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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Lessons Learned from Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Prepared under Task Nos. HS04.2000 and HS06.1002 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

2

Alternative fuel transit buses  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

(AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This...

4

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

35th St. Craig Ave. Alt Blvd. Colucci Pkwy. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. DOE national laboratory Transit Buses Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program by Robert Motta, Paul Norton, and Kenneth Kelly, NREL Kevin Chandler, Battelle Leon Schumacher, University of Missouri Nigel Clark,West Virginia University October 1996 The authors wish to thank all the transit agencies that participated in this program.

5

Alternative Fuels at AC Transit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative Fuels at AC Transit Alternative Fuels at AC Transit Speaker(s): Jaimie Levin Date: November 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Eve Edelson Mr. Levin will discuss AC Transit's range of environmental technology initiatives, including: zero emission fuel cell transit buses; state-of-the-art, high-capacity, hydrogen fueling stations; solar energy systems; and stationary solid oxide fuel cell power generators. AC Transit has the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States, featuring fuel cell systems with more than 10,000 hours of continuous operation without any failures or power degradation. Their fuel cell fleet has logged more than 400,000 miles of service and carried in excess of one million passengers. Come hear what AC Transit has learned, where they're headed,

6

Managing the transition toward self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle markets : policy analysis using a dynamic behavioral spatial model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing public policy or industry strategy to bolster the transition to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) is a formidable challenge as demonstrated by historical failed attempts. The transition to new fuels occurs within ...

Supple, Derek R. (Derek Richard)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California Fuel Cell Transit Evaluation Team Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California Fuel Cell Transit...

8

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was...

9

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices This report describes operations at...

10

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Mass Transit to Mass Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework Mass Transit Passenger-Miles per Gallon Passenger-miles per gallon (pmpg) is a metric for comparing mass transit and rideshare with typical passenger vehicle travel. Transportation system

11

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Active Transit to Active Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework Active Transit Photo of people riding bikes. Active transit is human-powered transportation such as biking and walking. Active transportation eliminates vehicle miles traveled altogether, so this

12

Fuel Cells Technology Transit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Transit Technology Transit Jump to: navigation, search Name Fuel Cells Technology Transit Place Clearwater, Florida Zip 33767 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Involved in the development and research of energy models on Hydrogen Energy Fuel Cell within the local and national arena. Coordinates 42.172132°, -98.189096° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.172132,"lon":-98.189096,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

13

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Results Update This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District....

14

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides preliminary results from the evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment, early results and agency experience are also provided.

15

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

17

Tool and Calculator (Transit, Fuel) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Calculator (Transit, Fuel) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Tool and Calculator (Transit, Fuel) AgencyCompany Organization: Publictransportation...

18

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Projects Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies In February 2000, the...

19

Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California Fuel Cell Transit Evaluation Team  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this document is to describe the coordination and evaluation of the demonstration of seven full-size (40-foot) fuel cell transit buses. The descriptions in this document include the partners, fuel cell bus demonstration sites, objectives...

20

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

22

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report- Appendices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

23

Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transit Buses: Today's Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation on AddThis.com... Transit Buses: Today's Pioneers in Fuel Cell Transportation

24

Transitioning from Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells T. Zawodzinski and Matt Mench University of Tennessee and ORNL Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 2 Acknowledgments $$ DOE-OE EPRI GCEP NSF EPSCOR (TN SCORE) UTK Governor's Chair Fund Partner in Crime Matt Mench Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 'Peeling the Onion' Personalized History of PEM Fuel Cells We May Recapitulate This for RFBs Catalysis Test System * Small Single Cell * Large Single Cell * Stack * System Layers of the Onion Hot Topic du Jour * Water Management, Membranes * Late '80's, early '90's * Reformate Tolerance, DMFC's * Mid '90's * High Temp Membranes * Late '90's * Durability * Early '00's Modeling * Membrane/ Water * Cathode * Impedance

25

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Transit Emissions and Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transit Emissions and Energy Reduction Assistance on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

26

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location.

28

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report details the six-month evaluation of the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency.

29

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.

30

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

2000-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Modelling microscale fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this work is to investigate transport phenomena in recently developed microscale fuel cell designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two microscale fuel (more)

Bazylak, Aimy Ming Jii

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

Eudy, L.; Post, M.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

34

Modelling transport fuel demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transport fuels account for an increasing share of oil ... interest to study the economics of the transport fuel market and thereby to evaluate the efficiency of the price mechanism as an instrument of policy in ...

Thomas Sterner; Carol A. Dahl

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

DYNAMIC MODELING FUEL PROCESSORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reusability, rapid development and assessment of complete system, and design improvement from simulation results BACKGROUND · Fuel cell based power systems are becoming increasingly important in aeronautical applications · Reformer based fuel cell systems make the technology amenable to logistic fuels such as diesel

Mease, Kenneth D.

36

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible Prepared By: Marathon Technical Services Six Venus Crescent P.O. Box 318 Heidelberg, Ontario, Canada N0B1Y0 Telephone: 519-699-9250 May 12, 2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ DESIGNING NEW TRANSIT BUS GARAGES TO BE FUEL FLEXIBLE Background Information Before discussing the building design features that are recommended for CNG and GH2 buses, it is important to understand what makes these fuels different from gasoline or diesel. The items below summarize the basic differences between the properties of gaseous and liquid fuels that influence the building design changes: 1. Natural Gas and Hydrogen are both lighter-than-air and in gaseous form at atmospheric

37

Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition Metal Sulfide Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 March 21, 2003 Objectives ¾ Investigate non-platinum electro-catalysts with CO tolerance ¾ Focus on transition metal sulfides as electro-catalysts

38

Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, & Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Passenger Car Light Truck Transit Bus Hydrogen Fuel Cell Gasoline Powered Car Hydrogen Fuel Cell Gasoline, 2009 Joel M. Rinebold #12;2 2 · Connecticut Hydrogen Roadmap (Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan) · A National "Green Energy" Economic Stimulus Plan based on Investment in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry

39

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month...

40

Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report  

SciTech Connect

Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

Eudy, L.; Post, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

43

Speeding the transition: Designing a fuel-cell hypercar  

SciTech Connect

A rapid transformation now underway in automotive technology could accelerate the transition to transportation powered by fuel cells. Ultralight, advanced-composite, low-drag, hybrid-electric hypercars--using combustion engines--could be three- to fourfold more efficient and one or two orders of magnitude cleaner than today`s cars, yet equally safe, sporty, desirable, and (probably) affordable. Further, important manufacturing advantages--including low tooling and equipment costs, greater mechanical simplicity, autobody parts consolidation, shorter product cycles, and reduced assembly effort and space--permit a free-market commercialization strategy. This paper discusses a conceptual hypercar powered by a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It outlines the implications of platform physics and component selection for the vehicle`s mass budget and performance. The high fuel-to-traction conversion efficiency of the hypercar platform could help automakers overcome the Achilles` heel of hydrogen-powered vehicles: onboard storage. Moreover, because hypercars would require significantly less tractive power, and even less fuel-cell power, they could adopt fuel cells earlier, before fuel cells` specific cost, mass, and volume have fully matured. In the meantime, commercialization in buildings can help prepare fuel cells for hypercars. The promising performance of hydrogen-fueled PEMFC hypercars suggests important opportunities in infrastructure development for direct-hydrogen vehicles.

Williams, B.D.; Moore, T.C.; Lovins, A.B. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States). Hypercar Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status This report...

45

Ising model: secondary phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lttice-spin phonons are considered, which make the heat capacity at the critical temperature satisfy experimental observations better. There is a BEC phase transition in an Ising model attributable to the lattice-spin phonons. We proved that the spin-wave theory only is available after BEC transition, and the magnons have the same characteristics as the lattice-spin phonons', resulting from quantum effect. Energy-level overlap effect at ultralow temperature is found. A prediction of BEC phase transition in a crystal is put forward as our theory generalization.

You-gang Feng

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fuel consumption model for FREFLO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

above, Biggs and Akcelik (1985) proposed a model of the following form: f = fsito + &Pr + z[apr)o o (5) where, Po = total drag power P, = inertia power a = instantaneous acceleration 8, = fuel consumption per unit power 8, = fuel consumption per... that is additional to S, P, . This component is expressed as SzaP, , where &z is considered to be a secondary efficiency parameter that relates fuel to the product of inertia power and acceleration rate, for positive accelerations. This term allows for the effects...

Rao, Kethireddipalli Srinivas

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

petroleum based fuels * Non-petroleum based fuels: - Biodiesel and new generation biofuels - Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels - Oil sand derived fuels Reduce mechanisms for...

48

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District; Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results  

SciTech Connect

Report provides preliminary results from an evaluation of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District-- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

51

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report-- Appendices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

52

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report and Appendices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008.

54

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

55

Model Year 1999 Fuel Economy Guide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE MODEL YEAR 1999 DOE/EE-0178 Fuel Economy Estimates October 1998 1 CONTENTS PAGE Purpose of the Guide ..................................................... 1 Interior Volume ................................................................ 1 How the Fuel Economy Estimates are Obtained ........... 1 Factors Affecting MPG .................................................... 2 Fuel Economy and Climate Change ............................... 2 Gas Guzzler Tax ............................................................. 2 Vehicle Classes Used in This Guide. .............................. 2 Annuel Fuel Costs .......................................................... 3 How to Use the Guide .................................................... 4 Where to Re-order Guides

56

Fuel Cells in Transit Buses Transit buses are widely viewed as one of the best strategies for commercializing fuel cells for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-defined duty cycles, centralized fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and dedicated maintenance personnel; · Transit buses are large, providing ample room to install the fuel cell and related components; · Diesel performance improvements; · Transit bus manufacturers generally do not develop their own power plant

57

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011  

SciTech Connect

This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling  

SciTech Connect

The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V. [Bochvar Institute, 5 Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIITF E.I. Zababakhin, p.o.box 245, Snezhinsk, 456770 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - ac transit fuel Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: ac transit fuel Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle Evaluation Richard Parish, Leslie Eudy, and Ken Proc Summary: and the...

62

Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's...

63

Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Agenda for the Transitioning the Transportation Sector--Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles workshop held September 9, 2014.

64

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize...

65

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes  

SciTech Connect

We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

State and Transition Modeling History & Current Concepts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management input · Friedel(1991) concentrated on thresholds ­ "...compatible with state and transition theoryState and Transition Modeling History & Current Concepts Tamzen K. Stringham Oregon State vegetation change #12;· Non-equilibrium Models (States, Transitions and Thresholds) ­ Encompass Range

67

Energy Transition Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Transition Model Energy Transition Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Transition Model Agency/Company /Organization: Quintel Intelligence Sector: Energy Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: energytransitionmodel.com/ Country: Netherlands Web Application Link: energytransitionmodel.com/ Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): International UN Region: Western Europe References: webservice-energy.org[1] MINES Energy Transition Model[2] Logo: Energy Transition Model The Energy Transition Model is an independent, comprehensive and fact-based energy model that is used by governments, corporations, NGOs and educators in various countries. It is backed by more than 20 partners. There are

68

Used Fuel Degradation: Experimental and Modeling Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The report describes the strategy for coupling process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM), and addresses fractional degradation rate, instant release fractions, other continuum modeling approaches, and experimental support.

69

Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

71

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a cost-minimization linear program (LP). For a given set of fuel demands, LFMM will find the least-cost means of satisfying those demands, subject to various constraints (such as the RFS). * LFMM is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which is a computer model of the U.S. energy economy. EIA uses

72

Renewable Fuel Vehicle Modeling and Analysis | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Renewable Fuel Vehicle Modeling and Analysis Renewable Fuel Vehicle Modeling and Analysis 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

73

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 Leslie Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kevin Chandler Battelle Christina Gikakis Federal Transit Administration Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56406 November 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 Leslie Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kevin Chandler Battelle Christina Gikakis Federal Transit Administration

74

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Laboratory For the United States Department of Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program October 2003 1 Table of Contents About This...

77

Fundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagnostics 4757 4.4. Model Validation 4758 4.5. Summary and Outlook 4760 5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 4760 5 electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). AlsoFundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang* Departments of Mechanical Engineering

78

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Modeling Transport Modeling Working Group to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group on AddThis.com... Key Activities Plans, Implementation, & Results Accomplishments Organization Chart & Contacts Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation

79

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

SciTech Connect

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

energy: 47 kWh Accessories Electrical Fuel storage Eight roof mounted, Dynetek, type 3 tanks; 5,000 psi rated; 56 kg hydrogen (useful) Range 5 337-381 km (210-237 miles) Bus...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

energy: 47 kWh Accessories Electrical Fuel storage Eight roof mounted, Dynetek, type 3 tanks; 5,000 psi rated; 56 kg hydrogen (useable) Range 7 337-381 km (210-237 miles) Bus...

82

One dimensional modeling of planar solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers parametric study for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) as a function of fuel gas composition. The (more)

Ghosh, Ujjal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Kinetic Ising Model of the Glass Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A graph theory of single-spin-flip kinetic Ising models is developed and applied to a class of spin models with strongly cooperative dynamics. Self-consistent approximations for the spin time correlation function are presented. One of the dynamical models exhibits a glass transition with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. The approximation for the time correlation function predicts a critical temperature, below which small fluctuations from equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit cannot relax in a finite amount of time.

Glenn H. Fredrickson and Hans C. Andersen

1984-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010  

SciTech Connect

This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers CARB California Air Resources Board CNG compressed natural gas DGE diesel gallon equivalent DOE U.S. Department of Energy FCB fuel...

87

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with HyTrans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Market Modeling of Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with HyTrans Paul N. Leiby, David L. Greene and David Bowman Oak Ridge National Laboratory A presentation to the Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership Delivery, Storage and Hydrogen Pathways Tech Teams May 8-9, 2007 Columbia, MD 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Drawing from several other DOE models, HyTrans integrates supply and demand in a dynamic non-linear market model to 2050. * H2A - Hydrogen Production - Hydrogen Delivery * PSAT & ASCM - Fuel economy - 2010/2015 cost & performance goals * ORNL Vehicle Choice Model - Fuel availability - Make & model diversity - Price, fuel economy, etc. * Vehicle Manufacturing Cost Estimates (assisted by OEMs)

89

Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Partner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Hydrogen Topics: Finance Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.hydrogen.energy.gov/fc_power_analysis.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Screenshot References: DOE Fuel Cell Power Analysis[1] Logo: Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model The Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model is a financial tool for analyzing high-temperature, fuel cell-based tri-generation systems. "The Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model is a financial tool for analyzing

90

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED FUEL CELL STACK AND FUEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED FUEL CELL STACK AND FUEL PROCESSOR SYSTEM 1 Jay T feed to the PEM-FC. Cost and performance requirements of the total powertrain typically lead to highly and conditions. Keywords: Fuel Cell, Fuel Processor, Multivariable Feedback, Linear Control, Partial Oxidation 1

Stefanopoulou, Anna

91

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Simulation of High Efficiency Clean...

92

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI &...

93

Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released December 4, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

94

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SunLine Transit Agency SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report L. Eudy and K. Chandler Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-57560 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report L. Eudy and K. Chandler Prepared under Task No. HT12.8210 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-57560 January 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

95

AN EVALUATION OF SELECT PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS Kristina Haraldsson, Keith Wipke National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS 1633 Golden, Colorado, 80401 ABSTRACT Many proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell models have been reported in publications, and some are available commercially. This paper helps users match their modeling needs with specific fuel cell models. The paper has three parts. First, it describes the model selection criteria for choosing a fuel cell model. Second, it applies these criteria to select state- of-the-art fuel cell models available in literature and commercially. The advantages and disadvantages of commercial models are discussed. Third, the paper illustrates the process of choosing a fuel cell model with an

96

MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE?  

SciTech Connect

This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community.

D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

98

Modeling and Analysis of Air Breathing Hydrogen-Based PEM Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells present an opportunity to transition to cleaner alternative energy sources such as hydrogen. The use of fuel cells in (more)

Roos, Warren C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports  

SciTech Connect

This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Crossover transition in bag-like models  

SciTech Connect

We formulate a simple model for a gas of extended hadrons at zero chemical potential by taking inspiration from the compressible bag model. We show that a crossover transition qualitatively similar to lattice QCD can be reproduced by such a system by including some appropriate additional dynamics. Under certain conditions, at high temperature, the system consist of a finite number of infinitely extended bags,which occupy the entire space. In this situation the system behaves as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons.

Ferroni, Lorenzo; Koch, Volker

2009-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advancement in Fuel Spray and...

102

Development of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the diesel engines fuel consumption and emissions doEmissions and Fuel Consumption Model engine manufacturersEmissions and Fuel Consumption Model Connection to engine

Barth, Matthew; Younglove, Theodore; Scora, George

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

A comparative analysis of two PEM fuel cell modeling tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of two PEM fuel cell modeling tools M.L. Sarmiento-Carnevali*1 , S. Strahl1-electrolyte- membrane (PEM) fuel cells, Energy, 33(9): 1331-1352, 2008. [2] M. Mangold, A. Bück, and R. Hanke-Rauschenbach, Passivity based control of a distributed PEM fuel cell model, Journal of Process Control, 20(3): 292

Batlle, Carles

104

Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

106

Evaluation of fuel rod characterization for transient fuel modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-L, developed by Belgonucleaire, was the steady state fuel performance computer code employed to determine these sensitivities. To determine code uncertainties and differences during steady state operation, Maine Yankee Unit 1 and Oconee Unit 2 fuel rods were... CHAPI'ER VI. CONCLUSIONS Page V1 1X 14 21 21 21 25 27 37 37 38 40 46 54 Page REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B VITA S7 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Pellet fabrication parameters for Maine Yankee Unit I and Oconee Unit 2 fuel rods 22...

Bechler, Eric Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Fueling Station Economics Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fueling Station Economics Model Fueling Station Economics Model Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Fueling Station Economics Model Project ID: 193 Principal Investigator: Bill Liss Brief Description: The Gas Technology Institute developed a hydrogen fueling station economics model as part of their project to develop a natural gas to hydrogen fuel station. Keywords: Compressed gas; vehicle; refueling station; cost; natural gas Purpose Calculate hydrogen fueling station costs, including capital, operating, and maintenance costs. Performer Principal Investigator: Bill Liss Organization: Gas Technology Institute Address: 1700 South Mount Prospect Road Des Plains, IL 60018-1804 Telephone: 847-768-0530 Email: william.liss@gastechnology.org Project Description Type of Project: Model Category: Hydrogen Fuel Pathways

108

Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for Hydrogen Transition Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation on Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for Hydrogen Transition Analysis given by Marianne Mintz of ANL during the DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006.

109

Empirical modeling of uranium nitride fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SD Fuel swelling ( volume % ) Fission gas release (% ) Area average fuel temperature at the peak axial location Fuel burnup Fuel density Smear density The empirical fits shown above were produced using a least squares fit program with data... rejected due to a demonstrated lack of stability. The fuel swelling and fission gas release values predicted by the nonlinear correlations show fair agreement with the two experimental pins from the SP-1 irradiation test . Additionally, the trends...

Brozak, Daniel Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dynamic Modelling for Control of Fuel Cells Federico Zenith  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Modelling for Control of Fuel Cells Federico Zenith Sigurd Skogestad Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology ( ntnu) Trondheim Abstract Fuel-cell dynamics have been investigated with a variable-resistance board applied to a high temperature polymer fuel cell

Skogestad, Sigurd

111

Vehicle Technologies Office: Transitioning the Transportation Sector- Exploring the Intersection of H2 Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The "Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles" workshop report by Sandia National Laboratory summarizes a workshop that discussed common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen (H2) and natural gas (CNG or LNG) as transportation fuels.

112

Ising model of a glass transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations by Tanaka and co-workers indicate that glass-forming systems of moderately polydisperse hard-core particles, in both two and three dimensions, exhibit diverging correlation lengths. These correlations are described by Ising-like critical exponents, and are associated with diverging, Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann, structural relaxation times. Related simulations of thermalized hard disks indicate that the curves of pressure versus packing fraction for different polydispersities exhibit a sequence of transition points, starting with a liquid-hexatic transition for the monodisperse case, and crossing over with increasing polydispersity to glassy, Ising-like critical points. I propose to explain these observations by assuming that glass-forming fluids contain twofold degenerate, locally ordered clusters of particles, similar to the two-state systems that have been invoked to explain other glassy phenomena. This paper starts with a brief statistical derivation of the thermodynamics of thermalized, hard-core particles. It then discusses how a two-state, Ising-like model can be described within that framework in terms of a small number of statistically relevant, internal state variables. The resulting theory agrees accurately with the simulation data. I also propose a rationale for the observed relation between the Ising-like correlation lengths and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann formula.

J. S. Langer

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

113

Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

115

VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Phase: Create a Vision Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/VISION/ OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels References: The VISION Model [1] Estimate the potential energy use, oil use, and carbon emission impacts of advanced light and heavy-duty vehicle technologies and alternative fuels through 2050. The VISION model has been developed to provide estimates of the potential

116

Model of U3Si2 Fuel System using BISON Fuel Code  

SciTech Connect

This research considers the proposed advanced fuel system: U3Si2 combined with an advanced cladding. U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, which motivate its use as an accident tolerant fuel. This preliminary model evaluates the behavior of U3Si2 using available thermophysical data to predict the cladding-fuel pellet temperature and stress using the fuel performance code: BISON. The preliminary results obtained from the U3Si2 fuel model describe the mechanism of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction for this system while more extensive testing including creep testing of U3Si2 is planned for improved understanding of thermophysical properties for predicting fuel performance.

K. E. Metzger; T. W. Knight; R. L. Williamson

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Used for Off-Road Recreation: Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model Stacy C. Davis Lorena F. Truett Patricia S. Hu ORNL/TM-1999/100 Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model Stacy C. Davis Lorena F. Truett Patricia S. Hu July 1999 Prepared for the Office of Highway Information Management Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, DC 20590 Prepared by the Statistics and Data Analysis Program Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6073 managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-96OR22464 Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model - iii - TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

119

Mechanical modeling of porous oxide fuel pellet A Test Problem  

SciTech Connect

A poro-elasto-plastic material model has been developed to capture the response of oxide fuels inside the nuclear reactors under operating conditions. Behavior of the oxide fuel and variation in void volume fraction under mechanical loading as predicted by the developed model has been reported in this article. The significant effect of void volume fraction on the overall stress distribution of the fuel pellet has also been described. An important oxide fuel issue that can have significant impact on the fuel performance is the mechanical response of oxide fuel pellet and clad system. Specifically, modeling the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel pellet in terms of its thermal expansion, mechanical deformation, swelling due to void formation and evolution, and the eventual contact of the fuel with the clad is of significant interest in understanding the fuel-clad mechanical interaction (FCMI). These phenomena are nonlinear and coupled since reduction in the fuel-clad gap affects thermal conductivity of the gap, which in turn affects temperature distribution within the fuel and the material properties of the fuel. Consequently, in order to accurately capture fuel-clad gap closure, we need to account for fuel swelling due to generation, retention, and evolution of fission gas in addition to the usual thermal expansion and mechanical deformation. Both fuel chemistry and microstructure also have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles. Fuel-clad gap closure leading to eventual contact of the fuel with the clad introduces significant stresses in the clad, which makes thermo-mechanical response of the clad even more relevant. The overall aim of this test problem is to incorporate the above features in order to accurately capture fuel-clad mechanical interaction. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems with increasing multi-physics coupling features, modeling accuracy, and complexity are defined with the objective of accurate simulation of fuel-clad mechanical interaction subjected to a wide-range of thermomechanical stimuli.

Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Barai, Pallab [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ecological Modelling 180 (2004) 135151 Simulating forest fuel and fire risk dynamics across  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel module tracks fine fuel, coarse fuel and live fuel for each cell on a landscape. Fine fuel age (the oldest age cohorts) in combination with disturbance history. Live fuels, also called canopyEcological Modelling 180 (2004) 135­151 Simulating forest fuel and fire risk dynamics across

He, Hong S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Multi-disciplinary development of state and transition models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-disciplinary development of state and transition models An Example from Northwestern Colorado and Transition Models: A Road Map to Ecological Change #12;STMs also help us learn · Tacit explicit knowledge Adaptive Management Cycle Grantham et al. 2010 Front. Ecol. Environment #12;Study Area: Elkhead Watershed

122

Fuel Cell Systems Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems F u e l P r o c e s s o r Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling Patrick Davis Patrick Davis Targets and Status 50 kWe (net) Integrated Fuel Cell Power System 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 275 $/kW Cost (including H2 storage) 650 500 400 W/L Power density (w/o H2 stor) Operating on direct hydrogen 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 325 $/kW Cost 325 250 140 W/L Power density Operating on Tier 2 gasoline containing 30 ppm sulfur, average 2010 2005 2003 status Units Characteristics Projects Fuel Cell Power Systems Analysis ANL NREL TIAX Directed Technologies, Inc. TIAX TIAX * Fuel Cell Systems Analysis * Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems Analysis * Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stacks/ Systems * DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel Cell/ Reformer Systems at Low, Medium, & High Production Rates * Assessment of Fuel Cell Auxiliary

123

Renormalisation group for depinning transition ind=2 ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a position space renormalisation group (RG) method to study generalised depinning transition in two-dimensional Ising models. The treatment encompasses (i) the original model for depinning invented by ...

D. N. Mihajlovi?; N. M. vraki?

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sources such as hybrid-electric technologies, bio-ethanol, and hydrogen fuel cells are emergingVirginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing, Moran, Saerens, and Van den Bulck 2 ABSTRACT Existing fuel consumption and emission models suffer from

Rakha, Hesham A.

125

TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantification in Fuel Performance Modeling . . . . . . .3.4 Integration with Fuel Performance Calculations ivmicroscopic image of a TRISO fuel particle cracked open to

Powers, Jeffrey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Proceedings of the NETL Workshop on Fuel Cell Modeling  

SciTech Connect

This workshop was the first U.S. DOE sponsored meeting devoted to fuel cell modeling. The workshop was attended by over 45 people from industry, universities, and the government. The goals of the meeting were to assess the status of fuel cell modeling, and determine how new developments in fuel cell modeling can improve cell design, stack design, and power system design. The primary focus was on cell and stack modeling. Following a review of DOE/NETL fuel cell related programs and activities, Professor Robert Selman (Illinois Institute of Technology) kicked off the technical portion of the workshop by presenting an overview of fuel cell phenomena and the status of fuel cell modeling. This overview provided the necessary background for establishing a common framework for discussing fuel cell modeling. A distinction was made between micro modeling, electrode modeling, cell modeling, stack modeling, and system modeling. It was proposed that all modeling levels be supported for further development. In addition, due to significant advances being made outside the U.S., it was proposed that dialog/exchange with other international researchers be established. Following the Overview Session, eight leading researchers in modeling gave individual presentations. These presentations provided additional information on the status and present direction of model developments. All these presentations can be found in Attachment A. Before the workshop, a survey was sent out requesting comments from the attendees. Results from this survey can be found in Attachment B. This survey was then used as initial talking points at the individual breakout sessions on the afternoon of the workshop. Breakouts were organized by microfundamental modeling, cell modeling, stack modeling, and systems modeling.

Randall S. Gemmen; J. R. Selman

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: LessonsAlthough Californias alternative fuel and vehicle policiescarbon by 2020 Provide alternative fuel supply once 20K veh

Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Model Fuels Consortium to Promote Engine Modeling | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Changes in Storage Media Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry DOE-HDBK-3010-94...

129

Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for Hydrogen Transition Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agent Agent Agent - - Based Modeling Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) and Simulation (ABMS) for Hydrogen Transition for Hydrogen Transition Analysis Analysis Marianne Mintz Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop US Department of Energy January 26, 2006 Objectives and Scope for Phase 1 2 Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure development as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) approach Develop an ABMS model to simulate the evolution of that system, spanning the entire H2 supply chain from production to consumption Identify key factors that either promote or inhibit the growth of H2 infrastructure Apply ABMS to get new insights into transition, particularly early transition phase - Dynamic interplay between supply and demand

130

Materials Modeling and Simulation for Nuclear Fuels (MMSNF) Workshops  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerial photo of Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory University of Chicago Chicago Photography courtesy Thomas F Ewing Privacy and Security Notice The MMSNF Workshops The goal of the Materials Modeling and Simulation for Nuclear Fuels (MMSNF) workshops is to stimulate research and discussions on modeling and simulations of nuclear fuels, to assist the design of improved fuels and the evaluation of fuel performance. In addition to research focused on existing or improved types of LWR reactors, recent modeling programs, networks, and links have been created to develop innovative nuclear fuels and materials for future generations of nuclear reactors. Examples can be found in Europe (e.g. F-BRIDGE project and ACTINET network and SAMANTHA cooperative network), in the USA (e.g. CASL, NEAMS, CESAR and CMSN network

131

An Integrated Approach for Creating Model Diesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Integrated Approach for Creating Model Diesel Fuels ... There is growing recognition that the optimal fuel properties (i) are dependent on the engine operating conditions and (ii) can be different for different parts of the drive cycle. ... The total solution to this problem belongs to the general and very difficult class of mixed-integer nonlinear problems (MINLP). ...

Ioannis P. Androulakis; Mark D. Weisel; Chang S. Hsu; Kuangnan Qian; Larry A. Green; John T. Farrell; Kiyomi Nakakita

2004-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

132

Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION): A Tool for Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Futures  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that are intended to work together. To support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system such as how the system would respond to each technological change, a series of which moves the fuel cycle from where it is to a postulated future state. The system analysis working group of the United States research program on advanced fuel cycles (formerly called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION. For example, VISION users can now change yearly the selection of separation or reactor technologies, the performance characteristics of those technologies, and/or the routing of material among separation and reactor types - with the model still operating on a PC in <5 min.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire; Robert F. Jeffers; A. M. Yacout; Tyler Schweitzer

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Stochastic dynamo model for subcritical transition Sergei Fedotov,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic dynamo model for subcritical transition Sergei Fedotov,1, * Irina Bashkirtseva,2 and Lev a "slow" variable that determines the global evolution of the non-normal -dynamo system in the subcritical,2 . It explains the subcritical transition to turbulence when the laminar flow changes to a turbulent regime

Fedotov, Sergei

135

VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating what if scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., reactor types not individual reactors and separation types not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. We use Microsoft Excel 2003 and have not tested VISION with Microsoft Excel 2007. The VISION team uses both Powersim Studio 2005 and 2009 and it should work with either.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Fuel processing for fuel cells: a model for fuel conversion and carbon formation in the adiabatic steam reformer  

SciTech Connect

In present fuel cell power plants the fuel processor is a catalytic steam reformer which is limited to the use of fuels such as naphtha and natural gas. The sulfur content of these feeds must be reduced to low levels by hydrotreatment before contacting the nickel catalyst in the reformer. However, future fuel cell power plants may be required to ue coal-derived liquid fuel or heavy petroleum distillates which are more difficult to hydrotreat and reform. To meet this requirement, an adiabatic steam reformer is being developed by United Technologies Corporation with the support of the Electric Power Research Institute. In the adiabatic reformer, air is added to the process stream to provide, by combustion, the heat for endothermic reforming in a catalyst bed. In the inlet section of the reformer, air and fuel combust, and reforming is initiated on special catalysts whose primary functon is to prevent formation and accumulation of carbon. Following the inlet section, catalysts with high activity for steam reforming complete the conversion of the remaining fuel, principally methane. The objective of the present program is to establish a reactor model for the adiabatic reformer which would predict process stream compositions and temperatures and include carbon formation processes. Progress is reported on the four tasks: (1) determine rate expressions for catalytic reactions occurring in the adiabatic reformer; (2) establish a reactor model to predict process stream compositions in the adiabatic reformer using data from Task 1 for cataytic reactions and data from the literature for homogeneous gas-phase reactions; (3) determine critical conditions for carbon formation on selected catalysts using microbalance experiments; and (4) establish a model to predict carbon formation by combination of the model for process stream composition from Task 2 and data for carbon formation from Task 3. (WHK)

Bett, J.A.S.; Cutlip, M.C.; Foley, P.F.; Lesieur, R.R.; Meyer, A.P.; Sederquist, R.A.; Setzer, H.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Phase Transition in a Model Gravitating System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present recent developments in the study of an interacting gravitational system of concentric, spherical, mass shells. The existence of two distinct phases is demonstrated. The nature of the transition in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles is studied both theoretically in terms of mean field theory and via dynamical simulation. Striking differences are found in each environment, especially the last.

Bruce N. Miller and Paige Youngkins

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fact that the diesel engines fuel consumption and emissionsDiesel Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Model Connection to engineDiesel Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Model unit; 5) engine-

Barth, Matthew; Younglove, Theodore; Scora, George

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Workforce Transition Modeling Environment user`s guide  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by the US Department of Energy Albuquerque Field Office (DOE-AL) to develop a workforce assessment and transition planning tool to support integrated decision making at a single DOE installation. The planning tool permits coordinated, integrated workforce planning to manage growth, decline, or transition within a DOE installation. The tool enhances the links and provides commonality between strategic, programmatic, and operations planners and human resources. Successful development and subsequent complex-wide implementation of the model also will facilitate planning at the national level by enforcing a consistent format on data that are now collected by installations in corporate-specific formats that are not amenable to national-level analyses. The workforce assessment and transition planning tool, the Workforce Transition Modeling Environment (WFTME), consists of two components: the Workforce Transition Model and the Workforce Budget Constraint Model. The Workforce Transition Model, the preponderant of the two, assists decision makers identify and evaluate alternatives for transitioning the current workforce to meet the skills required to support projected workforce requirements. The Workforce Budget Constraint Model helps estimate the number of personnel that will be affected by a given workforce budget increase or decrease and assists in identifying how the corresponding hirings or layoffs should be distributed across the Common Occupation Classification System (COCS) occupations. This user`s guide describes the use and operation of the WFTME. This includes the functions of modifying data and running models, interpreting output reports, and an approach for using the WFTME to evaluate various workforce transition scenarios.

Stahlman, E.J.; Oens, M.A.; Lewis, R.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Modeling and simulation of a reformate supplied PEM fuel cell stack, application to fault detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and simulation of a reformate supplied PEM fuel cell stack, application to fault detection exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are the main type of fuel cell developed for ground vehicle applications tool for thermal characteristic and fault detection of a PEM fuel cell stack. The fuel cell stack model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Implementing SPC in a Simulation Model for Manufacturing Transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ~(~-;::;: Implementing SPC in a Simulation Model for Manufacturing Transitions Harriet Black of resources utilization, and optimization of system re- sources. Although discrete-event simulation modeling the design and development of an integrated SPC and simulation model. Figure 1 shows a screen snapshot

Nembhard, Harriet Black

143

Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.

Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

144

Modeling Cylinder Valve in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a fast alternative to a complex finite element analysis (FEA) model of cylinder valve in hydrogen fuel cell car based on support vector machine (SVM). The inputs of model are shape parameters of core and plunger of the valve, and the output ... Keywords: modeling, cylinder valve, SVM, uniform design

Liang Yu; Shengnian Cai; Wang Na

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Validation of a solid oxide fuel cell model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The need to study the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has made mathematical modeling an essential tool for their design. Electrochemical modeling evaluates ohmic activation and concentration overpotentials that affect SOFC operation. A detailed cell model is developed for an SOFC and is validated with experimental data from the open literature.

Christina Charalampidou; Ioannis K. Kookos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Stochastic Programming Model for Fuel Treatment Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the increased number and intensity of wild fires, the need for solutions that minimize the impact of fire are needed. Fuel treatment is one of the methods used to mitigate the effects of fire at a certain area. In this thesis, a two...

Kabli, Mohannad Reda A

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commitment to hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles has beenrecently re-instated hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle researchTM_2007_094.pdf 6. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory

Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen fuel production which, when used in a fuel cell vehicle can reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 40-90% compared to todays cars

Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on technical and cost issues for hydrogen and fuel cellvehicle component costs (for fuel cells and hydrogenfuel cell durability, vehicle range and hydrogen station capacity and costs.

Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results  

SciTech Connect

This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Numerical Methods for Multiphysics, Multiphase, and Multicomponent Models for Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this dissertation, we design and analyze efficient numerical methods for obtaining accurate solutions to model problems arising in fuel cells. A basic fuel cell (more)

Xue, Guangri

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model, held December 11, 2012.

153

Torque modelling for optimising fuel economy in variable compression engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel optimal control of a variable compression engine is studied and it is shown that a crucial component is the model for the engine torque. A model for the produced work that captures the important effects of ignition and compression ratio is proposed and investigated. The main task for the model is to be a mean for determining the fuel optimal control signals, for each requested engine torque and speed. The contribution is a model suitable for finding this optimal combination. This model consists of well-known components, and the novelty lies in the compilation and validation of the control-oriented efficiency model for a variable compression engine. The modelling and validation is performed on a multicylinder variable compression engine using two fuels with different octane rating. Despite the models simplicity, it describes the indicated work with good accuracy, and suits its purpose of finding optimal control signals. In the evaluation, it is shown that a fuel optimal controller based on the proposed model captures the optimal IMEP to within 1.2%. This corresponds to a loss in engine efficiency that is in the range of 0.5% units or less.

Ylva Nilsson; Lars Eriksson; Martin Gunnarsson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a living document that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Brian James of Directed Technologies at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

157

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

Stefanopoulou, Anna

158

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a Direct-Hydrogen, Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle, SAEversus a Direct-Hydrogen Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle,vehicle model of a load-following direct hydrogen fuel cell

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Mathematical modelling of the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......polymer electrolyte fuel cell A. A. Shah...polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The model explicitly...unwanted reactions (degradation), such as carbon...certain ranges of cell voltage). (5...performance of the fuel cell. We point......

A. A. Shah; Gwang-Soo Kim; K. Promislow

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Dynamic household Alternative-fuel Vehicle Demand Model Using Stated and Revealed Transaction Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market share for alternative-fuel vehicles drop from thePreferences for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles, Brownstone DavidA Dynamic Household Alternative-fuel Vehicle Demand Model

Sheng, Hongyan

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

two types of PEM fuel cells: H2 PEM fuel cells (H2PEMFC) driven by gaseous hydrogen, and directMATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL ­ POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS M. EHRHARDT, J, Germany ABSTRACT In proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, the transport of the fuel to the active

Ehrhardt, Matthias

162

Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Oxidation for Surrogate Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect

New environmental issues, like the effect of combustion-generated greenhouse gases, provide motivation to better characterize oxidation of hydrocarbons. Transportation, in particular, significantly contributes to energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Kinetic studies about the combustion of fuels under conditions typical of internal combustion engines provides important support to improve mechanism formulation and to eventually provide better computational tools that can be used to increase the engine performance. It is foreseeable that at least in the next 30 years the main transportation fuels will be either gasoline or diesel. Unfortunately, these fuels are very complex mixtures of many components. Moreover, their specifications and performance requirements significantly change the composition of these fuels: gasoline and diesel mixtures are different if coming from different refineries or they are different from winter to summer. At the same time a fuel with a well defined and reproducible composition is needed for both experimental and modeling work. In response to these issues, surrogate fuels are proposed. Surrogate fuels are defined as mixtures of a small number of hydrocarbons whose relative concentrations is adjusted in order to approximate the chemical and physical properties of a real fuel. Surrogate fuels are then very useful both for the design of reproducible experimental tests and also for the development of reliable kinetic models. The primary reference fuels (PRF) are a typical and old example of surrogate fuel: n-heptane and iso-octane mixtures are used to reproduce antiknock propensity of complex mixtures contained in a gasoline. PRFs are not able to surrogate gasoline in operating conditions different from standard ones and new surrogates have been recently proposed. Toluene is included in all of them as a species able to represent the behavior of aromatic compounds. On the other side, the toluene oxidation chemistry is not so well established and uncertainties still remain in the mechanism. This is especially true in the low temperature regime (< 850K). In these conditions, the toluene reactivity is too low to be conveniently investigated. Nonetheless, gasoline surrogates work in the engine at low temperatures, because of the presence of very reactive alkanes. The effect of these component interactions have to be taken into account. This work's aim is to present the model activity carried out by two different research groups, comparing the main pathways and results, matching data carried out in different devices both for pure toluene and mixtures. This is the starting point for a further activity to improve the two kinetic schemes.

Frassoldati, A; Mehl, M; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

Tieszen, S.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Modeling Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Tools for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design and Analysis Moe A Khaleel BJ Koeppel, W Liu, K Lai, KP Recknagle, EM Ryan, EV Stephens, X Sun Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 11 th Annual SECA Workshop Pittsburgh, PA July 27-29, 2009 1 PNNL SOFC Modeling Tools SOFC-MP Stack level model for fast analysis of co/counter-flow SOFC stack performance Detailed electrochemistry model Cell level model for the investigation of secondary reactions (degradation/contamination) mechanisms within the tri-layer Component-based design and performance modeling Contact material Interconnect Glass seal 2 SOFC-MP Stack Simulation Code Recent Accomplishments Major memory improvements of 3D model to accommodate 50-cell stacks on LINUX platform. Previously, developed a 2D (or stacked

165

Quantum phase transitions in the interacting boson model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This review is focused on various properties of quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) of nuclear structure. The model in its infinite-size limit exhibits shape-phase transitions between spherical, deformed prolate, and deformed oblate forms of the ground state. Finite-size precursors of such behavior are verified by robust variations of nuclear properties (nuclear masses, excitation energies, transition probabilities for low lying levels) across the chart of nuclides. Simultaneously, the model serves as a theoretical laboratory for studying diverse general features of QPTs in interacting many-body systems, which differ in many respects from lattice models of solid-state physics. We outline the most important fields of the present interest: (a) The coexistence of first- and second-order phase transitions supports studies related to the microscopic origin of the QPT phenomena. (b) The competing quantum phases are characterized by specific dynamical symmetries and novel symmetry related approaches are developed to describe also the transitional dynamical domains. (c) In some parameter regions, the QPT-like behavior can be ascribed also to individual excited states, which is linked to the thermodynamic and classical descriptions of the system. (d) The model and its phase structure can be extended in many directions: by separating proton and neutron excitations, considering odd-fermion degrees of freedom or different particle-hole configurations, by including other types of bosons, higher order interactions, and by imposing external rotation. All these aspects of IBM phase transitions are relevant in the interpretation of experimental data and important for a fundamental understanding of the QPT phenomenon.

Pavel Cejnar; Jan Jolie

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

166

Model Year 2013: Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

13: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 13: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1 (Updated 3/6/13) 1 Source: http:/afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search/light/ Fuel/Powertrain Type Make Model Vehicle Type Engine Size/Cylinders Transmission Emissions Class 2 Fuel Economy Gasoline 3,4 City/Hwy Fuel Economy Alt Fuel 3,4 City/Hwy HEV Acura ILX Sedan 1.5L I4 ECVT Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII PZEV 39 / 38 N/A FFV E85 Audi A4 Sedan 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 20 / 29 14 / 20 FFV E85 Audi A5 Sedan 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 20 / 29 14 / 20 FFV E85 Audi A5 Cabriolet Sedan 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 20 / 29 14 / 20 FFV E85 Audi Allroad Quatro Wagon 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 20 / 27 14 / 18 FFV E85 Audi Q5 SUV 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 20 / 28 14 / 19 HEV Audi Q5 Hybrid SUV 2.0 I4 Auto Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV 24 / 30 N/A FFV E85 Bentley

167

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

so it can be compared to something familiar. The fuel economy calculation starts with an energy conversion with standard energy content values 2 for each fuel: * Hydrogen: 51,532...

169

Page 1 Session 7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other 7: Material Phase Transition, Modeling, and Other Thermodynamically Consistent Method for Calculation of Free Energy and Equilibrium Curves of First-Order Phase Transitions in Classical Molecular Dynamics *A.V. Karavaev andV.V. Dremov Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - Zababakhin Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia State-of-the-art parallel computers allow performing MD simulations not only with substantial number of particles, but also using of complicated computationally intense many-body potentials of the interatomic interactions. One of the most important tasks for the computer-aided material science is accurate and extensive characterization of thermodynamic properties of the materials. An essential part of this characterization is the prediction of phase

170

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation in the United States.

171

HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel sensitivity and single-stage fuel content generally gives a lower value of the pressure exponent. This helps to explain the results obtained while boosting the intake pressure in the HCCI engine. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Head, R.A. [Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Simplified Model of Phase Transition in Amorphous Antiferromagnets. III: XY and Heisenberg Spins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......order-disorder transition of chirality...Heisenberg model, phase transition does not occur...which magnetic ions distribute randomly...structure of magnetic ions and the strong...the nature of phase transition (if any) and......

Hikaru Kawamura

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. many mechamistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, reearch, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Start-Up Experience (Alternative Fuel Transit Buses Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This report, based on interviews and site visits conducted in October 1999, describes the start-up activities of the DART liquefied natural gas program, identifying problem areas, highlighting successes, and capturing the lessons learned in DART's ongoing efforts to remain at the forefront of the transit industry.

Battelle

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

06: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 06: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Fuel Type EPAct Compliant? Model Vehicle Type Emission Class Powertrain Fuel Capacity Range American Honda Motor Corporation 888-CCHONDA www.honda.com CNG Dedicated EPAct Yes Civic GX Compact Sedan SULEV Tier 2 Bin II 1.7L, 4-cylinder 8 GGE 200 mi HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Accord Hybrid Sedan ULEV 3.0L V6 144 volt NiMH + 17.1 Gal Gasoline TBD HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Civic Hybrid Sedan CA ULEV 1.3L, 4-cylinder 144 volt NiMH + 13.2 Gal Gasoline TBD HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Insight Two-seater SULEV (CVT model) ULEV (MT model) 1.0L, 3-cylinder 144 volt NiMH + 10.6 Gal Gasoline 636 mi DaimlerChrysler 800-999-FLEET www.fleet.chrysler.com E85 FFV EPAct Yes Dodge Ram Pickup 1500 Series 1 Pickup Tier 2 Bin 10A 4.7L V8 26 Gal 416 mi E85 FFV

176

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transport Modeling Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Modeling Working Group Transport Modeling Working Group The Transport Modeling Working Group meets twice per year to exchange information, create synergies, share experimental and computational results, and collaboratively develop methodologies for and understanding of transport phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. Its members include principle investigators and supporting personnel from transport-related projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Learn more about DOE research activities can be found in the Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Fuel cell operation relies on effective mass transport of species through individual components and across the interfaces between components. Among these species are hydrogen, oxygen, water, protons, and electrons. Transport behavior is a function of operating conditions and component properties such as microstructure and surface properties. Understanding and optimizing the controlling transport phenomena are critical to the efficient and cost-effective operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. A better understanding of mass transport in the fuel cell, especially of water, has the potential to lead to improved designs and more efficient systems.

177

Current Capabilities of the Fuel Performance Modeling Code PARFUME  

SciTech Connect

The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. A fuel performance modeling code (called PARFUME), which simulates the mechanical and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation, is under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Among current capabilities in the code are: 1) various options for calculating CO production and fission product gas release, 2) a thermal model that calculates a time-dependent temperature profile through a pebble bed sphere or a prismatic block core, as well as through the layers of each analyzed particle, 3) simulation of multi-dimensional particle behavior associated with cracking in the IPyC layer, partial debonding of the IPyC from the SiC, particle asphericity, kernel migration, and thinning of the SiC caused by interaction of fission products with the SiC, 4) two independent methods for determining particle failure probabilities, 5) a model for calculating release-to-birth (R/B) ratios of gaseous fission products, that accounts for particle failures and uranium contamination in the fuel matrix, and 6) the evaluation of an accident condition, where a particle experiences a sudden change in temperature following a period of normal irradiation. This paper presents an overview of the code.

G. K. Miller; D. A. Petti; J. T. Maki; D. L. Knudson

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

Sanandaji, Borhan M.

179

Vehicle engine use when no longer in transit; exceptions -Vehicle idling gets zero miles per gallon; unnecessary idling wastes fuel and pollutes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gallon; unnecessary idling wastes fuel and pollutes. Running an engine at low speed (idling) also causes the point of view of both emissions and fuel consumption. Unless exempted in the following sectionVehicle engine use when no longer in transit; exceptions - Vehicle idling gets zero miles per

Powers, Robert

180

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12 Values usedFuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Single tensionless transition in the Laplacian roughening model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report large scale Monte Carlo simulations of the equilibrium discrete Laplacian roughening (dLr) model, originally introduced as the simplest one accommodating the hexatic phase in two-dimensional melting. The dLr model is also relevant to surface roughening in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Our data suggest a single phase transition, possibly of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, between a flat low-temperature phase and a rough, tensionless, high-temperature phase. Thus, earlier conclusions on the order of the phase transition and on the existence of a hexatic phase are seen as due to finite size effects, the phase diagram of the dLr model being similar to that of a continuum analog previously formulated in the context of surface growth by MBE.

Juan Jesus Ruiz-Lorenzo; Esteban Moro; Rodolfo Cuerno

2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

182

Simple model for the Darwinian transition in early evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been hypothesized that in the era just before the last universal common ancestor emerged, life on earth was fundamentally collective. Ancient life forms shared their genetic material freely through massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). At a certain point, however, life made a transition to the modern era of individuality and vertical descent. Here we present a minimal model for this hypothesized "Darwinian transition." The model suggests that HGT-dominated dynamics may have been intermittently interrupted by selection-driven processes during which genotypes became fitter and decreased their inclination toward HGT. Stochastic switching in the population dynamics with three-point (hypernetwork) interactions may have destabilized the HGT-dominated collective state and led to the emergence of vertical descent and the first well-defined species in early evolution. A nonlinear analysis of a stochastic model dynamics covering key features of evolutionary processes (such as selection, mutation, drift and HGT...

Arnoldt, Hinrich; Timme, Marc

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Sensitivity of economic performance of the nuclear fuel cycle to simulation modeling assumptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparing different nuclear fuel cycles and assessing their implications require a fuel cycle simulation model as complete and realistic as possible. In this thesis, methodological implications of modeling choices are ...

Bonnet, Nicphore

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

185

Acoustic characterization of a partially-premixed gas turbine model combustor: Syngas and hydrocarbon fuel comparisons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the acoustic behavior of a combustion instability in a gas turbine model combustor was investigated as fuel properties, air flow rates, and burner geometry were varied. The dual-swirl burner, developed at DLR Stuttgart by Meier, was operated using syngas (H2/CO), ethylene, propane, and methane. The frequency of the instability was found to vary significantly from 250 to 480Hz. When the plenum volume and the exhaust pipe length and diameter were changed, the frequencies followed trends similar to a Helmholtz resonator. The variation of fuel type, flame speed, and air flow rate greatly altered the instability frequency and amplitude. These effects are not predicted by Helmholtz or organ tone acoustic theory. Higher frequencies were correlated with larger laminar burning velocities and higher air flow rates. The burner is a forced resonator, in which the flame oscillations couple with the flowfield to create convectively altered Helmholtz resonances. This suggests the need for an improved model of a forced Helmholtz resonator that includes flame properties. Alkane fuels displayed similar acoustic trends, but ethylene varied greatly from methane and propane. Syngas displayed different behavior than hydrocarbon fuels, even when the laminar flame speeds of the fuels were matched between ethylene and a syngas mixture. Flame characteristics such as anchoring, liftoff height, and shape appear to play a major role in the determination of instability strength and presence. With increasing hydrogen-content in the syngas-mixture, the flame transitions from a lifted to a fully anchored flame, resulting in a drastic decrease in the acoustic amplitude associated with non-resonating flames. Rayleigh indices show that flat flames create strong regions of thermo-acoustic coupling compared to axially extended V-shape flames. It is concluded that, in the current burner configuration, integrated-acoustics occur that involve a combination of Helmholtz and convective-mechanisms.

Patton M. Allison; James F. Driscoll; Matthias Ihme

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2014  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and control subsystems. Power electronics, electric drive, and hydrogen storage tanks are excluded. d The status for power plant hours is for the fuel cell system only;...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative fuel transit Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Final... to nu- merous technical publications and two pending patents. Colin Messer, Alternative Fuels Project... compressed natural gas manuals published by College of the...

188

Model-based control strategies in the dynamic interaction of air supply and fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model-based control strategies in the dynamic interaction of air supply and fuel cell M Grujicic1? fuel cell temperature. The model is used to analyse the control of the fuel cell system with respect, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Abstract: Model-based control strategies are utilized

Grujicic, Mica

189

TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket  

SciTech Connect

A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

190

TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

34 34 ORNL/TM-2001/134 TAFV Alternative Fuels and TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Vehicles Choice Model Documentation Documentation July 2001 David L. Greene David L. Greene Corporate Fellow Corporate Fellow DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD: 703-487-4639 Fax: 703-605-6900 E-mail: info@ntis.fedworld.gov Web site: http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange

191

Model-based Interpretation of the Performance and Degradation of Reformate Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells offer great prospects for the sustainable, clean and safe conversion of various fuels into electrical energy. In this thesis, the performance-determining (more)

Kromp, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

193

Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling  

SciTech Connect

In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments.

Curtis, D.B.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

THERMODYNAMIC MODEL FOR URANIUM DIOXIDE BASED NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

Many projects involving nuclear fuel rest on a quantitative understanding of the co-existing phases at various stages of burnup. Since the many fission products have considerably different abilities to chemically associate with oxygen, and the oxygen-to-metal molar ratio is slowly changing, the chemical potential of oxygen is a function of burnup. Concurrently, well-recognized small fractions of new phases such as inert gas, noble metals, zirconates, etc. also develop. To further complicate matters, the dominant UO2 fuel phase may be non-stoichiometric and most of the minor phases themselves have a variable composition dependent on temperature and possible contact with the coolant in the event of a sheathing breach. A thermodynamic fuel model to predict the phases in partially burned CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear fuel containing many major fission products has been under development. The building blocks of the model are the standard Gibbs energies of formation of the many possible compounds expressed as a function of temperature. To these data are added mixing terms associated with the appearance of the component species in particular phases. In operational terms, the treatment rests on the ability to minimize the Gibbs energy in a multicomponent system, in our case using the algorithms developed by Eriksson. The model is capable of handling non-stoichiometry in the UO2 fluorite phase, dilute solution behaviour of significant solute oxides, noble metal inclusions, a second metal solid solution U(Pd-Rh-Ru)3, zirconate, molybdate, and uranate solutions as well as other minor solid phases, and volatile gaseous species.

Thompson, Dr. William T. [Royal Military College of Canada; Lewis, Dr. Brian J [Royal Military College of Canada; Corcoran, E. C. [Royal Military College of Canada; Kaye, Dr. Matthew H. [Royal Military College of Canada; White, S. J. [Royal Military College of Canada; Akbari, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories; Higgs, Jamie D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Point Lepreau; Thompson, D. M. [Praxair Inc.; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Vogel, S. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Modeling and simulation for a PEM fuel cell with catalyst layers in finite thickness.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A detailed non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is developed in this thesis. This model consists of the (more)

Yin, Jianghui (Author)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modeling the transient operation of an endothermic fuel cooling system for high Mach number vehicle missions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A computer model was developed to simulate the transient operation of a hypothetical endothermic fuel cooling system. The model simulated the performance of a cross-flow, (more)

Williams, Mark Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of int

199

Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Michael Wang Argonne National Laboratory June 10, 2008 Project ID # AN2 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Overview * Project start date: Oct. 2002 * Project end date: Continuous * Percent complete: N/A * Inconsistent data, assumptions, and guidelines * Suite of models and tools * Unplanned studies and analyses * Total project funding from DOE: $2.04 million through FY08 * Funding received in FY07: $450k * Funding for FY08: $840k Budget * H2A team * PSAT team * NREL * Industry stakeholders Partners Timeline Barriers to Address 3 Objectives * Expand and update the GREET model for hydrogen production pathways and for applications of FCVs and other FC systems

200

A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas of natural gas has been developed. The model simultaneously solves mass, energy transport equations emission level, and multiple fuel utilization. SOFC can operate with various kinds of fuels such as natural

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Dosimetry Modeling for Predicting Radiolytic Production at the Spent Fuel - Water Interface  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of the alpha, beta, and gamma dose from spent fuel as a function of particle size and fuel to water ratio was examined. These doses will be combined with modeling of G values and interactions to determine the concentration of various species formed at the fuel water interface and their affect on dissolution rates.

Miller, William H.; Kline, Amanda J.; Hanson, Brady D.

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

203

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

204

MODELING THE EFFECT OF FLOW FIELD DESIGN ON PEM FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODELING THE EFFECT OF FLOW FIELD DESIGN ON PEM FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE Jeffrey Glandt, Sirivatch University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 vanzee@engr.sc.edu Key words: PEM fuel cell, flow field or printed in its publications. #12;2 MODELING THE EFFECT OF FLOW FIELD DESIGN ON PEM FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE

Van Zee, John W.

205

Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications simulation System modeling and control PEMFC a b s t r a c t Temperature changes in PEM fuel cell stacks. Stack thermal management and control are, thus, crucial issues in PEM fuel cell systems especially

Berning, Torsten

206

A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model accounts for important transport phenomena in a fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode

Victoria, University of

207

On a Pioneering Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

"Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model" is a seminal work that continues to form the basis for modern modeling efforts, especially models concerning the membrane and its behavior at the continuum level. The paper is complete with experimental data, modeling equations, model validation, and optimization scenarios. While the treatment of the underlying phenomena is limited to isothermal, single-phase conditions, and one-dimensional flow, it represents the key interactions within the membrane at the center of the PEFC. It focuses on analyzing the water balance within the cell and clearly demonstrates the complex interactions of water diffusion and electro-osmotic flux. Cell-level and system-level water balance are key to the development of efficient PEFCs going forward, particularly as researchers address the need to simplify humidification and recycle configurations while increasing the operating temperature of the stack to minimize radiator requirements.

Weber, Adam Z.; Meyers, Jeremy P.

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Renewable Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

renewable fuels module (RFM) consists of five submodules that represent the various types of renewable energy technologies used for grid-connected U.S. electricity supply (Figure 11). Since most renewables (wind, solar, and geothermal) are used to generate electricity, the interaction with the electricity market module (EMM) is important for modeling grid-connected renewable-electric applications. The penetration of grid-connected generation technologies, with the exception of municipal solid waste, is determined by EMM. Hydropower is included in EMM directly. renewable fuels module (RFM) consists of five submodules that represent the various types of renewable energy technologies used for grid-connected U.S. electricity supply (Figure 11). Since most renewables (wind, solar, and geothermal) are used to generate electricity, the interaction with the electricity market module (EMM) is important for modeling grid-connected renewable-electric applications. The penetration of grid-connected generation technologies, with the exception of municipal solid waste, is determined by EMM. Hydropower is included in EMM directly. Figure 11. Renewable Fuels Module Structure Each submodule of RFM is solved independently of the rest. Because variable operation and maintenance costs for renewable technologies are lower than for any other major generating technology and they produce almost no air pollution, all available renewable generating capacity is dispatched first by EMM.

209

Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J. (ANL); Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gassolid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

Jung, Jonghwun (ANL); Gamwo, I.K.

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Viscosity model for gases in the transition regime  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have studied a model of tangential viscosity of a fluid in which high-order spatial derivatives of the velocity are taken into account. The model indicates that for a gas in the transition regime, and within a range of boundary conditions, the tangential stress presents an oscillatory dependence on the density. An experiment designed to detect these oscillations was done with helium at constant temperature T=294K and varying the pressure within the range 0.5-50 mTorr. The results were found to be in good agreement with the oscillations predicted by our model when the spatial derivative of the fluid velocity near the boundaries was close to zero. From the separation in density between these oscillations, it is possible to obtain an independent measurement of the atomic mean cross section for helium. This method makes specific use of the way the viscosity oscillates with the density in the transition regime instead of using the value that the viscosity takes in the continuous regime. The good agreement between our measurements of the cross section and the values that have been obtained by other methods gives an indication of the validity of the proposed model.

D. Moronta and M. Garca-Sucre

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Analytic theory of L{yields}H transition, barrier structure, and hysteresis for a simple model of coupled particle and heat fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The two-field (pressure/density) model for the L{yields}H transition is extended and analyzed qualitatively. In its original form the model is ambiguous as to the location of the transition within the range of bistability of particle and thermal fluxes. Here, the model is regularized by including (i) hyperdiffusion, (ii) time dependence, and (iii) curvature of the pressure profile. The regularizations (i)-(ii) agree and indicate that the Maxwell rule for the forward and back transition applies, as opposed to the maximum flux forward and minimum flux backward transition rules (which yields hysteresis) as suggested previously. Regarding (i)-(ii), simple models suggest that for a pressure gradient driven electric field shear bifurcation, the basic scale of the pedestal is inexorably tied to the particle fueling depth, which normally is the neutral penetration depth. There is no hysteresis predicted by the local model of transport suppression. However, the effect of pressure profile curvature (iii) changes these results substantially. When it dominates, the curvature effect reduces the transition threshold to the lower end of the range of heating power, which falls within the phase coexistence region for both forward and back transitions. This softens the transition threshold requirements. In this limit, the model with pressure curvature also predicts transitions which occur in regimes of flat density and driven exclusively by the temperature gradient. This allows the pedestal to extend beyond the fueling depth, and also allows some decoupling of density and pressure profiles. In a parameter range where the pressure curvature is less important the transition occurs somewhere between the above two limits.

Malkov, M. A.; Diamond, P. H. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

An integrated performance model for high temperature gas cooled reactor coated particle fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of coated fuel particles is essential for the development and deployment of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) systems for future power generation. Fuel performance modeling is indispensable for understanding ...

Wang, Jing, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Webinar: DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model, originally presented on December 11, 2012.

216

Mapping surface fuels using LIDAR and multispectral data fusion for fire behavior modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, LIDAR derived data provides accurate estimates of surface fuel parameters efficiently and accurately over extensive areas of forests. This study demonstrates the importance of using accurate maps of fuel models derived using new LIDAR remote sensing...

Mutlu, Muge

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Determination of the proper operating range for the CAFCA IIB fuel cycle model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fuel cycle simulation tool, CAFCA II was previously modified to produce the most recent version, CAFCA IIB. The code tracks the mass distribution of transuranics in the fuel cycle in one model and also projects costs ...

Warburton, Jamie (Jamie L.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

219

Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Newman, in Advances in Fuel Cells, Vol. 1, T. S. Zhao, K. -A. Uribe and B. S. Pivovar, Fuel Cells, 7, 153 (2007). R. C.and S. Srinivasan, Fuel Cells: Their Electrochemistry,

Weber, Adam; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Platinum Movement In PEM Fuel Cells, Journal of theKinetics in Subfreezing PEM Fuel Cells, Journal of theGu, and H. A. Gasteiger, PEM Fuel Cell Op- eration at -20

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Sustainable energy for developing countries : modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions (more)

Urban, Frauke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Mathematical modeling of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel cells are predicted to be the power delivery devices of the future. They have many advantages such as the wide fuel selection, high energy (more)

Spiegel, Colleen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine for a Gaussian distribution of the frequencies the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi [Physica D, 100 (1997) 279] allows to derive the synchronization profile associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of whirling oscillators. The presence of these groups of coherently drifting oscillators induces oscillations in the order parameter. We have shown that the transition remains hysteretic even for randomly diluted networks up to a level of connectivity corresponding to few links per oscillator. Finally, an application to the Italian high-voltage power grid is reported, which reveals the emergence of quasi-periodic oscillations in the order parameter due to the simultaneous presence of many competing whirling clusters.

Simona Olmi; Adrian Navas; Stefano Boccaletti; Alessandro Torcini

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

Rangeland Ecology & Management Spatially-explicit representation of state-and-transition models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rangeland Ecology & Management Spatially-explicit representation of state-and-transition models state-and-transition models (STMs) to spatial units is a valuable management tool for structuring ground Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation #12;1 Spatially-Explicit Representation of State-and-Transition

225

Performance modeling of the Ballard Mark IV solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell. 1: Mechanistic model development  

SciTech Connect

A parametric model predicting the performance of a solid polymer electrolyte, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed using a combination of mechanistic and empirical modeling techniques. This paper details the mechanistic model development. Mass transport properties are considered in the mechanistic development via Stefan-Maxwell equations. Thermodynamic equilibrium potentials are defined using the Nernst equation. Activation overvoltages are defined via a Tafel equation, and internal resistance are defined via the Nernst-Planck equation, leading to a definition of ohmic overvoltage via an Ohm's law equation. The mechanistic model cannot adequately model fuel cell performance, since several simplifying approximations have been used in order to facilitate model development. Additionally, certain properties likely to be observed in operational fuel cells, such as thermal gradients, have not been considered. Nonetheless, the insights gained from the mechanistic assessment of fuel cell processes were found to give the resulting empirical model a firmer theoretical basis than many of the models presently available in the literature. Correlation of the empirical model to actual experimental data was very good.

Amphlett, J.C.; Baumert, R.M.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. (Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)); Harris, T.J. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on

227

An Extended Transition Energy Cost Model for Buses in Deep Submicron Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present and carefully analyze a transition energy cost model aimed for efficient power estimation of ... submicron buses. We derive an accurate transition energy cost matrix, scalable to buses of...

Peter Caputa; Henrik Fredriksson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Computational Fuel Cell Research and SOFC Modeling at Penn State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials Research and Component Fabrication Kinetics and Thermal Transport Fuel Cell/Battery Simulation multidisciplinary research on fuel cells and advanced batteries for vehicle propulsion, distributed power generation, DMFC, and SOFC #12;ECEC Facilities (>5,000 sq ft) Fuel Cell/Battery Experimental Labs Fuel Cell

229

Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growththose tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS?simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

Scott, Joe, H.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Improving the transition modelling in hidden Markov models for ECG segmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving the transition modelling in hidden Markov models for ECG segmentation Benoît Frénay, Gaël/ELEC/DICE - Place du Levant, 3 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium Abstract. The segmentation of ECG signal is a useful-dependent. Experiments show that both methods improve the results on pathological ECG signals. 1 Introduction Physicians

Verleysen, Michel

231

Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) it reduces the fuel efficiency (methanol is reacted without producing electrical current). We canChapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li

232

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS Jay T. Pukrushpan Huei Peng of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2125 Email: pukrushp@umich.edu Abstract Fuel Cells are electrochemical regarded as a potential future stationary and mobile power source. The response of a fuel cell system

Peng, Huei

233

Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel Olivier Courty a,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding Olivier Courty a,1 reactors, hydrogen can enter the zirconium- alloy fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride in order to calculate the hydrogen distribution for arbitrary geometries, such as a nuclear fuel rod

Motta, Arthur T.

234

Modeling of the mixed potential in hydrogen peroxide-based fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of the mixed potential in hydrogen peroxide-based fuel cells L. An, T.S. Zhao*, Z.H. Chai 28 February 2014 Available online 31 March 2014 Keywords: Fuel cell Hydrogen peroxide Mixed potential (HPOR) at the cathode of hydrogen peroxide-based fuel cells. The complicated physicochemical processes

Zhao, Tianshou

235

Model Predictive Control for Starvation Prevention in a Hybrid Fuel Cell System1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

voltage, a control system is necessary for maintaining optimal temperature, membrane humidity and pressure: Schematic of the fuel cell stack and air supply control sys- tem. The fuel cell stack consists of 350 cellsModel Predictive Control for Starvation Prevention in a Hybrid Fuel Cell System1 Ardalan Vahidi 2

Stefanopoulou, Anna

236

TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing (more)

Powers, Jeffrey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Development and validation of a transition model based on a mechanical approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new 3D transition turbulence model, more accurate and faster than an empirical transition model, is proposed. The model is based on the calculation of the pre-transitional u'v' due to mean flow shear. The present transition model is fully described and verified against eight benchmark test cases. Computations are performed for the ERCOFTAC flat-plate T3A, T3C and T3L test cases. Further, the model is validated for bypass, cross-flow and separation induced transition and compared with empirical transition models. The model presents very good results for bypass transition under zero-pressure gradient and with pressure gradient flow conditions. Also the model is able to correctly predict separation induced transition. However, for very low speed and low free-stream turbulence intensity the model delays separation induced transition onset. The model also shows very good results for transition under complex cross-flow conditions in three-dimensional geometries. The 3D tested case was the 6:1 prolate-spheroid und...

Vizinho, R; Silvestre, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fuel Performance Code Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Light Water Reactor Modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel performance codes are used in the design and safety analysis of light water reactors. The differences in the physical models and the numerics of (more)

Blyth, Taylor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents a next generation model-based engine controller that incorporates real-time fuel efficiency optimization and tested under fully transient engine and vehicle operating conditions.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of Fuel Cell...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

has developed a model for simulating the market potential of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and challenges to achieving success over time, including competition with...

242

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Overview of H2A stationary model concept, results, strategy for analysis, Federal incentives for fuel cells, and summary of next steps

243

Improvement of Electrocatalyst Performance in Hydrogen Fuel Cells by Multiscale Modelling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work in this thesis addresses the improvement of electrocatalyst performance inhydrogen PEM fuel cells. An agglomerate model for a catalyst layer was coupled witha (more)

Marthosa, Sutida

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Webinar: DOE Launches JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC) Analysis Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, DOE Launches JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC) Analysis Model, originally presented on May 22, 2012.

245

Chemical degradation of fluorosulfonamide fuel cell membrane polymer model compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane, along with high proton conductivity and mechanical performance is critical to the success of these energy conversion devices. Extending our work in perfluorinated membrane stability, aromatic trifluoromethyl sulfonamide model compounds were prepared, and their oxidative degradation was examined. The chemical structures for the models were based on mono-, di- and tri-perfluorinated sulfonamide modified phenyl rings. Durability of the model compounds was evaluated by exposure to hydroxyl radicals generated using Fenton reagent and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide. LCMS results for the mono-substituted model compound indicate greater stability to radical oxidation than the di-substituted species; loss of perfluorinated fonamide side chains appears to be an important pathway, along with dimerization and aromatic ring hydroxylation. The tri-substituted model compound also shows loss of side chains, with the mono-substituted compound being a major oxidation product, along with a limited amount of hydroxylation and dimerization of the starting material.

Jamela M. Alsheheri; Hossein Ghassemi; David A. Schiraldi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Acquisition, Fuel Use, and Emissions Reductions Requirements All state agencies and transit districts must purchase AFVs and use alternative fuels to operate those vehicles to the...

247

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boundary conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 PolymerElectrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Multi-scale solid oxide fuel cell materials modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance and degradation of fuel cell components are discussed in a multi-scale ... paper. Electrochemical reactions in a solid oxide fuel cell occur simultaneously as charge and gas pass ... and cathode to pr...

Ji Hoon Kim; Wing Kam Liu; Christopher Lee

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Spatial perspectives in state-and-transition models: a missing link to land management?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REVIEW Spatial perspectives in state-and-transition models: a missing link to land management to select or justify management actions. State transitions are characteristi- cally heterogeneous in space transitions at each scale and that can be considered in empirical studies, STM narratives and management

250

Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation by Michael Wang of Argonne National Laboratory provides information about an analysis of hydrogen-powered fuel-cell systems.

251

Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for Hydrogen Transition Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(home, work) Have variety of attributes, such as income, income used for transportation, fuel price elasticity and lag, preferences, driving needspatterns (randomly sampled) *...

252

DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models December 6, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide, giving consumers clear and easy-to-read information to help them choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2013 models include efficient and low-emission vehicles in a variety of classes and sizes, but notable this year is the growing availability of hybrids and the increasing number of electric vehicles. "This Administration has been working to foster a new generation of clean, fuel-efficient American vehicles, and part of that effort is

253

Two-phase modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials: A critical examination of modeling issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-phase modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials: A critical the deflagration-to-detonation transition DDT in granular explosives is critically reviewed. The continuum, analysis and numerical simulation of deflagration- to-detonation transition DDT in porous energetic

Kapila, Ashwani K.

254

GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Electricity Tax Exemption for Transit Use CNG and electricity that local agencies or public transit operators use as motor vehicle fuel to operate...

256

Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems analysis program uses a consistent set of models and data for transparent analytical evaluations. The following fact sheets provide an overview and individual summaries of the models and tools used for systems analysis of hydrogen and fuel cells.

257

Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DS-06-1351 Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network Tomás dynamics of gasoline engines during transient operation. With a collection of input-output data measured;Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network I. INTRODUCTION

Johansen, Tor Arne

258

The quantum Biroli-Mzard model: glass transition and superfluidity in a quantum lattice glass model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the quantum version of a lattice model whose classical counterpart captures the physics of structural glasses. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in such systems and in particular their interplay with the amorphous order developed in the glass phase. We show that quantum fluctuations might facilitate the formation of the glass at low enough temperature. We also show that the glass transition becomes a first-order transition between a superfluid and an insulating glass at very low temperature, and is therefore accompanied by phase coexistence between superfluid and glassy regions.

Laura Foini; Guilhem Semerjian; Francesco Zamponi

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

259

Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine  

SciTech Connect

The US DOEs Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

Jason Hales; Various

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Electricity price modeling and asset valuation: a multi-fuel structural approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce a new and highly tractable structural model for spot and derivative prices in electricity markets. Using a stochastic model ... we translate the demand for power and the prices of generating fuels in...

Ren Carmona; Michael Coulon; Daniel Schwarz

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=510^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition  

SciTech Connect

The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model.

Dam, Magnus; Brns, Morten [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)] [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)] [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Xu, Guosheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented by the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. at the bi-monthly informational call for the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program on December 16, 2009

265

MELCOR model for an experimental 17x17 spent fuel PWR assembly.  

SciTech Connect

A MELCOR model has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack cell undergoing severe accident conditions. To the extent possible, the MELCOR model reflects the actual geometry, materials, and masses present in the experimental arrangement for the Sandia Fuel Project (SFP). The report presents an overview of the SFP experimental arrangement, the MELCOR model specifications, demonstration calculation results, and the input model listing.

Cardoni, Jeffrey

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Insulator/Chern-insulator transition in the Haldane model T. Thonhauser and David Vanderbilt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insulator/Chern-insulator transition in the Haldane model T. Thonhauser and David Vanderbilt properties of the Haldane model as the system undergoes its transition from the normal-insulator to the Chern-insulator phase. We find that the density matrix has expo- nential decay in both insulating phases, while having

Vanderbilt, David

267

Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the Unitedresources of some world oil-shale deposits. Technical Reportfor CO2 evolved from oil shale. Fuel Processing Technology,

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

ADL and the State-Transition Model of Action  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......spacecraft at the time of firing and on the thrust and fuel consumption of the engines. This action can be axiomatized...b Pour(p, vessel p into vessel q Update: Volnme(g) <- min (Capacity(g......

EDWIN P. D. PEDNAULT

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based claddings (regarded as a barrier for containment of radioactive fission products and fuel) are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service in the reactor. The amount of hydrogen that the cladding picks up is primarily a function of the exact chemistry and microstructure of the claddings and reactor operating conditions, time-temperature history, and

271

EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models December 3, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to identify and choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2014 models include efficient and low-emission vehicles in a variety of classes and sizes, ensuring a wide variety of choices available for consumers. "For American families, the financial and environmental bottom line are high priorities when shopping for a new vehicle," said Administrator Gina

272

EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models December 3, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to identify and choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2014 models include efficient and low-emission vehicles in a variety of classes and sizes, ensuring a wide variety of choices available for consumers. "For American families, the financial and environmental bottom line are high priorities when shopping for a new vehicle," said Administrator Gina

273

DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models December 6, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide, giving consumers clear and easy-to-read information to help them choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2013 models include efficient and low-emission vehicles in a variety of classes and sizes, but notable this year is the growing availability of hybrids and the increasing number of electric vehicles. "This Administration has been working to foster a new generation of

274

Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

User Guide for VISION 3.4.7 (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters and options; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation or disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. You must use Powersim Studio 8 or better. We have tested VISION with the Studio 8 Expert, Executive, and Education versions. The Expert and Education versions work with the number of reactor types of 3 or less. For more reactor types, the Executive version is currently required. The input files are Excel2003 format (xls). The output files are macro-enabled Excel2007 format (xlsm). VISION 3.4 was designed with more flexibility than previous versions, which were structured for only three reactor types - LWRs that can use only uranium oxide (UOX) fuel, LWRs that can use multiple fuel types (LWR MF), and fast reactors. One could not have, for example, two types of fast reactors concurrently. The new version allows 10 reactor types and any user-defined uranium-plutonium fuel is allowed. (Thorium-based fuels can be input but several features of the model would not work.) The user identifies (by year) the primary fuel to be used for each reactor type. The user can identify for each primary fuel a contingent fuel to use if the primary fuel is not available, e.g., a reactor designated as using mixed oxide fuel (MOX) would have UOX as the contingent fuel. Another example is that a fast reactor using recycled transuranic (TRU) material can be designated as either having or not having appropriately enriched uranium oxide as a contingent fuel. Because of the need to study evolution in recycling and separation strategies, the user can now select the recycling strategy and separation technology, by year.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Wendell D. Hintze

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model ... Department

Maria Taljegard; Selma Brynolf; Maria Grahn; Karin Andersson; Hannes Johnson

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

278

Overview of Fuel Cell Electric Bus Development  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Overview of Fuel Cell Electric Bus Development Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory September 12, 2013 2 Why Fuel Cells for Transit Buses? * Reduce transit bus...

279

2D Axisymmetric Coupled CFD-kinetics Modeling of a Nonthermal Arc Plasma Torch for Diesel Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-assisted diesel fuel reformer developed for two different applications: (i) onboard H2 production for fuel cell been also developed for different reforming reactors: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)7 , membrane reformer1 2D Axisymmetric Coupled CFD-kinetics Modeling of a Nonthermal Arc Plasma Torch for Diesel Fuel

Boyer, Edmond

280

Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Dynamics of the Structural Glass Transition and the p-SpinInteraction Spin-Glass Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mathematical structure of the dynamical theory for the soft-spin version of the p-spin-interaction (p>2) spin-glass model is related to that for the dynamical theories of the structural glass transition. The phase transitions predicted by both theories are discussed. The spin-glass transition predicted by the dynamical theory is related to a broken-replica-symmetry equilibrium calculation.

T. R. Kirkpatrick and D. Thirumalai

1987-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

282

Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Analytical Models of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cells experience ageing. Proton current, flux of ... effects inevitably change the structure and composition of cell components, thus causing the degradation of cell performance. The phenomenon of cell agein...

A. A. Kulikovsky

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

2 2 commensurate-incommensurate transition in Ising models: Monte Carlo simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase diagrams of Ising models with antiferromagnetic nearest-(NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For the triangular lattice a paramagnetic (P)-22 commensurate (C) phase transition is found, which is second order when the NN interaction is small. The exponents are consistent with the ones of the four-state Potts model. For large NNN interactions the transition becomes first order. For three-dimensional stacking of triangular layers an incommensurate (I) phase is found in addition. The P-C and I-C transitions are of first order whereas the P-I transition seems to be of second order. The model is used to interpret the P-I-C transitions in ?-eucryptite.

Y. Saito

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fluctuation effects in first-order phase transitions: Theory and model for martensitic transformations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss central questions in weak, first-order structural transitions by means of a magnetic analog model. A theory including fluctuation effects is developed for the model, showing a dynamical response with softening, fading modes and a growing central peak. The model is also analyzed by a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation, showing clear precursor phenomena near the first-order transition and spontaneous nucleation. The kinetics of the domain growth is studied and found to be exceedingly slow. The results are applicable for martensitic transformations and structural surface-reconstructive transitions.

Per-Anker Lindgrd and Ole G. Mouritsen

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Modelling and Verification of Automated Transit Systems, Using Timed Automata, Invariants and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling and Verification of Automated Transit Systems, Using Timed Automata, Invariants in automated transit systems. The problems we consider are in- spired by design work in the Personal Rapid and Simulations Nancy Lynch * Laboratory for Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Lynch, Nancy

288

Modelling and Veri cation of Automated Transit Systems, using Timed Automata, Invariants and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling and Veri cation of Automated Transit Systems, using Timed Automata, Invariants in automated transit systems. The problems we consider are in- spired by design work in the Personal Rapid and Simulations Nancy Lynch ? Laboratory for Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Lynch, Nancy

289

Electroweak phase transition in the economical 3-3-1 model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following our approach to the electroweak phase transition (EWPT), we consider the phase transitions in framework of the economical 3-3-1 model (E331). Structure of phase transition in this model is divided into two periods. The first period is the phase transition $SU(3) \\rightarrow SU(2)$ at TeV scale and the second one is $SU(2) \\rightarrow U(1)$, which is like the Standard Model (SM) electroweak phase transition. Two periods are the first-order phase transitions if the masses of heavy bosons is equal to few TeVs and the mass of second neutral Higgs is, $0transition period is $1<\\omega<5$ TeV. In addition, we also derived conditions of the self interaction parameters in the Higgs potential. Therefore, new bosons are the triggers of the first-order electroweak phase transition with significant implications for the viability of electroweak baryogenesis scenarios in this model.

Phong, Vo Quoc; Van, Vo Thanh; Minh, Le Hoang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Modeling effects of vehicle specifications on fuel economy based on engine fuel consumption map and vehicle dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study conducts a vehicle dynamic modeling of gasoline and diesel vehicles by using the AVL commercial program. 10 passenger vehicles were tested for 7 types of driving modes containing city, express and highway driving mode. The various vehicle data (specifications, fuel consumption map, gear shifting curve data, etc.) were collected and implemented as input data. The calculations were conducted with changing driving modes and vehicle types, and prediction accuracy of the calculation results were validated based on chassis dynamometer test data. In order to increase prediction accuracy for a wide vehicle operating range, some modifications regarding gear shifting was also conducted. From these processes, it is confirmed that the prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions shows a strong correlations with test results. After ensuring the accuracy of the calculation result, parametric studies were conducted to reveal correlations between vehicle specifications (e.g., vehicle weight and frontal area) on fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions and check which parameters were highly impact on fuel efficiency.

Yunjung Oh; Junhong Park; Jongtae Lee; Myung Do Eom; Sungwook Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Simulating and Visualising Phase Transitions: Small-World Effects on the Monte Carlo Ising Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulating and Visualising Phase Transitions: Small-World Effects on the Monte Carlo Ising Model K Science, Institute of Information & Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany The Ising Model Many temperature and the material becomes magnetic. A simulation model such as the Ising model has been widely used

Hawick, Ken

292

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

293

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

294

Mathematical modeling for the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel diesel engine using hydrogen as secondary fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, mathematical models were developed to correlate the brake thermal efficiency, un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxides and oxides of nitrogen by varying engine parameters like Load and Gaseous (H2) fuel substitution. The developed models can be used to predict the important performance and emission parameters for diesel-hydrogen operation in various combinations at different loads within the experimental domain. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied for developing the models using the techniques of design of experiments and multi linear regression analysis. General factorial design was used to plan the experiments. Second order response surface models were found to be the most suitable in the present work. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the experimental results at 95% confidence level revealed that the developed models are significant. Comparison of experimental output with those predicted by the developed models showed close proximity having high correlation coefficients R2 for the various response variables.

A.E. Dhole; R.B. Yarasu; D.B. Lata; S.S. Baraskar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the use of KIVA-3V to develop a model that reproduces ignition behavior inside the Ignition Quality Tester, which measures the ignition delay of low-volatility fuels.

Bogin, G. E. Jr.; DeFilippo, A.; Chen, J. Y.; Chin, G.; Luecke, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.; Dean, A. M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Developing decision support tools for rangeland management by combining state and transition models and Bayesian belief networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developing decision support tools for rangeland management by combining state and transition models 2008 Keywords: Rangeland management State and transition model Queensland Bayesian belief network Adaptive management Decision support a b s t r a c t State and transition models provide a simple

298

Modeling and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System I Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, Huei Peng  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System I Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G. Stefanopoulou~umich, edu, hpeng@umich, edu Abstract A nonlinear fuel cell system dynamic model that is suit- able, the reactant partial pres- sures. Characterization of the Fuel Cell polarization curves based on time varying

Peng, Huei

299

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai, Dongmei Chen, Tess J. Moon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai to improve the performance of a PEM fuel cell Simulation Results Advanced Power Systems and Controls (GDL) to reduce water saturation · Model water transport in PEM fuel cell Contribution: · Dynamic

Ben-Yakar, Adela

300

Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388­399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur/uncertainty of the fuel cell system, and the measurement noise. In this research, we propose a model-based condition

Ding, Yu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fuel performance models for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design  

SciTech Connect

Mechanistic fuel performance models are used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design and licensing to predict failure and fission product release. Fuel particles manufactured with defective or missing SiC, IPyC, or fuel dispersion in the buffer fail at a level of less than 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction. These failed particles primarily release metallic fission products because the OPyC remains intact on 90% of the particles and retains gaseous isotopes. The predicted failure of particles using performance models appears to be conservative relative to operating reactor experience.

Stansfield, O.M.; Simon, W.A.; Baxter, A.M.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of pressurized water reactors in the nuclear industry. Indeed, understanding the triggering of boiling crisis, temperatures and chemical potentials, which enables dynamic generation of two-phase interfaces within a pure is a critical safety issue for the nuclear industry: when the transition occurs from nucleate boiling to film

Faccanoni, Gloria

304

Numerical Analyses of CERN 200 GeV/A Heavy-Ion Collisions Based on a Hydrodynamical Model with Phase Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......A Heavy-Ion Collisions...Model with Phase Transition Shin Muroya...A Heavy-Ion Collisions...Model with Phase Transition Shin MUROYA...model with phase- transition to the recent heavy-ion experiments......

Shin Muroya; Hiroki Nakamura; Mikio Namiki

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Benchmarking of the MIT High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel performance model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MIT has developed a Coated Particle Fuel Performance Model to study the behavior of TRISO nuclear fuels. The code, TIMCOAT, is designed to assess the mechanical and chemical condition of populations of coated particles and ...

Stawicki, Michael A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

On the roughening transition in the Potts model (q=2, 3) in two and three dimensions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Roughening-respectively depinning-transitions of interfaces between regions...q-state Potts model (q=2, 3) in two and three dimensions. For two dimensions the depinning temperatureT ...

I. Schmidt; W. Pesch

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Deep Convective Transition Characteristics in the Community Climate System Model and Changes under Global Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tropical deep convective transition characteristics, including precipitation pickup, occurrence probability, and distribution tails related to extreme events, are analyzed using uncoupled and coupled versions of the Community Climate System Model (...

Sandeep Sahany; J. David Neelin; Katrina Hales; Richard B. Neale

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A validated dynamic model of the first marine molten carbonate fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we present a modular, dynamic and multi-dimensional model of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) onboard the offshore supply vessel Viking Lady serving as an auxiliary power unit. The model is able to capture detailed thermodynamic, heat transfer and electrochemical reaction phenomena within the fuel cell layers. The model has been calibrated and validated with measured performance data from a prototype installation onboard the vessel. The model is able to capture detailed thermodynamic, heat transfer and electrochemical reaction phenomena within the fuel cell layers. The model has been calibrated and validated with measured performance data from a prototype installation onboard the offshore supply vessel. The calibration process included parameter identification, sensitivity analysis to identify the critical model parameters, and iterative calibration of these to minimize the overall prediction error. The calibrated model has a low prediction error of 4% for the operating range of the cell, exhibiting at the same time a physically sound qualitative behavior in terms of thermodynamic heat transfer and electrochemical phenomena, both on steady-state and transient operation. The developed model is suitable for a wide range of studies covering the aspects of thermal efficiency, performance, operability, safety and endurance/degradation, which are necessary to introduce fuel cells in ships. The aim of this MCFC model is to aid to the introduction, design, concept approval and verification of environmentally friendly marine applications such as fuel cells, in a cost-effective, fast and safe manner.

E. Ovrum; G. Dimopoulos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A predictive model for the combustion process in dual fuel engines  

SciTech Connect

A multi-zone model has been developed for the prediction of the combustion processes in dual fuel engines and some of their performance features. The consequences of the interaction between the gaseous and the diesel fuels and the resulting modification to the combustion processes are considered. A reacting zone has been incorporated in the model to describe the partial oxidation of the gaseous fuel-air mixture while detailed kinetic schemes are employed to describe the oxidation of the gaseous fuel, right from the start of compression to the end of the expansion process. The associated formation and concentrations of exhaust emissions are correspondingly established. The model can predict the onset of knock as well as the operating features and emissions for the more demanding case of light load performance. Predicted values for methane operation show good agreement with corresponding experimental values.

Liu, Z.; Karim, G.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Workforce Transition Model for DOE-AL non-nuclear reconfiguration  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by the US Department of Energy Albuquerque Field Office (DOE-AL) to develop a workforce assessment and transition planning tool to support integrated decision making at a single DOE installation. The planning tool permits coordinated, integrated workforce planning to manage growth, decline, or transition within a DOE installation. The tool enhances the links and provides commonality between strategic, programmatic, and operations planners and human resources. Successful development and subsequent complex-wide implementation of the model will also facilitate planning at the national level by enforcing a consistent format on data that are now collected by installations in corporate-specific formats that are not amenable to national-level analyses. The workforce assessment and transition planning tool consists of two components: the Workforce Transition Model and the Workforce Budget Constraint Model. The Workforce Transition Model, the preponderant of the two, assists decision makers to identify and evaluates alternatives for transitioning the current workforce to meet the skills required to support projected workforce requirements. The Workforce Budget Constraint Model helps estimate the number of personnel that will be affected given a workforce budget increase or decrease and assists in identifying how the corresponding hiring or layoffs should be distributed across the common occupational classification system (COCS) occupations. The conceptual models and the computer implementation are described.

Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Modeling Studies of a Cylindrical Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cathode catalyst layer is modeled using spherical agglomerate characterization. ... (16-19) In the present work, we have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state model of a cylindrical PEMFC cathode under air-breathing and pressurized conditions. ... We adopt an agglomerate catalyst layer model and recast it into a compact form for optimization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes. ...

Srinivasarao Modekurti; Brian Bullecks; Debangsu Bhattacharyya; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

312

A model for waterside oxidation of zircaloy fuel cladding in pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed to simulate the oxidation of zircaloy fuel rod cladding exposed to pressurized water reactor operating conditions. The model is used to predict the oxidation rate for both ex- and in-reactor conditions in terms of the weight gain and oxide thickness. Comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data show very good agreement.

Amarshad, A.I.A. [Institute of Atomic Energy Research, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Klein, A.C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and applied to the energy management of this FCEV, which allow fuel economy optimisation while keeping a good storage. It is essential for advanced vehicles to obtain a range comparable to that of mass production and maximize the energy stored onboard a vehicle. A stochastic dynamic programming algorithm was developed

Peng, Huei

315

Pseudo Dynamic Transitional Modeling of Building Heating Energy Demand Using Artificial1 Neural Network2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transitional Modeling of Building Heating Energy Demand Using Artificial1 Neural Network2 Subodh Paudel a.Lecorre@mines-nantes.fr9 Abstract10 This paper presents the building heating demand prediction model with occupancy profile Institution15 building and compared its results with static and other pseudo dynamic neural network models

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Single tensionless transition in the Laplacian roughening model Juan Jess Ruiz-Lorenzo,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single tensionless transition in the Laplacian roughening model Juan Jesús Ruiz-Lorenzo,1 Esteban Laplacian roughening dLr model, originally introduced as the simplest one accommodating the hexatic phase in two-dimensional melting. The dLr model is also relevant to surface roughening in molecular beam

Cuerno, Rodolfo

317

Modeling and Analysis of UN TRISO Fuel for LWR Application Using the PARFUME Code  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboraroty (INL) PARFUME (particle fuel model) code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel under irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel were calculated, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn up. These material properties have large uncertainties at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, a large experimental effort would be needed to establish material properties, including kernel and PyC swelling rates, under these conditions before definitive conclusions can be drawn on the behavior of UN TRISO fuel in LWRs.

Blaise Collin

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Assessment of One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Hypersonic Transitional Flows  

SciTech Connect

Many Navier-Stokes codes require that the governing equations be written in conservation form with a source term. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model was originally developed in substantial derivative form and when rewritten in conservation form, a density gradient term appears in the source term. This density gradient term causes numerical problems and has a small influence on the numerical predictions. Further work has been performed to understand and to justify the neglect of this term. The transition trip term has been included in the one-equation eddy viscosity model of Spalart-Allmaras. Several problems with this model have been discovered when applied to high-speed flows. For the Mach 8 flat plate boundary layer flow with the standard transition method, the Baldwin-Barth and both k-{omega} models gave transition at the specified location. The Spalart-Allmaras and low Reynolds number k-{var_epsilon} models required an increase in the freestream turbulence levels in order to give transition at the desired location. All models predicted the correct skin friction levels in both the laminar and turbulent flow regions. For Mach 8 flat plate case, the transition location could not be controlled with the trip terms as given in the Spalart-Allmaras model. Several other approaches have been investigated to allow the specification of the transition location. The approach that appears most appropriate is to vary the coefficient that multiplies the turbulent production term in the governing partial differential equation for the eddy viscosity (Method 2). When this coefficient is zero, the flow remains laminar. The coefficient is increased to its normal value over a specified distance to crudely model the transition region and obtain fully turbulent flow. While this approach provides a reasonable interim solution, a separate effort should be initiated to address the proper transition procedure associated with the turbulent production term. Also, the transition process might be better modeled with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with modification of the damping function f{sub v1}. The damping function could be set to zero in the laminar flow region and then turned on through the transition flow region.

ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Renewable Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Renewable Fuelsl Module Renewable Fuelsl Module The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Renewable Fuels Module Figure 11. Renewable Fuels Module Structure. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Renewable Fuels Module Table. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The renewable fuels module (RFM) represents renewable energy resoures and large–scale technologies used for grid-connected U.S. electricity supply (Figure 11). Since most renewables (biomass, conventional hydroelectricity, geothermal, landfill gas, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind) are used to generate electricity, the RFM primarily interacts with the electricity market module (EMM). New renewable energy generating capacity is either model–determined or

320

Development and validation of a two-phase, three-dimensional model for PEM fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To develop and validate a two-phase, three-dimensional transport modelfor simulating PEM fuel cell performance under a wide range of operating conditions; (2) To apply the validated PEM fuel cell model to improve fundamental understanding of key phenomena involved and to identify rate-limiting steps and develop recommendations for improvements so as to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell technology; (3) The validated PEMFC model can be employed to improve and optimize PEM fuel cell operation. Consequently, the project helps: (i) address the technical barriers on performance, cost, and durability; and (ii) achieve DOE's near-term technical targets on performance, cost, and durability in automotive and stationary applications.

Chen, Ken Shuang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Waste generation process modeling and analysis for fuel reprocessing technologies  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of electric power generation requirements for the next century, even when taking the most conservative tack, indicate that the United States will have to increase its production capacity significantly. If the country determines that nuclear power will not be a significant component of this production capacity, the nuclear industry will have to die, as maintaining a small nuclear component will not be justifiable. However, if nuclear power is to be a significant component, it will probably require some form of reprocessing technology. The once-through fuel cycle is only feasible for a relatively small number of nuclear power plants. If we are maintaining several hundred reactors, the once-through fuel cycle is more expensive and ethically questionable.

Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Koehler, A. C. (Andrew C.); Farman, Richard F.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fossil fuel combustion, with consequent impacts to human health [health. Model predictions indicated that some areas within California had higher near-surface fossil fuel

Riley, W.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Bifurcation theory of a one-dimensional transport model for the L-H transition  

SciTech Connect

Transitions between low and high-confinement (L-H transitions) in magnetically confined plasmas can appear as three qualitatively different types: sharp, smooth, and oscillatory. Bifurcation analysis unravels these possible transition types and how they are situated in parameter space. In this paper the bifurcation analysis is applied to a 1-dimensional model for the radial transport of energy and density near the edge of magnetically confined plasmas. This phenomenological L-H transition model describes the reduction of the turbulent transport by EB-flow shear self-consistently with the evolution of the radial electric field. Therewith, the exact parameter space, including the threshold values of the control parameters, of the possible L-H transitions in the model is determined. Furthermore, a generalised equal area rule is derived to describe the evolution of the transport barrier in space and time self-consistently. Applying this newly developed rule to the model analysed in this paper reveals a naturally occurring transition to an extra wide transport barrier that may correspond to the improved confinement known as the very-high-confinement mode.

Weymiens, W.; Blank, H. J. de; Hogeweij, G. M. D. [FOM Institute DIFFERDutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [FOM Institute DIFFERDutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL  

SciTech Connect

The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model Incorporating Local Water Balance and Reactant Consumption in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and directly affects cost and sizing of fuel cell subsystems. Within several regions of PEMFC operating Fuel Cell Gas Channels E. J. See and S. G. Kandlikar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The ability to model two-phase flow and pressure drop

Kandlikar, Satish

326

A single-phase, non-isothermal model for PEM fuel cells Hyunchul Ju, Hua Meng, Chao-Yang Wang *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A single-phase, non-isothermal model for PEM fuel cells Hyunchul Ju, Hua Meng, Chao-Yang Wang October 2004 Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell produces a comprehensive study of thermal and water management in PEM fuel cells. Numerical simulations reveal

327

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve engine efficiency. Fuel-flexible engines permit the increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends. Ethanol points across the engine operating range for four blends of gasoline and ethanol. I. INTRODUCTION Fuel

328

A two-component heavy fuel oil evaporation model for CFD studies in marine Diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents an evaporation model for Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) combustion studies. In the present work, HFO is considered as a mixture of a heavy and a light fuel component, with the thermophysical properties of the heavy component calculated from the recently introduced model of Kyriakides et al. (2009) [1]. The model proposes a proper treatment of convective heat transfer to the evaporating fuel droplets. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of HFO spray combustion in constant volume chambers are performed, utilizing a modified characteristic time combustion model. The results are in good agreement with literature experimental data. Computational results for a two-stroke marine Diesel engine also compare favorably against experiments. The present development yields a basis for detailed CFD studies of HFO combustion in large marine Diesel engines.

Nikolaos Stamoudis; Christos Chryssakis; Lambros Kaiktsis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A fuel consumption model for off-road use of mobile machinery in agriculture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Until 2009, the annual reporting of emissions by off-road transport in agriculture in Belgium was based on a 1994 calculation model that needed to be updated. An energy consumption model was established for plant production in Belgium as a backbone for a new emission model. The model starts from agricultural activities involving off-road fuel consumption. Effects of soil type, tractor size, field size and machine load are modelled. Twenty-seven \\{FCIs\\} (fuel consumption indicators) were computed for plant production. \\{FCIs\\} are expressed per year and are used for emission estimates on a regional level. \\{FCIs\\} ranged from 37 to 311L/ha. Sensitivity analysis showed the highest impact of tractor size with a surplus fuel consumption between 10 and 41% depending on the crop type. Fuel consumption (L) can be further processed into greenhouse gas emissions. \\{FCIs\\} can be adopted in LCA (life cycle assessment) studies. With ?310L/ha, orchards are most fuel intensive, followed by field vegetables and sugar beets (?150L/ha). The total off-road energy consumption of field vegetables is high because second cropping is a common practice.

Veerle Van linden; Lieve Herman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends  

SciTech Connect

Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fuel Modelling at Extended Burnup: IAEA Coordinated Research Project FUMEX-II  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored a Coordinated Research Project on Fuel Modelling at Extended Burnup (FUMEX-II). Eighteen fuel modelling groups participated with the intention of improving their capabilities to understand and predict the behaviour of water reactor fuel at high burnups. The exercise was carried out in coordination with the OECD/NEA. The participants used a mixture of data derived from actual irradiation histories of high burnup experimental fuel and commercial irradiations where post-irradiation examination measurements are available, combined with idealised power histories intended to represent possible future extended dwell commercial irradiations and test code capabilities at high burnup. All participants have been asked to model nine priority cases out of some 27 cases made available to them for the exercise from the IAEA/OECD International Fuel Performance Experimental Database. Calculations carried out by the participants, particularly for the idealised cases, have shown how varying modelling assumptions affect the high burnup predictions, and have led to an understanding of the requirements of future high burnup experimental data to help discriminate between modelling assumptions. This understanding is important in trying to model transient and fault behaviour at high burnup. It is important to recognise that the code predictions presented here should not be taken to indicate that some codes do not perform well. The codes have been designed for different applications and have differing assumptions and validation ranges; for example codes intended to predict Candu fuel operation with thin wall collapsible cladding do not need the clad creep and gap conductivity modelling found in PWR codes. Therefore, when a case is based on Candu technology or PWR technology, it is to be expected that the codes may not agree. However, it is the very differences in such behaviour that is useful in helping to understand the effects of such internal modelling. (authors)

Killeen, J.C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Turnbull, J.A. [Cherry-Lyn, Tockington, South Glos (United Kingdom); Sartori, E. [OECD/NEA, 12 Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A Study on Heat Transfer Model in Sparse Zone of Oxy-Fuel Fired CFB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model has been developed to calculate the coefficient heat transfer in sparse zone of oxy-fuel fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB). The model shows that the convective heat transfer coefficient is enhanced with increase in CO2 density, bed ...

Chunbo Wang; Weijun Hou; Wei Zhang; Guang Lu; Zhihong Huo; Jiao Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The nature of the continuous nonequilibrium phase transition of Axelrod's model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Axelrod's model differs from other models of opinion dynamics because it accounts for homophily and in a square lattice it exhibits culturally homogeneous as well as culturally fragmented absorbing configurations. In the case the agents are characterized by $F=2$ cultural features and each feature assumes $k$ traits drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$ these regimes are separated by a continuous transition at $q_c \\approx 3.15$. Here we show that the mean density of cultural domains is an order parameter of the model and that the phase transition is characterized by the critical exponents $\\beta = 1/2$ and $\

Peres, Lucas R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ET AL. : FOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN CALIFORNIA health,fossil fuel combustion, with consequent impacts to human health [health. [ 45 ] Model predictions indicated that some areas within California had higher near-surface fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

THE ISING MODEL: PHASE TRANSITION IN A SQUARE ALEXANDRE R. PUTTICK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE ISING MODEL: PHASE TRANSITION IN A SQUARE LATTICE ALEXANDRE R. PUTTICK Abstract. The aim of this paper is to give a mathematical treatment of the Ising model, named after its orginal contributor Ernst Ising (1925). The paper will present a brief history concerning the early formulation and applications

May, J. Peter

336

Spin-One Ising Model for Ice VIIPlastic Ice Phase Transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a spin model compatible with ice VIIplastic ice phase transitions and critical phenomena discovered recently by computer simulations. The BlumeCapel spin-1 Ising model is extended in order to describe the entropic stabilization effect in the ...

Masakazu Matsumoto; Kazuhiro Himoto; Hideki Tanaka

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Multidisciplinary Modeling, Control, and Optimization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes a systematical study, including multidisciplinary modeling, simulation, control, and optimization, of a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims (more)

Abbassi Baharanchi, Atid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Modeling a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics: A Second Law analysis of assumptions and parameters:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, a model derived from Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, for the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, was utilized in order to explore the effect of (more)

Garcia Navarro, J.C.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Market power, fuel substitution and infrastructure A large-scale equilibrium model of global energy markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Assessing and quantifying the impacts of technological, economic, and policy shifts in the global energy system requirelarge-scale numerical models. We propose a dynamic multi-fuel market equilibrium model that combines endogenous fuel substitution within demand sectors and in power generation, detailed infrastructure capacity constraints and investment, as well as strategic behaviour and market power aspects by suppliers in a unified framework. This model is the first of its kind in which market power is exerted across several fuels. Using a data set based on the IEA (International Energy Agency) World Energy Outlook 2013 (New Policies scenario, time horizon 20102050, 30 regions, 10 fuels), we illustrate the functionality of the model in two scenarios: a reduction of shale gas availability in the US relative to current projections leads to an even stronger increase of power generation from natural gas in the European Union relative to the base case; this is due to a shift in global fossil fuel trade. In the second scenario, a tightening of the EU ETS emission cap by 80% in 2050 combined with a stronger biofuel mandate spawns a renaissance of nuclear power after 2030 and a strong electrification of the transportation sector. We observe carbon leakage rates from the unilateral mitigation effort of 6070%.

Daniel Huppmann; Ruud Egging

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" Summary of "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" (MMSNF 2013) workshop Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share "Materials Modeling and Simulations for Nuclear Fuels" (MMSNF 2013) workshop Workshop Summary Presentation during MMSNF Workshop in Chicago

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Mathematical Models of Solid-Solid Phase Transitions in Steel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1803-1815. HAYES, W. J. 1985 Mathematical models in materials science. M.Sc. Thesis, Oxford. SCHEIL, E. 1935 Anlaufzeit den Austenitumwandlung. Archiv fUr Eisenhuttenwesen 8, 565. VERDI, C , & VISINTIN, A. 1987a Numerical analysis of the......

A. VISINTIN

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Transition Prediction for Scramjet Intakes Using the \\gamma-Re_\\theta_t Model Coupled to Two Turbulence Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the thick boundary layers in hypersonic flows, the state of the boundary layer significantly influences the whole flow field as well as surface heat loads. Hence, for engineering applications the efficient numerical prediction of laminar-to-turbulent transition is a challenging and important task. Within the framework of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, Langtry/Menter [1] proposed the -Re?t transition model using two transport equations for the intermittency and Re?t combined with the Shear Stress Transport turbulence model (SST) [2]. The transition model contains two empirical correlations for onset and length of transition. Langtry/Menter [1] designed and validated the correlations for the subsonic and transonic flow regime. For our applications in the hypersonic flow regime, the development of a new set of correlations proved necessary, even when using the same SST turbulence model [3]. Within this paper, we propose a next step and couple the transition model with the SSG/LRR-! Reynold...

Frauholz, Sarah; Mller, Siegfried; Behr, Marek

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Farms to Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Webinar: Go Local: Maximizing Your Local Renewable Resources With Fuel Cells, August 16, 2011.

345

Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and

346

Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells may become the energy-delivery devices of the 21st century with realization of a carbon-neutral energy economy. Although there are many types of fuel cells, polymerelectrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are receiving the most attention for automotive and small stationary applications. In a PEFC, hydrogen and oxygen are combined electrochemically to produce water, electricity, and waste heat. During the operation of a PEFC, many interrelated and complex phenomena occur. These processes include mass and heat transfer, electrochemical reactions, and ionic and electronic transport. Most of these processes occur in the through-plane direction in what we term the PEFC sandwich as shown in Figure 1. This sandwich comprises multiple layers including diffusion media that can be composite structures containing a macroporous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) and microporous layer (MPL), catalyst layers (CLs), flow fields or bipolar plates, and a membrane. During operation fuel is fed into the anode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and reacts electrochemically at the anode CL to form hydrogen ions and electrons. The oxidant, usually oxygen in air, is fed into the cathode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and is electrochemically reduced at the cathode CL by combination with the generated protons and electrons. The water, either liquid or vapor, produced by the reduction of oxygen at the cathode exits the PEFC through either the cathode or anode flow field. The electrons generated at the anode pass through an external circuit and may be used to perform work before they are consumed at the cathode. The performance of a PEFC is most often reported in the form of a polarization curve, as shown in Figure 2. Roughly speaking, the polarization curve can be broken down into various regions. First, it should be noted that the equilibrium potential differs from the open-circuit voltage due mainly to hydrogen crossover through the membrane (i.e., a mixed potential on the cathode) and the resulting effects of the kinetic reactions. Next, at low currents, the behavior of a PEFC is dominated by kinetic losses. These losses mainly stem from the high overpotential of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR). As the current is increased, ohmic losses become a factor in lowering the overall cell potential. These ohmic losses are mainly from ionic losses in the electrodes and separator. At high currents, mass-transport limitations become increasingly important. These losses are due to reactants not being able to reach the electrocatalytic sites. Key among the issues facing PEFCs today is water management. Due to their low operating temperature (< 100 C), water exists in both liquid and vapor phases. Furthermore, state-of-the-art membranes require the use of water to provide high conductivity and fast proton transport. Thus, there is a tradeoff between having enough water for proton conduction (ohmic losses), but not too much or else the buildup of liquid water will cause a situation in which the reactant-gas-transport pathways are flooded (mass-transfer limitations). Figure 3 displays experimental evidence of the effects of water management on performance. In Figure 3(a), a neutron image of water content displays flooding near the outlet of the cell due to accumulation of liquid water and a decrease in the gas flowrates. The serpentine flow field is clearly visible with the water mainly underneath the ribs. Figure 3(b) shows polarization performance at 0.4 and 0.8 V and high-frequency resistance at 0.8 V as a function of cathode humidification temperature. At low current densities, as the inlet air becomes more humid, the membrane resistance decreases, and the performance increases. At higher current densities, the same effect occurs; however, the higher temperatures and more humid air also results in a lower inlet oxygen partial pressure.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley; Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.; Balliet, Ryan; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Newman, John

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

347

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Modelling the balanced transition to a sustainable economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon and low capital intensive activities and a combined green-low growth option that focuses. We consider a world economy with two subregions that are endowed with greenhouse gas emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) which is the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The model

Nesterov, Yurii

350

Mean First-Passage Time Calculations for the Coil-to-Helix Transition:? The Active Helix Ising Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mean First-Passage Time Calculations for the Coil-to-Helix Transition:? The Active Helix Ising Model ... The kinetics and thermodynamics of the coil-to-helix transition is studied using a one-dimensional Zimm?Bragg Ising model. ... 4. Mean First-Passage Time for the Active-Helix Ising Model ...

Nicolae-Viorel Buchete; John E. Straub

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

Mean First-Passage Time Calculations for the Coil-to-Helix Transition: The Active Helix Ising Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mean First-Passage Time Calculations for the Coil-to-Helix Transition: The Active Helix Ising Model of the coil-to-helix transition is studied using a one-dimensional "Zimm- Bragg" Ising model. The mean first-dimensional Ising model for arbitrary spin-spin coupling (J) and external field (H) where J and H are expressed

Straub, John E.

352

Modelling the Fate of Sulphur During Pulverized Coal Combustion under Conventional and Oxy-fuel Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Focus of the present study is on the fate of sulphur during coal combustion and modelling of the corresponding \\{SOx\\} formation mechanisms. The sulphur chemistry during coal combustion in general is briefly described and potential effects of the oxy-fuel conditions are explained. Details about the developed sulphur chemistry model which covers both heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction pathways are given. The model describes the sulphur transformation in a sequence of stages: the release of coal-bound sulphur, gas phase reactions of sulphuric species, and self-retention of sulphur oxides by coal ash. The model is evaluated against experimental data from IFK's semi-industrial scale furnace (500 kWth) firing lignite at conventional and oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Four reference cases are considered, i.e. air and oxy-fuel mode in both non-staged and staged operation. Based on the results from the basic combustion simulation with AIOLOS, the sulphur chemistry model has been applied in a subsequent post-processing step. The sulphur related results show that the general trends regarding the species concentrations may be predicted correctly. The specific characteristics and the effect of oxy-fuel conditions and oxidant staging are captured correspondingly within the simulation results. Yet, certain deficiencies concerning the quantitative prediction could be identified which necessitate further investigations.

Michael Mller; Uwe Schnell; Gnter Scheffknecht

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Colorado Leads in Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on

354

An evaluation of thermal modeling techniques utilized for nuclear fuel rods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

like to thank my graduate advisor, Dr. K. L. Peddicord, for his technical advice and guidance throughout this project and my studies in Nuclear Engineering at Texas AgiM University. Thanks are also extended to Dr. Hassan and Dr. Caton for reviewing.... Burnup Fission Gas Rdease Fuel Tltermal Conductivity Fuel Cracking Fuel Creep Rate Fuel Relocadon Fuel VIrermal Expansion Fuel Rod Tltermal Power Fuel Telltpelanaes Fuel Stress es Fuel Strains Fission Rate Fuel-Cladding Gap Heat...

Simmons, Jeffrey Warren

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

models, and will be designed for implementa- tion not only on today's leadership- class computers, but also for advanced architecture platforms now under de- velopment by DOE, as...

356

An infinite-period phase transition versus nucleation in a stochastic model of collective oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A lattice model of three-state stochastic phase-coupled oscillators has been shown by Wood et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 145701) to exhibit a phase transition at a critical value of the coupling parameter, leading to stable global oscillations. We show that, in the complete graph version of the model, upon further increase in the coupling, the average frequency of collective oscillations decreases until an infinite-period (IP) phase transition occurs, at which point collective oscillations cease. Above this second critical point, a macroscopic fraction of the oscillators spend most of the time in one of the three states, yielding a prototypical nonequilibrium example (without an equilibrium counterpart) in which discrete rotational (C_3) symmetry is spontaneously broken, in the absence of any absorbing state. Simulation results and nucleation arguments strongly suggest that the IP phase transition does not occur on finite-dimensional lattices with short-range interactions.

Vladimir R. V. Assis; Mauro Copelli; Ronald Dickman

2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

Strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition in Ising models with friction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-equilibrium phase transition in driven two-dimensional Ising models with two different geometries is investigated using Monte Carlo methods as well as analytical calculations. The models show dissipation through fluctuation induced friction near the critical point. We first consider high driving velocities and demonstrate that both systems are in the same universality class and undergo a strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition, with anisotropy exponent \\theta=3. Within a field theoretical ansatz the simulation results are confirmed. The crossover from Ising to mean field behavior in dependency of system size and driving velocity is analyzed using crossover scaling. It turns out that for all finite velocities the phase transition becomes strongly anisotropic in the thermodynamic limit.

Sebastian Angst; Alfred Hucht; Dietrich E. Wolf

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

358

Shell-model picture of virtual detour transitions in Ca41 radiative electron-capture decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the first forbidden unique (1u) radiative electron-capture ? decay of Ca41, a contribution of the ?/? detour transitions via virtual nuclear states to the bremsstrahlung spectrum has been considered in terms of the shell model. Calculations of the matrix elements for the virtual E1 ? and allowed Gamow-Teller ? transitions have been performed with the use of the Warburton, Becker, Millener, and Brown interactions. For the effective charge, which describes the contribution of the detour transitions, an interval 0.96model predictions are fairly close to the experimental value eeff=0.78. A possible origin of the small remaining deviation is discussed. 1996 The American Physical Society.

J. L. ?ylicz; M. Pftzner; S. G. Rohozi?ski; B. A. Brown

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A computer model for optimizing the location of natural gas fueling stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High levels of fine particulate matter and ozone in many major cities are causing increased respiratory problems, increased asthma attacks and premature death. Natural gas vehicles have been reported to emit up to 95% less particulate matter than diesel powered vehicles and up to 90% less ozone-producing carbon monoxide and reactive hydrocarbons. The adoption of natural gas vehicles, therefore, could play a large role in improving air quality in many cities. Because of the many costs associated with the introduction of a new fueling infrastructure, optimum distribution of fueling stations will play a major role in widespread use of natural gas vehicles, especially in the early stages of market penetration. A model was developed that can be used to optimize fueling station placement-based on traffic volume using a Monte Carlo algorithm. In particular, the Monte Carlo method allows for the placement of the fueling stations based upon their proximity to high volume traffic flow and the placement of all the fueling stations are optimized simultaneously. Traffic volume data from Pittsburgh, PA was used in the model simulations.

T.L. Kerzmann; G.A. Buxton; J. Preisser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle markethybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofof the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Reaction-Diffusion Model for Combustion with Fuel Consumption: I. Dirichlet Boundary Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......9JT, UK Department of Chemistry, University of Leeds...Reaction-Diffusion Model for Combustion with Fuel Consumption...SCOTT Department of Chemistry, University of Leeds...runaway in stockpiles of coal, wool, cellulose...smouldering or fully fledged combustion and their attendant......

G. ZHANG; J. H. MERKIN; S. K. SCOTT

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperatures, nickel oxide dissolves in the melt. This slow loss of active material contributes to an increase as compared to nickel oxide. The search for alternate cathode materials could be simplified through the use-phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell MCFC cathode

Popov, Branko N.

363

Assessing resilience and state-transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus tectorum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing resilience and state-transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus. Bestelmeyer2 and X. Ben Wu1 1 Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, 2138 TAMU. This requires management frameworks that can assess ecosystem dynamics, both within and between alternative

364

Recommendations for Development of Resilience-Based State-and-Transition Models D. D. Briske,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forum Recommendations for Development of Resilience-Based State-and-Transition Models D. D. Briske of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, 2138 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA; 2, University of Nevada­Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA; and 4 Rangeland Management Specialist, USDA-NRCS, West

365

Mathematical models of the transitions between endocrine therapy responsive and resistant states in breast cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...differential equations (SDEs) to...white noise process with where...the precise equations of the model...used for our simulations. In deriving...We used Matlab (v. 7...transition rate matrix. The off-diagonal...estimated by equation (2.9...Monte Carlo simulations, as functions...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Capturing the impact of fuel price on jet aircraft operating costs with Leontief technology and econometric models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of the airline response to a fuel price increase is in effect an investigation of the role of variable interactions in aircraft cost models. We examine the impact of fuel price on aircraft costs and airline operational strategies by developing two classes of operating cost models for jet aircraft and comparing the results. The translog operating cost model is a flexible functional form that provides a detailed representation of the empirical relationship between fuel cost and operating cost, allowing for substitution, scale, aircraft age, and variable interactions to be captured. The simpler Leontief model assumes that inputs of a cost model must be used in fixed proportions regardless of their prices. While it does not capture variable interactions, the Leontief model is more transparent, requires fewer inputs, and allows the contribution of a single factor, such as fuel price, to operating cost to be more easily isolated. An analysis of the translog operating cost model reveals that as fuel price increases, airlines will take steps to use fuel more efficiently by leveraging other inputs; a comparison of the translog and the Leontief technology models, however, show that the potential for this supplier input substitution for fuel is rather modest. By building the two operating cost models and comparing their predictions, we illustrate a method to determine the prediction potential of a Leontief technology model and assess the importance of input substitution at the vehicle level.

Megan Smirti Ryerson; Mark Hansen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A coupled-physics model for the vanadium oxygen fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A stationary two-dimensional model for the vanadium oxygen fuel cell is developed. The model consists of a single cell with two membranes, set up as of two half-cells and an intermediate chamber. The transport and balance of mass, momentum and charge are linked to the electrochemical reaction kinetics of the vanadium species and oxygen. The kinetic model for the cathode half-cell is extended by an empirical logistic function to describe the transient behavior of the half-cell. Additionally, experiments are conducted on a single vanadium oxygen fuel cell with 40cm2 active membrane area. The experimental results are used to validate the simulation data. The effects of constant current discharging, polarization behavior and different flow rates on the cathode overpotential are studied by means of this model.

F.T. Wandschneider; M. Kttinger; J. Noack; P. Fischer; K. Pinkwart; J. Tbke; H. Nirschl

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A computer model for the transient analysis of compact research reactors with plate type fuel  

SciTech Connect

A coupled neutronics and core thermal-hydraulic performance model has been developed for the analysis of plate type U-Al fueled high-flux research reactor transients. The model includes point neutron kinetics, one-dimensional, non-homogeneous, equilibrium two-phase flow and beat transfer with provision for subcooled boiling, and spatially averaged one-dimensional beat conduction. The feedback from core regions other than the fuel elements is included by employing a lumped parameter approach. Partial differential equations are discretized in space and the combined equation set representing the model is converted to an initial value problem. A variable-order, variable-time-step time advancement scheme is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. The model is verified through comparisons with two other computer code results and partially validated against SPERT-II tests. It is also used to analyze a series of HFIR reactivity transients.

Sofu, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Holistic modelling of a combined Photovoltaic, Wind and Fuel Cell power system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The research work presented in this paper is focused on the holistic modelling of a combined Photovoltaic (PV), Wind and Fuel Cell, (FC) power system. The modelling approach is based on the Handel C programming language and is using the DK5 modelling / design environment from Mentor Graphics. The aim of the research was to achieve a combined model of a photovoltaic wind-fuel cell energy system, enabling an holistically optimized digital control system design, followed by its rapid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) prototyping. Initially, the functional simulations of the integrated system were performed, than, the controller design was downloaded in hardware onto a RC10 development board containing a Xilinx Spartan FPGA and was successfully tested experimentally. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems.

A. Tisan; M. Cirstea

370

Fleet-averaged engine matrices for Australian vehicles and their use in fuel economy modelling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data obtained during standard chassis dynamometer testing at the University of Sydney is used to produce an engine fuel consumption matrix for the test vehicle. The matrix includes the effect of engine operational transients and is presented in a generalised engine parameter form which allows comparisons between dissimilar vehicles. A sufficient number of tests have been carried out to construct a fleet-averaged engine matrix for in-use Australian vehicles. A model is described which uses this matrix to predict the effect of variations in vehicle parameters and traffic flow patterns on the fuel consumption of a motor vehicle on the road or on the dynamometer.

T.J. Gibson; R.W. Bilger

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

Karahan, Aydin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ice-water and liquid-vapor phase transitions by a GinzburgLandau model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model for the first order phase transitions as ice-water and liquid-vapor is proposed using the GinzburgLandau equation for the order parameter ? . In this model the density ? is composed of two quantities ? 0 and ? 1 such that 1 / ? = 1 / ? 0 + 1 / ? 1 where ? 1 is strictly connected to the order parameter ? . By means of this decomposition we are able to represent the Andrew diagram without the use of the heuristic van der Waals equation.

Mauro Fabrizio

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts ... So in this work we investigated the action of transition metal oxides (TMOs) other than Ni (e.g., Fe, Mn) mixed with REOs for tar reforming, at a medium temperature range (9231073 K) and under conditions where direct reforming would dominate. ... The heated gas mixture passed through a 1/2 stainless steel tube containing 0.21 g of catalyst (4060 mesh size) diluted with mullite and positioned between beds of ?-Al2O3. ...

Rui Li; Amitava Roy; Joseph Bridges; Kerry M. Dooley

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

374

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in PEM Fuel Cells: in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Background Water Management Issues Arise From: ƒ Generation of water by cathodic reaction ƒ Membrane humidification requirements ƒ Capillary pressure driven transport through porous MEA and GDL materials ƒ Scaling bipolar plate channel dimensions J.H. Nam and M. Kaviany, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 4595-4611 (2003) Relevant Barriers and Targets ƒ Improved Gas Diffusion Layer, Flow Fields, Membrane Electrode Assemblies Needed to Improve Water Management: * Flooding blocks reactant transport

375

Two-dimensional modeling of sodium boiling transients in simulated LMFBR fuel bundles  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional code for analysis of sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies has been developed at ORNL. This code, THORAX, has been used to analyze tests in 19- and 61-pin electrically-heated, simulated LMFBR fuel assemblies in the THORS facility. THORAX has simulated well the transient growth of the two-dimensional boiling region and the resulting static flow instability leading to dryout. Extrapolation of results to a full size fuel pin bundle shows that two-dimensional effects are reduced but still significant. The code will be extended to include a loop model in support of forthcoming tests in the THORS-SHRS Assembly 1 loop, which will include two parallel 19-pin simulated driver bundles.

Rose, S.D.; Dearing, J.F; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling  

SciTech Connect

The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Particle Modeling of Fuel Plate Melting during Coolant Flow Blockage in HFIR.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cooling channel inlet flow blockage has damaged fuel in plate fueled reactors and contributes significantly to the probability of fuel damage based on Probabilistic Risk (more)

Nakamura, Hiraku

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Heavy Duty Diesel Particulate Matter and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Transportation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of steady state engine fuel consumption and emission maps.affecting engine load and consequently fuel consumption. Theand engine speed which it then relates to fuel consumption

Scora, George Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Fuel Consumption Modeling Based on Road Load and Power Train Parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Injection Diesel Engine Fuel Consumption, SAE 971142, 11.engine load, engine speed, and fuel consumption. The tirevehicle speed, engine speed, fuel consumption, engine load,

Giannelli, R; Nam, E K; Helmer, K; Younglove, T; Scora, G; Barth, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

operating conditions. Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell System Modelconditions for a direct hydrogen fuel cell system Table 1simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal of

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Joint mixed logit models of stated and revealed preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for forecasting demand for alternative-fuel vehicles. In:preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles David Brownstonespondents' preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles. The e

Brownston, David; Bunch, David S.; Train, Kenneth

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

383

Zero gravity two-phase flow regime transition modeling compared with data and relap5-3d predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the computer code do not scale to zero gravity. A new flow regime map is needed for zero gravity conditions. Three bubbly-to-slug transition models and four slug-to-annular transition models are analyzed and compared with the data. A mathematical method...

Ghrist, Melissa Renee

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Quasi-Two-Dimensional Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional numerical model is presented for the efficient computation of the steady-state current density, species concentration, and temperature distributions in planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The model reduction techniques, engineering approximations, and numerical procedures used to simulate the stack physics while maintaining adequate computational speed are discussed. The results of the model for benchmark cases with and without on-cell methane reformation are presented with comparisons to results from other research described in the literature. The capabilities, performance, and scalability of the model for the study of large multi-cell stacks are then demonstrated.

Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Sun, Xin; Chick, Lawrence A.; Korolev, Vladimir N.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Statistic inversion of multi-zone transition probability models for aquifer characterization in alluvial fans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the heterogeneity arising from the complex architecture of sedimentary sequences in alluvial fans is challenging. This paper develops a statistical inverse framework in a multi-zone transition probability approach for characterizing the heterogeneity in alluvial fans. An analytical solution of the transition probability matrix is used to define the statistical relationships among different hydrofacies and their mean lengths, integral scales, and volumetric proportions. A statistical inversion is conducted to identify the multi-zone transition probability models and estimate the optimal statistical parameters using the modified Gauss-Newton-Levenberg-Marquardt method. The Jacobian matrix is computed by the sensitivity equation method, which results in an accurate inverse solution with quantification of parameter uncertainty. We use the Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, as an example for elucidating the methodology of alluvial fan characterization. The alluvial fan is divided...

Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Gable, Carl; Teatini, Pietro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Improvement of the Post-Blowdown Fuel Channel Analysis Model of Candu for a 35% RIH Break LOCA Without ECC  

SciTech Connect

A CATHENA model for a post-blowdown fuel channel analysis has been improved from an existing one for a Candu-6 reactor, and the analysis for a RIH 35% LBLOCA/LOECC has been performed. The results for the blowdown and post blowdown analyses show that the post blowdown model and its connection with the blowdown analysis model is successfully implemented. Also the 3-D CFD model for the fluid flow and heat transfer in the Candu fuel channel, is being developed for the post blowdown fuel channel heatup experiment CS28-1 using CFX 5.6 and its recent progress is described. (authors)

Rhee, B. W.; Kang, H.S.; Min, B.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Assembling Crustal Geophysical Data for Geothermal Exploration in the Great Basin, Louie and Coolbaugh. We have compiled velocity information from sources in the literature, results of previous seismic experiments and earthquake-monitoring projects, and data donated from mining, geothermal, and petroleum companies. We also collected (May 2002 and August 2004) two new crustal refraction profiles across western Nevada and the northern and central Sierra. These sections had not been well characterized previously.

388

A general approach to develop reduced order models for simulation of solid oxide fuel cell stacks  

SciTech Connect

A reduced order modeling approach based on response surface techniques was developed for solid oxide fuel cell stacks. This approach creates a numerical model that can quickly compute desired performance variables of interest for a stack based on its input parameter set. The approach carefully samples the multidimensional design space based on the input parameter ranges, evaluates a detailed stack model at each of the sampled points, and performs regression for selected performance variables of interest to determine the responsive surfaces. After error analysis to ensure that sufficient accuracy is established for the response surfaces, they are then implemented in a calculator module for system-level studies. The benefit of this modeling approach is that it is sufficiently fast for integration with system modeling software and simulation of fuel cell-based power systems while still providing high fidelity information about the internal distributions of key variables. This paper describes the sampling, regression, sensitivity, error, and principal component analyses to identify the applicable methods for simulating a planar fuel cell stack.

Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Lo, Chaomei; Lai, Canhai; Agarwal, Khushbu; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405  

SciTech Connect

A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert [Fauske and Associates, LLC, 16W070 83rd St., Burr Ridge, IL, 60527 (United States)] [Fauske and Associates, LLC, 16W070 83rd St., Burr Ridge, IL, 60527 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cyclus fuel cycle simulation capabilities with the CYDER disposal system model  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm and supporting database for rapid thermal repository loading calculation was implemented in CYDER. This algorithm employs a Specific Temperature Change (STC) method and has resulted from combining detailed spent nuclear fuel composition data with a detailed thermal repository performance analysis tool from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign. By abstraction of and benchmarking against these detailed thermal models, CYDER captures the dominant physics of thermal phenomena affecting repository capacity in various geologic media and as a function of spent fuel composition. Abstraction based on detailed computational thermal repository performance calculations with the LLNL semi-analytic model has resulted in implementation of the STC estimation algorithm and a supporting reference dataset. This method is capable of rapid estimation of temperature increase near emplacement tunnels as a function of waste composition, limiting radius, waste package spacing, near field thermal conductivity and near field thermal diffusivity. The sensitivity analyses and validation efforts conducted in this work demonstrate the capability of the CYDER tool to provide repository capacity and performance metrics in the context of dynamic fuel cycle.

Huff, K.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Uranium Nitride as LWR TRISO Fuel: Thermodynamic Modeling of U-C-N  

SciTech Connect

TRISO coated particle fuel is envisioned as a next generation replacement for current urania pellet fuel in LWR applications. To obtain adequate fissile loading the kernel of the TRISO particle will need to be UN. In support of the fuel development effort, an assessment of phase regions of interest in the U-C-N system was undertaken as the fuel will be prepared by the carbothermic reduction of the oxide and it will be in equilibrium with carbon within the TRISO particle. The phase equilibria and thermochemistry of the U-C-N system is reviewed, including nitrogen pressure measurements above various phase fields. Selected measurements were used to fit a first order model of the UC1-xNx phase, represented by the inter-solution of UN and UC. Fit to the data was significantly improved by also adjusting the heat of formation for UN by ~12 kJ/mol and the phase equilbria was best reproduced by also adjusting the heat for U2N3 by +XXX. The determined interaction parameters yielded a slightly positive deviation from ideality, which agrees with lattice parameter measurements which show positive deviation from Vegard s law. The resultant model together with reported values for other phases in the system were used to generate isothermal sections of the U-C-N phase diagram. Nitrogen partial pressures were also computed for regions of interest.

Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Shin, Dongwon [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to describe the strategy for coupling three process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM). The FDM, which is based on fundamental chemical and physical principals, provides direct calculation of radionuclide source terms for use in repository performance assessments. The G-value for H2O2 production (Gcond) to be used in the Mixed Potential Model (MPM) (H2O2 is the only radiolytic product presently included but others will be added as appropriate) needs to account for intermediate spur reactions. The effects of these intermediate reactions on [H2O2] are accounted for in the Radiolysis Model (RM). This report details methods for applying RM calculations that encompass the effects of these fast interactions on [H2O2] as the solution composition evolves during successive MPM iterations and then represent the steady-state [H2O2] in terms of an effective instantaneous or conditional generation value (Gcond). It is anticipated that the value of Gcond will change slowly as the reaction progresses through several iterations of the MPM as changes in the nature of fuel surface occur. The Gcond values will be calculated with the RM either after several iterations or when concentrations of key reactants reach threshold values determined from previous sensitivity runs. Sensitivity runs with RM indicate significant changes in G-value can occur over narrow composition ranges. The objective of the mixed potential model (MPM) is to calculate the used fuel degradation rates for a wide range of disposal environments to provide the source term radionuclide release rates for generic repository concepts. The fuel degradation rate is calculated for chemical and oxidative dissolution mechanisms using mixed potential theory to account for all relevant redox reactions at the fuel surface, including those involving oxidants produced by solution radiolysis and provided by the radiolysis model (RM). The RM calculates the concentration of species generated at any specific time and location from the surface of the fuel. Several options being considered for coupling the RM and MPM are described in the report. Different options have advantages and disadvantages based on the extent of coding that would be required and the ease of use of the final product.

Buck, Edgar C.; Jerden, James L.; Ebert, William L.; Wittman, Richard S.

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4  

SciTech Connect

Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay heat of the fuel in the pool was, at the time of the accident, 2.284 MWt, of which 1.872 MWt were from the 548 assemblies of the last core discharged and 0.412 MWt were from the older 783 assemblies. These decay heat values were calculated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORIGEN2.2 code (Ref. 2) - they agree with values reported elsewhere (Ref. 3). The pool dimensions are 9.9 m x 12.2 m x 11.8 m (height), and with the water level at 11.5 m, the pool volume is 1389 m3, of which only 1240 m3 is water, as some volume is taken by the fuel and by the fuel racks. The initial water temperature of the SFP4 was assumed to be 301 K. The fuel racks are made of an aluminum alloy but are modeled in MELCOR with stainless steel and B4C. MELCOR calculations were completed for different initial water levels: 11.5 m (pool almost full, water is only 0.3 m below the top rim), 4.4577 m (top of the racks), 4.2 m, and 4.026 m (top of the active fuel). A calculation was also completed for a rapid loss of water due to a leak at the bottom of the pool, with the fuel rapidly uncovered and oxidized in air. Results of these calculations are shown in the enclosed Table I. The calculation with the initial water level at 11.5 m (full pool) takes 11 days for the water to boil down to the top of the fuel racks, 11.5 days for the fuel to be uncovered, 14.65 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen and 19 days for the pool to be completely dry. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.4577 m, takes 1.1 days to uncover the fuel and 4.17 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.02 m takes 3.63 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen this is exactly the time when the actual explosion occurred in Unit 4. Finally, fuel oxidation in air after the pool drained the water in 20 minutes, generates only 10 kg of hydrogen this is because very little steam is available and Zircaloy (Zr) oxidation with the oxygen of the air does not generate hydrogen. MELCOR calculated water levels and hydrogen generated in the SFP4 as a function of time for initial water le

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Radiolysis Model Sensitivity Analysis for a Used Fuel Storage Canister  

SciTech Connect

This report fulfills the M3 milestone (M3FT-13PN0810027) to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible 300-year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value. This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for 111 reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air.

Wittman, Richard S.

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Feedback Model for Radio Sources Fueled by Cooling Flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many clusters of galaxies, radiative cooling in the central regions appears to drive an accretion flow. Many of these "cooling-flow clusters" possess strong radio sources in the central regions, which suggests a causal relation between the cooling flow and the radio source. We consider a general model in which a cooling flow produces and interacts with relativistic electrons in the core of the cluster. These electrons heat the inflowing gas, generating negative feedback that reduces the accretion rate. For sufficiently strong feedback, the accretion flow shows an oscillatory behavior on a timescale of several hundred million years.

Wallace Tucker; Laurence

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Deconfinement transition in protoneutron stars: Analysis within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of color superconductivity and neutrino trapping on the deconfinement transition of hadronic matter into quark matter in a protoneutron star. To describe the strongly interacting matter a two-phase picture is adopted. For the hadronic phase we use different parametrizations of a nonlinear Walecka model which includes the whole baryon octet. For the quark-matter phase we use an SU(3){sub f} Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective model which includes color superconductivity. We impose color and flavor conservation during the transition in such a way that just deconfined quark matter is transitorily out of equilibrium with respect to weak interactions. We find that deconfinement is more difficult for small neutrino content and it is easier for lower temperatures although these effects are not too large. In addition they will tend to cancel each other as the protoneutron star cools and deleptonizes, resulting a transition density that is roughly constant along the evolution of the protoneutron star. According to these results the deconfinement transition is favored after substantial cooling and contraction of the protoneutron star.

Lugones, G.; Carmo, T. A. S. do [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre (Brazil); Grunfeld, A. G. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departmento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box: 36 Al-Khode 123 Muscat (Oman); Scoccola, N. N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departmento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453, (1078) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket  

SciTech Connect

This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated at a system power level of 2000 MW{sub th}, took about 3.5 years to reach full plateau power, and was capable of an End of Plateau burnup of 38.7 %FIMA if considering just the neutronic constraints in the system design; however, fuel performance constraints led to a maximum credible burnup of 12.1 %FIMA due to a combination of internal gas pressure and irradiation effects on the TRISO materials (especially PyC) leading to SiC pressure vessel failures. The optimal neutron spectrum for the thorium-fueled blanket options evaluated seemed to favor a hard spectrum (low but non-zero neutron multiplier thicknesses and high TRISO packing fractions) in terms of neutronic performance but the fuel performance constraints demonstrated that a significantly softer spectrum would be needed to decrease the rate of accumulation of fast neutron fluence in order to improve the maximum credible burnup the system could achieve.

Powers, J J

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous CFD Fuel Models for Phase I of the IAEA CRP on HTR Uncertainties Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel models was performed as part of the Phase I calculations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinate Research Program (CRP) on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Uncertainties in Modeling (UAM). This study was focused on the nominal localized stand-alone fuel thermal response, as defined in Ex. I-3 and I-4 of the HTR UAM. The aim of the stand-alone thermal unit-cell simulation is to isolate the effect of material and boundary input uncertainties on a very simplified problem, before propagation of these uncertainties are performed in subsequent coupled neutronics/thermal fluids phases on the benchmark. In many of the previous studies for high temperature gas cooled reactors, the volume-averaged homogeneous mixture model of a single fuel compact has been applied. In the homogeneous model, the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in the fuel compact were not modeled directly and an effective thermal conductivity was employed for the thermo-physical properties of the fuel compact. On the contrary, in the heterogeneous model, the uranium carbide (UCO), inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers of the TRISO fuel particles are explicitly modeled. The fuel compact is modeled as a heterogeneous mixture of TRISO fuel kernels embedded in H-451 matrix graphite. In this study, a steady-state and transient CFD simulations were performed with both homogeneous and heterogeneous models to compare the thermal characteristics. The nominal values of the input parameters are used for this CFD analysis. In a future study, the effects of input uncertainties in the material properties and boundary parameters will be investigated and reported.

Gerhard Strydom; Su-Jong Yoon

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Insights gained from solvable models into a variety of phase transitions, including emergent assemblies plus isoelectronic series of atomic ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three solvable models are set out in some detail in reviewing different types of phase transitions. Two of these relate directly to emergent critical phenomena, viz. melting and magnetic transitions in heavy rare-earth metals, and secondly, via the $3d$ Ising model, to critical behaviour in an insulating ferromagnet such as CrBr$_3$. The final `transition', however, concerns ionization of an electron in an isoelectronic series with $N$ electrons as the atomic number $Z$ is reduced below that of the neutral atom. These solvable models are, throughout, brought into contact either with experiment, or with very precise numerical modelling on real materials.

March, N H; Pucci, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

THETRIS: A micro-scale temperature and gas release model for TRISO fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with submillimeter-sized kernels formed into tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models of TRISO particles are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions during fast transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Most accident scenarios in \\{HTRs\\} are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations, a meso-scale, or pebble- and compact-scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature as the fission thermal energy transports out of the kernel and into the surrounding matrix with a much shorter time constant. Therefore, in most cases, the matrix can be assumed to be in quasi-static equilibrium with the kernels. These models, however, fail to provide accurate information on the state of the various components of the TRISO during the early stages of transients. Since the coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNODTHERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas-release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models of TRISO particles, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. Analysis of bounding benchmark transients yield good agreement with other codes in which the TRISO particles are modeled explicitly. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of an inter-layer gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can yield responses during fast transients that depart significantly from those in which no gap is present in the model. The new model was applied to an extreme (beyond design basis) scenario in order to observe the behavior of the fuel during a large prompt critical reactivity insertion. Although a large amount of fission energy was deposited rapidly into the fuel, the kernel temperature is shown to stay well below the melting point and the silicon carbide layer remained well below the temperature above which failure is expected to occur. The explicit treatment of the TRISO particle geometry leads to much lower estimations of power peaking during the transient and a greater degree of negative Doppler feedback.

Javier Ortensi; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Internal Gas Pressure Behavior in Mixed-Oxide Fuel Rods Fuels During Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel / Symposium on Theoretical Models for Predicting In-Reactor Performance of Fuel and Cladding Material

T. B. Burley; M. D. Freshley

403

Dynamic modelling and simulation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell used in vehicle considering heat transfer effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell technology is recently becoming one of the most interesting fields for the car companies to invest in. This interest is because of their high efficiency and zero environmental pollution. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate type of fuel cells for use in vehicles due to their low performance temperature and high power density. Air and fuel mass flow rate and partial pressure fuel cell stack temperature relative humidity of fuel cellmembrane and heat and water management are the effective parameters of fuel cellpower systems. Good transient behavior is one of the important factors that affect the success of fuel cell vehicles. In order to avoid stack voltage drop during transient condition the control system of fuel cell vehicle is required to preserve optimal temperature membrane hydration and partial pressure of reactants across the membrane. In this paper we developed a dynamic model for fuel cellpower system. The compressor dynamic supply and return manifold filling dynamics (anode and cathode) cooling system dynamic membrane hydration and time-evolving reactant partial pressure are the most significant parameters in transient and steady state of system. The effects of membrane humidity varying inlet air pressure and compressor performance condition on the generated power are studied in this paper.

S. M. Hosseini; A. H. Shamekhi; A. Yazdani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Darlene Steward/ Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Integrated Stationary Power and Transportation Workshop Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Introduction Goal: Develop a cost analysis tool that will be flexible and comprehensive enough to realistically analyze a wide variety of potential combined heat and power/hydrogen production scenarios Approach: Rely on the H2A discounted cash flow methodology to develop a new stationary systems model With the help of industry partners, develop and analyze a range of realistic case studies for tri-generation systems. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

405

Modeling of fission product release from HTR (high temperature reactor) fuel for risk analyses  

SciTech Connect

The US and FRG have developed methodologies to determine the performance of and fission product release from TRISO-coated fuel particles under postulated accident conditions. The paper presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison of US and FRG models. The models are those used by General Atomics (GA) and by the German Nuclear Research Center at Juelich (KFA/ISF). A benchmark calculation was performed for fuel temperatures predicted for the US Department of Energy sponsored Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Good agreement in the benchmark calculations supports the on-going efforts to verify and validate the independently developed codes of GA and KFA/ISF. This work was performed under the US/FRG Umbrella Agreement for Cooperation on Gas Cooled Reactor Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Bolin, J.; Verfondern, K.; Dunn, T.; Kania, M.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Computer modeling of single-cell and multicell thermionic fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

Modeling efforts are undertaken to perform coupled thermal-hydraulic and thermionic analysis for both single-cell and multicell thermionic fuel elements (TFE). The analysis--and the resulting MCTFE computer code (multicell thermionic fuel element)--is a steady-state finite volume model specifically designed to analyze cylindrical TFEs. It employs an interactive successive overrelaxation solution technique to solve for the temperatures throughout the TFE and a coupled thermionic routine to determine the total TFE performance. The calculated results include temperature distributions in all regions of the TFE, axial interelectrode voltages and current densities, and total TFE electrical output parameters including power, current, and voltage. MCTFE-generated results compare experimental data from the single-cell Topaz-II-type TFE and multicell data from the General Atomics 3H5 TFE to benchmark the accuracy of the code methods.

Dickinson, J.W.; Klein, A.C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Dynamo Onset as a First-Order Transition: Lessons from a Shell Model for Magnetohydrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We carry out systematic and high-resolution studies of dynamo action in a shell model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over wide ranges of the magnetic Prandtl number $Pr_{\\rm M}$ and the magnetic Reynolds number $Re_{\\rm M}$. Our study suggests that it is natural to think of dynamo onset as a nonequilibrium, first-order phase transition between two different turbulent, but statistically steady, states. The ratio of the magnetic and kinetic energies is a convenient order parameter for this transition. By using this order parameter, we obtain the stability diagram (or nonequilibrium phase diagram) for dynamo formation in our MHD shell model in the $(Pr^{-1}_{\\rm M}, Re_{\\rm M})$ plane. The dynamo boundary, which separates dynamo and no-dynamo regions, appears to have a fractal character. We obtain hysteretic behavior of the order parameter across this boundary and suggestions of nucleation-type phenomena.

Ganapati Sahoo; Dhrubaditya Mitra; Rahul Pandit

2009-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dynamo Onset as a First-Order Transition: Lessons from a Shell Model for Magnetohydrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We carry out systematic and high-resolution studies of dynamo action in a shell model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over wide ranges of the magnetic Prandtl number $Pr_{\\rm M}$ and the magnetic Reynolds number $Re_{\\rm M}$. Our study suggests that it is natural to think of dynamo onset as a nonequilibrium, first-order phase transition between two different turbulent, but statistically steady, states. The ratio of the magnetic and kinetic energies is a convenient order parameter for this transition. By using this order parameter, we obtain the stability diagram (or nonequilibrium phase diagram) for dynamo formation in our MHD shell model in the $(Pr^{-1}_{\\rm M}, Re_{\\rm M})$ plane. The dynamo boundary, which separates dynamo and no-dynamo regions, appears to have a fractal character. We obtain hysteretic behavior of the order parameter across this boundary and suggestions of nucleation-type phenomena.

Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Quantum phase transitions in exactly solvable one-dimensional compass models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an exact solution for a class of one-dimensional compass models which stand for interacting orbital degrees of freedom in a Mott insulator. By employing the Jordan-Wigner transformation we map these models on noninteracting fermions and discuss how spin correlations, high degeneracy of the ground state, and $Z_2$ symmetry in the quantum compass model are visible in the fermionic language. Considering a zigzag chain of ions with singly occupied $e_g$ orbitals ($e_g$ orbital model) we demonstrate that the orbital excitations change qualitatively with increasing transverse field, and that the excitation gap closes at the quantum phase transition to a polarized state. This phase transition disappears in the quantum compass model with maximally frustrated orbital interactions which resembles the Kitaev model. Here we find that finite transverse field destabilizes the orbital-liquid ground state with macroscopic degeneracy, and leads to peculiar behavior of the specific heat and orbital susceptibility at finite temperature. We show that the entropy and the cooling rate at finite temperature exhibit quite different behavior near the critical point for these two models.

Wen-Long You; Peter Horsch; Andrzej M. Ole?

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

410

Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A long term radiological risk model for plutonium-fueled and fission reactor space nuclear system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the optimization of the RISK III mathematical model, which provides risk assessment for the use of a plutonium-fueled, fission reactor in space systems. The report discusses possible scenarios leading to radiation releases on the ground; distinctions are made for an intact reactor and a dispersed reactor. Also included are projected dose equivalents for various accident situations. 54 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs. (TEM)

Bartram, B.W.; Dougherty, D.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Fuel Guide Economy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS IN POPULAR VEHICLE CLASSES Listed below are the vehicles with the highest fuel economy for the most popular classes, including both automatic and manual transmissions and gasoline and diesel vehicles. Please be aware that many of these vehicles come in a range of engine sizes and trim lines, resulting in different fuel economy values. Check the fuel economy guide or the fuel economy sticker on new vehicles to find the values for a particular version of a vehicle. CONTENTS MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS ................. 1 HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE ..................................................... 2 FUEL ECONOMY AND YOUR ANNUAL FUEL COSTS .......... 3 WHY FUEL ECONOMY IS IMPORTANT .................................

414

Core-crust transition properties of neutron stars within systematically varied extended relativistic mean-field model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The model dependence and the symmetry energy dependence of the core-crust transition properties for the neutron stars are studied using three different families of systematically varied extended relativistic mean field model. Several forces within each of the families are so considered that they yield wide variations in the values of the nuclear symmetry energy $a_{\\rm sym}$ and its slope parameter $L$ at the saturation density. The core-crust transition density is calculated using a method based on random-phase-approximation. The core-crust transition density is strongly correlated, in a model independent manner, with the symmetry energy slope parameter evaluated at the saturation density. The pressure at the transition point dose not show any meaningful correlations with the symmetry energy parameters at the saturation density. At best, pressure at the transition point is correlated with the symmetry energy parameters and their linear combination evaluated at the some sub-saturation density. Yet, such corre...

Sulaksono, A; Agrawal, B K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes  

SciTech Connect

A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

Perry, M.L.; McLarnon, F.R.; Newman, J.S.; Cairns, E.J.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

417

2015 Hydrogen Student Design Contest Challenges Students to Develop Innovative Hydrogen Fueling Station Business and Financing Models  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Hydrogen Education Foundation announced the 11th annual Hydrogen Student Design Contest, which will challenge student teams to develop business and financing models for hydrogen fueling stations. Registration for the Contest is open until January 16, 2015.

418

Critical analysis of plume containment modeling in a thin heterogeneous unconfined aquifer: application to a bulk fuel storage terminal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reported hydrocarbon contamination and subsequent consultant work at a bulk fuel storage terminal has instigated the need to critically analyze modeling techniques in thin, heterogeneous, unconfined aquifers. This study provides an aquifer...

Mejia, Karl Edward

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Integrated fuel performance and thermal-hydraulic sub-channel models for analysis of sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) show promise as an effective way to produce clean safe nuclear power while properly managing the fuel cycle. Accurate computer modeling is an important step in the design and eventual licensing ...

Fricano, Joseph William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of dry spent nuclear fuel storage canisters  

SciTech Connect

One of the interim storage configurations being considered for aluminum-clad foreign research reactor fuel, such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) design, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options, a computational and experimental program was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The objective was to develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models which would be benchmarked using data obtained from a full scale heat transfer experiment conducted in the SRS Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory. The current work documents the CFD approach and presents comparison of results with experimental data. CFDS-FLOW3D (version 3.3) CFD code has been used to model the 3-dimensional convective velocity and temperature distributions within a single dry storage canister of MTR fuel elements. For the present analysis, the Boussinesq approximation was used for the consideration of buoyancy-driven natural convection. Comparison of the CFD code can be used to predict reasonably accurate flow and thermal behavior of a typical foreign research reactor fuel stored in a dry storage facility.

Lee, S.Y.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect

As a result of corrosion during normal operation in nuclear reactors, hydrogen can enter the zirconium-alloy fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride platelets, which can severely degrade the cladding ductility. Under a heterogeneous temperature distribution, hydrides tend to accumulate in the colder areas, creating local spots of degraded cladding that can favor crack initiation. Therefore, an estimation of the local hydride distribution is necessary to help predict the risk of cladding failure. The hydride distribution is governed by three competing phenomena. Hydrogen in solid solution diffuses under a concentration gradient due to Ficks law and under a temperature gradient due to the Soret effect. Precipitation of the hydride platelets occurs once the hydrogen solubility limit is reached. A model of these phenomena was implemented in the 3D fuel performance code BISON in order to calculate the hydrogen distribution for arbitrary geometries, such as a nuclear fuel rod, and is now available for BISON users. Simulations have been performed on simple geometries to validate the model and its implementation. The simulations predict that before precipitation occurs, hydrogen tends to accumulate in the colder spots due to the Soret effect. Once the solubility limit is reached, hydrogen precipitates and forms a rim close to the outer edge of the cladding. The simulations also predict that the reactor shut down has little effect on already precipitated hydrides but causes the remaining hydrogen to precipitate homogeneously into hydrides.

Jason D. Hales; Various

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Model for Gasification of Residual Fuels from Petroleum Refineries Using the Equation Oriented (EO) Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attractive way to use residual fuels from petroleum refineries (vacuum residue and petcoke) is their gasification to produce syngas, which contains mainly H2, CO and small quantities of CH4, CO2, as well as nitrogen and sulfur compounds. ... Vacuum residue and petroleum coke (petcoke) are, respectively, heavy liquid and solid byproducts from crude oil refining, they are often used as fuel in boilers for power production, natural gas has been more commonly used in the past few years in power generation; reducing the market for both vacuum residue and petcoke. ... Regarding petroleum refinery residuals Uson et al.(1) developed a model for cogasification of coal, petcoke and biomass, based on reaction kinetics. ...

Jorge E. Marin-Sanchez; Miguel A. Rodriguez-Toral

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect

The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

Niels Gronbech Jensen; Mark Asta; Nigel Browning'Vidvuds Ozolins; Axel van de Walle; Christopher Wolverton

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

425

Modeling Investment Strategies in the Transition to a Hydrogen Transportation Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economy" personal vehicles will be powered by either fuel cells or hydrogen fueled internal combustion in hydrogen fueling stations. An investigation focusing on the driver agents and how they drive the demand for hydrogen fuel was reported at the 2008 NHA Conference. In this report we shift the focus to the investor

Kemner, Ken

426

Fuel cycle modelling of open cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, we have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open cycle thoriumuranium-fuelled (ThU-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. This has been done by assessing three such systems, each of which requires uranium enriched to ?20% 235U, in comparison to a reference uranium-fuelled (U-fuelled) system over various performance indicators, spanning material flows, waste composition, economics, and proliferation resistance. The values of these indicators were determined using the UK National Nuclear Laboratorys fuel cycle modelling code ORION. This code required the results of lattice-physics calculations to model the neutronics of each nuclear energy system, and these were obtained using various nuclear reactor physics codes and burn-up routines. In summary, all three ThU-fuelled nuclear energy systems required more separative work capacity than the equivalent benchmark U-fuelled system, with larger levelised fuel cycle costs and larger levelised cost of electricity. Although a reduction of ?6% in the required uranium ore per kWh was seen for one of the ThU-fuelled systems compared to the reference U-fuelled system, the other two ThU-fuelled systems required more uranium ore per kWh than the reference. Negligible advantages and disadvantages were observed for the amount and the properties of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated by the systems considered. Two of the ThU-fuelled systems showed some benefit in terms of proliferation resistance of the SNF generated. Overall, it appears that there is little merit in incorporating thorium into nuclear energy systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles.

S.F. Ashley; B.A. Lindley; G.T. Parks; W.J. Nuttall; R. Gregg; K.W. Hesketh; U. Kannan; P.D. Krishnani; B. Singh; A. Thakur; M. Cowper; A. Talamo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Free Energy and Specific Heat in Ferroelectric Phase Transition in Terms of a Single-Mode Anharmonic Oscillator Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Copyright (c) 1971 Progress of Theoretical Physics March 1971 letter Letters to the Editor Free Energy and Specific Heat in Ferroelectric Phase Transition in Terms of a Single-Mode Anharmonic Oscillator Model Yositaka Onodera Department......

Yositaka Onodera

1971-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Free Energy and Specific Heat in Ferroelectric Phase Transition in Terms of a Single-Mode Anharmonic Oscillator Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Copyright (c) 1976 Progress of Theoretical Physics March 1976 correction Errata Free Energy and Specific Heat in Ferroelectric Phase Transition in Terms of a Single-Mode Anharmonic Oscillator Model Yositaka Onodera The......

Yositaka Onodera

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Modeling Gas-Phase Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and InfrastructureIN POLYMER-ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A. Z. Weber and J. Newmandiffusion of gases in a fuel-cell gas-diffusion layer are

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Homogenization of a Catalyst Layer Model for Periodically Distributed Pore Geometries in PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......nanostructured thin film catalysts for PEM fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources...Properties and Performance. PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis and Catalyst...Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: Batteries, Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells. New Carbon Based Materials......

Markus Schmuck; Peter Berg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operating Costs with Engineering and Econometric Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft OperatingCapturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operatingare in part due to fuel price uncertainty. To address this

Smirti Ryerson, Megan; Hansen, Mark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System, Proceedings ofmodel for an automotive PEM fuel cell system with imbedded 1Friedman and R.M. Moore, PEM Fuel Cell System Optimization,

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Performance of PEM Fuel Cells with Conventional andLayers of the Cathode of a PEM Fuel Cell , Journal of thea Microporous Sublayer for PEM Fuel Cells , Journal of Power

Weber, Adam Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A Transaction Choice Model for Forecasting Demand for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forecasting Demand Alternative-Fuel Vehicles for DavldNG DEMANDFOR ALTERNATIVE-FUEL VEHICLES DavidBrownstone,interested in promoting alternative-fuel vehicles. Tlus is

Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.; Ren, Weiping

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Transactions Choice Model for Forecasting Demand for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forecasting Demand Alternative-Fuel Vehicles for DavldNG DEMANDFOR ALTERNATIVE-FUEL VEHICLES DavidBrownstone,interested in promoting alternative-fuel vehicles. Tlus is

Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S; Golob, Thomas F; Ren, Weiping

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Quantum Quenches and Off-Equilibrium Dynamical Transition in the Infinite-Dimensional Bose-Hubbard Model  

SciTech Connect

We study the off-equilibrium dynamics of the infinite-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model after a quantum quench. The dynamics can be analyzed exactly by mapping it to an effective Newtonian evolution. For integer filling, we find a dynamical transition separating regimes of small and large quantum quenches starting from the superfluid state. This transition is very similar to the one found for the fermionic Hubbard model by mean field approximations.

Sciolla, Bruno; Biroli, Giulio [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/IPhT-CNRS/URA 2306 CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

437

Improved Modeling and Understanding of Diffusion-Media Wettability on Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Performance  

SciTech Connect

A macroscopic-modeling methodology to account for the chemical and structural properties of fuel-cell diffusion media is developed. A previous model is updated to include for the first time the use of experimentally measured capillary pressure -- saturation relationships through the introduction of a Gaussian contact-angle distribution into the property equations. The updated model is used to simulate various limiting-case scenarios of water and gas transport in fuel-cell diffusion media. Analysis of these results demonstrate that interfacial conditions are more important than bulk transport in these layers, where the associated mass-transfer resistance is the result of higher capillary pressures at the boundaries and the steepness of the capillary pressure -- saturation relationship. The model is also used to examine the impact of a microporous layer, showing that it dominates the response of the overall diffusion medium. In addition, its primary mass-transfer-related effect is suggested to be limiting the water-injection sites into the more porous gas-diffusion layer.

Weber, Adam

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

438

Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of different nature fuel chars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reactivity in steam of five different types of solid fuels (two coals, two types of biomass and a petcoke) has been studied. The fuel chars...

J. Fermoso; B. Arias; C. Pevida; M. G. Plaza

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Incorporating stakeholders' perspectives into models of new technology diffusion: The case of fuel-cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include on-board hydrogen storage and fuel cell durability.drive Hydrogen production Hydrogen storage Hydrogen fuelingnecessary are on-board hydrogen storage and fuel cells. The

Collantes, Gustavo O

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A Two Dimensional Model of a Direct Propane Fuel Cell with an Interdigitated Flow Field .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increasing environmental concerns as well as diminishing fossil fuel reserves call for a new generation of energy conversion technologies. Fuel cells, which convert the chemical (more)

Khakdaman, Hamidreza

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Comprehensive, Consistent and Systematic Approach to the Mathematical Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are a promising zero-emission power source for transportation applications. An important tool for advancing PEM fuel cell technology is (more)

Baschuk, Jeffrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Peak Oil Demand: The Role of Fuel Efficiency and Alternative Fuels in a Global Oil Production Decline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peak Oil Demand: The Role of Fuel Efficiency and Alternative Fuels in a Global Oil Production Decline ... (11) Another analysis suggests that a transition to hydrogen- and natural-gas-fueled vehiclesand the associated climate benefitswill partly be driven by dwindling oil supplies. ... Within each class, we do not attempt to predict the exact substitute that will dominate (for example, whether electricity, hydrogen fuel cells, or natural gas will prevail in the passenger car market), but rather model the aggregate contribution of alternatives to conventional oil. ...

Adam R. Brandt; Adam Millard-Ball; Matthew Ganser; Steven M. Gorelick

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

443

Impact of natural gas fuel composition on criteria, toxic, and particle emissions from transit buses equipped with lean burn and stoichiometric engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated the impacts of varying natural gas composition on the exhaust emissions from different technology transit buses. For this study, two CNG (compressed natural gas) buses equipped with lean burn combustion and \\{OCs\\} (oxidation catalysts), and one stoichiometric CNG bus equipped with a TWC (three-way catalyst) and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) were tested on a chassis dynamometer over the CBD (Central Business District) cycle on six different gas blends each. The gases represented a range of compositions from gases with high levels of methane and correspondingly lower energy contents/WN (Wobbe number) to gases with higher levels of heavier hydrocarbons and correspondingly higher energy contents/WN. For the lean burn buses, gases with low methane contents exhibited higher \\{NOx\\} (nitrogen oxides) (19%53%) and NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon) (39%102%) emissions, but lower emissions of THC (total hydrocarbon) (9%24%), CH4 (methane) (23%33%), and formaldehyde emissions (14%45%). The stoichiometric engine bus with a TWC showed significantly reduced \\{NOx\\} and THC emissions compared to the lean burn buses, but did show higher levels of CO (carbon monoxide) and NH3 (ammonia). PM (particulate matter) mass emissions did not show any fuel effects, while PN (particle number) emissions exhibited some reductions for the higher WN gases.

Maryam Hajbabaei; Georgios Karavalakis; Kent C. Johnson; Linda Lee; Thomas D. Durbin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND FUEL CONSUMPTION FOR DIESEL - POWERED NONROAD FORKLIFT ENGINES ,AND FUEL CONSUMPTION FOR DIESEL - POWERED NONROAD FORKLIFT ENGINES ,

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Non-equilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations has recently been proposed by Kadau et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)). The non-equilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities $v$ the model shows mean field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the non-equilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at $v>0$, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the cross-over from Ising to mean field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analysed in one and two dimensions.

Alfred Hucht

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

Pseudocrystalline model of the magnetic anisotropy in amorphous rare-earthtransition-metal thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pseudocrystalline model is proposed to explain the occurrence of perpendicular anisotropy in amorphous rare-earthtransition metal (R-T) thin films. It is based on the central hypothesis that during layer-by-layer growth small planar hexagonal units are formed defining on average a preferential axis perpendicular to the film plane. The units are similar in structure to relaxed crystalline ones and are estimated to typically comprise six rare-earth atoms. They are regarded as an idealized model of the short-range order and are consistent with the known nearest-neighbor R-T and T-T coordination numbers in the amorphous state. This model is able to explain the known experimental results concerning the influence of composition, substrate temperature, annealing, and bombardment effects during sputter deposition on the magnetic anisotropy of thin amorphous rare-earthtransition-metal films of the system (Nd, Tb, Dy) (Fe, Co), as well as the destruction of this anisotropy by additives.

D. Mergel; H. Heitmann; P. Hansen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Phase transitions in a holographic s+p model with backreaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a previous paper (arXiv:1309.2204, JHEP 1311 (2013) 087), we present a holographic s+p superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk and study the competition and coexistence of the s-wave and p-wave orders in the probe limit. In this work we continue to study the model by considering the full back reaction. The model shows a rich phase structure and various condensate behaviors such as the "n-type" and "u-type" ones. The phase transitions to the p-wave phase or s+p coexisting phase become first order in strongly back reacted cases. In these first order phase transitions, the free energy curve always forms a swallow tail shape, in which the unstable s+p solution can also play an important role. The phase diagrams of this system are given in terms of the dimension of the scalar order and the temperature in the cases of eight different values of the back reaction parameter, which show that the region for the s+p coexisting phase is enlarged with a small or medium b...

Nie, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xin; Li, Li; Zeng, Hui

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels (I-NERI Annual Report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this INERI project is to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated particle fuels and to develop improved coated-particle fuel designs that can be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in fast gas-cooled reactors. Thermomechanical, thermophysical, and physiochemical material properties data were compiled by both the US and the French and preliminary assessments conducted. Comparison between U.S. and European data revealed many similarities and a few important differences. In all cases, the data needed for accurate fuel performance modeling of coated particle fuel at high burnup were lacking. The development of the INEEL fuel performance model, PARFUME, continued from earlier efforts. The statistical model being used to simulate the detailed finite element calculations is being upgraded and improved to allow for changes in fuel design attributes (e.g. thickness of layers, dimensions of kernel) as well as changes in important material properties to increase the flexibility of the code. In addition, modeling of other potentially important failure modes such as debonding and asphericity was started. A paper on the status of the model was presented at the HTR-2002 meeting in Petten, Netherlands in April 2002, and a paper on the statistical method was submitted to the Journal of Nuclear Material in September 2002. Benchmarking of the model against Japanese and an older DRAGON irradiation are planned. Preliminary calculations of the stresses in a coated particle have been calculated by the CEA using the ATLAS finite element model. This model and the material properties and constitutive relationships will be incorporated into a more general software platform termed Pleiades. Pleiades will be able to analyze different fuel forms at different scales (from particle to fuel body) and also handle the statistical variability in coated particle fuel. Diffusion couple experiments to study Ag and Pd transport through SiC were conducted. Analysis and characterization of the samples continues. Two active transport mechanisms are proposed: diffusion in SiC and release through SiC cracks or another, as yet undetermined, path. Silver concentration profiles determined by XPS analysis suggest diffusion within the SiC layer, most likely dominated by grain boundary diffusion. However, diffusion coefficients calculated from mass loss measurements suggest a much faster release path, postulated as small cracks or flaws that provide open paths with little resistance to silver migration. Work is ongoing to identify and characterize this path. Work on Pd behavior has begun and will continue next year.

Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Languille, Alain; Martin, Philippe; Ballinger, Ronald

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The piston-flow interaction as a model for the deflagration-to-detonation transition  

SciTech Connect

The piston-flow interaction induced by a piston pushing hydraulically resisted gas through a long tube is discussed. It is shown that the hydraulic resistance causes a significant precompression and preheating of the gas adjacent to the piston's edge. In the case of an explosive premixture this development may lead to a localized autoignition triggering detonation. It is suggested that the problem may serve as a guide for understanding the deflagration-to-detonation transition in tubes, with the piston modeling the impact of the advancing flame. (author)

Brailovsky, Irina; Kagan, Leonid; Sivashinsky, Gregory [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University (Israel)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Analytic estimation of the Lyapunov exponent in a mean-field model undergoing a phase transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The parametric instability contribution to the largest Lyapunov exponent ?1 is derived for a mean-field Hamiltonian model, with attractive long-range interactions. This uses a recent Riemannian approach to describe Hamiltonian chaos with a large number N of degrees of freedom. Through microcanonical estimates of suitable geometrical observables, the mean-field behavior of ?1 is analytically computed and related to the second-order phase transition undergone by the system. It predicts that chaoticity drops to zero at the critical temperature and remains vanishing above it, with ?1 scaling as N-(1/3) to the leading order in N.

Marie-Christine Firpo

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media inPolymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a quasipotential approach along with conformal mapping is used to model the diffusion media of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. This method provides a series solution that is grid independent and only requires integration along a single boundary to solve the problem. The approach accounts for nonisothermal phenomena, two-phase flow, correct placement of the electronic potential boundary condition, and multilayer media. The method is applied to a cathode diffusion medium to explore the interplay between water and thermal management and performance, the impact of the rib-to-channel ratio, and the existence of diffusion under the rib and flooding phenomena.

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

452

Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Equilibrium roughening transition in a one-dimensional modified sine-Gordon model Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC) and Departamento de Matemticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equilibrium roughening transition in a one-dimensional modified sine-Gordon model Saúl Ares* Grupo-Gordon model that exhibits a thermodynamic, roughening phase transition, in analogy with the two-dimensional and that it has a true phase transition makes it an ideal framework for further studies of roughening phase

Sánchez, Angel "Anxo"

454

Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

455

Modelling and forecasting fossil fuels, CO2 and electricity prices and their volatilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current uncertain context that affects both the world economy and the energy sector, with the rapid increase in the prices of oil and gas and the very unstable political situation that affects some of the largest raw materials producers, there is a need for developing efficient and powerful quantitative tools that allow to model and forecast fossil fuel prices, CO2 emission allowances prices as well as electricity prices. This will improve decision making for all the agents involved in energy issues. Although there are papers focused on modelling fossil fuel prices, CO2 prices and electricity prices, the literature is scarce on attempts to consider all of them together. This paper focuses on both building a multivariate model for the aforementioned prices and comparing its results with those of univariate ones, in terms of prediction accuracy (univariate and multivariate models are compared for a large span of days, all in the first 4 months in 2011) as well as extracting common features in the volatilities of the prices of all these relevant magnitudes. The common features in volatility are extracted by means of a conditionally heteroskedastic dynamic factor model which allows to solve the curse of dimensionality problem that commonly arises when estimating multivariate GARCH models. Additionally, the common volatility factors obtained are useful for improving the forecasting intervals and have a nice economical interpretation. Besides, the results obtained and methodology proposed can be useful as a starting point for risk management or portfolio optimization under uncertainty in the current context of energy markets.

Carolina Garca-Martos; Julio Rodrguez; Mara Jess Snchez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for both primary reference fuels, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Additionally, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the aforementioned fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

457

Environmental Aspects of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles: Parametric Modeling and Preliminary Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................... 10 2 Simplified schematic of the once-through open fuel cycle .................................. 12 3 Simplified schematic of the plutonium-burning fuel cycle .................................. 13 4 Simplified schematic of the actinide... ..................................................... 23 7 Material flow for the plutonium-burning fuel cycle, year 0 ................................. 24 8 Material flow for the plutonium-burning fuel cycle, year 40 ............................... 25 9 Material flow for the actinide-burning fuel...

Yancey, Kristina D.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

Model based detection of hydrogen leaks in a fuel cell stack Ari Ingimundarson and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise McKay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model based detection of hydrogen leaks in a fuel cell stack Ari Ingimundarson and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise McKay Abstract-- Hydrogen leaks are potentially dangerous faults in fuel cell systems detection, leak detection, hydrogen leak- age. I. INTRODUCTION A common safety concern for fuel cell systems

Stefanopoulou, Anna

459

Bulk viscosity and the phase transition of the linear sigma model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we deal with the critical behavior of the bulk viscosity in the linear sigma model (LSM) as an example of a system which can be treated by using different techniques. Starting from the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation we compute the bulk viscosity over entropy density of the LSM in the large-N limit. We search for a possible maximum of the bulk viscosity over entropy density at the critical temperature of the chiral phase transition. The information about this critical temperature, as well as the effective masses, is obtained from the effective potential. We find that the expected maximum (as a measure of the conformality loss) is absent in the large N in agreement with other models in the same limit. However, this maximum appears when, instead of the large-N limit, the Hartree approximation within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) formalism is used. Nevertheless, this last approach to the LSM does not give rise to the Goldstone theorem and also predicts a first order phase transition instead of the expected second order one. Therefore both, the large-N limit and the CJT-Hartree approximations, should be considered as complementary for the study of the critical behavior of the bulk viscosity in the LSM.

Antonio Dobado; Juan M. Torres-Rincon

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

460

Modeling phase transitions during the crystallization of a multicomponent fat under shear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystallization of multicomponent systems involves several competing physicochemical processes that depend on composition, temperature profiles, and shear rates applied. Research on these mechanisms is necessary in order to understand how natural materials form crystalline structures. Palm oil was crystallized in a Couette cell at 17 and 22C under shear rates ranging from 0to2880s?1 at a synchrotron beamline. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction patterns were captured at short time intervals during the crystallization process. Radial analysis of these patterns showed shear-induced acceleration of the phase transition from ? to ??. This effect can be explained by a simple model where the ? phase nucleates from the melt, a process which occurs independently of shear rate. The ? phase grows according to an Avrami growth model. The ?? phase nucleates on the ? crystallites, with the amount of ?? crystal formation dependent on the rate of transformation of ? to ?? as well as the growth rate of the ?? phase from the melt. The shear induced ?-?? phase transition acceleration occurs because under shear, the ? nuclei form many distinct small crystallites which can easily transform to the ?? form, while at lower shear rates, the ? nuclei tend to aggregate, thus retarding the nucleation of the ?? crystals. The displacement of the diffraction peak positions revealed that increased shear rate promotes the crystallization of the higher melting fraction, affecting the composition of the crystallites. Crystalline orientation was observed only at shear rates above 180s?1 at 17C and 720s?1 at 22C.

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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461

Electroweak phase transition in the economical 3-3-1 model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following our approach to the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) in our previous work, we consider the EWPT in the economical 3-3-1 (E331) model. Our analysis shows that the EWPT in the model is a sequence of two first-order phase transitions, $SU(3) \\rightarrow SU(2)$ at the TeV scale and $SU(2) \\rightarrow U(1)$ at the $100$ GeV scale. \\textbf{The EWPT $SU(3) \\rightarrow SU(2)$ is triggered by the new bosons and the exotic quarks; its strength is about $1 - 13$ if the mass ranges of these new particles are $10^2 \\,\\mathrm{GeV} - 10^3 \\,\\mathrm{GeV}$. The EWPT $SU(2) \\rightarrow SU(1)$ is strengthened by only the new bosons; its strength is about $1 - 1.15$ if the mass parts of $H^0_1$, $H^\\pm_2$ and $Y^\\pm$ are in the ranges $10 \\,\\mathrm{GeV} - 10^2 \\,\\mathrm{GeV}$. The contributions of $H^0_1$ and $H^{\\pm}_2$ to the strengths of both EWPTs may make them sufficiently strong to provide large deviations from thermal equilibrium and B violation necessary for baryogenesis.

Vo Quoc Phong; Hoang Ngoc Long; Vo Thanh Van; Le Hoang Minh

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

462

Steady- and transient-state analyses of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel loaded reactor core via two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel, a type of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF), consists of TRISO particles randomly dispersed in a SiC matrix. In this study, for a thermal analysis of the FCM fuel with such a high heterogeneity, a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model was applied by the authors. This model provides separate temperatures for the fuel-kernels and the SiC matrix. It also provides more realistic temperature profiles than those of harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, which are used for thermal analysis of a fuel element in \\{VHTRs\\} having a composition similar to the FCM fuel, because such models are unable to provide the fuel-kernel and graphite matrix temperatures separately. In this study, coupled with a neutron diffusion model, a FCM fuel-loaded reactor core is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model at steady- and transient-states. The results are compared to those from harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, i.e., we compare keff eigenvalues, power distributions, and temperature profiles in the hottest single-channel at steady-state. At transient-state, we compare total powers, reactivity, and maximum temperatures in the hottest single-channel obtained by the different thermal analysis models. The different thermal analysis models and the availability of fuel-kernel temperatures in the two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model for Doppler temperature feedback cause significant differences as revealed by comparisons.

Yoonhee Lee; Nam Zin Cho

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

464

Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership Hydrogen Delivery, Storage and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. ­ The current capital costs for the hydrogen pipelines in the model are based on 1.1X the price of steel natural that the refueling station default compressor capital costs are based on a 300 psi inlet pressure.) 2. CurrentJoint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership Hydrogen

465

Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model of hydrogen fuel cell kinetic losses includingschematic of typical hydrogen fuel cell performancephase factors on hydrogen fuel cell theoretical efficiency,

Parra, Erika Andrea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Modeling the oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions, February 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7-014 7-014 Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions February 2007 David L. Greene, Editor DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD: 703-487-4639 Fax: 703-605-6900 E-mail: info@ntis.fedworld.gov Web site: http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm

467

Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) (more)

Arsalis, Alexandros

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory describes a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems.

469

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

470

Hydrodynamic modeling of deconfinement phase transition in heavy-ion collisions at NICA-FAIR energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use (3+1) dimensional ideal hydrodynamics to describe the space-time evolution of strongly interacting matter created in Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions. The model is applied for the domain of bombarding energies 1-160 AGeV which includes future NICA and FAIR experiments. Two equations of state are used: the first one corresponding to resonance hadron gas and the second one including the deconfinement phase transition. The initial state is represented by two Lorentz-boosted nuclei. Dynamical trajectories of matter in the central box of the system are analyzed. They can be well represented by a fast shock-wave compression followed by a relatively slow isentropic expansion. The parameters of collective flows and hadronic spectra are calculated under assumption of the isochronous freeze-out. It is shown that the deconfinement phase transition leads to broadening of proton rapidity distributions, increase of elliptic flows and formation of the directed antiflow in the central rapidity region. These effects are most pronounced at bombarding energies around 10 AGeV, when the system spends the longest time in the mixed phase. From the comparison with three-fluid calculations we conclude that the transparency effects are not so important in central collisions at NICA-FAIR energies (below 30 AGeV).

A. V. Merdeev; L. M. Satarov; I. N. Mishustin

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

471

A robust approach to battery fuel gauging, part I: Real time model identification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the first of a series of papers on battery fuel gauge (BFG), we present a real time parameter estimation strategy for robust state of charge (SOC) tracking. The proposed parameter estimation scheme has the following novel features: it models hysteresis as an error in the open circuit voltage (OCV) and employs a combination of real time, linear parameter estimation and SOC tracking technique to compensate for it. This obviates the need for modeling of hysteresis as a function of SOC and load current. We identify the presence of correlated noise that has been so far ignored in the literature and use it to enhance the accuracy of model identification. As a departure from the conventional one model fits all strategy, we identify four different equivalent models of the battery that represent four modes of typical battery operation and develop the framework for seamless SOC tracking by switching. The proposed parameter approach enables a robust initialization/re-initialization strategy for continuous operation of the BFG. The performance of the online parameter estimation scheme was first evaluated through simulated data. Then, the proposed algorithm was validated using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) data collected from commercially available Li-ion batteries.

B. Balasingam; G.V. Avvari; B. Pattipati; K.R. Pattipati; Y. Bar-Shalom

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Utilization of a finite element model to verify spent nuclear fuel storage rack welds  

SciTech Connect

Elastic and plastic finite element analyses were performed for the inner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack designed for installation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The model was specifically developed to verify the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for this task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the inner tie welds when the rack was subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as defined by the rack`s designer. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The results confirm that the welds joining the inner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. The analysis results verified that the inner tie block welds should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

Nitzel, M.E.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A model and simulation of cathode flooding and drying on unsteady proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A water balance has a significant impact on the overall system performance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell. An actual fuel cell application has a dynamic electrical load which means also dynamic electrical ...

A. Bakhtiar; Young-Bok Kim; Jin-Kwang You

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and Infrastructureof fuel cell reaction with respect to hydrogen referencefuel-cell conditions and CL structures, the ORR oxygen reaction order is around 0.8 (referenced to an imaginary hydrogen

Yoon, Wonseok

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Fuel Consumption Modeling Based on Road Load and Power Train Parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel Engines Using Four Fuels, Southwest Research Institute, 25. J.B.Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,

Giannelli, R; Nam, E K; Helmer, K; Younglove, T; Scora, G; Barth, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

477

Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

478

Dynamical First-Order Phase Transition in Kinetically Constrained Models of Glasses J. P. Garrahan,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.40.ÿa An increasingly accepted view is that the phenomenol- ogy associated with the glass transition [1

van Wijland, Frédéric - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7

479

A two-phase flow model of sediment transport: transition from bedload to suspended load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport of dense particles by a turbulent flow depends on two dimensionless numbers. Depending on the ratio of the shear velocity of the flow to the settling velocity of the particles (or the Rouse number), sediment transport takes place in a thin layer localized at the surface of the sediment bed (bedload) or over the whole water depth (suspended load). Moreover, depending on the sedimentation Reynolds number, the bedload layer is embedded in the viscous sublayer or is larger. We propose here a two-phase flow model able to describe both viscous and turbulent shear flows. Particle migration is described as resulting from normal stresses, but is limited by turbulent mixing and shear-induced diffusion of particles. Using this framework, we theoretically investigate the transition between bedload and suspended load.

Filippo Chiodi; Philippe Claudin; Bruno Andreotti

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

480

Phase transitions in a reaction-diffusion model on a line with boundaries  

SciTech Connect

A one-dimensional model on a line of length L is investigated, which involves particle diffusion as well as single particle annihilation. There are also creation and annihilation at the boundaries. The static and dynamical behaviors of the system are studied. It is seen that the system could exhibit a dynamical phase transition. For small drift velocities, the relaxation time does not depend on the absorption rates at the boundaries. This is the fast phase. For large velocities, the smaller of the absorption rates at boundaries enter the relaxation rate and makes it longer. This is the slow phase. Finally, the effect of a random particle creation in the bulk is also investigated.

Khorrami, Mohammad, E-mail: mamwad@mailaps.org; Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-93973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-93973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels modeling transition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Pressure-Tuning the Quantum Phase Transition in a Model 2-D Magnet |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reappearing Superconductivity Surprises Scientists Reappearing Superconductivity Surprises Scientists Manipulating Genes with Hidden TALENs A New Discovery Answers an Old Question Peering into the Interfaces of Nanoscale Polymeric Materials Ironing Out the Details of the Earth's Core Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Pressure-Tuning the Quantum Phase Transition in a Model 2-D Magnet APRIL 11, 2012 Bookmark and Share Argonne and University of Chicago physicist Sara Haravifard with the instrument on XSD beamline 6-ID-B at the APS used for the high-resolution, high-pressure structural measurements of SCBO at cryogenic temperatures. The fundamental interactions that determine how spins arrange themselves in

482

Homogenization of a Catalyst Layer Model for Periodically Distributed Pore Geometries in PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Distributed Pore Geometries in PEM Fuel Cells Markus Schmuck 1 Peter Berg 2 Correspondence...particular, polymer electrolyte fuel cells might become future power sources...research, see [3]. The CL in PEM fuel cells is comprised of a complex multiphase......

Markus Schmuck; Peter Berg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Selective Separation of Thiols from a Model Fuel by Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These fossil fuels typically contain sulfur compounds on the order of a few percent. ... The authors have found that sulfur-loaded coals adsorb heavy metals in aqueous solutions. ... methods for fuel oils in relation to demand of low-sulfur fuel oils for air pollution control. ...

Yuuki Mochizuki; Katsuyasu Sugawara

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

484

Entanglement spectrum and quantum phase transitions in one-dimensional XXZ model with uniaxial single-ion anisotropy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in one-dimensional S = 1 XXZ model with uniaxial single-ion anisotropy are investigated. Bipartite entanglement, entanglement spectrum, and Schmidt gap are found to be capable of describing all the QPTs, even the infinite-order BerezinskiiKosterlitzThouless (BKT) transition. According to the singular behavior of the second-order derivative of ground-state energy, the QPT between XY2 and antiferromagnetic phases is a second-order but not a BKT transition. Energy level crossing, accompanied with discontinuous entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum, is observed at the transition point between the large-D and antiferromagnetic phases, therefore it should be a first-order QPT. In addition, doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum in the Haldane phase is observed.

Guang-Hua Liu; Wei Li; Wen-Long You; Gang Su; Guang-Shan Tian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Shell model study of $^{40}$Ca muon capture and the $(0^+, 0)$$\\to$$(0^-, 2626)$ axial charge transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report results from shell model studies of muon capture on $^{40}$Ca to low-lying levels of $^{40}$K. We discuss the comparison between calculated capture rates, measured capture rates and analogous transitions in ($e$,$e^{\\prime}$) scattering in terms of the particle-hole structure of the $^{40}$Ca-$^{40}$K nuclei. We highlight the $^{40}$Ca$(0^+, 0)$$\\to$$^{40}$K$(0^-, 2626)$ axial charge transition and its sensitivity to the induced pseudoscalar coupling $g_p$ of the proton's weak interaction. In addition, we address the hindrance of unique first-forbidden transitions due to particle-hole interactions and the emergence of allowed Gamow-Teller transitions due to ground state correlations. Lastly, we examine the longitudinal alignment of $^{40}$K recoils following muon capture, and discuss this possibility for independently determining the induced coupling $g_p$.

T. P. Gorringe

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

486

Electrical Neutrality and Symmetry Restoring Phase Transitions at High Density in a Two-Flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general research on chiral symmetry restoring phase transitions at zero temperature and finite chemical potentials under electrical neutrality condition has been conducted in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to describe two-flavor normal quark matter. Depending on that $m_0/\\Lambda$, the ratio of dynamical quark mass in vacuum and the 3D momentum cutoff in the loop integrals, is less or greater than 0.413, the phase transition will be second or first order. A complete phase diagram of $u$ quark chemical potential versus $m_0$ is given. With the electrical neutrality constraint, the region where second order phase transition happens will be wider than the one without electrical neutrality limitation. The results also show that, for the value of $m_0/\\Lambda$ from QCD phenomenology, the phase transition must be first order.

Xiao-Ming Wang; Bang-Rong Zhou

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Photoelectrochemical Materials: Theory and Modeling - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Muhammad N. Huda (Primary Contact), Yanfa Yan*, Todd Deutsch*, Mowafak M. Al-Jassim* and A. John A. Turner* Department of Physics University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX 76019 Phone: (817) 272-1097 Email: huda@uta.edu *National Renewable Energy Laboratory DOE Manager HQ: Eric L. Miller Phone: (202) 287-5892 Email: Eric.Miller@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX Project Start Date: September 2009 Project End Date: August 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives For FY 2012, the main goal of this project was to improve materials efficiency by understanding and hence tuning the following by theoretical/computational modeling

488

Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A phase-field model for describing three-phase electrode microstructure (i.e. electrode-phase electrolyte-phase and pore-phase) in solid oxide fuel cells is proposed using the d