sub.4 leaving carbon as a porous layer. This porous carbon layer is easily detected by the radiography.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  10. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  11. System to Continuously Produce Carbon Fiber via Microwave-Assisted Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With LivermoreSustainable Landmimic key features

  12. Fuel cells are used to produce electric-ity electrochemically from many differ-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and proteins, as well as complex mixtures of organic matter present in human, animal and food-processing waste at the anode. Instead, they use microorganisms that biologically oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons obtained for fuels such as glucose or acetic acid (FIG. 2). Virtually any source of biodegradable organic

  13. Novel Intergrated Process to Process to Produce Fuels from Coal and Other Carbonaceous Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-25

    BioConversion Technology, LLC has developed a novel gasifier design that produces a clean, medium to high BTU synthesis gas that can be utilized for a variety of applications. The staged, indirectly heated design produces high quality synthesis gas without the need for costly pure oxygen. This design also allows for extreme flexibility with respect to feedstocks (including those with high moisture contents) in addition to high throughputs in a small gasifier footprint. A pilot scale testing project was proposed to assist BCT with commercializing the process. A prototype gasifier constructed by BCT was transported to WRI for installation and testing. After troubleshooting, the gasifier was successfully operated with both coal and biomass feedstocks. Instrument upgrades are recommended for further testing.

  14. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application). The experiments and simulations focused on the air-cooled Ballard Nexa fuel cell. The experimental

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  17. Method of preparing a dimensionally stable electrode for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, T.E.; Wnuck, W.G.

    1986-01-29

    A method is disclosed for preparing a dimensionally stable electrode structure, particularly nickel-chromium anodes, for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack. A low-chromium to nickel alloy is provided and oxidized in a mildly oxidizing gas of sufficient oxidation potential to oxidize chromium in the alloy structure. Typically, a steam/H/sub 2/ gas mixture in a ratio of about 100/1 and at a temperature below 800/sup 0/C is used as the oxidizing medium. This method permits the use of less than 5 wt % chromium in nickel alloy electrodes while obtaining good resistance to creep in the electrodes of a fuel cell stack.

  18. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  19. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From:Construction IndustrialDepartmentRussianRyan ENERGY

  20. Carbon Pollution Being Captured, Stored and Used to Produce More Domestic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1, 2013,Cafe ScientifiqueCanisterEnergy»Oil |

  1. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

  2. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  3. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-08-09

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  4. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  5. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  6. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, Ashok C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  7. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Reforming for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells," Berichte derVan Dijkum, "The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Programme in thealkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. (Fuel cells

  9. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

  10. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  11. Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German; Charlet, L; Tisserand, Delphine; Renard, F

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 1/4 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2-CaCO3 conversion), a significant production rate (48 kg/m3 h) and high purity of product (about 96%). However, the various initial physicochemical conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals. The present study is focused on the estimation of the textural properties of synthesized calcite (morphology, specific surface area, average particle size, particle size distribution and particle size evolution with reaction time), using Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This study demonstrate that the pressure, the temperatu...

  12. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  13. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  14. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  15. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    on North American carbon dioxide ex- change: CarbonTracker,A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuelof two US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets,

  16. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  17. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  18. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris

    2011-04-28

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  19. Fundamental stack and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.; Mayfield, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Stack research and system issues in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology development and commercialization are discussed within context of status of MCFC development and commercialization in US. Status of MCFC development is addressed. Major known fundamental stack research issues remaining for the MCFC technology are identified and discussed. The cathode remains a focal point of performance improvement and cost reduction. The various aspects of MCFC power plant network and systems issues are also addressed and discussed. These include cost, heat loss management, startup and shutdown modes, dynamic response, footprint, packaging and integration, parasitic power losses, pressurization and reforming. Potential of MCFC networks is discussed. With the initial demonstration of full-area, fullheight 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on importance for the first time.

  20. Analysis of Strategies of Companies under Carbon Constraint: Relationship between Profit Structure of Companies and Carbon/Fuel Price Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashimoto, Susumu

    This paper examines the relationship between future carbon prices and the expected profit of companies by case studies with model companies. As the future carbon price will vary significantly in accordance with the political ...

  1. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  2. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  3. A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

    2014-01-01

    A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

  4. Optimization of chemical compositions in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel produced by ultra-fast continuous annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Futao; Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua; Xue, Fei

    2013-10-15

    The influence of Mn,S and B contents on microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and hydrogen trapping ability of low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel was investigated. The materials were produced and processed in a laboratory and the ultra-fast continuous annealing processing was performed using a continuous annealing simulator. It was found that increasing Mn,S contents in steel can improve its hydrogen trapping ability which is attributed by refined ferrite grains, more dispersed cementite and added MnS inclusions. Nevertheless, it deteriorates mechanical properties of steel sheet. Addition of trace boron results in both good mechanical properties and significantly improved hydrogen trapping ability. The boron combined with nitrogen segregating at grain boundaries, cementite and MnS inclusions, provides higher amount of attractive hydrogen trapping sites and raises the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from them. - Highlights: • We study microstructures and properties in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel. • Hydrogen diffusion coefficients are measured to reflect fish-scale resistance. • Manganese improves hydrogen trapping ability but decrease deep-drawing ability. • Boron improves both hydrogen trapping ability and deep-drawing ability. • Both excellent mechanical properties and fish-scale resistance can be matched.

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Climate Change Independent Power Producer Thousand barrelsElectric Utilities Independent Power Producers CHP, Electric

  6. Performance of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 coated NiO as cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Performance of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 coated NiO as cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells Prabhu Ganesan.2CoO3; Nickel oxide 1. Introduction The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising power current density of 160 mA/cm2 . The LSC­NiO shows promise as an alternate cathode in molten carbonate fuel

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement. Annual report, December 20, 1996--December 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1998-09-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design by the turn of the century. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build, and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. ERC is currently in the third year of the multiyear program for development and demonstration of a MW-class power plant. The product definition and specification have been derived with input from potential users, including the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG). The baseline power plant final design has been completed. Detailed power plant system and packaging designs are being developed using stack and BOP development results. A MW-scale prototype modular power plant representative of the commercial design is planned. Based on the experience and data generated in the current program, ERC also plans to acquire manufacturing capability for market-entry products through expansion of the existing Torrington production facility.

  8. Rabi Waves and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

    2011-03-06

    QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes, produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves - has been experimentally identified for the first time. Raman spectra in perfect quasi-1D carbon nanotubes are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D carbon nanotubes of larger diameter. They characterized by vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice and its revival part in frequency representation, which is the consequence of Rabi wave packet formation.

  9. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  10. `Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants Betting the UK's carbon emissions on promises of future technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    power stations licensed in 2009 have had to set off land adjacent to the power plant as a capture ready`Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants ­ Betting the UK's carbon emissions interest in investing in new fossil fuelled power plants. The question is whether capture ready policy can

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish, by 1998, the commercial readiness of MW-class molten carbonate fuel cell power plants for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Tasks include system design and analysis, manufacturing, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  13. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    fuels consumed for international maritime shipping as wellby intrastate marine shipping. Distillate fuel use by ocean-residual fuel, 3.5% was used by interstate marine shipping,

  14. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    by electricity generation/CHP facilities by distillate fuelFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat GenerationFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat Generation

  15. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Rutherford. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToLarry Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Tos digest. TIAX LLC, “Full Fuel Cycle Assessment – Well to

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Rutherford. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToLarry Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Tos digest. TIAX LLC, “Full Fuel Cycle Assessment – Well to

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    B. “Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy,alternative fuels for market share, energy resources and capital. Though complex and dynamic alternative fuel vehicle

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    B. “Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy,alternative fuels for market share, energy resources and capital. Though complex and dynamic alternative fuel vehicle

  19. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  2. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location at the Naval Air Station Miramar, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: Inverter, Reformer, Desulfurization Vessels, Hot Gas Recycle Blower, Heat Recovery Steam Generator, and Recycle Gas Cooler. SDG and E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  4. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  5. Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

  6. Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S.energy and carbon intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-10-20

    A recent (1996-2000) acceleration of declines in energy andcarbon intensity in the U.S. remains largely unexplained. This study usesDivisia decomposition and regression to test two candidate explanations -fuel mix and weather. The Divisia method demonstrates that fuel mix doesnot explain the declines in carbon intensity. The fuel mix, both overalland for electricity generation, became slightly more carbon intensiveover the study period (though the slight trend reversed before the end ofthe period). A regression-based correction to the Divisia indices,accounting for variation in heating- and cooling-degree-days, indicatesthat warmer weather accounts for about 30 percent ofthe total declines.This leaves declines of more than 2 percent per year (and an accelerationof more than 1 percent over previous decade) remaining to beexplained.

  7. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  8. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS(JournalLinac CoherentBook:Connect

  9. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS(JournalLinac

  10. The Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(active tab) 2016TheThe Energy

  11. From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming Upgrades toFreezingHSAFederal Computer Week:From

  12. Design and analysis of microalgal open pond systems for the purpose of producing fuels: A subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1987-04-01

    The designs and systems developed include many innovative concepts and experiments, including the design and operation of a low-cost system. Cost-effectiveness is realized by minimizing capital costs of the system and achieving efficient use of inputs. Extensive engineering analysis of carbonation, mixing, and harvesting subsystems has elucidated both the lowest cost, most efficient options and the essential parameters needed to construct, test, and evaluate these subsystems. The use of growth ponds sealed with clay and lined with crushed rock results in construction cost savings of 50% over ponds lined with synthetic membranes. In addition a low-cost but efficient design allows improvements in technology to have maximum impact on final product cost reductions. In addition to the innovations in low-cost construction, the operational efficiency of the design is both higher and more feasible than that attained by any previous system concept of comparable scale. The water analysis has led to operational specifications that minimize water use and virtually eliminate losses of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide injection system is designed for 95% efficiency, but is still low in cost. The construction of a large-scale, covered anaerobic lagoon to recycle carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus has not been attempted at the scale analyzed here. Yet efficient recycling is essential for achieving economic affordability. 23 refs., 21 figs., 53 tabs.

  13. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  14. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    renewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withmethane reforming or coal gasification are well established,central plant) Coal Coal gasification with Carbon Capture

  15. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    dioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emissionP. P. : Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO 2 and other

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To TankJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well Toand L. Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To TankJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well ToM. Chan, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank To

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and L. Waterland. 2007. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well ToM. Chan, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Tank ToJ. Pont, et al. (2007). Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well To

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  20. Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    - based fuels is known to degrade the performance of a proton ex- change membrane fuel cell PEMFC effects of CO on the performance of a PEMFC, researchers have explored ways to modify fuel cell opera

  1. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    from California’s heavy oil and importing fuel refined frommanufactured from heavy oil, and fuel b might representresources, including heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale and

  3. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    from California’s heavy oil and importing fuel refined frommanufactured from heavy oil, and fuel b might representresources, including heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale and

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (IEA, 2013). Olivier, J.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,Associated Rocks And Coal Combustion Products Collected For

  5. Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aerogels J. Mariea , S. Berthon-Fabrya , P. Acharda , M. Chatenetb , E. Chainetb , R. Pirardc , N. Cornetd and characterized carbon aerogels which exhibit high surface area, high porous volume and adjustable pore carbon aerogels with 2 different Nafion loadings. Finally, we characterized the structure

  6. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  7. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  8. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  9. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and biogas produced from sewage and waste-water treatment.produced at present primarily for high value protein and for its nutrient management capacity in waste-water treatment,

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    and biogas produced from sewage and waste-water treatment.produced at present primarily for high value protein and for its nutrient management capacity in waste-water treatment,

  13. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    similar to conventional hydrocarbons, but they have extremehydrocarbon molecules. Producing Resource Production and Transport Refining End use (combustion) Conventional

  14. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oilOil Lubricants Naphtha Petroleum feedstocks Natural Gas Liquids Municipal Solid Waste

  16. A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVivo, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based control system utilizing a distributed intelligence architecture has been developed to control combustion in hydrocarbon fuel-fired boilers and heaters to significantly reduce fuel usage. The system incorporates a unique flue...

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  19. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  20. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be taken up. Consequently, a strong research effort is devoted to cleaner energy converters like fuel cells. In the car industry, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are chosen by a majority. But, remaining on the performances of new electrocatalysts and to the understanding of phenomena occurring in fuel cells. Nowadays

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick,CalendarForkInformationSources |

  2. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5DepartmentStatementConduct ScopingDraftDepartment ofCounty,

  3. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part II: analysing the chemical structure of the films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.043209jes

    2012-01-01

    The chemical structure of cobalt--polypyrrole -- produced by a dual plasma process -- is analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS).It is shown that only nanoparticles of a size of 3\\,nm with the low temperature crystal structure of cobalt are present within the compound. Besides that, cobalt--nitrogen and carbon--oxygen structures are observed. Furthermore, more and more cobalt--nitrogen structures are produced when increasing the magnetron power. Linking the information on the chemical structure to the results about the catalytic activity of the films -- which are presented in part I of this contribution -- it is concluded that the cobalt--nitrogen structures are the probable catalytically active sites. The cobalt--nitrogen bond length is calculated as 2.09\\,\\AA\\ and the carbon--nitrogen bond length as 1.38\\,\\AA.

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from China’s cement production: methodologiesfossil fuel consumption and cement production. Geophys. Res.NTNU, 2006). 27. China Cement Association. China Cement

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    products include gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and blendingReformulated Gasoline Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending).the ubiquitous blending of ethanol in gasoline. Biodiesel is

  6. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    products include gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and blendingReformulated Gasoline Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending).the ubiquitous blending of ethanol in gasoline. Biodiesel is

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    from the use of natural gas in transportation. V. Hydrogenas a transportation fuel in compressed natural gas vehiclesand transportation, the cost of electricity from natural gas

  8. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    from the use of natural gas in transportation. V. Hydrogenas a transportation fuel in compressed natural gas vehiclesand transportation, the cost of electricity from natural gas

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans The Oregon DepartmentAtlanta

  10. Copper clusters capture and convert carbon dioxide to make fuel | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool MagneticCopper Palladium

  11. The Challenge of Achieving Californias Low Carbon Fuel Standard

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices, SalesMoroccoTurkeyTexas-Louisiana-Author:

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slamovich, Elliot (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Fleetwood, James (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-07-01

    Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

  13. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    fuel in compressed natural gas vehicles or reformed toare over 125,000 natural gas vehicles in the United Statesthat peak natural gas demand for vehicles should not pose a

  14. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    fuel in compressed natural gas vehicles or reformed toare over 125,000 natural gas vehicles in the United Statesthat peak natural gas demand for vehicles should not pose a

  15. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    in this study, such as diesel hybrid electric vehicles (Dflex-fuel vehicle Yes Diesel hybrid electric vehicle Nocell vehicle Yes Diesel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle No

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    in this study, such as diesel hybrid electric vehicles (Dflex-fuel vehicle Yes Diesel hybrid electric vehicle Nocell vehicle Yes Diesel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle No

  17. Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Philip Douglas

    1974-01-01

    . The state of operation of the internal conbustion engine is directly related to its combustion efficiency which may be measured by several parameters, in this case fuel economy, as measured by gasoline mileage and air pollution potential as measured...

  18. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    the case of oil and extraction, consumption of natural gasGas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBOil and Gas Extraction (Mcf) Re-pressuring Lease Fuel Consumption

  19. An assessment of carbon sources for the production of synthetic fuels from nuclear hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, MinWah

    2007-01-01

    In the transportation sector, the current dependence on petroleum to satisfy large transportation fuel demand in the US is unsustainable. Oil resources are finite, and causing heavy US reliance on oil imports. Therefore, ...

  20. One-dimensional turbulence model simulations of autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide fuel mixtures in a turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Kamlesh G.; Echekki, Tarek [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The autoignition of hydrogen/carbon monoxide in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the oxidizer preheat temperature for two compositions corresponding to varying the ratios of H{sub 2} and CO in the fuel stream. Moreover, simulations for homogeneous autoignition are implemented for similar mixture conditions for comparison with the turbulent jet results. The results identify the key effects of differential diffusion and turbulence on the onset and eventual progress of autoignition in the turbulent jets. The differential diffusion of hydrogen fuels results in a reduction of the ignition delay relative to similar conditions of homogeneous autoignition. Turbulence may play an important role in delaying ignition at high-turbulence conditions, a process countered by the differential diffusion of hydrogen relative to carbon monoxide; however, when ignition is established, turbulence enhances the overall rates of combustion of the non-premixed flame downstream of the ignition point. (author)

  1. Methods of making transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  2. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

    2003-01-03

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  3. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  4. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C

    2015-04-28

    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  5. Preface: Forum on small molecules related to carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. This transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by themore »tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  6. Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen,W.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Shah, N.; Huggins, F.; Bollineni, S.; Seehra, M.; Huffman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with total metal loadings of 5 wt %. The dehydrogenation of undiluted ethane was conducted at temperatures of 500, 650, and 700 C. At 500 C, the Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst was highly active and very stable with 100% conversion of ethane to 20 vol % H2 and 80 vol % CH4. However, the bimetallic Fe-Ni/Mg(Al)O exhibited its best performance at 650 C, yielding 65 vol % H2, 10 vol % CH4, and 25 vol % unreacted ethane. The product carbon was in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) at all three reaction temperatures, but the morphology of the CNT depended on both the catalyst composition and reaction temperature. The CNTs were formed by a tip-growth mechanism over the Mg(Al)O supported catalysts and were easily purified by a one-step dilute nitric acid treatment. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, STEM, TGA, and XRD were used to characterize the catalysts and the CNT, revealing the catalytic mechanisms.

  7. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell by Partial Differential Algebraic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schittkowski, Klaus

    and control are considered as valuable tools to increase the life time of the expensive MCFC power plants (MCFCs) are a challenging new technology for stationary power plants, see e.g. Bischoff and Huppmann [2 was recently validated for a real fuel cell operated at the power plant of the Magdeburg university hospital

  9. Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon of the carbon dioxide release is an important objective in the near future. Various strategies are discussed or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved

  10. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  11. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  12. Potential Low-Carbon Fuel Supply to the Pacific Coast Region of North America POTENTIAL LOW-CAR BON FU EL SUPPLY TO TH E PACIFIC C OAST R EGION OF N ORTH AMER ICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Potential Low-Carbon Fuel Supply to the Pacific Coast Region of North America ii POTENTIAL LOW-carbon fuel supply to the Pacific Coast region of North America. The International Council on Clean............................................................. 32 3.4. Consumption of E85 in flex-fuel vehicles

  13. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  14. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  16. Implementing Performance-Based Sustainability Requirements for the Low Carbon Fuel Standard – Key Design Elements and Policy Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Sumner, Daniel A.; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Ogden, J; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2009-01-01

    the carbon and sustainability performance of renewable fuelsof quarterly sustainability performance and qualitativeand improve sustainability performance (Table 2, Column 3).

  17. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  18. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  19. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  20. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  1. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  2. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    S E DWARD B URTYNSKY , Oil Sands #2, Fort McMurray, Alberta,for the very heavy oils and tar sands that oil companies aremade from tar sands and conventional oil. Envi- ronmental

  3. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    more concerned with energy security than with cli- matehen it comes to energy security and climate change concerns,petroleum—usually for energy security reasons but also to

  4. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  5. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  6. Filamentous carbon particles for cleaning oil spills and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim

    2010-04-06

    A compact hydrogen generator is coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. The hydrogen generator can be conveniently integrated with high temperature fuel cells to produce an efficient and self-contained source of electrical power.

  7. Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S. energy and carbon intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-01-01

    Contributions of Weather and Fuel Mix to Recent Declines inexplanations - fuel mix and weather. The Divisia methodby early 2000. Table 4.4. Weather Adjustment Indices C / GDP

  8. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  9. Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes for air-cathode microbial fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for air-cathode microbial fuel cells{ Bin Wei,a Justin C. Tokash,a Guang Chen,ab Michael A. Hicknerb fuel cell (MFC) can be used to generate electricity from many different organic and inorganic, and then to 890 ¡ 20 mW m22 after 5 months. Cathode performance was optimized for all cathodes by using the least

  10. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2012-03-20

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  11. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  12. Environmental Aspects of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles: Parametric Modeling and Preliminary Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yancey, Kristina D.

    2010-07-14

    Nuclear power has the potential to help reduce rising carbon emissions, but to be considered sustainable, it must also demonstrate the availability of an indefinite fuel supply as well as not produce any significant negative environmental effects...

  13. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts > ProductsSubtitleTransportationFUELS

  15. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  16. Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance Microsized (1.25 L) Microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m2, carbon nanotube, nickel silicide, surface-to-volume ratio, power density Microbial fuel cells (MFCs

  17. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2

  18. House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sequestration (CCS) is the critical enabling technology that would reduce CO2 emissions significantly while also at a large industrial source, such as a coal-fired power plant. By capture, it is meant isolating the CO2, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

  19. Electrospun carbon nanofiber electrodes decorated with palladium metal nanoparticles : fabrication and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurpiewski, John Paul

    2005-01-01

    A new method was investigated to produce a novel oxygen reduction electrode comprised of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ...

  20. The Effect of Simulated Barium Carbonate Waste Stream on the Hydration of Composite Cement Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    of spent uranium oxide fuel and passed through a caustic scrubber producing a sodium carbonate waste form. In the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at BNFL, Sellafield, CO2 is released during the dissolution

  1. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  2. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  3. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    the optimal conditions to operate a molten carbonate fuel cell, can be used to garner fundamental insightNational Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS STEADY STATE MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS FOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OVERVIEW Development of steady

  4. Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gmeindl, Frank D. (Morgantown, WV); Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

  5. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  6. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  7. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  8. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  9. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  10. Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W.J. Dawson, and P.K. Dutta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Research has been conducted to develop a novel sensor for the detection of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. The automotive fuel cell application requires a sensor to detect low levels will protect the PEM fuel cell stack; detection of CO is extremely important because too much CO will poison

  11. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL); Carter, John David (Bolingbrook, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myers, Deborah J. (Lisle, IL)

    2009-07-21

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  12. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  13. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  14. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Belle Mead, NJ)

    1999-01-01

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  15. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  16. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  17. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Willow brook, IL)

    2010-07-20

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  18. Development of a 5 kW Prototype Coal-Based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.; Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz; Rismanchian, Azadeh

    2014-01-20

    The University of Akron Fuel Cell Laboratory pioneered the development of a laboratory scale coal-based fuel cell, which allows the direct use of high sulfur content coal as fuel. The initial research and coal fuel cell technology development (“Coal-based Fuel Cell,” S. S. C. Chuang, PCT Int. Appl. 2006, i.e., European Patent Application, 35 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2006028502 A2 20060316) have demonstrated that it is feasible to electrochemically oxidize carbon to CO2, producing electricity. The key innovative concept of this coal-based fuel cell technology is that carbon in coal can be converted through an electrochemical oxidation reaction into manageable carbon dioxide, efficiently generating electricity without involving coal gasification, reforming, and water-gas shift reaction. This study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reaction. A carbon injection system was developed to inject the solid fuel without bringing air into the anode chamber; a fuel cell stack was developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fuel cell stack. Further improvement of anode catalyst activity and durability is needed to bring this novel coal fuel cell to a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology, which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil.

  19. GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz) and prototype silicon carbide (SiC) FET based sensors show enhanced sensitivity at high temperature

  20. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    fuel cells are being developed: proton-exchange membrane (PEM), phosphoric acid, alkaline, molten carbonate

  1. Energy Department Announces $12 Million for Technologies to Produce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    residues and woody biomass. Carbon fiber derived from biomass may be less costly to manufacture and offer greater environmental benefits than traditional carbon fiber produced...

  2. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  3. Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.K.

    1996-09-01

    EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

  4. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01

    targets and the role of bio-energy with carbon capture andCO 2 emission, such as bio-energy with carbon capture and

  5. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  6. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake of Pu in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. (Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the U.S. Department of Energy's H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site were used to estimate parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension, and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining greater than resuspension of soil to grain surfaces greater than root uptake. Approximately 3.9 X 10(-5) of a year's atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 X 10(-9) of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 X 10(-10) of the soil Pu inventory is absorbed and translocated to grains.

  7. Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Corey, J.C.; Boni, A.L. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1989-12-31

    Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy`s H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year`s atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.

  8. Jet Fuel from Microalgal Lipids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    A fact sheet on production of jet fuel or multi-purpose military fuel from lipids produced by microalgae.

  9. Nuclear fuel particles and method of making nuclear fuel compacts therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVelasco, Rubin I. (Encinitas, CA); Adams, Charles C. (San Diego, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Methods for making nuclear fuel compacts exhibiting low heavy metal contamination and fewer defective coatings following compact fabrication from a mixture of hardenable binder, such as petroleum pitch, and nuclear fuel particles having multiple layer fission-product-retentive coatings, with the dense outermost layer of the fission-product-retentive coating being surrounded by a protective overcoating, e.g., pyrocarbon having a density between about 1 and 1.3 g/cm.sup.3. Such particles can be pre-compacted in molds under relatively high pressures and then combined with a fluid binder which is ultimately carbonized to produce carbonaceous nuclear fuel compacts having relatively high fuel loadings.

  10. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  11. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  12. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  13. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and ``weatherproofed`` pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  14. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  15. Effects of the Biologically Produced Polymer Alginic Acid on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of the Biologically Produced Polymer Alginic Acid on Macroscopic and Microscopic Calcite of carbonate minerals has significant envi- ronmental effects. Microorganisms affect carbonate dissolution, and hydrogeological systems. Calcite is an important reservoir of carbon, and accelerated dissolution of calcite

  16. Nanocarbon-Based Nanocatalysts: Synthesis and Applications in Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    In this book chapter, we review the recent progress in synthesis and fuel cell applications of nanocatalysts based on carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon and other nanostructured carbon materials.

  17. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  18. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  19. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  20. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  3. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in America to reduce our dependence on imported oil. Addthis Related Articles The Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office engages with the U.S. Department of...

  4. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  5. Preparation of highly loaded Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells by the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalbuto, John R.

    and composition, such as carbon xerogels and aerogels, constitute an interesting alternative to carbon blacks [4, the samples were filtered, dried and reduced. In order to increase the Pt weight percentage, up to three

  6. CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    constraint to these relationships, with the carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption pressingCARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson CSERGE GEC Working Paper 92-28 #12;CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson

  7. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface airindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

  8. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.including land, ocean and fossil fuel surface fluxes, have

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  10. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using the standard fuel injectors found in fuel oil burners. This project developed fuel-flexible burners operating on biomass-derived liquid fuels with low carbon emissions....

  11. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  12. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D

    2015-01-01

    carbon policies on the renewable fuels standard: economicreport: 2009 update. REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Networktransportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and

  13. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  14. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  15. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  16. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D

    2015-01-01

    gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impactson low carbon fuel policies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 450 (1),effects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioforum 150 (1), 1–

  17. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S. C.

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels and stack revealed that the planner fuel cell stack is not suitable for operation with carbon and coal fuels due to lack of mechanical strength and difficulty in sealing. We have developed scalable processes for manufacturing of process for planner and tubular cells. Our studies suggested that tubular cell stack could be the only option for scaling up the coal-based fuel cell. Although the direct feeding of coal into fuel cell can significantly simplify the fuel cell system, the durability of the fuel cell needs to be further improved before scaling up. We are developing a tubular fuel cell stack with a coal injection and a CO2 recycling unit.

  18. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  19. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  20. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01

    fuel, the limited local crude oil reserve, and the higheras fuels refined from crude oil. Sasol (an international

  1. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  3. Adding value to coal conversion`s char: A strategy for lower-priced fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Corporation, Naperville, IL (United States); Feizoulof, C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Coal`s low hydrogen to carbon ratio gives coal physical properties that are not the most desired in fuel markets. The problem is dealt with in conversion technologies designed to upgrade coal to more desirable fuels by either: (1) chemically adding hydrogen, as in liquefaction or high-BTU gasification, or (2) the production of char, as in mild gasification. The first option is neither cost-effective nor environmentally sound. Liquefaction results in the production of one mole of carbon dioxide for each mole of hydrogen needed. The result is that despite the preferred hydrogen to carbon ratio in the fuel, carbon dioxide is produced in greater quantities than it would be by simply burning the coal. The depressed market value of char is the primary drawback of coal utilization technologies exercising the second option. Making value-added, non-fuel products from char could significantly improve the economics of overall operations and result in competitively-priced premium hydrocarbon fuels. The research goal of a growing number of groups, including ours, is to produce and describe carbon products which will command higher prices than the carbon (coal) from which they were produced.

  4. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen fuel cell technology. Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  5. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  6. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  7. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  8. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  9. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  10. Biomimetic Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Electro-catalysts in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yujing

    2012-01-01

    polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), (2) alkaline fuel cell (AFC), (3) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),(4) molten carbonate

  11. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01

    2 capture-a review. Energ Fuel. 2012; 26: 2751-7. 14. Yongfor CO 2 sequestration. Fuel Process Technol. 2005; 86:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_fuel 20. Phillips J.

  12. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (COcontributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,15 of 16 G04002 RILEY ET AL. : FOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN

  13. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  14. Diesel fuel from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A project to convert various biomass materials to diesel type transportation fuel compatible with current engine designs and the existing distribution system is described. A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction approach is used. The system consists of a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide followed by a catalytic liquefaction step to convert the synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The major emphasis on the project at the present time is to maximize product yield. A level of 60 gals of diesel type fuel per ton of feedstock (dry, ash free basis) is expected. Numerous materials have been processed through the conversion system without any significant change in product quality (essentially C/sub 7/-C/sub 17/ paraffinic hydrocarbons with cetane indicies of 50+). Other tasks in progress include factor studies, process simplification, process control and scale-up to a 10 ton/day Engineering Test Facility. 18 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  15. Fuel cell apparatus and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Krueger, Roger; Cherepy, Nerine

    2004-11-09

    Highly efficient carbon fuels, exemplary embodiments of a high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cell are capable of directly converting ash-free carbon fuel to electrical energy. Ash-free, turbostratic carbon particles perform at high efficiencies in certain direct carbon conversion cells.

  16. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Robbie M; Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    and China. Russia’s net exports of fuel carbon grew 93% (by increasing exports of carbon from Russia, the Middle East

  17. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  18. Fuel Cell Stack Components BipolarPlate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Metallic Bipolar Plates · Carbon Foam for Fuel Cell Humidification · High Temperature Proton ExchangeFuel Cell Stack Components Fuel Processor BipolarPlate Cathode+ Anode- Electrolyte H+ H+ HYDROGEN Crossover Fuel Cell Stack Components #12;Barriers

  19. The Promise of Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deluchi, Mark; Swan, David

    1993-01-01

    molten carbonate (molten salt), or solid oxide (a ceramic). Today, many researchers believe that P E M fuel cells,

  20. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  1. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  2. EPA's Renewable Fuels Standard Web page

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-30

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program regulations were developed in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders.

  3. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Departmentof Energy CaliforniaContentsForumCarbon Fiber

  4. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Zeman; Marco Castaldi

    2008-04-15

    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The thermal load can be provided by methane, coal or carbon neutral (biogas). The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO{sub 2} into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S; Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L; Boeman, Raymond G; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  6. Ignition of suspensions of coal and biomass particles in air and oxy-fuel for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trabadela Robles, Ignacio

    2015-11-26

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a legitimate technology option that should be part of a balanced portfolio of mitigation technologies available Post-Kyoto Protocol framework after Paris 2015 and beyond the 2020s or ...

  7. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  8. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption An individual who produces biodiesel for use in that individual's private passenger vehicle is exempt from the state motor fuel excise tax. (Reference North Carolina...

  10. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  11. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  12. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  13. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    OH- ions, and molten carbonate fuel cells, which conduct COfuel cells and electrode corrosion by the molten carbonate

  14. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier...

  15. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01

    J. Different types of gasifiers and their integration withCO 2 in a pressurized-gasifier-based process. Energ Fuel.fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier-bed material and fuel

  16. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    south and west of California), transport within and acrossFOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN CALIFORNIA EIA (2003), StateFOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN CALIFORNIA Stephens, B. , et

  17. Jet Fuel from Camelina: Jet Fuel From Camelina Sativa: A Systems Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: NC State will genetically modify the oil-crop plant Camelina sativa to produce high quantities of both modified oils and terpenes. These components are optimized for thermocatalytic conversion into energy-dense drop-in transportation fuels. The genetically engineered Camelina will capture more carbon than current varieties and have higher oil yields. The Camelina will be more tolerant to drought and heat, which makes it suitable for farming in warmer and drier climate zones in the US. The increased productivity of NC State’s-enhanced Camelina and the development of energy-effective harvesting, extraction, and conversion technology could provide an alternative non-petrochemical source of fuel.

  18. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  19. A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

  20. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resources including fossil fuels, such as coal (preferentially with carbon sequestration), natural gas, solar, geothermal, nuclear, coal with carbon sequestration, and natural gas. This diversity of sources gas with carbon sequestration are preferred. Gasification Gasification is a process in which coal