National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuels modeling transition

  1. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Prepared under Task Nos. HS04.2000 and HS06.1002 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  2. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  3. Fuel Cells Technology Transit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cells Technology Transit Place: Clearwater, Florida Zip: 33767 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Involved in the development and research of energy models on Hydrogen Energy...

  4. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results This...

  5. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    35th St. Craig Ave. Alt Blvd. Colucci Pkwy. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. DOE national laboratory Transit Buses Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Final Results from the

  6. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC ...

  7. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 42249.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Transit Agency ...

  8. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district ...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Active Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Active Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Mass Transit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mass Transit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment

  11. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices This report describes operations at ...

  12. Fuel Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system...

  13. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Evaluation Report | Department of Energy Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. PDF icon 43545-1.pdf More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit

  14. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Evaluation Results | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation Results Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses. PDF icon 41041.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell

  15. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides preliminary results from the evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment, early results and agency experience are also provided.

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Evaluation Report - Appendices | Department of Energy Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. PDF icon 43545-2.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and

  18. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  19. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J.

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Requirements Boost the Transition to

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets State Requirements Boost the Transition to Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Requirements Boost the Transition to Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Requirements Boost the Transition to Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Requirements Boost the Transition to Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleets

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Projects Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation for California Transit Agencies In February 2000, the ...

  2. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California Fuel Cell Transit Evaluation Team

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this document is to describe the coordination and evaluation of the demonstration of seven full-size (40-foot) fuel cell transit buses. The descriptions in this document include the partners, fuel cell bus demonstration sites, objectives...

  3. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results Update | Department of Energy Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District. PDF icon 42249.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  4. Methanol-fueled transit bus demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.D.; Fong, D.W.; Powars, C.A.; Smith, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a California study to investigate the technical, environmental, and economic viability of using coal-derived fuels for transportation. Since nearly all of California's major urban areas have pollution problems, emphasis is placed on those options which are capable of achieving low exhaust emissions. A broad range of fuels are considered, including solids, gases, and liquids. Methanol, used in heavy-duty engines designed for this fuel, meets California's environmental, economic, and technical requirements for clean coal fuels. The combination has lower exhaust emissions than conventional Diesels -- smoke is eliminated and NO/SUB x/ and CO emissions are reduced. Further, thermal efficiencies comparable or exceeding conventional Diesels are possible. A demonstration of this new technology is now underway. Transit buses will be purchased with the objective of demonstrating alternative methanol engine designs. Economic viability in transit operations will be established.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Buses to Its Fleet Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit

  6. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration This document ...

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration; Appendix Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix ...

  8. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Santa Clara Valley ...

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Fuel Cycle Transitioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon; Steve Piet; David Shropshire; Gretchen Matthern

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. The once-through system involves only Light Water Reactors (LWRs) operating on uranium oxide fuel UOX), while the closed cycle includes both LWRs and fast spectrum reactors (FRs) in either a single-tier system or two-tier fuel system. The single-tier system includes full transuranic recycle in FRs while the two-tier system adds one pass of mixed oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX U-Pu) fuel in the LWR. While the analysis primarily focuses on burner fast reactors, transuranic conversion ratios up to 1.0 are assessed and many of the findings apply to any fuel cycle transitioning from a thermal once-through system to a synergistic thermal-fast recycle system. These findings include uranium requirements for a range of nuclear electricity growth rates, the importance of back end fuel cycle facility timing and magnitude, the impact of employing a range of fast reactor conversion ratios, system sensitivity to used fuel cooling time prior to recycle, impacts on a range of waste management indicators, and projected electricity cost ranges for once-through, single-tier and two-tier systems. The study confirmed that significant waste management benefits can be realized as soon as recycling is initiated, but natural uranium savings are minimal in this century. The use of MOX in LWRs decouples the development of recycle facilities from fast reactor fielding, but also significantly delays and limits fast reactor deployment. In all cases, fast reactor deployment was significantly below than predicted by static equilibrium analyses.

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 44646-2.pdf More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency, Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit ...

  11. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  12. AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses AC Transit Demos Three Prototype Fuel Cell Buses Fact sheet describes the study being conducted on fuel cell buses at AC Transit. PDF icon 39441.pdf More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Expands Horizons with Fuel Cell Bus

  13. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  14. Hydrogen Transition (HyTRANS) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition (HyTRANS) Model (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Objectives Dynamically simulate the transition to hydrogen powered light-duty vehicles in the U.S. to 2050, representing the simultaneous interaction of (1) hydrogen production and delivery, (2) hydrogen fuel cell vehicle production, and (3) consumers' choices among alternative vehicle technologies. Determine a market equilibrium solution by multi-period optimization of an objective function that reflects private costs and benefits. Key

  15. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report details the six-month evaluation of the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency.

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.

  17. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location.

  18. Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible Prepared By: Marathon Technical Services Six Venus Crescent P.O. Box 318 Heidelberg, Ontario, Canada N0B1Y0 Telephone: 519-699-9250 May 12, 2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ DESIGNING NEW TRANSIT BUS GARAGES TO BE FUEL FLEXIBLE Background Information Before discussing the building design features that are recommended for CNG and GH2 buses, it is important to understand what makes these fuels

  19. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

  20. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  1. Alternative Fuels in Public Transit: A Match Made on the Road

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Brochure addressing alternative fuel modes of transportation for public transit, challenges, fuels, infrastructure, cast studies, guidance, and resources.

  2. Alternative Motor Fuel Use Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-11-16

    AMFU is a tool for the analysis and prediction of motor fuel use by highway vehicles. The model advances the art of vehicle stock modeling by including a representation of the choice of motor fuel for flexible and dual fuel vehicles.

  3. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  5. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 9 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009 This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure. PDF icon 46490.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008 Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation Results (Presentation)

  7. Energy Transition Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transition Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Transition Model AgencyCompany Organization: Quintel Intelligence Sector: Energy Topics:...

  8. Update from the NREL Alternative Fuel Transit Bus Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    1999-05-01

    The object of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty urban transit buses operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Final reports from this project were produced in 1996 from data collection and evaluation of 11 transit buses from eight transit sites. With the publication of these final reports, three issues were raised that needed further investigation: (1) the natural gas engines studied were older, open-loop control engines; (2) propane was not included in the original study; and (3) liquefied natural gas (LNG) was found to be in the early stages of deployment in transit applications. In response to these three issues, the project has continued by emissions testing newer natural gas engines and adding two new data collection sites to study the newer natural gas technology and specifically to measure new technology LNG buses.

  9. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  11. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  12. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  13. Speeding the transition: Designing a fuel-cell hypercar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B.D.; Moore, T.C.; Lovins, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    A rapid transformation now underway in automotive technology could accelerate the transition to transportation powered by fuel cells. Ultralight, advanced-composite, low-drag, hybrid-electric hypercars--using combustion engines--could be three- to fourfold more efficient and one or two orders of magnitude cleaner than today`s cars, yet equally safe, sporty, desirable, and (probably) affordable. Further, important manufacturing advantages--including low tooling and equipment costs, greater mechanical simplicity, autobody parts consolidation, shorter product cycles, and reduced assembly effort and space--permit a free-market commercialization strategy. This paper discusses a conceptual hypercar powered by a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It outlines the implications of platform physics and component selection for the vehicle`s mass budget and performance. The high fuel-to-traction conversion efficiency of the hypercar platform could help automakers overcome the Achilles` heel of hydrogen-powered vehicles: onboard storage. Moreover, because hypercars would require significantly less tractive power, and even less fuel-cell power, they could adopt fuel cells earlier, before fuel cells` specific cost, mass, and volume have fully matured. In the meantime, commercialization in buildings can help prepare fuel cells for hypercars. The promising performance of hydrogen-fueled PEMFC hypercars suggests important opportunities in infrastructure development for direct-hydrogen vehicles.

  14. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2008-12-01

    This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix Santa Clara Valley ...

  16. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  18. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008.

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  20. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report-- Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  2. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  3. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District; Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2006-03-01

    Report provides preliminary results from an evaluation of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California.

  4. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District-- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

  5. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

  6. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month evaluation...

  7. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design ...

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 8 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008 This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority. PDF icon tp44133.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets:

  9. Assessment of transition fuel cycle performance with and without a modified-open fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, B.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2012-07-01

    The impacts of a modified-open fuel cycle (MOC) option as a transition step from the current once-through cycle (OTC) to a full-recycle fuel cycle (FRC) were assessed using the nuclear systems analysis code DANESS. The MOC of interest for this study was mono-recycling of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR-MOX). Two fuel cycle scenarios were evaluated with and without the MOC option: a 2-stage scenario with a direct path from the current fleet to the final FRC, and a 3-stage scenario with the MOC option as a transition step. The FRC reactor (fast reactor) was assumed to deploy in 2050 for both scenarios, and the MOC reactor in the 3-stage scenario was assumed to deploy in 2025. The last LWRs (using either UOX or MOX fuels) come online in 2050 and are decommissioned by 2110. Thus, the FRC is achieved after 2110. The reprocessing facilities were assumed to be available 2 years prior to the deployment of the MOC and FRC reactors with maximum reprocessing capacities of 2000 tHM/yr and 500 tHM/t for LWR-UOX and LWR-MOX used nuclear fuels (UNFs), respectively. Under a 1% nuclear energy demand growth assumption, both scenarios were able to sustain a full transition to the FRC without delay. For the 3-stage scenario, the share of LWR-MOX reactors reaches a peak of 15% of installed capacity, which resulted in 10% lower cumulative uranium consumption and SWU requirements compared to the 2-stage scenario during the transition period. The peak UNF storage requirement decreases by 50% in the 3-stage scenario, largely due to the earlier deployment of the reprocessing plants to support the MOC fuel cycle. (authors)

  10. High Burnup Fuel Behavior Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahingir, M.; Rand, R.; Stachowski, R.; Miles, B.; Kusagaya, K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and qualification of the PRIME03 code to address high burnup mechanisms and to improve uranium utilization in current and new reactor designs. Materials properties and behavioral models have been updated from previous thermal-mechanical codes to reflect the effects of burnup on fuel pellet thermal conductivity, Zircaloy creep, fuel pellet relocation, and fission gas release. These new models are based on results of in-pool and post irradiation examination (PIE) of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods at high burnup and results from international experimental programs. The new models incorporated into PRIME03 also address specific high burnup effects associated with formation of pellet rim porosity at high exposure. The PRIME03 code is qualified by comparison of predicted and measured fuel performance parameters for a large number of high, low, and moderate burnup test and commercial reactor rod. The extensive experimental qualification of the PRIME03 prediction capabilities confirms that it is a reliable best-estimate predictor of fuel rod thermal-mechanical performance over a wide range of design and operating conditions. (authors)

  11. Transition Core Properties during Conversion of the NBSR from HEU to LEU Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.

    2013-10-31

    The transition of the NBSR from HEU to LEU fuel is challenging due to reactivity constraints and the need to maintain an uninterrupted science program, the mission of the NBSR. The transition cannot occur with a full change of HEU to LEU fuel elements since the excess reactivity would be large enough that the NBSR would violate the technical specification for shutdown margin. Manufacturing LEU fuel elements to represent irradiated fuel elements would be cost prohibitive since 26 one-of-a-kind fuel elements would need to be manufactured. For this report a gradual transition from the present HEU fuel to the proposed LEU fuel was studied. The gradual change approach would follow the present fuel management scheme and replace four HEU fuel elements with four LEU fuel elements each cycle. This manuscript reports the results of a series of calculations to predict the neutronic characteristics and how the neutronics will change during the transition from HEU to LEU in the NBSR.

  12. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  14. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report L. Eudy and M. Post National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-62317 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status | Department of Energy Summary of Experiences and Current Status Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation in the United States. PDF icon 41967.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix Santa Clara Valley

  16. Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings for the Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles workshop held September 9, 2014.

  17. EPRI-DOE Joint Report on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration Now Available EPRI-DOE Joint Report on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration ...

  18. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  19. the-schedule-based-transit-model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Schedule-Based transit model of the Chicago Metropolitan Area Vadim Sokolov Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory List of Authors ================ Vadim Sokolov Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory 277 International Drive West Chicago, IL 60185 Abstract ========= Usually public transit systems are modeled using so called frequency based approach. In this case transit route times are defined in terms of

  20. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  1. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Gikakis, C.

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results from August 2012 through July 2013 for five FCEB demonstrations at four transit agencies.

  2. Used Fuel Degradation: Experimental and Modeling Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report describes the strategy for coupling process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM), and addresses fractional degradation rate, instant release fractions, other continuum modeling approaches, and experimental support.

  3. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 12 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012 This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year. There are 25 active FCEBs in demonstrations this year at eight locations. PDF icon Fuel Cell

  7. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

    2014-09-24

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  8. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Kevin Chandler Battelle Leslie Eudy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-560-40615 November 2006 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No.

  9. Tool and Calculator (Transit, Fuel) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transit & Infrastructure Topics: Analysis Tools Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.publictransportation.orgtoolsPagesdefault.aspx This webside...

  10. Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION Authors: Sunny, Eva E [1] ; Worrall, Andrew [1] ; Peterson, Joshua L [1] ; Powers, Jeffrey J [1] ; Gehin, Jess C [1] ; Gregg, Robert [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Preston Laboratory, Springfields Works, United Kingdom Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier:

  11. The Application of CYCLUS to Fuel Cycle Transition Analysis ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: GLOBAL 2015, 21st International Conference & Exhibition: "Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future", Paris, France, Sep 20 - Sep 24, ...

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew; Gikakis, Christina

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Chandler, Kevin; Gikakis, Christina

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year.

  14. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

  15. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels...

  5. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle You are accessing a ...

  6. Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi...

  7. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New ...

  8. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  9. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  11. Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power (FCPower) Model (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) ... Easy to use interface in Microsoft Excel environment ... Users may also access the model's case study data to ...

  12. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  14. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chander, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year. There are 25 active FCEBs in demonstrations this year at eight locations.

  15. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  16. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award ...

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015 Leslie Eudy and Matthew Post National Renewable Energy Laboratory Christina Gikakis Federal Transit Administration Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-64974 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  18. Advances in HTGR fuel performance models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansfield, O.M.; Goodin, D.T.; Hanson, D.L.; Turner, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Fuel performance models based on empirical evidence are used to predict particle failure and fission product release in the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Advances in HTGR fuel performance models have improved the agreement between observed and predicted performance and contributed to an enhanced position of the HTGR with regard to investment risk and passive safety. Heavy metal contamination is the source of about 55% of the circulating activity in the HTGR during normal operation, and the remainder comes primarily from particles which failed because of defective or missing buffer coatings. These failed particles make up about 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction of the total core inventory. In addition to prediction of fuel performance during normal operation, the models are used to determine fuel failure and fission product release during core heat-up accident conditions. The mechanistic nature of the models, which incorporate all important failure modes, permits the prediction of performance from the relatively modest accident temperatures of a passively safe HTGR to the much more severe accident conditions of the larger 2240-MW(t) HTGR.

  19. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  20. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  1. CNG transit fueling station handbook. Final report, October 1993-June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.R.; Pennington, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    This manual has been complied for use by a Transit Authority Engineer or an Engineering Company who is involved in the design of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling facilities. It is intended to provide a convenient and comprehensive reference document, to supplement but not replace codes and other reference documents. It is also intended to be used as a basis for the design of a broad range of CNG fueling facilities. The scope is limited to straight CNG and hence Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or LNG vaporization to CNG has not been addressed. Similarly, this document does not deal with the facility modifications which may be required to park, service, or fuel CNG buses indoors. Additional information on actual gas fueling is available from the Gas Research Institute.

  2. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket This study focused on

  3. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket × You are accessing a

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Sustainable Transportation Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model Sustainable Transportation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model Sustainable Transportation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model Sustainable Transportation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model Sustainable Transportation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  5. Transportation energy management: fuel conservation in the transit revenue fleet. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This brief report is a practical guide for maintenance managers and planners responsible for reducing fuel consumption and addressing cost-efficiency issues. The manual discusses a wide array of steps which can be taken to produce modest to significant savings. The report discusses four areas of savings including the development of a fuel-conservation program, maintenance and equipment strategies, operations strategies, and procurement strategies. The manual offers enough suggestions that a transit system of any size should be able to implement some of the ideas and begin to benefit from its savings.

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2014

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2014 L. Eudy and M. Post National Renewable Energy Laboratory C. Gikakis Federal Transit Administration Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-62683 December 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.

  7. Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically compressed Bi

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically compressed Bi Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically compressed Bi We report here on modeling of non-equilibrium phase transitions in Bi samples isentropically compressed to 120 GPa by a ramped drive, which is produced using the Janus laser. In the experiments, the Bi samples are attached to windows of LiF or sapphire, and

  8. Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with HyTrans Presentation by Paul Leiby of Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery ...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  10. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  11. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  12. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  13. Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

  14. The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-03-20

    Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  15. EPRI-DOE Joint Report on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report “Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration” from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and jointly funded by the Offices of...

  16. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel ...

  17. Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models Presented by the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. at the bi-monthly informational call for the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program on December 16, 2009 PDF icon ccat_hydrogen_ct.pdf More Documents & Publications Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2011 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program

  18. Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transitioning the Transportation Sector- Exploring the Intersection of H2 Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles" workshop report by Sandia National Laboratory summarizes a workshop that discussed common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen (H2) and natural gas (CNG or LNG) as transportation fuels.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Draper, Robert

    2012-01-17

    A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

  1. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  2. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  3. Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evolution and Mechanical Localization. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling Microstructure evolution and ...

  4. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  5. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on ...

  6. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim

    2015-07-21

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  7. Model of U3Si2 Fuel System using BISON Fuel Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. E. Metzger; T. W. Knight; R. L. Williamson

    2014-04-01

    This research considers the proposed advanced fuel system: U3Si2 combined with an advanced cladding. U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, which motivate its use as an accident tolerant fuel. This preliminary model evaluates the behavior of U3Si2 using available thermophysical data to predict the cladding-fuel pellet temperature and stress using the fuel performance code: BISON. The preliminary results obtained from the U3Si2 fuel model describe the mechanism of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction for this system while more extensive testing including creep testing of U3Si2 is planned for improved understanding of thermophysical properties for predicting fuel performance.

  8. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  9. Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.

    2000-01-14

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.

  10. HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Brian James of Directed Technologies at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  11. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  12. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  13. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Iso-octane SI-HCCI Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, Mark A; Aceves, Salvador M; McNenly, Matthew J; Piggott, William T; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A

    2010-01-01

    We describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (SI) combustion to homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study we assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scenario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. We find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR (-0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR (-0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  14. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  15. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  17. VHTR Prismatic Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-09-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, if the fuel kernels are not perfect black absorbers, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced Kernel-by-Kernel (K-b-K) hexagonal super lattice model can be used to address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The developed Prismatic Super Homogeneous Lattice Model (PSHLM) is verified by comparing the calculated burnup characteristics of the double-heterogeneous Prismatic Super Kernel-by-Kernel Lattice Model (PSK-b-KLM). This paper summarizes and compares the PSHLM and PSK-b-KLM burnup analysis study and results. This paper also discusses the coupling of a Monte-Carlo code with fuel depletion and buildup code, which provides the fuel burnup analysis tool used to produce the results of the VHTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  18. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  19. Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Fuel Type EPAct Compliant? Model Vehicle Type Emission Class Powertrain Fuel Capacity Range American Honda Motor Corporation 888-CCHONDA www.honda.com CNG Dedicated EPAct Yes Civic GX Compact Sedan SULEV Tier 2 Bin II 1.7L, 4-cylinder 8 GGE 200 mi HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Accord Hybrid Sedan ULEV 3.0L V6 144 volt NiMH + 17.1 Gal Gasoline TBD HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Civic Hybrid Sedan CA ULEV 1.3L, 4-cylinder 144 volt NiMH + 13.2 Gal

  20. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  1. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  2. Safety of natural gas dual-fueled vehicles: Addendum to safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zalak, V.M. )

    1991-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of vehicles containing both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline, referred to as dual-fueled vehicles, compared to the hazard of a dedicated CNG vehicle. This study expands upon previous work that examined the safety of CNG vehicles transiting highway tunnels. The approach was to examine operational data, test results and to perform thermal analyses to determine if there are any synergistic effects where the total consequences of fuel release might be greater than the sum of the two fuels released separately. This study concluded that a dual-fueled vehicle poses a slightly greater risk than a dedicated CNG vehicle; however, this marginal increase in risk is small and is within the bounds of risk posed by gasoline-powered vehicles. 4 refs.

  3. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  4. Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.

    2000-09-26

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.

  5. Critical factors in transitioning from fuel cell to cold fusion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgraw, T.F.; Davis, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The fuel cell industry possesses much of the required manufacturing equipment and knowledge-base (e.g., proton conduction and hydrogen safety) necessary to develop cold fusion systems. Key factors in making a transition to cold fusion technology are discussed. Loading of reaction material can be provided by electrolytic charging and high gas over-pressure. Effective pressures over 10,000 atmospheres are required in cold fusion systems, giving a loading of H/M = 1; and a combination of loading methods is highly desirable. Systems must be designed to provide continuous flow of hydrogen ions ({much{underscore}gt}10{sup 17}/sec for ten kilowatts), with an input power source of 50 watts (est.). Cold fusion experiments have shown that helium is formed during the reaction, and physical changes occur in the reaction material. These revelations impact design and operation of cold fusion systems, as the reaction material must be replaced periodically, while the systems must maintain integrity during operation. Safety and cost are also highly important considerations.

  6. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  7. Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  8. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  9. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  10. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  11. Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

  12. DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Start-Up Experience (Alternative Fuel Transit Buses Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battelle

    2000-06-30

    This report, based on interviews and site visits conducted in October 1999, describes the start-up activities of the DART liquefied natural gas program, identifying problem areas, highlighting successes, and capturing the lessons learned in DART's ongoing efforts to remain at the forefront of the transit industry.

  13. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2007-09-01

    This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation in the United States.

  14. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  15. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  16. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. A Model Fuels Consortium to Promote Engine Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  18. Fuel Spray Modeling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Although these models are widely used, many researchers have reported a strong dependency of spray characteristics on grid size. This large grid size dependency makes it difficult ...

  19. BISON and MARMOT Development for Modeling Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence; Williamson, Richard L.; Schwen, Daniel; Zhang, Yongfeng; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Medvedev, Pavel G.

    2015-09-01

    BISON and MARMOT are two codes under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for engineering scale and lower length scale fuel performance modeling. It is desired to add capabilities for fast reactor applications to these codes. The fast reactor fuel types under consideration are metal (U-Pu-Zr) and oxide (MOX). The cladding types of interest include 316SS, D9, and HT9. The purpose of this report is to outline the proposed plans for code development and provide an overview of the models added to the BISON and MARMOT codes for fast reactor fuel behavior. A brief overview of preliminary discussions on the formation of a bilateral agreement between the Idaho National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom is presented.

  20. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  1. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: ‱ Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, ‱ Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and ‱ Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

  2. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel sensitivity and single-stage fuel content generally gives a lower value of the pressure exponent. This helps to explain the results obtained while boosting the intake pressure in the HCCI engine. (author)

  3. Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 August 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models January 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts

  5. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft010_pitz_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

  6. Sabin-to-Mahoney Transition Model of Quasispecies Replication

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-05-31

    Qspp is an agent-based stochastic simulation model of the Poliovirus Sabin-to-Mahoney transition. This code simulates a cell-to-cell model of Poliovirus replication. The model tracks genotypes (virus genomes) as they are replicated in cells, and as the cells burst and release particles into the medium of a culture dish. An inoculum is then taken from the pool of virions and is used to inoculate cells on a new dish. This process repeats. The Sabin genotype comprisesmore » the initial inoculum. Nucleotide positions that match the Sabin1 (vaccine strain) and Mahoney (wild type) genotypes, as well as the neurovirulent phenotype (from the literature) are enumerated as constants.« less

  7. An improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, Duane C; Chisolm, Eric D; Bock, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In the original formulation of V-T theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This model suffers two deficiencies: (a) it does not account for experimental entropy differences of {+-}2% among elemental liquids, and (b) it implies a value of zero for the transit contribution to internal energy. The purpose of this paper is to correct these deficiencies. To this end, the V-T equation for entropy is fitted to an overall accuracy of {+-}0.1% to the available experimental high temperature entropy data for elemental liquids. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution S{sub vib}(T/{theta}{sub 0}), where T is temperature and {theta}{sub 0} is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution S{sub tr}(T/{theta}{sub tr}), where {theta}{sub tr} is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of S{sub tr} for all the liquids studied is a property of the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The resulting S{sub tr} implies the correct transit contribution to internal energy. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived, in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of {theta}{sub 0}, based on density functional theory, is reported for liquid Na and Cu. Comparison of these calculations with the above analysis of experimental entropy data provides verification of V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.

  8. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  9. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  10. Exact results for models of multichannel quantum nonadiabatic transitions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2014-12-11

    We consider nonadiabatic transitions in explicitly time-dependent systems with Hamiltonians of the form Hˆ(t)=Aˆ+Bˆt+Cˆ/t, where t is time and Aˆ,Bˆ,Cˆ are Hermitian N × N matrices. We show that in any model of this type, scattering matrix elements satisfy nontrivial exact constraints that follow from the absence of the Stokes phenomenon for solutions with specific conditions at t→–∞. This allows one to continue such solutions analytically to t→+∞, and connect their asymptotic behavior at t→–∞ and t→+∞. This property becomes particularly useful when a model shows additional discrete symmetries. Specifically, we derive a number of simple exact constraints and explicitmore » expressions for scattering probabilities in such systems.« less

  11. Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of int

  13. Long-term, low-temperature oxidation of PWR spent fuel: Interim transition report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Buchanan, H.C.

    1988-05-01

    Since some of the fuel rods will be breached and eventually most of the cladding will corrode, exposing fuel, one factor influencing the ability of spent fuel to retain radionuclides is its oxidation state in the expected moist air atmosphere. Oxidation of the fuel could split the cladding, exposing additional fuel and changing the leaching characteristics. Thermodynamically, there is no reason why UO{sub 2} should not oxidize completely to UO{sub 3} at repository temperatures. The underlying uncertainty is the rate of oxidation. Extrapolation of higher temperature data indicates that insufficient oxidation to convert all of the fuel to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} will occur during the first 10,000 years. However, lower oxidation states, such as U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, might form. To date, the tests have run between 3200 and 4100 hours out of a planned 16,000-hour duration. Some preliminary conclusions can be drawn: (1) Moisture content of the air has no significant effect on oxidation rate, (2) the data have an uncertainty of 15 to 20%, which must be accounted for in the interpretation of single sample tests, and (3) below 175{degree}C, the oxidation rate is dependent on the particle size in the sample. The smaller particles oxidize more rapidly. 19 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Capacity planning in a transitional economy: What issues? Which models?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W.; Bright, R.N.

    1996-03-01

    This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.

  15. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  16. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems analysis program uses a consistent set of models and data for transparent analytical evaluations. The following fact sheets provide an overview and individual summaries of the models and tools used for systems analysis of hydrogen and fuel cells. View the Overview Fact Sheet and

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  19. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL FOR URANIUM DIOXIDE BASED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Dr. William T.; Lewis, Dr. Brian J; Corcoran, E. C.; Kaye, Dr. Matthew H.; White, S. J.; Akbari, F.; Higgs, Jamie D.; Thompson, D. M.; Besmann, Theodore M; Vogel, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    Many projects involving nuclear fuel rest on a quantitative understanding of the co-existing phases at various stages of burnup. Since the many fission products have considerably different abilities to chemically associate with oxygen, and the oxygen-to-metal molar ratio is slowly changing, the chemical potential of oxygen is a function of burnup. Concurrently, well-recognized small fractions of new phases such as inert gas, noble metals, zirconates, etc. also develop. To further complicate matters, the dominant UO2 fuel phase may be non-stoichiometric and most of the minor phases themselves have a variable composition dependent on temperature and possible contact with the coolant in the event of a sheathing breach. A thermodynamic fuel model to predict the phases in partially burned CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear fuel containing many major fission products has been under development. The building blocks of the model are the standard Gibbs energies of formation of the many possible compounds expressed as a function of temperature. To these data are added mixing terms associated with the appearance of the component species in particular phases. In operational terms, the treatment rests on the ability to minimize the Gibbs energy in a multicomponent system, in our case using the algorithms developed by Eriksson. The model is capable of handling non-stoichiometry in the UO2 fluorite phase, dilute solution behaviour of significant solute oxides, noble metal inclusions, a second metal solid solution U(Pd-Rh-Ru)3, zirconate, molybdate, and uranate solutions as well as other minor solid phases, and volatile gaseous species.

  20. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  1. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology February 6, 2013 - 11:20am Addthis Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate Director and Chief Technology Officer of the National Fuel Cell Research Center, points out the tri-generation facility that uses biogas from Orange County Sanitation Districtñ€™s wastewater treatment plant to produce hydrogen, heat and power. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate

  2. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ft010_pitz_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development

  3. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation for Hydrogen Transition Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop US Department of Energy January 26, 2006 Objectives and Scope for Phase 1 2 Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure development as a complex ...

  4. Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Light water reactors (CASL). ... capability of nuclear fuel performance can enable increased power output and lifetime ... to designing safety margins into fuel ...

  5. Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joel M. Rinebold 2 2 * Connecticut Hydrogen Roadmap (Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan) ... Connecticut Hydrogen Roadmap 4 4 Economic Multipliers * For each job the hydrogen and fuel ...

  6. Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2011 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Review ...

  7. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUELS - FINAL LDRD-ER REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P

    2011-11-28

    This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear fuel that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear fuels in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.

  8. Technical Breakthrough Points and Opportunities in Transition Scenarios for Hydrogen as Vehicular Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; James, B.; Perez, J.; Spisak, A.

    2011-12-01

    This technical reports is about investigating a generic case of hydrogen production/delivery/dispensing pathway evolution in a large population city, assuming that hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) will capture a major share of the vehicle market by the year 2050. The range of questions that are considered includes (i) what is the typical succession of hydrogen pathways that minimizes consumer cost? (ii) what are the major factors that will likely influence this sequence?

  9. Webinar: DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model, originally presented on December 11, 2012.

  10. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  11. DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model," held on December 11, 2012. PDF icon DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications JOBS FC 1.0

  12. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Page1 Hierarchy of Various Models Used for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Analyses Analysis Models and Tools Systems Analysis of Hydrogen & Fuel Cells With a multitude of end-uses-such as distributed power for back-up, primary, and combined heat-and- power systems; automobiles, buses, forklifts and other specialty vehicles; and auxiliary power units and portable electronics-fuel cell applications hold potential to dramatically impact the 21st century clean energy economy. Fuel cells can efficiently

  13. Fuel Behavior Modeling Issues Associated with Future Fast Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yacout, A.M.; Hofman, G.L.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Major issues of concern related to advanced fast reactor fuel behavior are discussed here with focus on phenomena that are encountered during irradiation of metallic fuel elements. Identification of those issues is part of an advanced fuel simulation effort that aims at improving fuel design and reducing reliance on conventional approach of design by experiment which is both time and resource consuming. (authors)

  14. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  15. THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD MODELING AND

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OBSERVATIONS IN SDO/AIA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD MODELING AND OBSERVATIONS IN SDO/AIA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD MODELING AND OBSERVATIONS IN SDO/AIA The corona and transition region (TR) are fundamentally coupled through the processes of thermal conduction and mass exchange. It is not possible to understand one without the other. Yet the

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-02-26

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  18. First-order electroweak phase transition in the standard model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This addition enables a strong first-order phase transition to develop even with a Higgs boson mass well above the current direct limit of 114 GeV. The phisup 6 term can be ...

  19. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  20. Mechanisms of disease: epithelial-mesenchymal transition and back again: does cellular plasticity fuel neoplastic progression?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana; Radisky, Derek C.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conversion that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. A similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, which is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often seems to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. In this Review, we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the RAS-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmental responsive regulators of EMT.

  1. First-order electroweak phase transition in the standard model with a low

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cutoff (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect First-order electroweak phase transition in the standard model with a low cutoff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-order electroweak phase transition in the standard model with a low cutoff We study the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition due to a dimension-six operator in the effective Higgs potential. In contrast with previous attempts to make the electroweak phase transition strongly first-order as required by

  2. KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROPERTIES, AND SOURCES (Conference) | SciTech Connect KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY, PROPERTIES, AND SOURCES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY, PROPERTIES, AND SOURCES Kinetic modeling is an important tool for engine design and can also be used for engine tuning and to study response to fuel chemistry and properties before an engine configuration is physically built and tested.

  3. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnasch, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) has supported a series of analyses to evaluate alternative scenarios for deployment of millions of hydrogen fueled vehicles and supporting infrastructure. To ensure that these alternative market penetration scenarios took into consideration the thinking of the automobile manufacturers, energy companies, industrial hydrogen suppliers, and others from the private sector, DOE held several stakeholder meetings to explain the analyses, describe the models, and solicit comments about the methods, assumptions, and preliminary results (U.S. DOE, 2006a). The first stakeholder meeting was held on January 26, 2006, to solicit guidance during the initial phases of the analysis; this was followed by a second meeting on August 9-10, 2006, to review the preliminary results. A third and final meeting was held on January 31, 2007, to discuss the final analysis results. More than 60 hydrogen energy experts from industry, government, national laboratories, and universities attended these meetings and provided their comments to help guide DOE's analysis. The final scenarios attempt to reflect the collective judgment of the participants in these meetings. However, they should not be interpreted as having been explicitly endorsed by DOE or any of the stakeholders participating. The DOE analysis examined three vehicle penetration scenarios: Scenario 1--Production of thousands of vehicles per year by 2015 and hundreds of thousands per year by 2019. This option is expected to lead to a market penetration of 2.0 million fuel cell vehicles (FCV) by 2025. Scenario 2--Production of thousands of FCVs by 2013 and hundreds of thousands by 2018. This option is expected to lead to a market penetration of 5.0 million FCVs by 2025. Scenario 3--Production of thousands of FCVs by 2013, hundreds of thousands by 2018, and millions by 2021 such that market penetration is 10 million by 2025. Scenario 3 was formulated to comply with the NAS recommendation: 'DOE should map out and evaluate a transition plan consistent with developing the infrastructure and hydrogen resources necessary to support the committee's hydrogen vehicle penetration scenario, or another similar demand scenario (NAS, 2004, p. 4).' Each of the scenarios was extensively discussed at the stakeholder meetings and each received support from industry. Although there was no consensus on a particular vehicle penetration rate, it was agreed that this set of scenarios is inclusive of industry expectations and could provide a basis to interpolate or extrapolate the results to other cases. The purpose of the DOE study was not to select any one scenario but to assess the costs and impacts of achieving each.

  4. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model used to analyze the economics and performance of combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) systems.

  5. Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of H2A stationary model concept, results, strategy for analysis, Federal incentives for fuel cells, and summary of next steps

  6. JOBS Models: JOBS FC (Fuel Cells) and JOBS H2 (Hydrogen)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Attributes & Strengths The two JOBS models use input-output methodology to estimate economic impacts associated with expenditures on fuel cells and related infrastructure, and ...

  7. Analytical model for transient gas flow in nuclear fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, D.S.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1981-08-01

    An analytical model for calculating gas flow and pressure inside a nuclear fuel rod is presented. Such a model is required to calculate the pressure loading of cladding during ballooning that could occur for postulated reactor accidents. The mathematical model uses a porous media (permeability) concept to define the resistance to gas flow along the fuel rod. 7 refs.

  8. Cracked-fuel mechanics. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, R.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling concept and a set of measurable parameters that have been shown to improve the prediction of the mechanical behavior of cracked fuel/cladding systems without added computational expense. The transition from classical annular gap/cylindrical pellet models to modified bulk properties and further to local behavior for cracked fuel systems is discussed. The results of laboratory experiments to verify these modelling parameters are shown. Data are also presented from laboratory experiments on unirradiated and irradiated rods which show that fuel rod mechanical response depends on fuel fragment size. The impact of these data on cracked fuel behavior and failure modelling is also discussed.

  9. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: ""An Automaker's Views on the Transition to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of electricity and fuel cell vehicles, commercialization, where we are, observations, next steps

  10. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA This paper describes a model for the cladding-coolant heat transfer of high burnup fuel during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) which is implemented in the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.2. The minimum stable film boiling temperature, affected by the subcooling and the

  11. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division; INL

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  12. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  13. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by

  14. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  15. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior parameters represent reasonably identifiable stand conditions, being: (1) pine dominated stands with more litter and down woody debriscomponents than other stands, (2) hardwood and pine stands with no shrubs, (3) hardwood dominated stands with low shrub and high non-woody biomass and high down woody debris, (4) stands with high grass and forb (i.e., non-woody) biomass as well as substantial shrub biomass, (5) stands with both high shrub and litter biomass, (6) pine-mixed hardwood stands with moderate litter biomass and low shrub biomass, and (7) baldcypress-tupelo stands. Models representing these stand clusters generated flame lengths from 0.6 to 2.3 musing a 30 km h{sub 1} wind speed and fireline intensities of 100-1500 kW m{sub 1} that are typical within the range of experience on this landscape. The fuel models ranked 1 < 2 < 7 < 5 < 4 < 3 < 6 in terms of both flame length and fireline intensity. The method allows for ecologically complex data to be utilized in order to create a landscape representative of measured fuel conditions and to create models that interface with geospatial fire models.

  16. DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lab and proven in the field over the last decade, these standards provide the basis for hydrogen fueling for the first generation of infrastructure worldwide. Register to attend...

  17. Liquid Fuels Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  18. The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

    2011-06-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

  19. Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L.; Gellene, G.I.

    1999-05-01

    Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

  20. FRAPCON-3: Modifications to fuel rod material properties and performance models for high-burnup application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanning, D.D.; Beyer, C.E.; Painter, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    This volume describes the fuel rod material and performance models that were updated for the FRAPCON-3 steady-state fuel rod performance code. The property and performance models were changed to account for behavior at extended burnup levels up to 65 Gwd/MTU. The property and performance models updated were the fission gas release, fuel thermal conductivity, fuel swelling, fuel relocation, radial power distribution, solid-solid contact gap conductance, cladding corrosion and hydriding, cladding mechanical properties, and cladding axial growth. Each updated property and model was compared to well characterized data up to high burnup levels. The installation of these properties and models in the FRAPCON-3 code along with input instructions are provided in Volume 2 of this report and Volume 3 provides a code assessment based on comparison to integral performance data. The updated FRAPCON-3 code is intended to replace the earlier codes FRAPCON-2 and GAPCON-THERMAL-2. 94 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Hales; Various

    2014-06-01

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  2. Ab Initio Enhanced calphad Modeling of Actinide-Rich Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Dane; Yang, Yong Austin

    2013-10-28

    The process of fuel recycling is central to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), where plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) Am, Np, and Cm are extracted from spent fuel and fabricated into new fuel for a fast reactor. Metallic alloys of U-Pu-Zr-MA are leading candidates for fast reactor fuels and are the current basis for fast spectrum metal fuels in a fully recycled closed fuel cycle. Safe and optimal use of these fuels will require knowledge of their multicomponent phase stability and thermodynamics (Gibbs free energies). In additional to their use as nuclear fuels, U-Pu-Zr-MA contain elements and alloy phases that pose fundamental questions about electronic structure and energetics at the forefront of modern many-body electron theory. This project will validate state-of-the-art electronic structure approaches for these alloys and use the resulting energetics to model U-Pu-Zr-MA phase stability. In order to keep the work scope practical, researchers will focus on only U-Pu-Zr-{Np,Am}, leaving Cm for later study. The overall objectives of this project are to: Provide a thermodynamic model for U-Pu-Zr-MA for improving and controlling reactor fuels; and, Develop and validate an ab initio approach for predicting actinide alloy energetics for thermodynamic modeling.

  3. Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Continuum (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Authors: Quaglioni, S ; Baroni, S ; Navratil, P Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1053666 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-588973 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org:

  4. Fact #718: March 12, 2012 Number of Flex-Fuel Models Offered Increased in 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Motors (GM), Ford, and Chrysler have produced many different models of flex-fuel vehicles (cars and light trucks) over the last five years. In 2011, the number of models offered by those...

  5. DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models December 6, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide, giving consumers clear and easy-to-read information to help them choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2013

  6. MODELING ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR FRESH FUEL SHIPPING CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick J. Migliore

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor Fresh Fuel Shipping Container (ATR FFSC) is currently licensed per 10 CFR 71 to transport a fresh fuel element for either the Advanced Test Reactor, the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II). During the licensing process, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) raised a number of issues relating to the criticality analysis, namely (1) lack of a tolerance study on the fuel and packaging, (2) moderation conditions during normal conditions of transport (NCT), (3) treatment of minor hydrogenous packaging materials, and (4) treatment of potential fuel damage under hypothetical accident conditions (HAC). These concerns were adequately addressed by modifying the criticality analysis. A tolerance study was added for both the packaging and fuel elements, full-moderation was included in the NCT models, minor hydrogenous packaging materials were included, and fuel element damage was considered for the MURR and MITR-II fuel types.

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

  8. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document describes the hydrogen transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Transit Administration (FTA).

  9. MELCOR model for an experimental 17x17 spent fuel PWR assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    A MELCOR model has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack cell undergoing severe accident conditions. To the extent possible, the MELCOR model reflects the actual geometry, materials, and masses present in the experimental arrangement for the Sandia Fuel Project (SFP). The report presents an overview of the SFP experimental arrangement, the MELCOR model specifications, demonstration calculation results, and the input model listing.

  10. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Revis; Hesler, Stephen; Bistline, John

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of hourly unit dispatch while considering operational limitations relevant to flexible operations capabilities.

  11. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  12. User Guide for VISION 3.4.7 (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Wendell D. Hintze

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters and options; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation or disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. You must use Powersim Studio 8 or better. We have tested VISION with the Studio 8 Expert, Executive, and Education versions. The Expert and Education versions work with the number of reactor types of 3 or less. For more reactor types, the Executive version is currently required. The input files are Excel2003 format (xls). The output files are macro-enabled Excel2007 format (xlsm). VISION 3.4 was designed with more flexibility than previous versions, which were structured for only three reactor types - LWRs that can use only uranium oxide (UOX) fuel, LWRs that can use multiple fuel types (LWR MF), and fast reactors. One could not have, for example, two types of fast reactors concurrently. The new version allows 10 reactor types and any user-defined uranium-plutonium fuel is allowed. (Thorium-based fuels can be input but several features of the model would not work.) The user identifies (by year) the primary fuel to be used for each reactor type. The user can identify for each primary fuel a contingent fuel to use if the primary fuel is not available, e.g., a reactor designated as using mixed oxide fuel (MOX) would have UOX as the contingent fuel. Another example is that a fast reactor using recycled transuranic (TRU) material can be designated as either having or not having appropriately enriched uranium oxide as a contingent fuel. Because of the need to study evolution in recycling and separation strategies, the user can now select the recycling strategy and separation technology, by year.

  13. Modeling the Influence of Interaction Layer Formation on Thermal Conductivity of U–Mo Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Huber, Tanja K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program continues to develop existing and new plate- and rod-type research and test reactor fuels with maximum attainable uranium loadings capable of potentially converting a number of the world’s remaining high-enriched uranium fueled reactors to low-enriched uranium fuel. Currently, the program is focused on assisting with the development and qualification of an even higher density fuel type consisting of a uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy dispersed in an aluminum matrix. Thermal conductivity is an important consideration in determining the operational temperature of the fuel plate and can be influenced by interaction layer formation between the fuel and matrix, porosity that forms during fabrication of the fuel plates, and upon the concentration of the dispersed phase within the matrix. This paper develops and validates a simple model to study the influence of interaction layer formation and conductivity, fuel particle size, and volume fraction of fuel dispersed in the matrix on the effective conductivity of the composite. The model shows excellent agreement with results previously presented in the literature. In particular, the thermal conductivity of the interaction layer does not appear to be important in determining the overall conductivity of the composite, while formation of the interaction layer and subsequent consumption of the matrix reveals a rather significant effect. The effective thermal conductivity of the composite can be influenced by the fuel particle distribution by minimizing interaction layer formation and preserving the higher thermal conductivity matrix.

  14. Modeling and Analysis of FCM UN TRISO Fuel Using the PARFUME Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaise Collin

    2013-09-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle Fuel ModEl) modeling code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel in the frame of the design and development of Fully Ceramic Matrix (FCM) fuel. A specific modeling of a TRISO particle with UN kernel was developed with PARFUME, and its behavior was assessed in irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The calculations were used to access the dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn-up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn-up. These material properties are unknown at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, more effort is needed to determine them and positively conclude on the applicability of FCM fuel to LWRs.

  15. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  16. A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

  17. An oxy-hydrocarbon model of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred D. Lang; Tom Canning

    2007-09-15

    This paper asserts a new method of analyzing fossil fuels, useful for sorting coals into well-defined categories and for the identification of outlying ultimate analysis data. It describes a series of techniques starting with a new multivariant approach for describing the lower ranks of coal, progressing to a classical, but modified, single-variant approach for the volatile and high-energy ranks. In addition, for a few special cases, multiple low and high ranks are also well described by the multivariant approach. As useful as these techniques are for analyzing fuel chemistry in the laboratory arena, this work was initiated in support of Exergetic Systems' Input/Loss Method. At commercial coal-fired power plants, Input/Loss allows the determination of fuel chemistry based on combustion effluents. The methods presented allow equations to be developed independent of combustion stoichiometrics, which improve Input/Loss accuracy in determining fuel chemistry on-line and in real time.

  18. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ...

  19. Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Energy ... including an estimated annual fuel cost for each vehicle. ... like air conditioning usage and a variety of speed and ...

  20. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_steward.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes - 2003

  1. Discrete Modeling of Early-Life Thermal Fracture in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin W.; Huang, Hai; Dolbow, John E.; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-03-01

    Fracturing of ceramic fuel pellets heavily influences performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Early in the life of fuel, starting with the initial power ramp, large thermal gradients cause high tensile hoop and axial stresses in the outer region of the fuel pellets, resulting in the formation of radial and axial cracks. Circumferential cracks form due to thermal gradients that occur when the power is ramped down. These thermal cracks cause the fuel to expand radially, closing the pellet/cladding gap and enhancing the thermal conductance across that gap, while decreasing the effective conductivity of the fuel in directions normal to the cracking. At lower length scales, formation of microcracks is an important contributor to the decrease in bulk thermal conductivity that occurs over the life of the fuel as the burnup increases. Because of the important effects that fracture has on fuel performance, a realistic, physically based fracture modeling capability is essential to predict fuel behavior in a wide variety of normal and abnormal conditions. Modeling fracture within the context of the finite element method, which is based on continuous interpolations of solution variables, has always been challenging because fracture is an inherently discontinuous phenomenon. Work is underway at Idaho National Laboratory to apply two modeling techniques model fracture as a discrete displacement discontinuity to nuclear fuel: The extended finite element method (XFEM), and discrete element method (DEM). XFEM is based on the standard finite element method, but with enhancements to represent discontinuous behavior. DEM represents a solid as a network of particles connected by bonds, which can arbitrarily fail if a fracture criterion is reached. This paper presents initial results applying the aforementioned techniques to model fuel fracturing. This work has initially focused on early life behavior of ceramic LWR fuel. A coupled thermal-mechanical XFEM method that includes discontinuities in both temperature and displacement fields at crack locations has been developed and is being applied to thermal fracture of LWR fuel. A DEM model of coupled heat conduction and solid mechanics has been developed and used to simulate random initiation and propagation of thermally driven cracks during initial power cycles. This DEM model predicts the formation of realistic radial cracking patterns during power rise and circumferential cracks as power is ramped down. These initial results are very encouraging, and these techniques are expected to provide improved understanding of fuel behavior in a wide variety of conditions.

  2. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  3. Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

  4. Generation IV benchmarking of TRISO fuel performance models under accident conditions. Modeling input data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This document presents the benchmark plan for the calculation of particle fuel performance on safety testing experiments that are representative of operational accidental transients. The benchmark is dedicated to the modeling of fission product release under accident conditions by fuel performance codes from around the world, and the subsequent comparison to post-irradiation experiment (PIE) data from the modeled heating tests. The accident condition benchmark is divided into three parts: the modeling of a simplified benchmark problem to assess potential numerical calculation issues at low fission product release; the modeling of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis safety testing experiments; and, the comparison of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis modeling results with PIE data. The simplified benchmark case, thereafter named NCC (Numerical Calculation Case), is derived from ''Case 5'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology [IAEA 2012]. It is included so participants can evaluate their codes at low fission product release. ''Case 5'' of the IAEA CRP-6 showed large code-to-code discrepancies in the release of fission products, which were attributed to ''effects of the numerical calculation method rather than the physical model''[IAEA 2012]. The NCC is therefore intended to check if these numerical effects subsist. The first two steps imply the involvement of the benchmark participants with a modeling effort following the guidelines and recommendations provided by this document. The third step involves the collection of the modeling results by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the comparison of these results with the available PIE data. The objective of this document is to provide all necessary input data to model the benchmark cases, and to give some methodology guidelines and recommendations in order to make all results suitable for comparison with each other. The participants should read this document thoroughly to make sure all the data needed for their calculations is provided in the document. Missing data will be added to a revision of the document if necessary.

  5. Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogin, G. E. Jr.; DeFilippo, A.; Chen, J. Y.; Chin, G.; Luecke, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.; Dean, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Discusses the use of KIVA-3V to develop a model that reproduces ignition behavior inside the Ignition Quality Tester, which measures the ignition delay of low-volatility fuels.

  6. Influence of FRAPCON-1 evaluation models on fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, R.; Laats, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary set of nine evaluation models (EMs) was added to the FRAPCON-1 computer code, which is used to calculate fuel rod behavior in a nuclear reactor during steady-state operation. The intent was to provide an audit code to be used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing activities when calculations of conservative fuel rod temperatures are required. The EMs place conservatisms on the calculation of rod temperature by modifying the calculation of rod power history, fuel and cladding behavior models, and materials properties correlations. Three of the nine EMs provide either input or model specifications, or set the reference temperature for stored energy calculations. The remaining six EMs were intended to add thermal conservatism through model changes. To determine the relative influence of these six EMs upon fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors, a sensitivity study was conducted. That study is the subject of this paper.

  7. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.2. The minimum stable film boiling temperature, affected by the subcooling and the clad oxidation, is modeled by a modified Henry correlation. ...

  8. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  9. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    development, use, and results. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology, development, use, and results. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology, development, use, and results. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  10. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5-8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE

  11. EPRI-DOE Joint Report Focuses on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department released a report on fossil fleet transition with renewable integration, describing operational and engineering challenges to the fossil generation fleet.

  12. Pinhole Breaches in Spent Fuel Containers: Some Modeling Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarsham K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2006-06-04

    This paper replaces PNNL-SA-48024 and incorporates the ANS reviewer's comments, including the change in the title. Numerical methods to solve the equations for gas diffusion through very small breaches in spent fuel containers are presented and compared with previous literature results.

  13. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  14. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-10-01

    The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. The rapid pace of these changes has put more pressure on the need for modeling of engine combustion and performance, in order to shorten product design and introduction cycles. New combustion strategies include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partial-premixed combustion compression ignition (PCCI), and dilute low temperature combustion which are being developed for lower emissions and improved fuel economy. New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil sands, oil shale, and wet natural gas. Kinetic modeling of the combustion process for these new combustion regimes and fuels is necessary in order to allow modeling and performance assessment for engine design purposes. In this research covered by this CRADA, ORNL developed and supplied experimental data related to engine performance with new fuels and new combustion strategies along with interpretation and analysis of such data and consulting to Reaction Design, Inc. (RD). RD performed additional analysis of this data in order to extract important parameters and to confirm engine and kinetic models. The data generated was generally published to make it available to the engine and automotive design communities and also to the Reaction Design Model Fuels Consortium (MFC).

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Public Transit Efficiency Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative

  16. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Amanda J.; Gardner, Levi D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Huber, Tanja K.; Breitkreutz, Harald

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische UniversitĂ€t MĂŒnchen (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  17. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnash, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  18. Dynamic modeling of physical phenomena for probabilistic assessment of spent fuel accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1997-11-01

    If there should be an accident involving drainage of all the water from a spent fuel pool, the fuel elements will heat up until the heat produced by radioactive decay is balanced by that removed by natural convection to air, thermal radiation, and other means. If the temperatures become high enough for the cladding or other materials to ignite due to rapid oxidation, then some of the fuel might melt, leading to an undesirable release of radioactive materials. The amount of melting is dependent upon the fuel loading configuration and its age, the oxidation and melting characteristics of the materials, and the potential effectiveness of recovery actions. The authors have developed methods for modeling the pertinent physical phenomena and integrating the results with a probabilistic treatment of the uncertainty distributions. The net result is a set of complementary cumulative distribution functions for the amount of fuel melted.

  19. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of UN TRISO Fuel for LWR Application Using the PARFUME Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboraroty (INL) PARFUME (particle fuel model) code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel under irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel were calculated, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn up. These material properties have large uncertainties at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, a large experimental effort would be needed to establish material properties, including kernel and PyC swelling rates, under these conditions before definitive conclusions can be drawn on the behavior of UN TRISO fuel in LWRs.

  2. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Mei, Zhigang; Hofman, Gerard; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident-tolerant alternative for uranium dioxide.

  3. Modeling the Integrated Performance of Dispersion and Monolithic U-Mo Based Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Wachs; Douglas E. Burkes; Steven L. Hayes; Karen Moore; Greg Miller; Gerard Hofman; Yeon Soo Kim

    2006-10-01

    The evaluation and prediction of integrated fuel performance is a critical component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The PLATE code is the primary tool being developed and used to perform these functions. The code is being modified to incorporate the most recent fuel/matrix interaction correlations as they become available for both aluminum and aluminum/silicon matrices. The code is also being adapted to treat cylindrical and square pin geometries to enhance the validation database by including the results gathered from various international partners. Additional modeling work has been initiated to evaluate the thermal and mechanical performance requirements unique to monolithic fuels during irradiation.

  4. A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1998-10-02

    In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

  5. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and

  6. Magnetic field induced quantum phase transitions in the two-impurity Anderson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Lujun; Zhu, Jian - Xin

    2010-11-17

    In the two-impurity Anderson model, the inter-impurity spin exchange interaction favors a spin singlet state between two impurities leading to the localization of quasiparticles. We show that a local uniform magnetic field can delocalize the quasiparticies to restore the Kondo resonance. This transition is found to be continuous, accompanied by not only the divergence of the staggered (anti ferromagnetic) susceptibility, but also the divergence of the uniform spin susceptibility. This implies that the magnetic field induced quantum phase transitions in Kondo systems are in favor of the local critical type.

  7. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advancement...

  8. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) Model PDF icon UC Davis Models: Geospatial Station Network Design Tool and Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout Economic Analysis ...

  9. THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

    2011-12-01

    The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  11. Using System Dynamics to Model the Transition to Biofuels in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.; Peterson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Today, the U.S. consumes almost 21 million barrels of crude oil per day; approximately 60% of the U.S. demand is supplied by imports. The transportation sector alone accounts for two-thirds of U.S. petroleum use. Biofuels, liquid fuels produced from domestically-grown biomass, have the potential to displace about 30% of current U.S. gasoline consumption. Transitioning to a biofuels industry on this scale will require the creation of a robust biomass-to-biofuels system-of-systems that operates in concert with the existing agriculture, forestry, energy, and transportation markets. The U.S. Department of Energy is employing a system dynamics approach to investigate potential market penetration scenarios for cellulosic ethanol, and to aid decision makers in focusing government actions on the areas with greatest potential to accelerate the deployment of biofuels and ultimately reduce the nationpsilas dependence on imported oil.

  12. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  13. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  14. The Modeling of a Standalone Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-10-27

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module; two heat exchanger modules; and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will benefit design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the heat-up stage of an SOFC APU and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in the paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  15. Shell model method for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy, deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Zaochun [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275 (18), Beijing 102413 (China); Sun Yang [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Chen, Y.-S. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(18), Beijing 102413 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2006-11-15

    A method for calculation of Gamow-Teller transition rates is developed by using the concept of the Projected Shell Model (PSM). The shell model basis is constructed by superimposing angular-momentum-projected multiquasiparticle configurations, and nuclear wave functions are obtained by diagonalizing the two-body interactions in these projected states. Calculation of transition matrix elements in the PSM framework is discussed in detail, and the effects caused by the Gamow-Teller residual forces and by configuration-mixing are studied. With this method, it may become possible to perform a state-by-state calculation for {beta}-decay and electron-capture rates in heavy, deformed nuclei at finite temperatures. Our first example indicates that, while experimentally known Gamow-Teller transition rates from the ground state of the parent nucleus are reproduced, stronger transitions from some low-lying excited states are predicted to occur, which may considerably enhance the total decay rates once these nuclei are exposed to hot stellar environments.

  16. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  17. Grain Boundary Percolation Modeling of Fission Gas Release in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fission gas release modeling in oxide fuels based on grain boundary network percolation. The method accounts for variability in the bubble growth and coalescence rates on individual grain boundaries, and the resulting effect on macroscopic fission gas release. Two-dimensional representa- tions of fuel pellet microstructures are considered, and the resulting gas release rates are compared with traditional two-stage Booth models, which do not account for long-range percolation on grain boundary net- works. The results show that the requirement of percolation of saturated grain boundaries can considerably reduce the total gas release rates, particularly when gas resolution is considered.

  18. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Authors: Talou, Patrick [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-02-03 OSTI Identifier: 1051591 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-00844; LA-UR-11-844 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Advanced Reactor Concepts Meeting ; February 2, 2011 ; Oak

  19. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  20. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  1. DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

  2. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  3. Summary report on the fuel performance modeling of the AFC-2A, 2B irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to determine the fuel and cladding temperature history during irradiation of the AFC-2A, 2B transmutation metallic fuel alloy irradiation experiments containing transuranic and rare earth elements. Addition of the rare earth elements intends to simulate potential fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing. Post irradiation examination of the AFC-2A, 2B rodlets revealed breaches in the rodlets and fuel melting which was attributed to the release of the fission gas into the helium gap between the rodlet cladding and the capsule which houses six individually encapsulated rodlets. This release is not anticipated during nominal operation of the AFC irradiation vehicle that features a double encapsulated design in which sodium bonded metallic fuel is separated from the ATR coolant by the cladding and the capsule walls. The modeling effort is focused on assessing effects of this unanticipated event on the fuel and cladding temperature with an objective to compare calculated results with the temperature limits of the fuel and the cladding.

  4. Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    sites is calculated by constructing a model of a representative 100-acre by 50-feet deep landfill site and by applying methane emission factors for high, low, and very low...

  5. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  6. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaper, Tasso J. Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-12-15

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  7. Transition Strategies for 2006 and 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Fuel Production and Distribution * Pay special attention to the transition to a nascent hydrogen economy * Analyze cost goals that are appropriate for the transition * ...

  8. Formulation, Implementation and Validation of a Two-Fluid model in a Fuel Cell CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunal Jain, Vernon Cole, Sanjiv Kumar and N. Vaidya

    2008-11-01

    Water management is one of the main challenges in PEM Fuel Cells. While water is essential for membrane electrical conductivity, excess liquid water leads to ooding of catalyst layers. Despite the fact that accurate prediction of two-phase transport is key for optimal water management, understanding of the two-phase transport in fuel cells is relatively poor. Wang et. al. [1], [2] have studied the two-phase transport in the channel and diffusion layer separately using a multiphase mixture model. The model fails to accurately predict saturation values for high humidity inlet streams. Nguyen et. al. [3] developed a two-dimensional, two-phase, isothermal, isobaric, steady state model of the catalyst and gas diffusion layers. The model neglects any liquid in the channel. Djilali et. al. [4] developed a three-dimensional two-phase multicomponent model. The model is an improvement over previous models, but neglects drag between the liquid and the gas phases in the channel. In this work, we present a comprehensive two- fluid model relevant to fuel cells. Models for two-phase transport through Channel, Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and Channel-GDL interface, are discussed. In the channel, the gas and liquid pressures are assumed to be same. The surface tension effects in the channel are incorporated using the continuum surface force (CSF) model. The force at the surface is expressed as a volumetric body force and added as a source to the momentum equation. In the GDL, the gas and liquid are assumed to be at different pressures. The difference in the pressures (capillary pressure) is calculated using an empirical correlations. At the Channel-GDL interface, the wall adhesion affects need to be taken into account. SIMPLE-type methods recast the continuity equation into a pressure-correction equation, the solution of which then provides corrections for velocities and pressures. However, in the two-fluid model, the presence of two phasic continuity equations gives more freedom and more complications. A general approach would be to form a mixture continuity equation by linearly combining the phasic continuity equations using appropriate weighting factors. Analogous to mixture equation for pressure correction, a difference equation is used for the volume/phase fraction by taking the difference between the phasic continuity equations. The relative advantages of the above mentioned algorithmic variants for computing pressure correction and volume fractions are discussed and quantitatively assessed. Preliminary model validation is done for each component of the fuel cell. The two-phase transport in the channel is validated using empirical correlations. Transport in the GDL is validated against results obtained from LBM and VOF simulation techniques. The Channel-GDL interface transport will be validated against experiment and empirical correlation of droplet detachment at the interface. References [1] Y. Wang S. Basu and C.Y. Wang. Modeling two-phase flow in pem fuel cell channels. J. Power Sources, 179:603{617, 2008. [2] P. K. Sinha and C. Y. Wang. Liquid water transport in a mixed-wet gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Chem. Eng. Sci., 63:1081-1091, 2008. [3] Guangyu Lin and Trung Van Nguyen. A two-dimensional two-phase model of a pem fuel cell. J. Electrochem. Soc., 153(2):A372{A382, 2006. [4] T. Berning and N. Djilali. A 3d, multiphase, multicomponent model of the cathode and anode of a pem fuel cell. J. Electrochem. Soc., 150(12):A1589{A1598, 2003.

  9. AC Transit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » AC Transit AC Transit AC Transit logo AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers. Photo of zero emission hydrogen fuel cell bus at AC Transit.

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertaintymore » in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.« less

  12. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

    2014-10-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  13. Radiolysis Model Sensitivity Analysis for a Used Fuel Storage Canister

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-09-20

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone (M3FT-13PN0810027) to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible 300-year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value. This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for 111 reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air.

  14. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of Westinghouse WE 17×17 pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies with a discharge burnup range of 30-58 GWd/MTU (assembly average), loaded in a representative high-capacity (≄32 fuel rod assemblies) transportation package. Evaluations will be performed for representative normal conditions of rail transport involving a rail conveyance capable of meeting the Association of American Railroads (AAR) S-2043 specification. UNF modeling is anticipated to be defined to the pellet-cladding level and take in to account influences associated with spacer grids, intermediate fluid mixers, and control components. The influence of common degradation issues such as ductile-to-brittle-transition will also be accounted for. All model development and analysis will be performed with commercially available software packages exclusively. Inputs and analyses will be completely documented, all supporting information will be traceable, and bases will be defendable so as to be most useful to the U.S. Department of Energy community and mission. The expected completion date is the end of fiscal year (FY) 2013.

  15. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

  16. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  17. Impact of high-order moments on the statistical modeling of transition arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilleron, Franck; Pain, Jean-Christophe; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2008-02-15

    The impact of high-order moments on the statistical modeling of transition arrays in complex spectra is studied. It is shown that a departure from the Gaussian, which is usually employed in such an approach, may be observed even in the shape of unresolved spectra due to the large value of the kurtosis coefficient. The use of a Gaussian shape may also overestimate the width of the spectra in some cases. Therefore, it is proposed to simulate the statistical shape of the transition arrays by the more flexible generalized Gaussian distribution which introduces an additional parameter--the power of the argument in the exponential--that can be constrained by the kurtosis value. The relevance of the statistical line distribution is checked by comparisons with smoothed spectra obtained from detailed line-by-line calculations. The departure from the Gaussian is also confirmed through the analysis of 2p-3d transitions of recent absorption measurements. A numerical fit is proposed for an easy implementation of the statistical profile in atomic-structure codes.

  18. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay heat of the fuel in the pool was, at the time of the accident, 2.284 MWt, of which 1.872 MWt were from the 548 assemblies of the last core discharged and 0.412 MWt were from the older 783 assemblies. These decay heat values were calculated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORIGEN2.2 code (Ref. 2) - they agree with values reported elsewhere (Ref. 3). The pool dimensions are 9.9 m x 12.2 m x 11.8 m (height), and with the water level at 11.5 m, the pool volume is 1389 m3, of which only 1240 m3 is water, as some volume is taken by the fuel and by the fuel racks. The initial water temperature of the SFP4 was assumed to be 301 K. The fuel racks are made of an aluminum alloy but are modeled in MELCOR with stainless steel and B4C. MELCOR calculations were completed for different initial water levels: 11.5 m (pool almost full, water is only 0.3 m below the top rim), 4.4577 m (top of the racks), 4.2 m, and 4.026 m (top of the active fuel). A calculation was also completed for a rapid loss of water due to a leak at the bottom of the pool, with the fuel rapidly uncovered and oxidized in air. Results of these calculations are shown in the enclosed Table I. The calculation with the initial water level at 11.5 m (full pool) takes 11 days for the water to boil down to the top of the fuel racks, 11.5 days for the fuel to be uncovered, 14.65 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen and 19 days for the pool to be completely dry. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.4577 m, takes 1.1 days to uncover the fuel and 4.17 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.02 m takes 3.63 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen this is exactly the time when the actual explosion occurred in Unit 4. Finally, fuel oxidation in air after the pool drained the water in 20 minutes, generates only 10 kg of hydrogen this is because very little steam is available and Zircaloy (Zr) oxidation with the oxygen of the air does not generate hydrogen. MELCOR calculated water levels and hydrogen generated in the SFP4 as a function of time for initial water levels of 4.457 m, 4.2 m and 4.02 m are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Water levels increase at the beginning due to the expansion of the water during the heat-up from 301 K to 373 K. Boiling occurs after the water temperature reaches 373 K. The total amount of hydrogen generated is ~2000 kg, this amount includes hydrogen generated from Zr, which is the largest amount (~1580 kg), from stainless steel (~360 kg), and from B4C (~60 kg). In theory, it is possible to generate up to 3.4 kg of hydrogen per assembly (from oxidation of Zr in the fuel cladding and box), or a total of 4,525 kg from the hot 1331 assemblies stored in the SFP4. The hydrogen generated from oxidation of steel and B4C will be additional. So the answers to the questions are YES according to these MELCOR calculations, enough hydrogen (150 kg) could be generated in the SFP4 3.64 days after the earthquake to produce ...

  19. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  20. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert

    2013-07-01

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  1. Block entropy and quantum phase transition in the anisotropic Kondo necklace model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2010-06-15

    We study the von Neumann block entropy in the Kondo necklace model for different anisotropies {eta} in the XY interaction between conduction spins using the density matrix renormalization group method. It was found that the block entropy presents a maximum for each {eta} considered, and, comparing it with the results of the quantum criticality of the model based on the behavior of the energy gap, we observe that the maximum block entropy occurs at the quantum critical point between an antiferromagnetic and a Kondo singlet state, so this measure of entanglement is useful for giving information about where a quantum phase transition occurs in this model. We observe that the block entropy also presents a maximum at the quantum critical points that are obtained when an anisotropy {Delta} is included in the Kondo exchange between localized and conduction spins; when {Delta} diminishes for a fixed value of {eta}, the critical point increases, favoring the antiferromagnetic phase.

  2. A Computational Model of the Mark-IV Electrorefiner: Phase I -- Fuel Basket/Salt Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Shelly Li; Michael Simpson; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2009-09-01

    Spent driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being treated in the Mk-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory. The modeling approach to be presented here has been developed to help understand the effect of different parameters on the dynamics of this system. The first phase of this new modeling approach focuses on the fuel basket/salt interface involving the transport of various species found in the driver fuels (e.g. uranium and zirconium). This approach minimizes the guessed parameters to only one, the exchange current density (i0). U3+ and Zr4+ were the only species used for the current study. The result reveals that most of the total cell current is used for the oxidation of uranium, with little being used by zirconium. The dimensionless approach shows that the total potential is a strong function of i0 and a weak function of wt% of uranium in the salt system for initiation processes.

  3. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  4. Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Jerden, James L.; Ebert, William L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-08-30

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the strategy for coupling three process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM). The FDM, which is based on fundamental chemical and physical principals, provides direct calculation of radionuclide source terms for use in repository performance assessments. The G-value for H2O2 production (Gcond) to be used in the Mixed Potential Model (MPM) (H2O2 is the only radiolytic product presently included but others will be added as appropriate) needs to account for intermediate spur reactions. The effects of these intermediate reactions on [H2O2] are accounted for in the Radiolysis Model (RM). This report details methods for applying RM calculations that encompass the effects of these fast interactions on [H2O2] as the solution composition evolves during successive MPM iterations and then represent the steady-state [H2O2] in terms of an “effective instantaneous or conditional” generation value (Gcond). It is anticipated that the value of Gcond will change slowly as the reaction progresses through several iterations of the MPM as changes in the nature of fuel surface occur. The Gcond values will be calculated with the RM either after several iterations or when concentrations of key reactants reach threshold values determined from previous sensitivity runs. Sensitivity runs with RM indicate significant changes in G-value can occur over narrow composition ranges. The objective of the mixed potential model (MPM) is to calculate the used fuel degradation rates for a wide range of disposal environments to provide the source term radionuclide release rates for generic repository concepts. The fuel degradation rate is calculated for chemical and oxidative dissolution mechanisms using mixed potential theory to account for all relevant redox reactions at the fuel surface, including those involving oxidants produced by solution radiolysis and provided by the radiolysis model (RM). The RM calculates the concentration of species generated at any specific time and location from the surface of the fuel. Several options being considered for coupling the RM and MPM are described in the report. Different options have advantages and disadvantages based on the extent of coding that would be required and the ease of use of the final product.

  5. The Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Initiative - NPBF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... can aid the transition to hydrogen & fuel cells Conduct research to aid immediate use ... Impact of fuel properties on combustion and engine optimization. Impact of fuel properties ...

  6. KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methodologies needed for studying fuel effects include development of fuel kinetic ... Resource Relation: Conference: International Conference on Sustainable Automotive ...

  7. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ALUMINIUM; BOILING; DIMENSIONS; EARTHQUAKES; EXPLOSIONS; FUEL ASSEMBLIES; FUEL RACKS; HYDROGEN; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; OXIDATION; OXYGEN; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTOR ACCIDENTS;...

  8. Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

    2009-12-30

    To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance.

  9. Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous CFD Fuel Models for Phase I of the IAEA CRP on HTR Uncertainties Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerhard Strydom; Su-Jong Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel models was performed as part of the Phase I calculations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinate Research Program (CRP) on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Uncertainties in Modeling (UAM). This study was focused on the nominal localized stand-alone fuel thermal response, as defined in Ex. I-3 and I-4 of the HTR UAM. The aim of the stand-alone thermal unit-cell simulation is to isolate the effect of material and boundary input uncertainties on a very simplified problem, before propagation of these uncertainties are performed in subsequent coupled neutronics/thermal fluids phases on the benchmark. In many of the previous studies for high temperature gas cooled reactors, the volume-averaged homogeneous mixture model of a single fuel compact has been applied. In the homogeneous model, the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in the fuel compact were not modeled directly and an effective thermal conductivity was employed for the thermo-physical properties of the fuel compact. On the contrary, in the heterogeneous model, the uranium carbide (UCO), inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers of the TRISO fuel particles are explicitly modeled. The fuel compact is modeled as a heterogeneous mixture of TRISO fuel kernels embedded in H-451 matrix graphite. In this study, a steady-state and transient CFD simulations were performed with both homogeneous and heterogeneous models to compare the thermal characteristics. The nominal values of the input parameters are used for this CFD analysis. In a future study, the effects of input uncertainties in the material properties and boundary parameters will be investigated and reported.

  10. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skutnik, Steven E; Gauld, Ian C; Romano, Catherine E; Trellue, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent calculations performed using SCALE and MCNP. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  11. Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of High-Aspect Ratio Nuclear Fuel Plates Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Franklin G [ORNL] [ORNL; Ekici, Kivanc [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Lab is in the research stage of converting its fuel from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. Due to different physical properties of the new fuel and changes to the internal fuel plate design, the current safety basis must be re-evaluated through rigorous computational analyses. One of the areas being explored is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon due to the interaction of thin fuel plates (50 mils thickness) and the cooling fluid (water). Detailed computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction simulations have only recently become feasible due to improved numerical algorithms and advancements in computing technology. For many reasons including the already built-in fluid-structure interaction module, COMSOL has been chosen for this complex problem. COMSOL's ability to solve multiphysics problems using a fully-coupled and implicit solution algorithm is crucial in obtaining a stable and accurate solution. Our initial findings show that COMSOL can accurately model such problems due to its ability to closely couple the fluid dynamics and the structural dynamics problems.

  12. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  13. One-dimensional numerical fluid dynamics model of the spreading of liquefied gaseous fuel (LGF) on water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, W.; Ermak, D.L.

    1980-11-04

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the spreading of an evaporating liquefied gaseous fuel that has been spilled on the surface of a denser liquid. This would correspond, for example, to the spreading of liquefied natural gas spilled onto water. The model is based on the one-dimensional, time-dependent equations of conservation of mass and momentum, with the assumption that the pool of liquid fuel spreads in a radially symmetric manner. It includes the effects of vaporization, shear at the fuel-liquid interface, and buoyancy due to the density difference between the fuel and the liquid onto which it is spilled. Both instantaneous and continuous spills of finite volume are treated. The height and spreading velocity of the pool of spilled fuel are calculated as functions of time and radius by numerically solving the conservation equations with a finite difference method. Output of the calculations is presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  14. One-dimensional numerical fluid dynamics model of the spreading of liquefied gaseous fuel (LGF) on water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, W.; Ermak, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the spreading of an evaporating liquefied gaseous fuel that has been spilled on the surface of a denser liquid. This would correspond, for example, to the spreading of liquefied natural gas spilled onto water. The model is based on the one-dimensional, time-dependent equations of conservation of mass and momentum, with the assumption that the pool of liquid fuel spreads in a radially symmetric manner. It includes the effects of vaporization, shear at the fuel-liquid interface, and buoyancy due to the density difference between the fuel and the liquid onto which it is spilled. Both instantaneous and continuous spills of finite volume are treated. The height and spreading velocity of the pool of spilled fuel are calculated as functions of time and radius by numerically solving the conservation equations with a finite difference method.Output of the calculations is presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  15. Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Hales; Various

    2014-09-01

    As a result of corrosion during normal operation in nuclear reactors, hydrogen can enter the zirconium-alloy fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride platelets, which can severely degrade the cladding ductility. Under a heterogeneous temperature distribution, hydrides tend to accumulate in the colder areas, creating local spots of degraded cladding that can favor crack initiation. Therefore, an estimation of the local hydride distribution is necessary to help predict the risk of cladding failure. The hydride distribution is governed by three competing phenomena. Hydrogen in solid solution diffuses under a concentration gradient due to Fick’s law and under a temperature gradient due to the Soret effect. Precipitation of the hydride platelets occurs once the hydrogen solubility limit is reached. A model of these phenomena was implemented in the 3D fuel performance code BISON in order to calculate the hydrogen distribution for arbitrary geometries, such as a nuclear fuel rod, and is now available for BISON users. Simulations have been performed on simple geometries to validate the model and its implementation. The simulations predict that before precipitation occurs, hydrogen tends to accumulate in the colder spots due to the Soret effect. Once the solubility limit is reached, hydrogen precipitates and forms a rim close to the outer edge of the cladding. The simulations also predict that the reactor shut down has little effect on already precipitated hydrides but causes the remaining hydrogen to precipitate homogeneously into hydrides.

  16. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  17. Phase transitions in a reaction-diffusion model on a line with boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khorrami, Mohammad Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2014-03-15

    A one-dimensional model on a line of length L is investigated, which involves particle diffusion as well as single particle annihilation. There are also creation and annihilation at the boundaries. The static and dynamical behaviors of the system are studied. It is seen that the system could exhibit a dynamical phase transition. For small drift velocities, the relaxation time does not depend on the absorption rates at the boundaries. This is the fast phase. For large velocities, the smaller of the absorption rates at boundaries enter the relaxation rate and makes it longer. This is the slow phase. Finally, the effect of a random particle creation in the bulk is also investigated.

  18. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matti Maricq, M.

    2011-01-15

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  19. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  20. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  1. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil ...

  2. Improved Modeling and Understanding of Diffusion-Media Wettability on Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam

    2010-03-05

    A macroscopic-modeling methodology to account for the chemical and structural properties of fuel-cell diffusion media is developed. A previous model is updated to include for the first time the use of experimentally measured capillary pressure -- saturation relationships through the introduction of a Gaussian contact-angle distribution into the property equations. The updated model is used to simulate various limiting-case scenarios of water and gas transport in fuel-cell diffusion media. Analysis of these results demonstrate that interfacial conditions are more important than bulk transport in these layers, where the associated mass-transfer resistance is the result of higher capillary pressures at the boundaries and the steepness of the capillary pressure -- saturation relationship. The model is also used to examine the impact of a microporous layer, showing that it dominates the response of the overall diffusion medium. In addition, its primary mass-transfer-related effect is suggested to be limiting the water-injection sites into the more porous gas-diffusion layer.

  3. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on water transport in PEM fuel cells, was given by CFDRC's J. Vernon Cole at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007.

  4. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  5. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation Model VICE 2.0: Vehicle

  7. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Electricity Tax Exemption for Transit Use CNG and electricity that local agencies or public transit operators use as motor vehicle fuel to operate public transit services is exempt from applicable user taxes a county imposes. (Reference California Revenue and Taxation Code 7284.3

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Transportation Energy Transition Modeling and Analysis: the LAVE-Trans Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about transportation...

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  11. Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-11-01

    Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  12. Assessment of a mechanistic model in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, D.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to look at its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to the simulation of fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and the evolution of the gas bubble size distribution in three different fuel zones: the outer {alpha}-U, the intermediate, and the inner {gamma}-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the {alpha}-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is consistent with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the {alpha}-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature {gamma}-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreements between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. In addition, the results of parametric studies for several key parameters are presented for both the intermediate zone and the {gamma}-U zone simulations. (authors)

  13. Transitioning from fossil-fueled ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    economical, reliable, and safe batteries. To substantially improve battery ... degradation, suboptimal reliability, and potential safety concerns in batteries. ...

  14. Transitioning from fossil-fueled ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    depends on developing batteries that are increasingly economical, reliable, and safe. A ... active in batteries, particularly those that degrade a battery's service lifetime. ...

  15. A Fission Gas Release Model for High-Burnup LWR ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Yun; Yi Yuan; Kazimi, Mujid S.; Ballinger, Ronald G.; Pilat, Edward E.

    2002-06-15

    Fission gas release in thoria-urania fuel has been investigated by creating a specially modified FRAPCON-3 code. Because of the reduced buildup of {sup 239}Pu and a flatter distribution of {sup 233}U, the new model THUPS (Thoria-Urania Power Shape) was developed to calculate the radial power distribution, including the effects of both plutonium and {sup 233}U. Additionally, a new porosity model for the rim region was introduced at high burnup. The mechanisms of fission gas release in ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel are expected to be essentially similar to those of UO{sub 2} fuel; therefore, the general formulations of the existing fission gas release models in FRAPCON-3 were retained. However, the gas diffusion coefficient was adjusted to a lower level to account for the smaller observed release fraction in the thoria-based fuel. To model the accelerated fission gas release at high burnup properly, a new athermal fission gas release model was introduced. The modified version of FRAPCON-3 was calibrated using the measured fission gas release data from the light water breeder reactor. Using the new model to calculate the gas release in typical pressurized water reactor hot pins gives data that indicate that the ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel will have considerably lower fission gas release above a burnup of 50 MWd/kg HM.

  16. Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: The Top 5 Fuel Cell States: Why Local ...

  17. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  18. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Wonseok; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-20

    The cathode catalyst layer within a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is the most complex and critical, yet least understood, layer within the cell. The exact method and equations for modeling this layer are still being revised and will be discussed in this paper, including a 0.8 reaction order, existence of Pt oxides, possible non-isopotential agglomerates, and the impact of a film resistance towards oxygen transport. While the former assumptions are relatively straightforward to understand and implement, the latter film resistance is shown to be critically important in explaining increased mass-transport limitations with low Pt-loading catalyst layers. Model results demonstrate agreement with experimental data that the increased oxygen flux and/or diffusion pathway through the film can substantially decrease performance. Also, some scale-up concepts from the agglomerate scale to the more macroscopic porous-electrode scale are discussed and the resulting optimization scenarios investigated.

  19. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink¼. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  20. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ?1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ?0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ?150 Myr and mass ?4 M {sub ?}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ?0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ?1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  1. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2009-03-09

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for both primary reference fuels, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Additionally, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the aforementioned fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  2. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  3. Progress and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications Progress and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications Presentation at DOE and DOT Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop, June 7, 2010 ...

  4. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  5. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumption of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO₂ reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH₄ flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Improve Fuel Economy through Formulation Design and Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ashland Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about improve fuel economy through...

  7. Fact #764: January 28, 2013 Model Year 2013 Brings More Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For a consumer purchasing a new large car in 2008, the highest combined cityhighway fuel economy available was 25 miles per gallon (mpg); for 2013, the top fuel economy of the ...

  8. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS – A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  10. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chi -Jen; Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-28

    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≄ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. As a result, mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  11. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chi -Jen; Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-28

    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≄ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique valuemore » but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. As a result, mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.« less

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Transportation Energy Transition Modeling and Analysis: the LAVE-Trans Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the LAVE-Trans...

  13. Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  14. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory describes a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems.

  17. Evolution of Nuclear Observables in the Spherical-Deformed Phase Transition and the Interacting Boson Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamfir, N.V.; McCutchan, E.A.; Casten, R.F.

    2004-09-13

    We discuss the empirical evolution of structure in the spherical-deformed phase transition region in the context of the behavior of basic structural signatures in the IBA symmetry triangle. The main signatures of a phase/shape transition are a sharp increase in R{sub 4/2} {identical_to} E(4{sub 1}{sup +})/E(2{sub 1}{sup +}) and minima in E(0{sub 2}{sup +}) and E(2{sub {gamma}}{sup +})

  18. Modeling of autoignition and NO sensitization for the oxidation of IC engine surrogate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderlohr, J.M. |; Bounaceur, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Pires Da Cruz, A.

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents an approach for modeling with one single kinetic mechanism the chemistry of the autoignition and combustion processes inside an internal combustion engine, as well as the chemical kinetics governing the postoxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in engine exhaust gases. Therefore a new kinetic model was developed, valid over a wide range of temperatures including the negative temperature coefficient regime. The model simulates the autoignition and the oxidation of engine surrogate fuels composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, which are sensitized by the presence of nitric oxides. The new model was obtained from previously published mechanisms for the oxidation of alkanes and toluene where the coupling reactions describing interactions between hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} were added. The mechanism was validated against a wide range of experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactors, rapid compression machines, shock tubes, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Flow rate and sensitivity analysis were performed in order to explain the low temperature chemical kinetics, especially the impact of NO{sub x} on hydrocarbon oxidation. (author)

  19. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The softwaremore » can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.« less

  20. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  1. A two transition state model for radical-molecule reactions : applications to isomeric branching in the OH-isoprene reaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwald, E. E.; North, S. W.; Georgievskii, Y.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Chemistry; Texas A&M Univ.; SNL

    2007-06-28

    A two transition state model is applied to the prediction of the isomeric branching in the addition of hydroxyl radical to isoprene. The outer transition state is treated with phase space theory fitted to long-range transition state theory calculations on an electrostatic potential energy surface. High-level quantum chemical estimates are applied to the treatment of the inner transition state. A one-dimensional master equation based on an analytic reduction from two-dimensions for a particular statistical assumption about the rotational part of the energy transfer kernel is employed in the calculation of the pressure dependence of the addition process. We find that an accurate treatment of the two separate transition state regions, at the energy and angular momentum resolved level, is essential to the prediction of the temperature dependence of the addition rate. The transition from a dominant outer transition state to a dominant inner transition state is shown to occur at about 275 K, with significant effects from both transition states over the 30-500 K temperature range. Modest adjustments in the ab initio predicted inner saddle point energies yield predictions that are in quantitative agreement with the available high-pressure limit experimental observations and qualitative agreement with those in the falloff regime. The theoretically predicted capture rate is reproduced to within 10% by the expression [1.71 x 10-10(T/298)-2.58 exp(-608.6/RT) + 5.47 x 10-11(T/298)-1.78 exp(-97.3/RT); with R = 1.987 and T in K] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 over the 30-500 K range. A 300 K branching ratio of 0.67:0.02:0.02:0.29 was determined for formation of the four possible OH-isoprene adduct isomers 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and was found to be relatively insensitive to temperature. An Arrhenius activation energy of -0.77 kcal/mol was determined for the high-pressure addition rate constants around 300 K.

  2. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  3. CTTRANSIT Operates New England's First Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy CTTRANSIT Operates New England's First Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus CTTRANSIT Operates New England's First Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus DOE Hydrogen Program (Fact Sheet) PDF icon 42407.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  4. Multiscale modeling of thermal conductivity of high burnup structures in UO2 fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bai, Xian -Ming; Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-12-22

    The high burnup structure forming at the rim region in UO2 based nuclear fuel pellets has interesting physical properties such as improved thermal conductivity, even though it contains a high density of grain boundaries and micron-size gas bubbles. To understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, mesoscale heat conduction simulations with inputs from atomistic simulations and experiments were conducted to study the thermal conductivities of a small-grain high burnup microstructure and two large-grain unrestructured microstructures. We concluded that the phonon scattering effects caused by small point defects such as dispersed Xe atoms in the grain interior must be included in order to correctlymore » predict the thermal transport properties of these microstructures. In extreme cases, even a small concentration of dispersed Xe atoms such as 10-5 can result in a lower thermal conductivity in the large-grain unrestructured microstructures than in the small-grain high burnup structure. The high-density grain boundaries in a high burnup structure act as defect sinks and can reduce the concentration of point defects in its grain interior and improve its thermal conductivity in comparison with its large-grain counterparts. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity at different concentrations of dispersed Xe, bubble porosities, and grain sizes. Upon calibration, the model is robust and agrees well with independent heat conduction modeling over a wide range of microstructural parameters.« less

  5. Fuel Cell Bus Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Presentation at DOE and DOT Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop, June 7, 2010 PDF icon buswksp10_papageorgopoulos.pdf More Documents & Publications Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report Fuel Cell Buses Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status

  6. Modeling of Gap Closure in Uranium-Zirconium Alloy Metal Fuel - A Test Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simunovic, Srdjan; Ott, Larry J; Gorti, Sarma B; Nukala, Phani K; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Turner, John A

    2009-10-01

    Uranium based binary and ternary alloy fuel is a possible candidate for advanced fast spectrum reactors with long refueling intervals and reduced liner heat rating [1]. An important metal fuel issue that can impact the fuel performance is the fuel-cladding gap closure, and fuel axial growth. The dimensional change in the fuel during irradiation is due to a superposition of the thermal expansion of the fuel due to heating, volumetric changes due to possible phase transformations that occur during heating and the swelling due to fission gas retention. The volumetric changes due to phase transformation depend both on the thermodynamics of the alloy system and the kinetics of phase change reactions that occur at the operating temperature. The nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles that contributes to fuel swelling is also influenced by the local fuel chemistry and the microstructure. Once the fuel expands and contacts the clad, expansion in the radial direction is constrained by the clad, and the overall deformation of the fuel clad assembly depends upon the dynamics of the contact problem. The neutronics portion of the problem is also inherently coupled with microstructural evolution in terms of constituent redistribution and phase transformation. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems have been defined with increasing complexity with the objective of capturing the fuel-clad interaction in complex fuels subjected to a wide range of irradiation and temperature conditions. The abstract, if short, is inserted here before the introduction section. If the abstract is long, it should be inserted with the front material and page numbered as such, then this page would begin with the introduction section.

  7. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  8. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems. The analysis considers low temperature proton exchange membrane systems for use in combined heat and power ...

  10. MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of Fuel Cell...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office (FCTO) conducts comprehensive efforts to overcome the technological, economic, and institutional barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cells. ...

  11. An analytical model for studying effects of gas release from a failed fuel pin of a liquid-metal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    A analytical model for describing dynamics of a gas bubble in the liquid sodium of a liquid-metal reactor as the result of failed fuel pins is discussed. A model to describe the coupled response of the liquid sodium surrounding the gas bubble is also discussed. The analysis method is programmed in a computer code and used to analyze some available experimental data, and the results are discussed.

  12. Radioactive Waste Management: Study of Spent Fuel Dissolution Rates in Geological Storage Using Dosimetry Modeling and Experimental Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Brady; Miller, William

    2011-10-28

    This research will provide improved predictions into the mechanisms and effects of radiolysis on spent nuclear fuel dissolution in a geological respository through accurate dosimetry modeling of the dose to water, mechanistic chemistry modeling of the resulting radiolytic reactions and confirmatory experimental measurements. This work will combine effort by the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (NSEI) and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the expertise and facilities at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

  13. Modeling of selected ceramic processing parameters employed in the fabrication of 238PuO2 fuel pellets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via ''classical'' ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters withmore » the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. The results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.« less

  14. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high‐fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high‐fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high‐fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  15. Using System Dynamics to Model the Transition to Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.; Peterson, S.

    2008-06-01

    Transitioning to a biofuels industry that is expected to displace about 30% of current U.S. gasoline consumption requires a robust biomass-to-biofuels system-of-systems that operates in concert with the existing markets. This paper discusses employing a system dynamics approach to investigate potential market penetration scenarios for cellulosic ethanol and to help government decision makers focus on areas with greatest potential.

  16. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where ? = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ?{sub crit}?13(T{sub crit}{sup *}?0.076),?{sub crit}?1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}?0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}?0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ?{sup ?1}.

  17. Temperature modeling for analysis and design of the sintering furnance in HTR fuel type of ball

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saragi, Elfrida; Setiadji, Moch

    2013-09-09

    One of the factors that determine the safety of the operation of the sintering furnace fuel HTR ball is the temperature distribution in the ceramic tube furnace. The temperature distribution must be determined at design stage. The tube has a temperature of 1600 °C at one end and about 40 °C at the other end. The outside of the tube was cooled by air through natural convection. The tube is a furnace ceramic tube which its geometry are 0.08, 0.09 and 0.5 m correspondingly for the inner tube diameter, outer tube diameter and tube length. The temperature distribution of the tube is determined by the natural convection coefficient (NCF), which is difficult to be calculated manually. The determination of NCF includes the Grasshoff, Prandtl, and Nusselt numbers which is a function of the temperature difference between the surrounding air with the ceramic tube. If the temperature vary along the tube, the complexity of the calculations increases. Thus the proposed modeling was performed to determine the temperature distribution along the tube and heat transfer coefficient using a self-developed software which permit the design process easier.

  18. Scalable Nonlinear Solvers for Fully Implicit Coupled Nuclear Fuel Modeling. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Xiang; Pernice, Michael

    2014-09-29

    The focus of the project is on the development and customization of some highly scalable domain decomposition based preconditioning techniques for the numerical solution of nonlinear, coupled systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from nuclear fuel simulations. These high-order PDEs represent multiple interacting physical fields (for example, heat conduction, oxygen transport, solid deformation), each is modeled by a certain type of Cahn-Hilliard and/or Allen-Cahn equations. Most existing approaches involve a careful splitting of the fields and the use of field-by-field iterations to obtain a solution of the coupled problem. Such approaches have many advantages such as ease of implementation since only single field solvers are needed, but also exhibit disadvantages. For example, certain nonlinear interactions between the fields may not be fully captured, and for unsteady problems, stable time integration schemes are difficult to design. In addition, when implemented on large scale parallel computers, the sequential nature of the field-by-field iterations substantially reduces the parallel efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, fully coupled approaches have been investigated in order to obtain full physics simulations.

  19. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2014-01-01

    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps and repetitive impact effects on GTRF wear is proposed

  20. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tentner, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-13

    A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.

  1. The need for a characteristics-based approach to radioactive waste classification as informed by advanced nuclear fuel cycles using the fuel-cycle integration and tradeoffs (FIT) model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 3115B Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, S.; Pincock, L.; Soelberg, N. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. Because heat generation is generally the most important factor limiting geological repository areal loading, this analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. Waste streams generated in different fuel cycles and their possible classification based on the current U.S. framework and international standards are discussed. It is shown that the effects of separating waste streams are neglected under a source-based radioactive waste classification system. (authors)

  2. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumptionmore » of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO₂ reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH₄ flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.« less

  3. Comparison of model predictions with measurements using the improved spent fuel attribute tester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupree, S.A.; Laub, T.W.; Arlt, R.

    1994-08-01

    Design improvements for the International Atomic Energy Agency`s Spent Fuel Attribute Tester, recommended on the basis of an optimization study, were incorporated into a new instrument fabricated under the Finnish Support Programme. The new instrument was tested at a spent fuel storage pool on September 8 and 9, 1993. The result of two of the measurements have been compared with calculations. In both cases the calculated and measured pulse height spectra in good agreement and the {sup 137}Cs gamma peak signature from the target spent fuel element is present.

  4. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model This presentation by ...

  5. A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen; Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.

    2010-12-15

    An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in both shock tube and rapid compression machine experiments. A chemical kinetic model is constructed and utilized to interpret the experimental observations and provides a rationale as to why the real fuel and surrogate fuel exhibit such similar reactivity. (author)

  6. Experimental characterization of glass-ceramic seal properties and their constitutive implementation in solid oxide fuel cell stack models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Vetrano, John S.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Chou, Y. S.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-09-05

    This paper discusses experimental determination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) glass-ceramic seal material properties and seal/interconnect interfacial properties to support development and optimization of SOFC designs through modeling. Material property experiments such as dynamic resonance, dilatometry, flexure, creep, tensile, and shear tests were performed on PNNL’s glass-ceramic sealant material, designated as G18, to obtain property data essential to constitutive and numerical model development. Characterization methods for the physical, mechanical, and interfacial properties of the sealing material, results, and their application to the constitutive implementation in SOFC stack modeling are described.

  7. Pore Scale Modeling of the Reactive Transport of Chromium in the Cathode of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Amon, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a pore scale model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode. Volatile chromium species are known to migrate from the current collector of the SOFC into the cathode where over time they decrease the voltage output of the fuel cell. A pore scale model is used to investigate the reactive transport of chromium species in the cathode and to study the driving forces of chromium poisoning. A multi-scale modeling approach is proposed which uses a cell level model of the cathode, air channel and current collector to determine the boundary conditions for a pore scale model of a section of the cathode. The pore scale model uses a discrete representation of the cathode to explicitly model the surface reactions of oxygen and chromium with a cathode material. The pore scale model is used to study the reaction mechanisms of chromium by considering the effects of reaction rates, diffusion coefficients, chromium vaporization, and oxygen consumption on chromium’s deposition in the cathode. The study shows that chromium poisoning is most significantly affected by the chromium reaction rates in the cathode and that the reaction rates are a function of the local current density in the cathode.

  8. Fact #764: January 28, 2013 Model Year 2013 Brings More Fuel Efficient Choices for Consumers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Over the last six years, manufacturers have made more fuel efficient choices available to consumers in several size classes. For a consumer purchasing a new large car in 2008, the highest combined...

  9. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 ... and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the ... like air conditioning usage and a variety of speed and ...

  10. Fuel Cell School Buses: Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Buses: Report to Congress Fuel Cell School Buses: Report to Congress The Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program has examined the potential for a fuel cell school bus development and demonstration program. This report discusses cost and durability in relation to the robust fuel cell transit bus program that already exists. PDF icon Fuel Cell School Buses: Report to Congress More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine

  11. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion of n-Heptane | Department of Energy The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated. PDF icon deer08_posada.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use Engine Efficiency Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a protoype fuel cell bus, a prototype hydrogen hybrid interal combustion engine bus, and five new compressed...

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides an update on the evaluation results for hydrogen and CNG-fueled buses opertating at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  14. Sunline Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides an update on the evaluation results for hydrogen and CNG-fueled buses opertating at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  15. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update This report provides an update on the evaluation results for hydrogen and CNG-fueled buses ...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards California's LEV II exhaust emissions standards apply to Model Year (MY) 2004 and subsequent model year passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles meeting specified exhaust standards. The LEV II standards represent the maximum exhaust emissions for LEVs, Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, and Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, including flexible fuel, bi-fuel, and dual-fuel vehicles when operating on an alternative fuel. MY 2009 and

  17. Applying the Energy Service Company Model to Advance Deployment of Fleet Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Applying the Energy Service Company Model to Advance Deployment of Fleet Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure June 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) and the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy for providing financial support for this report. C2ES would also like to thank the following for their substantial input: Jay Albert, Ken Berlin, Linda Bluestein, Ken Brown, William

  18. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Island Energy Playbook provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  20. Fuel Cells in Telecommunications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Telecommunications Fuel Cells in Telecommunications Presentation by Joe Blanchard, ReliOn, at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells and Telecom: Reports from the Field, December 7, 2011. PDF icon webinardec07_blanchard.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record #13007: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Backup Power (BuP) State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2012 The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013:

  1. Comparison of transition densities in the DDHMS model of pre-equilibrium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brito, L.; Carlson, B. V.

    2014-11-11

    The DDHMS (double differential hybrid Monte Carlo simulation) model treats nucleon-induced pre-equilibrium reactions as a series of particle-particle and particle-hole interactions in the space of energy and angle. This work compares spectra obtained within the model using diferent approximations to the density of accessible states. The calculations are performed with the EMPIRE reaction model code, a modular system containing several nuclear reaction models that permits a fairly complete descritpion of the reaction, from elastic scattering and absorption through the pre-equilbrium stage to the final decay by statistical emission.

  2. Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with HyTrans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Paul Leiby of Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  3. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - integrated multi-scale multi-physics hierarchical modeling and simulation framework Part III: cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tome, Carlos N; Caro, J A; Lebensohn, R A; Unal, Cetin; Arsenlis, A; Marian, J; Pasamehmetoglu, K

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Reactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems to develop predictive tools is critical. Not only are fabrication and performance models needed to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. In this paper we review the current status of the advanced modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor cladding, with emphasis on what is available and what is to be developed in each scale of the project, how we propose to pass information from one scale to the next, and what experimental information is required for benchmarking and advancing the modeling at each scale level.

  4. Study of trajectories and combustion of fuel-oil droplets in the combustion chamber of a power-plant boiler with the use of a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enyakin, Yu.P.; Usman, Yu.M.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model was developed to permit study of the behavior of fuel-oil droplets in a combustion chamber, and results are presented from a computer calculation performed for the 300-MW model TGMP-314P boiler of a power plant. The program written to perform the calculations was organized so that the first stage would entail calculation of the combustion (vaporization) of a droplet of liquid fuel. The program then provided for a sudden decrease in the mass of the fuel particle, simulating rupture of the coke shell and ejection of some of the liquid. The program then considered the combustion of a hollow coke particle. Physicochemical parameters characteristic of fuel oil M-100 were introduced in the program in the first stage of computations, while parameters characteristic of the coke particle associated with an unburned fuel-oil droplet were included in the second stage.

  5. Nondestructive determination of plutonium mass in spent fuel: prelliminary modeling results using the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Tobin, Stephen J; Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Lee, Sang Y; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capability of the International Atomic Energy Agency (LAEA) to safeguard nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at pyrochemical processing facilities, providing quantitative input to burnup credit and final safeguards measurements at a long-term repository. In order to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, thirteen NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key motivation of the present research is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of rods. It is therefore anticipated that a combination of techniques will be required. A 5 year effort funded by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE was recently started in pursuit of these goals. The first two years involves researching all thirteen techniques using Monte Carlo modeling while the final three years involves fabricating hardware and measuring spent fuel. Here, we present the work in two main parts: (1) an overview of this NGSI effort describing the motivations and approach being taken; (2) The preliminary results for one of the NDA techniques - Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR). The PNAR technique functions by using the intrinsic neutron emission of the fuel (primarily from the spontaneous fission of curium) to self-interrogate any fissile material present. Two separate measurements of the spent fuel are made, both with and without cadmium (Cd) present. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are analyzed; known as the Cd ratio. The primary differences between the two measurements are the neutron energy spectrum and fluence in the spent fuel. By varying the thickness of the cadmium layer surrounding the spent fuel, a high and a low neutron-energy-measurement condition can be produced. The neutron detectors can be used to detect total neutrons (Singles) and/or Doubles and/or Triples. If the geometry of the measurement situation is unchanged between the two measurements, the change in the Cd ratio between these two measurements can be attributed to a change in the fissile content of the sample.

  6. Collective modes and Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a magnetic field in the planar Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Gaoqing; He, Lianyi; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-09-15

    It is known that a constant magnetic field is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensions, leading to generating dynamical fermion mass even at weakest attraction. In this work we investigate the collective modes associated with the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a constant magnetic field in the (2+1)-dimensional Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with continuous U(1) chiral symmetry. We introduce a self-consistent scheme to evaluate the propagators of the collective modes at the leading order in 1/N. The contributions from the vacuum and from the magnetic field are separated such that we can employ the well-established regularization schememore » for the case of vanishing magnetic field. The same scheme can be applied to the study of the next-to-leading order correction in 1/N. We show that the sigma mode is always a lightly bound state with its mass being twice the dynamical fermion mass for arbitrary strength of the magnetic field. Since the dynamics of the collective modes is always 2+1 dimensional, the finite temperature transition should be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. We determine the KT transition temperature TKT as well as the mass melting temperature T* as a function of the magnetic field. It is found that the pseudogap domain TKT < T < T* is enlarged with increasing strength of the magnetic field. The influence of a chiral imbalance or axial chemical potential ÎŒ5 is also studied. We find that even a constant axial chemical potential ÎŒ5 can lead to inverse magnetic catalysis of the KT transition temperature in 2+1 dimensions. As a result, the inverse magnetic catalysis behavior is actually the de Haas–van Alphen oscillation induced by the interplay between the magnetic field and the Fermi surface.« less

  7. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R., E-mail: rsingh129@yahoo.co.in [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Nordman, H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Bourdelle, C. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, A. 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-06-15

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E?Ś?B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  8. Seismic models of a carbonate foreslope-to-basin transition, Picco di Vallandro, Dolomite Alps, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, K.W. ); Schlager, W. ); Biddle, K.T. )

    1989-05-01

    Detailed geologic cross sections, augmented by laboratory calibration of lithology and acoustic impedance, have been used to produce synthetic reflection seismic sections of a carbonate foreslope-to-basin transition. Two areas from the Picco di Vallandro region of the Dolomite Alps were modeled: a progradational section and a retrogradational (backstepping) section. The resulting models show how these complex areas of strata interfingering might be displayed on conventional reflection seismic lines. In the area of progradation, rapid stratigraphic thinning below seismic detectibility, coupled with abrupt impedance changes, produces a reflection discontinuity between steeply dipping reflections of the foreslope and gently dipping paralle reflections of the basin section. This apparent downlap surface marks the toe-of-slope for successive clinoforms but dose not correspond to a discrete stratigraphic surface. In the backstepping example, similar stratigraphic thinning and impedance changes create an apparent onlap surface. Wavelet interference causes complications in both examples. These models indicate how stratigraphic complexity can be simplified by the seismic reflection process and suggest that caution should be exercised when using seismic data to construct general models in areas of complex depositional geometries and rapidly changing facies.

  9. Modeling and Optimization of Commercial Buildings and Stationary Fuel Cell Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; McLarty, D.; Sullivan, R.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation describes the Distributed Generation Building Energy Assessment Tool (DG-BEAT) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of California Irvine. DG-BEAT is designed to allow stakeholders to assess the economics of installing stationary fuel cell systems in a variety of building types in the United States.

  10. THE TRANSITION REGION RESPONSE TO A CORONAL NANOFLARE: FORWARD MODELING AND OBSERVATIONS IN SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-20

    The corona and transition region (TR) are fundamentally coupled through the processes of thermal conduction and mass exchange. It is not possible to understand one without the other. Yet the temperature-dependent emissions from the two locations behave quite differently in the aftermath of an impulsive heating event such as a coronal nanoflare. Whereas the corona cools sequentially, emitting first at higher temperatures and then at lower temperatures, the TR is multithermal and the emission at all temperatures responds in unison. We have previously applied the automated time lag technique of Viall and Klimchuk to disk observations of an active region (AR) made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Lines of sight passing through coronal plasma show clear evidence for post-nanoflare cooling, while lines of sight intersecting the TR footpoints of coronal strands show zero time lag. In this paper, we use the EBTEL hydrodynamics code to demonstrate that this is precisely the expected behavior when the corona is heated by nanoflares. We also apply the time lag technique for the first time to off-limb observations of an AR. Since TR emission is not present above the limb, the occurrence of zero time lags is greatly diminished, supporting the conclusion that zero time lags measured on the disk are due to TR plasma. Lastly, we show that the ''coronal'' channels in AIA can be dominated by bright TR emission. When defined in a physically meaningful way, the TR reaches a temperature of roughly 60% the peak temperature in a flux tube. The TR resulting from impulsive heating can extend to 3 MK and higher, well within the range of the ''coronal'' AIA channels.

  11. Fuel Performance Experience, Analysis and Modeling: Deformations, Fission Gas Release and Pellet-Clad Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, G.; Hallstadius, L.; Helmersson, S.; Massih, A.R.; Schrire, D.; Kaellstroem, R.; Wikmark, G.; Hellwig, C.

    2007-07-01

    Some basic attributes of light water reactor fuel performance, determined by measurements, are evaluated. In particular, data on fuel volume swelling, cladding creep/growth, fission product gas release and cladding deformation due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction of rods irradiated in power reactors to rod burnups up to about 70 MWd/kgU are presented and appraised. A thermal fuel matrix swelling caused by fission products shows a linear increase in the fuel volume fraction with burnup up to 70 MWd/kgU with a mean rate of 0.76% per 10 MWd/kgU at a best-estimate level. Cladding hoop strain data due to in-reactor creep as a function of burnup from 15 to 70 MWd/kgU for pressurized water reactor (PWR) rods and from 5 to 50 MWd/kgU for boiling water reactor (BWR) rods are presented. The maximum measured cladding creep-down hoop strain in the considered BWR rods is {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -0.5% and in the PWR rods {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -1.25%. Rod growth data on BWR and PWR rods as a function of burnup are presented and discussed. Rod internal free volume data, measured and calculated as a function of burnup, are presented. Recent high burnup (52-70 MWd/kgU) fission product gas release data obtained by destructive methods are evaluated with the STAV7 computer code. Finally, slow power ramp experiments conducted at the Studsvik R2 reactor are simulated with the STAV7 code and it is observed that by accounting the contribution of fuel thermal gaseous swelling, the code describes the clad diameter increase due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction under the power bump satisfactorily. (authors)

  12. Transitions to improved confinement regimes induced by changes in heating in zero-dimensional models for tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Itoh, K.

    2014-06-15

    It is shown that rapid substantial changes in heating rate can induce transitions to improved energy confinement regimes in zero-dimensional models for tokamak plasma phenomenology. We examine for the first time the effect of step changes in heating rate in the models of Kim and Diamond [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185006 (2003)] and Malkov and Diamond [Phys. Plasmas 16, 012504 (2009)], which nonlinearly couple the evolving temperature gradient, micro-turbulence, and a mesoscale flow; and in the extension of Zhu et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 042302 (2013)], which couples to a second mesoscale flow component. The temperature gradient rises, as does the confinement time defined by analogy with the fusion context, while micro-turbulence is suppressed. This outcome is robust against variation of heating rise time and against introduction of an additional variable into the model. It is also demonstrated that oscillating changes in heating rate can drive the level of micro-turbulence through a period-doubling path to chaos, where the amplitude of the oscillatory component of the heating rate is the control parameter.

  13. 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles November 5, 2015 - 1:07am Addthis Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The 2016 Fuel Economy Guide is now available. It provides fuel economy, greenhouse gas emission, and projected fuel cost information on model year

  14. California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Used Nuclear Fuel During Transportation with Consideration of Hydride Effects and Cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Sabharwall, Piyush; Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh; Sener, Kadir; Varma, Amit H.

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this work is to understand the integrity of Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) during transportation. Previous analysis work has been performed to look at the integrity of UNF during transportation but these analyses have neglected to analyze the effect of hydrides and flaws (fracture mechanics models to capture radial cracking in the cladding). In this study, the clad regions of interest are near the pellet-pellet interfaces. These regions can experience more complex stress-states than the rest of the clad during cooling and have a greater possibility to develop radially reoriented hydrides during vacuum drying.

  16. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  17. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lisi, Eligio, E-mail: enrico.borriello@desy.de, E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de [INFN—Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within ± 1? fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  18. Inter-comparison of Computer Codes for TRISO-based Fuel Micro-Modeling and Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Boer; Chang Keun Jo; Wen Wu; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Donald McEachren; Francesco Venneri

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), the Deep Burn Pebble Bed Reactor (DB-PBR) and the Deep Burn Prismatic Block Reactor (DB-PMR) are all based on fuels that use TRISO particles as their fundamental constituent. The TRISO particle properties include very high durability in radiation environments, hence the designs reliance on the TRISO to form the principal barrier to radioactive materials release. This durability forms the basis for the selection of this fuel type for applications such as Deep Bun (DB), which require exposures up to four times those expected for light water reactors. It follows that the study and prediction of the durability of TRISO particles must be carried as part of the safety and overall performance characterization of all the designs mentioned above. Such evaluations have been carried out independently by the performers of the DB project using independently developed codes. These codes, PASTA, PISA and COPA, incorporate models for stress analysis on the various layers of the TRISO particle (and of the intervening matrix material for some of them), model for fission products release and migration then accumulation within the SiC layer of the TRISO particle, just next to the layer, models for free oxygen and CO formation and migration to the same location, models for temperature field modeling within the various layers of the TRISO particle and models for the prediction of failure rates. All these models may be either internal to the code or external. This large number of models and the possibility of different constitutive data and model formulations and the possibility of a variety of solution techniques makes it highly unlikely that the model would give identical results in the modeling of identical situations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an inter-comparison between the codes and to identify areas of agreement and areas that need reconciliation. The inter-comparison has been carried out by the cooperating institutions using a set of pre-defined TRISO conditions (burnup levels, temperature or power levels, etc.) and the outcome will be tabulated in the full length paper. The areas of agreement will be pointed out and the areas that require further modeling or reconciliation will be shown. In general the agreement between the codes is good within less than one order of magnitude in the prediction of TRISO failure rates.

  19. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell Electric Bus Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surpasses 2016 and Ultimate Technical Targets Fuel Cell Electric Bus Reliability Surpasses 2016 and Ultimate Technical Targets Project Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations Contact Leslie Eudy Related Publications Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015 Results from NREL's fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) evaluations show that manufacturers have made consistent progress over the last few years in improving durability and reliability. The transit industry

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Do alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) improve air quality? How does the use of alternative fuels affect smog formation? You may find answers to these and other questions through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)-the nation's most com- prehensive repository of perfor- mance data and general informa- tion on AFVs. To date, more than 600 vehi- cles-including light-duty cars, trucks, vans, transit buses, and heavy-duty trucks-have been tested on various

  1. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions Statistical models developed from designed esperiments (varying fuel properties and ...

  3. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  4. Trends in Formic Acid Decomposition on Model Transition Metal Surfaces: A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica; Ferrin, Peter A.; Li, Sha; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-12-05

    We present a first-principles, self-consistent periodic density functional theory (PW91-GGA) study of formic acid (HCOOH) decomposition on model (111) and (100) facets of eight fcc metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ni, Ir, and Rh) and (0001) facets of four hcp (Co, Os, Ru, and Re) metals. The calculated binding energies of key formic acid decomposition intermediates including formate (HCOO), carboxyl (COOH), carbon monoxide (CO), water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydroxyl (OH), carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H; H2) are presented. Using these energetics, we develop thermochemical potential energy diagrams for both the carboxyl-mediated and the formate-mediated dehydrogenation mechanisms on each surface. We evaluate the relative stability of COOH, HCOO, and other isomeric intermediates (i.e., CO + OH, CO2 + H, CO + O + H) on these surfaces. These results provide insights into formic acid decomposition selectivity (dehydrogenation versus dehydration), and in conjunction with calculated vibrational frequency modes, the results can assist with the experimental search for the elusive carboxyl (COOH) surface intermediate. Results are compared against experimental reports in the literature.

  5. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  6. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model | Department of Energy Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model This presentation by Michael Wang of Argonne National Laboratory provides information about an analysis of hydrogen-powered fuel-cell systems. PDF icon fuel_cycle_comparison_forklifts_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

  7. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.

  8. Discrete Element Model for Simulations of Early-Life Thermal Fracturing Behaviors in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hai Huang; Ben Spencer; Jason Hales

    2014-10-01

    A discrete element Model (DEM) representation of coupled solid mechanics/fracturing and heat conduction processes has been developed and applied to explicitly simulate the random initiations and subsequent propagations of interacting thermal cracks in a ceramic nuclear fuel pellet during initial rise to power and during power cycles. The DEM model clearly predicts realistic early-life crack patterns including both radial cracks and circumferential cracks. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the formation of radial cracks during the initial power rise, and formation of circumferential cracks as the power is ramped down. In these simulations, additional early-life power cycles do not lead to the formation of new thermal cracks. They do, however clearly indicate changes in the apertures of thermal cracks during later power cycles due to thermal expansion and shrinkage. The number of radial cracks increases with increasing power, which is consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risű fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Kleeck, M.; Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A.; Fentiman, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

  11. A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-07-15

    Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Motor fuel taxes for propane used in vehicles are collected through an annual sticker permit fee based on the vehicles' registered gross vehicle weight rating and the number of miles driven the previous year. Exemptions apply for transit and interstate vehicles. (Reference Texas Statutes, Tax Code 162.305

  13. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  14. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

  15. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, J.M.; Roberts, D.L.; Slingo, A.

    1997-07-01

    A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different aerosol profiles, relative humidity parameterizations, chemical compositions, and internal and external mixtures of the two aerosol types are investigated. The contribution to the radiative forcing from cloudy sky regions is found to be negligible for sulfate aerosol; this is in contrast to recent studies where the cloudy sky contribution was estimated using a method in which the spatial correlation between cloud amount and sulfate burden was ignored. However, the radiative forcing due to fossil-fuel soot aerosol is enhanced in cloudy regions if soot aerosol exists within or above the cloud. The global solar radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is estimated to be -0.38 W m{sup -2} and the global thermal radiative forcing is estimated to be +0.01 W m{sup -2}. The hemispheric mean radiative forcings vary by only about 10% for reasonable assumptions about the chemical form of the sulfate aerosol and the relative humidity dependence; the uncertainties in the aerosol loading are far more significant. If a soot/sulfate mass ratio of 0.075 is assumed, then the global solar radiative forcing weakens to -0.18 W m{sup -2} for an external mixture and weakens further for an internal mixture. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiative forcing shows strong negative/positive forcing contrasts that may influence the dynamical response of the atmosphere. Although these results are extremely sensitive to the adopted soot/sulfate ratio and the assumed vertical profile, they indicate that fossil-fuel soot aerosol may exert a nonnegligible radiative forcing and emphasize the need to consider each anthropogenic aerosol species. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team (FPITT) supports the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (the Partnership) in the identification and evaluation of implementation scenarios for fuel cell technology pathways, including hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles in the transportation sector, both during a transition period and in the long term.

  17. Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling. Topical report, September 14, 1993--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Progress is described on the following tasks: Fixed-bed devolatilization processes; Fixed-bed combustion and gasification processes; Physical processes in transport reactors; Chemical processes in transport reactors; Advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; Advanced two-dimensional transport reactor model development and evaluation; Modeling of gas phase combustion; Modeling of fluidized bed systems; Advanced fixed-bed code application and implementation; Advanced two-dimensional transport gasification code applications and implementation; Modeling of fluidized-bed system applications and implementation; and Applications of ACERC combustion and gasification codes and AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC.

  18. FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sunline_final_report1.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency SunLine Transit Agency, Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  19. Modeling of Pressurized Electrochemistry and Steam-Methane Reforming in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and the Effects on Thermal and Electrical Stack Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-03-01

    Summarizes work done to extend the electrochemical performance and methane reforming submodels to include the effects of pressurization and to demonstrate this new modeling capability by simulating large stacks operating on methane-rich fuel under pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. Pressurized operation boosts electrochemical performance, alters the kinetics of methane reforming, and effects the equilibrium composition of methane fuels. This work developed constitutive submodels that couple the electrochemistry, reforming, and pressurization to yield an increased capability of the modeling tool for prediction of SOFC stack performance.

  20. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the financial and environmental bottom line are high priorities when shopping for a ... greenhouse gas rating for each model, providing a quick and easy way for ...

  1. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  2. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  3. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel

  5. Fact #765: February 4, 2013 EPA's Top 10 Conventionally-Fueled Vehicles for Model Year 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the 2013 model year, the Toyota Prius and smaller Prius c took the top spot with a combined average of 50 mpg. All vehicles making this list are hybrid vehicles, and six of the ten cars making...

  6. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "For American families, the financial and environmental bottom line are high priorities ... a 1-10 greenhouse gas rating for each model, providing a quick and easy way for ...

  7. DOE/EIA-M069(2010) Model Documentation Renewable Fuels Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    sites is calculated by constructing a model of a representative 100-acre by 50-feet deep landfill site and by applying methane emission factors for high, low, and very low...

  8. Autonomie Modeling Tool Improves Vehicle Design and Testing, Informs New Fuel Economy Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Autonomie, an advanced vehicle modeling and design software package created by Argonne National laboratory with EERE support, is helping U.S. auto manufacturers develop the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles.

  9. Careers in Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Careers in Fuel Cell Technologies Careers in Fuel Cell Technologies Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing job growth potential in existing and emerging fuel cell applications. PDF icon Careers in Fuel Cell Technologies More Documents & Publications Education and Outreach Fact Sheet Effects Of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

  10. Farms to Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Farms to Fuels Farms to Fuels Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Webinar: Go Local: Maximizing Your Local Renewable Resources With Fuel Cells, August 16, 2011. PDF icon webinaraug16_bolten.pdf More Documents & Publications Project Reports for Ak Chin Indian Community - 2004 Project Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes - 2003 Project EA-1402: Final Environmental Assessment

  11. Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: Explicit treatment of the vibronic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D’Abramo, Marco; Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome ; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea

    2014-04-28

    Here, we extend a recently introduced theoretical-computational procedure [M. D’Alessandro, M. Aschi, C. Mazzuca, A. Palleschi, and A. Amadei, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114102 (2013)] to include quantum vibrational transitions in modelling electronic spectra of atomic molecular systems in condensed phase. The method is based on the combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations within the Perturbed Matrix Method approach. The main aim of the presented approach is to reproduce as much as possible the spectral line shape which results from a subtle combination of environmental and intrinsic (chromophore) mechanical-dynamical features. As a case study, we were able to model the low energy UV-vis transitions of pyrene in liquid acetonitrile in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  1. Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

    2006-09-06

    The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advancements in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling with High Performance Computing Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advancements in...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advancement in...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Developing Kinetic Mechanisms for New Fuels and Biofuels, Including CFD Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about...

  5. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  6. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  7. Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation Results (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation Results (Presentation) Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation Results (Presentation) Presented at the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 87th Annual Meeting held January 13-17, 2008 in Washington, D.C. PDF icon 42665.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration; Appendix VTA Prototype Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation:

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Testing Photo of medium- and heavy-duty United Parcel Service vehicles. NREL evaluates the performance of alternative fuels in fleet vehicles in real-world delivery, transit, and freight service. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL In partnership with industry, NREL evaluates the in-use performance of alternative fuels in delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles,

  9. Fuel axial relocation in ballooning fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel movement, in the longitudinal direction in ballooning fuel rods, shifts the position of heat generation and may cause an increase in cladding temperature in the ballooning region. This paper summarizes the axial fuel relocation data obtained in fuel rod tests conducted in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, describes a model for calculating fuel axial relocation, and gives a quantitative analysis of the impact of fuel relocation on cladding temperature. The amount of fuel relocation in 18 ballooned fuel rods was determined from neutron radiographs, niobium gamma decay counts, and photomicrographs. The fuel rods had burnups in the range of 0 to 35,000 MWd/t and cladding hoop strains varying from 0 to 72%.

  10. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.« less

  11. Modeling of selected ceramic processing parameters employed in the fabrication of 238PuO2 fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via ''classical'' ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters with the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. The results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.

  12. fuel cells | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fuel cells

  13. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a protoype fuel cell bus, a prototype hydrogen hybrid interal combustion engine bus, and five new compressed natural gas buses.

  15. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a protoype fuel cell bus, a prototype hydrogen hybrid interal combustion engine bus, and five new compressed natural ...

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a protoype fuel cell bus, a prototype hydrogen hybrid interal combustion engine bus, and five new compressed natural gas buses.

  17. The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-30

    The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg

  19. A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Arie, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2007-07-01

    A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

  20. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL